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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2006 0:34    Onderwerp: 21 november Reageer met quote

1916 : Emperor Franz Josef of Austria dies

On this day in 1916, with World War I in full swing, the popular monarch Franz Josef of Austria dies at the age of 86, after reigning for 66 years.


The issue of who would succeed the emperor had long been complicated. Franz Josef’s life was marked by tragedy: His only son, Rudolf, committed suicide in 1889, and his wife, Elisabeth, was assassinated in Geneva in 1898 by an Italian anarchist. Both of his brothers died early as well; the first, Karl Ludwig, contracted an illness after drinking contaminated water, while the other, Maximilian, was executed in 1867 by a Mexican firing squad after an ill-fated three-year reign as the country’s emperor. After all this, Karl Ludwig’s son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, emerged as his uncle’s heir.


Franz Josef had no particular affection for Franz Ferdinand. Like many, he considered the archduke silly and ineffectual, and he disapproved of his marriage to Sophie Chotek von Chotkova, a former lady-in-waiting. Nonetheless, when Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in June 1914 by a Bosnian Serb nationalist, the emperor followed the advice of his foreign minister, Leopold Berchtold, and went ahead with a hard-line approach to Serbia that soon led to the outbreak of a general European war.


Popular until his death, Franz Josef was destined to be the last significant Hapsburg monarch. He was succeeded by his 29-year-old great-nephew, Karl I, who immediately began efforts to reform the creaky old Dual Monarchy. First, he dismissed the head of the Austrian army, Conrad von Hotzendorff, replacing him with the more flexible Arz von Straussenberg. He also refused to swear loyalty to the Austrian constitution, announcing his intention to continue with his liberal reforms. Karl’s liberalism posed a threat to the Hungarian prime minister, Istvan Tisza, whom he pressured to resign in May 1917.


Some of Karl’s greatest efforts were directed toward ending the First World War. In April 1917, he and his foreign minister, Ottokar Czernin, visited Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to press the need for peace. The empire, they said, could not hold out much longer. At the same time, unbeknownst to Czernin, Karl was already in secret peace negotiations with Britain and France. His wife, Zita, was French; her brother, Prince Sixte Bourbon-Parma, acted as an intermediary in the negotiations. The negotiations foundered when Karl stubbornly refused to cede any territory to the Italians; the following year, France made the negotiations public to great effect during Germany’s spring offensive in 1918. Furious with Karl’s deception, Czernin resigned, and the Germans never again trusted the emperor.


The unraveling alliance between the Central Powers had been pushed to the limit, but did not break…yet. Over the course of 1918 it became clear the tide was turning in favor of the Allies. As hunger and discontent intensified within Austria, Karl continued to press for peace, without success. In October, hoping to satisfy growing nationalist aspirations within the Dual Monarchy, he issued a manifesto establishing a federation of Austrian states. It was too little, too late. With the armistice on November 11, 1918, Karl renounced his constitutional powers. The following March, after attempting to retain his throne, he was forced into exile in Switzerland and was formally deposed by an Austrian court. He attempted several times to return to Hungary, but was denied entrance. The last of the Hapsburg monarchs died penniless in April 1922, on the Portuguese island of Madeira.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2006 0:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

Fortschritt der Offensive bei Lodz und Czenstochau
Großes Hauptquartier, 21. November, vormittags.
Auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatz ist die Lage im wesentlichen unverändert geblieben. Fast vor der ganzen Front zeigte der Feind eine lebhafte artilleristische Tätigkeit.
Die Operationen im Osten entwickeln sich weiter. Aus Ostpreußen ist nichts zu melden. Die Verfolgung des über Mlawa und bei Plozk zurückgeschlagenen Feindes wurde fortgesetzt. Bei Lodz machen unsere Angriffe Fortschritte. In der Gegend östlich von Czenstochau kämpfen unsere Truppen Schulter an Schulter mit denen unseres Verbündeten und gewannen Boden.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)





Der Dank des Kaisers an die IX. Armee
Danzig, 21. November. (W. B.)
Der Kaiser hat auf die Meldung des Generalobersten v. Hindenburg von dem Siege der IX. Armee in den Kämpfen in Kujawien während der Schlacht bei Kutno an den Oberbefehlshaber der IX. Armee, v. Mackensen, folgendes Telegramm gerichtet:

Großes Hauptquartier, 16. November.
General v. Mackensen, Armee-Hauptquartier IX.
Als ich Sie an die Spitze der tapferen IX. Armee berief, war ich überzeugt, daß Sie das hierin zum Ausdruck gebrachte Vertrauen voll rechtfertigen würden. Ihre vortrefflichen Erfolge dieser Tage haben mir hierfür den Beweis erbracht. Ich beglückwünsche Sie und Ihre braven Truppen zu diesen Ruhmestaten. Ihre unerschütterliche Tapferkeit einem weit überlegenen Feinde gegenüber ist des höchsten Lobes wert. Sprechen Sie das Ihren Truppen mit einem kaiserlichen Gruß und besten Wünschen für die Zukunft aus. 2)





Der Fliegerangriff auf die Zeppelinwerft in Friedrichshafen
Stuttgart, 21. November. (W. B.)
Bekanntmachung des Stellvertretenden Generalkommandos des 13. Armeekorps:
Heute Mittag 12 Uhr 15 erfolgten durch zwei englische Flieger, die schon frühzeitig bemerkt und gemeldet worden waren, Angriffe auf die Luftschiffwerft in Friedrichshafen. Durch das in Bereitschaft stehende Abwehrkommando und die in Friedrichshafen stehende Infanterie wurde alsbald der eine der Flieger, ein englischer Marineleutnant, heruntergeschossen und schwer verletzt gefangen genommen, während der andere in der Richtung nach dem Schweizer Ufer entkam. Mehrere von den Fliegern herabgeworfene Bomben richteten an der Luftschiffwerft keinerlei Schaden an, dagegen wurden durch Sprengstücke von der Zivilbevölkerung ein Mann getötet und mehrere Personen verwundet. Das abgestürzte Flugzeug ist nur wenig beschädigt.

Friedrichshafen, 21. November. (W. B.)
Durch die Bombenwürfe des heruntergeschossenen Fliegers, der am Kopfe und an der Hand schwere Verletzungen erlitt, wurde ein 21 Jahre alter, aus der Schweiz gebürtiger Schneidergeselle namens Wiedmann auf der Stelle getötet. Zwei Frauen wurden schwer verletzt, eine am Kopf und an der Achsel, der anderen wurde der linke Unterarm weggerissen. Die Vermutung, daß der zweite Flieger im Bodensee ertrunken sei, bestätigt sich nicht. Er hat vielmehr in ziemlich niedriger Fahrt über Manzell eine Bombe geworfen, die ihre Wirkung aber verfehlte.

Basel, 21. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die französischen Flieger, die Friedrichshafen bombardierten, überflogen Schweizer Boden.2)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Auf der ganzen polnischen Front vorwärts
Wien, 21. November mittags.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Der Angriff der Verbündeten auf die russischen Hauptkräfte in Russisch-Polen geht auf der ganzen Front vorwärts.
In den Kämpfen nordöstlich Czenstochau ergaben sich zwei feindliche Bataillone.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)





Graf Tisza im deutschen Hauptquartier
Berlin, 21. November. (W. B.)
Der ungarische Ministerpräsident Graf Tisza, der gestern Nachmittag im deutschen Großen Hauptquartier eingetroffen war, wurde heute vom Kaiser in längerer Audienz empfangen und nachher zum Frühstück geladen. Graf Tisza hatte auch verschiedene Unterredungen mit dem Reichskanzler und dem Staatssekretär des Auswärtigen Amtes und stattete dem Chef des Generalstabs seinen Besuch ab. Den Abend verbrachte Graf Tisza beim Reichskanzler. 2)





Der Krieg im Orient
Konstantinopel, 21. November. (W. B.)
Ein Communiqué des Generalstabs besagt: Unsere Truppen nahmen am 17. November mit einem Bajonettangriff alle Blockhäuser in der Umgegend von Artwin. Der Feind ergriff die Flucht und ließ zahlreiche Tote, Geniematerial und Ausrüstungsgegenstände zurück. Die Kämpfe mit Gruppen der russischen Armee an der Grenze des Kaukasus dauern fort. Nach heftigem Kampfe schlugen unsere Truppen die russischen Truppen bei Liman auf russischem Gebiet. Die russischen Truppen flohen, nachdem sie große Verluste erlitten hatten, auf das andere Ufer des Tschuruk.

Konstantinopel, 21. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Am Schatt-el-Arab fand ein heftiger Kampf statt, der neun Stunden währte. Die Verluste der Engländer sind bedeutend. Unter den Verwundeten befindet sich nach Aussagen der Gefangenen auch der Kommandeur der englischen Truppen.

Konstantinopel, 21. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Der Kreuzer "Hamidie" bombardierte und zerstörte gestern die russischen Petroleum-Depots und die Radiotelegraphenstation von Tuapse (zwischen Noworossijsk und Poti). Der im letzten Seegefecht durch die Türken stark havarierte russische Panzer-Kreuzer heißt "Eustaphy". Drei Offiziere und 39 Mann der Besatzung des "Eustaphy" wurden getötet, ein Offizier und 34 Mann schwer verwundet. Das Rencontre mit der russischen Flotte, der gegenüber sich nur zwei türkische Einheiten befanden, fand zwanzig Seemeilen vom Leuchtturm Kherson entfernt statt. 2)





Der Heilige Krieg
Konstantinopel, 21. November. (W. B.)
Mit Bezug auf einen Artikel der "Independance Roumaine", der dem Heiligen Krieg eine falsche Auslegung gibt, wiederholen "Ikdam" und andere Blätter, daß der Heilige Krieg ausschließlich gegen Rußland, England und Frankreich und deren Verbündete gerichtet ist, wie dieses aus der Fatwa und der Proklamation des Sultans klar hervorgehe. In den Herzen der Muselmanen bestehe kein Haß beispielsweise gegen die Italiener, die Verbündeten der Bundesgenossen der Türken, noch gegen neutrale Länder wie Bulgarien, Rumänien und andere. Es unterliege keinem Zweifel, daß, solange die türkisch-italienischen freundschaftlichen Beziehungen andauern, die Muselmanen Libyens gegen Italien freundschaftliche Gefühle zeigen, und es so viel als möglich werden unterstützen wollen. Die muselmanische Welt kennt heutzutage vollkommen die Bande herzlicher Freundschaft, welche die Türkei und Italien verknüpfen. "Ikdam" weist auch die Behauptung der "Independance Roumaine" zurück, daß in dem Jahrhundert der Funkentelegraphie und der sonstigen Fortschritte der Heilige Krieg keine Wirkungen zeitigen könne.
"Ikdam" weist in dieser Hinsicht auf die Haltung der persischen Stämme hin, die sich nach dem gestrigen Communiqué den türkischen Truppen anschließen. 2)





Der Oberkommandierende im Feldzug gegen Ägypten


Djemal Pascha

Konstantinopel, 21. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Zum Oberkommandierenden der zur Befreiung Ägyptens gegenwärtig in Syrien und Palästina zusammengezogenen türkischen Streitkräfte ist General Djemal Pascha, derzeitiger Marineminister, ernannt worden. Er reist heute mit seinem Stabe auf der Anatolischen und Bagdadbahn über den Taurus nach Aleppo und von dort nach Damaskus, wo sich augenblicklich noch das Hauptquartier befindet. Die zum Feldzuge nach Ägypten bestimmte Armee hat eine vorläufige Stärke von etwa 100000 Mann. Nicht inbegriffen sind hierin die an der Kampagne ebenfalls teilnehmenden Beduinenstämme. Die Angaben über ihre Stärke schwanken. Sie werden bald auf 20000, dann auf 30000 und noch mehr geschätzt. Jedenfalls wird ihre Zahl beträchtlich wachsen, wenn die ottomanischen Truppen auf ihrem Vormarsch gegen den Suez-Kanal siegreich bleiben. Der von General Djemal Pascha übernommenen Leitung dieses Teiles der türkischen Kriegsoperationen, die von der gesamten Welt mit Spannung beobachtet werden, bringt man hier das allergrößte Vertrauen entgegen. Djemal Pascha zählt zu den tüchtigsten türkischen Truppenkommandeuren. Besonnen, sehr kaltblütig, von eiserner Strenge und Gerechtigkeit , genießt er hohes Vertrauen in der ganzen Armee, die nicht nur in ihm einen geborenen Führer erblickt, dem man überallhin folgen kann, sondern der auch außerdienstlich in umfassender Weise für das Wohl seiner Soldaten unablässig sorgt. Djemal Pascha befand sich in der Revolutionszeit 1908 noch als Major in Salonik. Mit Enver und Niazi zählte er zu den Haupturhebern des Umsturzes in der Türkei. Später war er Platzkommandant von Stambul. Im Balkankriege zeichnete er sich bei Kirkkilisse und Lüle Burgas durch rühmenswerte Umsicht und Tapferkeit aus. Von 1909 bis 1911 gehörte er als Wali von Adaua und Bagdad auch der Zivilverwaltung an. Nach dem ersten Balkanfeldzug befehligte er ein Jahr hindurch das erste Armeekorps. Später wurde er für kurze Zeit Bautenminister und seit sechs Monaten leitet er interimistisch das Marineministerium. Überall, wo Djemal tätig war, hat er sichtbare Spuren seines Wollens hinterlassen. Er steht im 45. Jahre. Sein Studium hat er an der hiesigen Militärschule von Pankaldi vollendet. 2)





Gekaperte Schiffe
Mailand, 21. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die deutschen und österreichischen Schiffe, die in Suez und Port Said lagen, mußten den Suez-Kanal verlassen und wurden in Alexandria gekapert. Es sind folgende 15: "Anna Rickmers", "Annaberg", "Bärenfels", "Concadoro", "Derfflinger", "Goslar", "Gutenfels", "Helgoland", "Körbel", "Lautenfels", "Lützow", "Pindos", "Rabenfels", "Rostock" und "Werdenfels". 2)





Kanadische Truppen

Sir Robert Borden

Ottawa, 21. November. (W. B.)
Die kanadische Regierung beschloß, 50 000 Mann ständig unter den Fahnen zu halten, um über stärkere Reserven zu verfügen. Ministerpräsident Borden kündigt an, Kanada werde weitere Truppen mobilisieren, so daß noch vor Ende des Jahres 108000 Mann unter den Waffen stehen würden. 2)


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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2006 0:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915

Novibazar von den deutschen Truppen besetzt
Großes Hauptquartier, 21. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
An der Bahn Ypern - Zonnebeke gelang eine größere Sprengung unserer Truppen in der feindlichen Stellung. Französische Sprengungen südöstlich von Souchez und bei Combres hatten keinen Erfolg. Bei Souchez kamen wir den Franzosen in der Besetzung des Sprengtrichters zuvor und behaupteten ihn gegen einen Angriffsversuch.
Auf der übrigen Front an verschiedenen Stellen lebhafte Feuerkämpfe.
Unsere Flugzeuge warfen auf die Bahnanlagen von Poperinghe und Furnes eine größere Anzahl Bomben ab; es wurden Treffer beobachtet.
Der englische Oberbefehlshaber sagt in seinem Bericht vom 15. Oktober über unseren Angriff südwestlich von Loos am 8. Oktober, daß nach zuverlässigen Schätzungen 8000 bis 9000 gefallene Deutsche vor der englisch-französischen Stellung gelegen hätten. Diese Behauptung ist freie Erfindung. Unser Gesamtverlust an Gefallenen, Vermißten und den ihrer Verwundung Erlegenen betrug 763 Mann.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage ist im allgemeinen unverändert.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Deutsche Truppen der Armee des Generals v. Koeveß haben Novibazar besetzt. Die Armee des Generals v. Gallwitz und der rechte Flügel der Armee des Generals Bojadjieff kämpfen um den Austritt in das Labtal nördlich von Pristina.
Die Zahl der am 19. November gefangengenommenen Serben erhöht sich auf 3800, gestern wurden über 4400 Mann gefangengenommen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Neue Angriffe gegen den Görzer Brückenkopf
Wien, 21. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Im Wolhynischen und am Styr stellenweise Geschützfeuer, wobei die Russen Gasbomben verwenden.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Italiener haben neuerdings Streitkräfte von der Tiroler Front ins Görzische gebracht. Unter Einsatz solcher Verstärkungen greift der Feind den ganzen Görzer Brückenkopf neuerlich an. Vor dem Monte Sabotino brachen mehrere Vorstöße in unserem Feuer zusammen. Im Abschnitt von Oslavija gelang es dem Gegner, in unsere Verteidigungslinie einzudringen. Ein Gegenangriff brachte jedoch diese Stellung mit Ausnahme einer Kuppe nordöstlich des Ortes, um die noch gekämpft wird, wieder in unseren Besitz. Drei feindliche Vorstöße gegen Pevma mißlangen unter schweren Verlusten. Besonders heftige Angriffe waren auch diesmal gegen die Podgora gerichtet. Auch hier wurden die Italiener blutig abgewiesen. Der Raum beiderseits des Monte San Michele stand unter starkem Artilleriefeuer. Nachmittags gingen am Nordhange des Berges bedeutende feindliche Kräfte vor. Ihr Angriff scheiterte in unserem Kreuzfeuer. Das gleiche Schicksal hatten mehrere Vorstöße gegen den Abschnitt von San Martino und nördlich des Görzer Brückenkopfes gegen die Straßensperre bei Zagora. In Tirol schlugen die Verteidiger des Col di Lana zwei
italienische Angriffe auf die Spitze des Berges ab.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Eine österreichisch-ungarische Kraftgruppe erzwang sich gegenüber den nördlich von Cajnice eingenisteten Montenegrinern den Übergang über die obere Drina. Novibazar wurde von deutschen Truppen besetzt. Östlich davon warf im Ibartal eine österreichisch-ungarische Kolonne den Feind zurück. Die Zahl der in diesem Raume gestern eingebrachten Gefangenen übersteigt 2000. An den Eingängen des Amselfeldes wird heftig gekämpft.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2006 0:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916

Kaiser Franz Josef gestorben

Kaiser Franz Josef

Wien, 21. November.
Eine Extraausgabe der "Kaiserlich Wiener Zeitung" meldet:
Seine k. und k. Apostolische Majestät Kaiser Franz Josef I. sind heute, 21. November, 9 Uhr abends, im Schloß Schönbrunn sanft im Herrn entschlafen.

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Die deutsche Infanterie vor Craiova
Großes Hauptquartier, 21 . November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Unsere Artillerie bekämpfte mit beobachteter Wirkung feindliche Batterien und Stützpunkte. Lebhaftes feindliches Feuer lag auf unseren Stellungen beiderseits der Ancre und am St.-Pierre-Vaast-Walde. Kein Infanteriekampf.
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz:
In der Champagne und im Maasgebiet lebte während einzelner Tagesstunden die Artillerietätigkeit auf.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Im Ludowa-Gebiet (Waldkarpathen) wurde ein Patrouillenunternehmen von deutschen Jägern plangemäß durchgeführt; 40 Gefangene wurden eingebracht. Ein Entlastungsversuch der Russen im Nachbarabschnitt scheiterte blutig. Am Ostrande Siebenbürgens nur kleine Gefechtshandlungen. Die deutschen und österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen nördlich von Campolung wiesen auch bei Nacht wiederholt rumänische Angriffe ab. Am Alt wurden den Rumänen einige wichtige Ortschaften und verschanzte Höhen im harten Kampf entrissen. Unsere Infanterie steht vor Craiova, dem bisherigen Sitz des Oberkommandos der 1. rumänischen Armee.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Von Artilleriefeuer abgesehen keine besonderen Ereignisse. Constanza und Cernavoda wurden beschossen. Unsere Fliegergeschwader bewarfen Verkehrsanlagen bei Bukarest mit Bomben.
Mazedonische Front:
Zwischen Prespasee und Cerna fühlt der Gegner an die deutsch-bulgarischen Stellungen mit Vortruppen heran. Serbische Vorstöße an einzelnen Stellen der Moglenafront, durch starkes Feuer vorbereitet, scheiterten. In der überschwemmten Strumaebene Zusammenstöße von Aufklärungsabteilungen.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Craiova genommen
Berlin, 21. November, abends. (Amtlich.)
Im Somme-Gebiet starker Nebel. Gefechtstätigkeit heute geringer. Craiova ist genommen.

Wien, 21. November.
Das Armee-Oberkommando teilt amtlich mit, Craiova, der Hauptort der westlichen walachei, ist heute vormittag in Besitz genommen worden. 1)





Die U-Boot-Beute im Oktober
Bisheriges Ergebnis des U-Boot-Krieges 3322000 t

Berlin, 21. November.
Im Monat Oktober sind 146 feindliche Handelsfahrzeuge von insgesamt 306500 Brutto-Registertonnen von Unterseebooten und Torpedobooten der Mittelmächte aufgebracht, versenkt oder durch Minen verloren gegangen. Ferner sind 72 neutrale Handelsfahrzeuge mit insgesamt 87000 Brutto-Registertonnen wegen Beförderung von Bannware zum Feinde versenkt worden. Seit Kriegsbeginn sind durch kriegerische Maßnahmen der Mittelmächte 3322000 t feindlichen Handelsschiffraumes verloren gegangen, davon sind 2550000 t englisch.

Der Chef des Admiralstabs der Marine. 1)





Ein französisches Bewachungsfahrzeug im Kanal versenkt
Berlin, 21. November.
Eins unserer U-Boote versenkte am 14. November im englischen Kanal ein französisches Bewachungsfahrzeug, anscheinend Zerstörer der "Arc"- oder "Sape"-Klasse; außer 6 feindlichen Handelsschiffen wurde von demselben U-Boot der norwegische Dampfer "Ullvang", der Kriegsmaterial für die französische Regierung an Bord führte, versenkt. 1)





Rücktritt des Staatssekretärs v. Jagow

v. jagow


Zimmermann

Berlin, 21. November. (Amtlich.)
Wie wir hören, hat der Staatssekretär des Auswärtigen Amts, Staatsminister v. Jagow, aus Gesundheitsrücksichten um seinen Abschied gebeten. Zu seinem Nachfolger ist der Unterstaatssekretär Zimmermann in Aussicht genommen. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 21. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Die beiderseits des Schyl kämpfenden verbündeten Streitkräfte trieben den Feind weiter zurück. Sie nähern sich Krajova. Östlich des Olt-(Alt.-) Flusses haben wir auf den Höhen südlich von Scaueni Fuß gefaßt. Nördlich von Campolung setzte der Feind seine Angriffe fort; seine Anstrengungen waren abermals vergebens. Bei der Armee des Generals v. Köveß vollführten im Ludowagebiet deutsche Jäger eine erfolgreiche Streifung.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Geringe Gefechtstätigkeit.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Ein tiefgegliederter Gegenangriff auf den von unseren Truppen unlängst eroberten Graben südlich von Biglia wurde abgewiesen.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei den k. und. k. Truppen nichts von Belang.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)





Die Abfahrt der "Deutschland" aus Amerika
New London, 21. November. (Reuter-Meldung.)
Die "Deutschland" ist wieder abgefahren. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The British Medical Journal, 21 November 1914, on THE POSITION OF BELGIAN DOCTORS AND PHARMACiSTS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2300178/pdf/brmedj07310-0026.pdf
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2018 8:48, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Capture of Basra, 1914

The capture of Basra (present-day Al-Basrah) formed the opening action on the Mesopotamian Front and ran from 5-21 November 1914 with the belated entry of Turkey into the war against the Entente Powers.

Lees verder op http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/basra.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

21 November 1914 - Australian Hospital Ship Kyarra left Brisbane carrying among other units a contingent of Queensland nurses of the Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS).

Sister Agnes Isambert wrote: All my dear ones to see me off. Such a crowd at the wharf. Dear Mother kept up bravely.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-december-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 1914 - East Prussia - Poland

On 21 November, in East Prussia, the Russian 10th Army took Gumbinnen.

In Poland, the German 9th Army attacked the Russians at Lovich.

On the Southwest Front in Galicia, the advance by the Russian 3rd Army forced the Austro-Hungarians to evacuate their headquarters at Neu Sandec.

http://warchron.com/eastPrussiaPoland.htm

Lodz, November 21, 1914

This is a very rough translation of a news article that was originally written in the Polish language about the battle of Lodz, which took place in Polish Russian from November 11th to roughly December 9th, 1914.

Real briefly, General Mackensen's German 9th Army and some other divisions went on the offensive on November 11th, 1914. The other divisions advanced further than the 9th Army and were encircled by two Russian Armies but, in the end, the Germans managed to break out.

In the course of the battle, the Germans had the industrial city of Lodz surrounded, and tried to break into the city from the south, but were repulsed by Russian Siberian troops.

However, the Russians eventually withdrew and decided to concentrate on defending Warsaw instead, and the German Army marched into Lodz.

Lees verder op http://greatwars-gamburd.blogspot.com/2009/04/lodz-november-21-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Advertiser of 21 November 1914 (page16) reported:

Lance-Corporal S.S. Day (Sylvester Sydney) of the 2nd Expeditionary Force, called to say
good-bye to his colleagues of the Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery staff on Friday
morning. About 30 of the staff assembled and Mr. Adams said they had met informally to
say good-bye to an old colleague. In doing so they all wished to express their admiration of
his action in going forth to fight for his country and his home and they wished him a safe
journey to his destination, the satisfactory performance of his duty there, and a triumphant
return home. The staff were anxious to give him some tangible proof of the sincerity of their
good wishes, and he had therefore to ask his acceptance of ‘a plum pudding’ from his lady
colleagues and a wrist watch, a case of pipes and purse of sovereigns from the whole staff-
Mr. H.R. Purnell (Librarian) and Mr Edgar R. Waite (Museum Director) supported and
Lance-Corporal Day returned thanks.

http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/Great_War_Index_111110.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914-1918 - Wounded Indian Troops at the Brighton Pavilion

On the 21st November 1914 Colonel Sir Walter Lawrence visited Brighton and met with the Mayor at the time Alderman Sir John Otter. The meeting was to inform the Mayor that King George V had requested the use of the Royal Pavilion as a militarily hospital for wounded Indian soldiers. This was immediately agreed.

After a consultation with the Chairman of the Pavilion Committee (Councillor Bartlett) and the Town Clerk (Mr. Hugo Talbot, O.B.E.), the following telegram was sent to the Secretary of State for War (Lord Kitchener):

"Understanding that the Royal Pavilion at Brighton is specially suited for hospital treatment of Indian troops, the Corporation beg to place it at His Majesty's disposal for that purpose".

http://www.black-history.org.uk/pavilionindian.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 17:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Adelaide Chronicle, 21 November 1914: The details of casualties from the HMAS Sydney

http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog/1881873/cocos-islands-indian-ocean-november-9-1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 18:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William (Billy) Blythe

William (Billy) Blythe was born in Dalkeith on 17th June 1895. He played local football in Scotland before joining Woolwich Arsenal in May 1914.

Blythe made his debut against Huddersfield Town on 21st November 1914. He served in the British Army during the First World War before returning to Arsenal in 1919.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ARSEblytheB.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 18:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Edwin Alliot Verdon Roe (1877 - 1970)

History of Flight : Alliot Verdon Roe
(...) On the 21st of November 1914, possibly the first air raid by powered aircrcraft. Four AVRO 504's powered by 80hp Gnome engines were assembled at Manchester Aerodrome and along with two pilots and eleven air mechanics formed a squadron.

After being transported to Belfort in Eastern France the aircraft were, on the morning of 21st November, each fitted with 4x20 lb bombs and prepared for the 125 miles round trip. Three aircraft took off successfully but No 179 failed to become airborne.

After crossing the Black forest mountains they attacked an airship base damaging a Zeppelin works and setting a gasworks on fire. Flight Commander J.T.Babington and Flight Lieutenant S.V.Sippe returned safely but Squadron Commander E.F.Briggs was shot down and captured only to escape from enemy hands subsequently commanding the experimental station at Eastchurch. (...)

http://www.ctie.monash.edu.au/hargrave/roe.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 18:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 November 1915 - The sinking of Endurance

By November 1915, Ernest Shackleton’s ship Endurance had been trapped in the pack ice of the Weddell Sea for ten months.

Huge pressure ridges had built up around the ship. All the crew could do was wait and hope that the warmer weather would break up the ice before the ship was crushed.

Shackleton was prepared for the worst, however. As early as July he had confided to his captain, New Zealander Frank Worsley, that ‘what the ice gets, the ice keeps’.

On 27 October, Shackleton ordered his men to abandon ship. Boats and equipment were hastily unloaded. His original plan of crossing Antarctica now gone, Shackleton set himself a new goal - to bring back his men alive. ‘Ship and stores have gone,’ he announced to his men, ‘so now we’ll go home.’

Dragging two heavy lifeboats across the ice proved incredibly difficult, so they set up Ocean Camp and again waited for the ice to clear.

When, in early November, the movement of the ice brought the tangled wreckage of the ship close to Ocean Camp, the men salvaged more supplies and retrieved the third lifeboat. Expedition photographer Frank Hurley dived into the freezing waters to recover his glass negatives from the ship’s safe.

On 21 November, the ship’s funnel finally slipped beneath the ice. The remaining wreckage was dragged rapidly down and the ice closed over her forever.

http://www.tepapa.govt.nz/dayinthelife/Endurance.htm
Zie ook http://www.shackletonfoundation.org/sf_ses_endurance.html
Zie ook https://historianet.nl/onderzoek/gewaagde-missies/expeditie-gaat-op-zoek-naar-shackletons-beroemde-schip voor het állerlaatste nieuws!
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 18:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Doig

John Doig, born in Alyth near Perth, enlisted into the army in Dundee on 7 August 1915. He was 25 years of age. John served as Driver 97128 of the Royal Field Artillery for the rest of the war. After training at Glasgow and Woolwich, he landed in France on 21 November 1915 and was posted to join the 3rd (Lahore) Divisional Ammunition Column. His unit, having left its original divisioin when it left rance for service in Mesopotamia, was under command of the 4th and then 3rd Canadian Divisions. When 18th Brigade RFA was split from the latter to become an Army Brigade in early 1917, John went with it. He saw service at Ypres, on the Somme, at Vimy Ridge and in much fighting in 1918.

http://www.fourteeneighteen.co.uk/?p=242
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Short Life and Death of a War Hero, Ralph Dorchell Doughty, MC.

Ralph Dorchell Doughty was born on 1st October 1891, the eighth and youngest child of William and Susanna Doughty of Stratford, Taranaki, New Zealand.
He went to Australia in 1913 (to work) and at the beginning of World War I then joined the 1st Australian Artillery Division and fought at Gallipoli and then in France.
He was mentioned in dispatches, being awarded the Military Cross and was made a Lieutenant.
He died of wounds on 25th July 1917 (aged 25). He was interred in Coxyde Military Cemetery, Belgium.

21st November 1915 - No rest for the wicked they say must be correct. Got pulled out of warm bed at 8pm after having only 1 hours rest, and dragged our guns & waggons over a ridge that the two horses couldn't face to the beach. What the Devil for I can't even conjecture. Finished that particular jaunt sometime during the morning. The hardest work bombarding I've yet done. Reinforcements for our Bty arrived today. Awaiting orders for all night working party.

http://www.thekivellfamily.co.nz/family_pages/ralphs_diaries/transcribes/diary_two_p2.html & http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/In%20memory/miscellaneous/ralph_doughty.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian battleship Poltava (1911)

Poltava was the second of the Gangut-class battleships of the Imperial Russian Navy built before World War I. The Ganguts were the first class of Russian dreadnoughts. (...)

The engines had a total designed output of 42,000 shaft horsepower (31,319 kW), but they produced 52,000 shp (38,776 kW) during Poltava's full-speed trials on 21 November 1915 and gave a top speed of 24.1 knots (44.6 km/h; 27.7 mph).

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Poltava_(1911)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMHS Britannic - 21st November 1916

The Britannic's fateful sixth and final voyage began on 12th November 1916 when, again under Bartlett, the ship left Southampton for Mudros. On the morning of November 21st the Britannic was steaming at full speed (21 knots) off the Gulf of Athens, near the island of Kea. The 8 o'clock watch was coming on and the watertight-doors were opened temporarily to allow the crew easier passage around the ship.......

Suddenly, at 8.12 am, a violent explosion shook the Britannic and she shuddered and quivered throughout her length. On the bridge, Captain Bartlett assessed the situation, and ordered the closure of the watertight doors and the sending of a distress signal. What had struck the Britannic? A mine?... A torpedo?... Speculation was cut off when the damage reports reached the bridge. The explosion had occurred between Hold Nos. 2 and 3, destroying the bulkhead, but it had also damaged the watertight-door between Hold No.1 and the forepeak. The first four compartments were hopelessly flooding. To make matters worse the fireman's tunnel leading from the bow to Boiler Room 6 was also seriously damaged, allowing water to enter there. Finally, the open watertight-door between Boiler Rooms 5 and 6 had been jammed by the force of the explosion and could not be shut properly. In total, the first six compartments had lost their watertight integrity. Six compartments! The damage to the Britannic was massive, and far worse than that suffered by the Titanic.

Amazingly, the Britannic was designed to survive precisely the catastrophic damage she did in fact sustain! Due to the redesign of the bulkheads in the wake of the Titanic disaster, the Britannic could survive(just) with the loss of her first six compartments, whereas her sister had been doomed by the breach of more than four. Britannic was therefore 50% safer than the "unsinkable" Titanic. Could she stay afloat?

While Bartlett pondered his best move, the crew carried out his orders to make ready the boats. Captain Bartlett then made his decision. He would try and beach Britannic on the shores of the island of Kea, only 3 miles distant. This risky action would seal Britannic's fate, for unknown to the captain, a simple human-error had tipped the already finely-balanced scales against Britannic's survival.......

Down in Britannic's lower decks, the nursing staff had that morning thrown open many portholes in order to air the huge wards, in preparation for receiving the thousands of wounded soldiers from Mudros later that day. With the massive flooding in the first four compartments, the bow was pulled down with a starboard list to such an extent that some of these portholes sank beneath the waterline. Tons of water now poured into the ship through these openings, fatally into the seventh compartment. And by restarting the engines and attempting to head for Kea island, Bartlett unwittingly accelerated the by-now inevitable demise of Britannic.......

At this point a terrible scene unfolded. Some of the crew and medical staff panicked and tried to launch lifeboats without orders, while the Britannic was still underway. While the officers could only watch in horror, two boats were inexorably drawn towards the Britannic's thrashing propellers and turned to matchwood, their desperate human cargo dismembered by the scything blades.......

On the bridge, Captain Bartlett sensed his vessel was lost, and at 8.35 am he ordered "Stop Engines" and officially gave the order to abandon ship. The starboard list was now huge and the crew struggled to launch the boats although no fewer than 35 boats eventually managed to leave the stricken liner. Captain Bartlett was the last to leave the ship, and still dressed in his pyjamas, he stepped off the bridge during the final plunge. The time was 9.07 am, just 55 minutes after the loud explosion. The Britannic was indeed 50% safer than the Titanic, but she had gone to the bottom in barely a third of the time!

This time things were different though:- the plentiful boats, the calm, warm Aegean Sea, the proximity of rescue ships all combined to keep the death-toll to a minimum. Amazingly, out of 1,125 people aboard, only 30 lost their lives, and the majority of these were killed needlessly during the accident with the propellers. However, Britannic was on her outward journey when struck, and almost empty. Had she been on the return leg, loaded with wounded men, the disaster would probably have exceeded the scale of the Titanic.......

Controversy still rages about the fate of the Britannic. No German submarine ever claimed the credit for her sinking, although many survivors swore they were hit by a torpedo. The hastily-convened Admiralty enquiry concluded that the ship probably struck a mine. In 1975 the French explorer Jacques Cousteau discovered the wreck lying on her side in 400ft of water. The Britannic is the largest man-made object on the ocean floor. Quickly forgotten as just another casualty of war, during her short life she never carried a fare-paying passenger.......

http://www.titanictown.plus.com/titanictown/britannic.htm
Zie ook http://www.transatlanticdesigns.com/ via http://www.gallipoli-association.co.uk/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=546&PID=739&title=hmhs-rms-britanic-sunk-21-11-1916
Zie ook https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5-hdk8uQELg voor bewegend beeld
Zie ook http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2013/11/21-november-1916-rmhs-britannic-sister.html
Zie ook http://voetnootjes.blogspot.com/2015/11/21-november-1916-brittanic-gezonken.html voor een goed verhaal
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 21 November 1916, Page 3: 'Belgian Deportations'

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19161121.2.27
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Karl I

Karl I was born in 1887. He joined the Austro-Hungarian Army and was a cavalry officer until the assassination of his uncle, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in 1914, left him heir to the throne.

In the First World War Karl commanded a corps on the Italian Front until being sent to Galicia to halt the Brusilov Offensive during the summer of 1916. On the death of Franz Josef on 21st November, 1916, Karl became the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.

Karl held liberal views and introduced a series of reforms including the abolition of flogging in the army, halting strategic bombing and restricted the use of poison gas. These measures upset his military commanders who felt Karl's reforms were undermining their attempts to win the war.

Unlike his chief of staff, Count Conrad von Hotzendorf, Karl favoured a negotiated peace settlement. He also wanted more personal control over the Austro-Hungarian forces and in March 1917 he sacked Conrad and replaced him with Arz von Straussenberg.

Approaches made by Karl's diplomats offering peace negotiations were rejected by the Allies. Nationalistic unrest in the Imperial & Royal Army intensified after the Allied victory at Vittorio Veneto. Karl accepted the inevitable and on 31st October he permitted his soldiers to join the individual national armies.

On the defeat of the Central Powers in November, 1918, Karl abdicated and fled to Switzerland. Karl died in 1922.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWkarl.htm

On 2 December 1916, he took over the title of Supreme Commander of the whole army from Archduke Frederick. His coronation occurred on 30 December. In 1917, Charles secretly entered into peace negotiations with France. Although his foreign minister, Ottokar Czernin, was only interested in negotiating a general peace which would include Germany as well, Charles himself, in negotiations with the French with his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma, an officer in the Belgian Army, as intermediary, went much further in suggesting his willingness to make a separate peace. When news of the overture leaked in April 1918, Charles denied involvement until the French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau published letters signed by him. This led to Czernin's resignation, forcing Austria-Hungary into an even more dependent position with respect to its seemingly-wronged German ally.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_Austria

To my people! Emperor Karl I’s Proclamation of 21 November 1916

On 21 November 1916, Emperor Franz Joseph I died. Karl Franz Joseph, the grandson of his brother Ludwig, became his successor. The new young monarch, who had little political and military experience, faced difficult times. Although Karl I had already shown more presence than Franz Joseph I by frequently visiting the front as well as the rest of the country, he was still not well-prepared for his new role.

In this proclamation of 21 November 1916, Emperor Karl I states that he has taken over the government and confirms ‘the members of the Austrian Ministry in their positions’. ‘Deeply moved and shaken’ he, his house and the ‘faithful people’ stand before the ‘grave of the noble ruler’, who died after a reign of 68 years. Karl I would like to continue and complete Franz Joseph’s work, because the goal has not yet been reached. Karl’s goal is peace and to ‘fight until peace is achieved’. He says, ‘Imbued with the belief in the indestructible life force of Austria-Hungary, motivated by deep love for My people, I want to devote My life and My strength to this high purpose’.

Poster te aanschouwen op https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/to-my-people-karl-21111916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant John Edward McGarity, MM and Bar

Born on 20 March 1896 in Walkerton, Ontario - son of Patrick and Bridget McGarity, Walkerton, Ontario - at the time of his enlistment in 1915: trade as clerk; single; no current or previous military service; Roman Catholic; height of 5 feet 10 inches; chest of 38.5 inches fully expanded; fair complexion; brown eyes; black hair.

Joined the 59th Battalion, CEF, in Lindsay, Ontario, on 21 May 1915 - transferred to the 38th Battalion, CEF, on 22 June 1915 (number 410832) - served with the 38th Battalion during its period of garrison duty in Bermuda - landed in France with the 38th Battalion on 13 August 1916 - invalided sick to England on 9 December 1917 - commissioned and promoted to Lieutenant with the 6th Reserve Battalion, CEF, on 5 November 1918 - rejoined the 38th Battalion on 12 December 1918 - struck off the strength of the 38th Battalion on 16 June 1919.

Awarded the Military Medal - no official citation - unit recommendation dated 21 November 1916: "In attack on Desire Trench, Nov. 18/16, these N.C.O's and men did valuable work in maintaining communication throughout the Battn, all the time being under heavy shell fire. They also assisted, in bringing in the wounded."

Awarded the Bar to the Military Medal - no official citation - unit recommendation dated 17 April 1917: "For gallant conduct during operation on Apr. 9/17."

(sources: Library and Archives Canada (www.collectionscanada.gc.ca), online attestation papers; Canadian War Museum, 19740281-001, Manu 58F 2 3, 207th Canadian Infantry Battalion and 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Nominal Roll; The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa Regimental Museum, A400-0007, Master Personnel List for the 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force; Canadian War Museum, 19680229-001, Manu 58C 1 2.18, Honours and Awards, 38th Battalion (Records of recommendations for honours and awards and mentioned in dispatches 19161121 19190117))

http://38thbattalion.blogspot.com/2010/11/lieutenant-john-edward-mcgarity-mm-and.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Werner Voss: The Life Of A Teenage Ace

While Voss proved to be an excellent pilot, he was not happy flying two seat observation planes and requested transfer to Jagdstaffel in hopes of becoming a fighter pilot. He was temporarily assigned to Jasta 2 (Boelke) on 21 November 1916. He quickly impressed his fellow fighter pilots. His first confirmed kill came just five days after joining the Jasta. It was a Nieuport17 Scout plane. To prove this was no fluke, Voss went up a second time that day and shot down an F.E.2b! He was quickly transferred to the Jasta 2 on a permanent basis. While with Jasta 2, Voss managed to shoot down an impressive 28 enemy aircraft, making him the third ranking ace for that Jasta at the War's end. It was here that Manfred von Richthofen, (The Red Baron) and Voss first crossed paths. Von Richthofen was impressed with the young flyer and on numerous occasions admitted that Voss was his chief competitor.

http://blindkat.hegewisch.net/voss/bio.html
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2018 8:43, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 November 1917 → Commons Sitting: GOATS (EXPERIMENTS).

Sir G. GREENWOOD asked the Home Secretary whether the cost of the experiments on goats with poisonous gases and liquids which have been and are now being carried out at the stock farm, Porton, is defrayed out of public funds under the National Insurance Act or from what source is such cost provided; and if he can now say whether or not anæsthetics are used for these animals in such experiments?

Sir G. CAVE I understand that these experiments are carried out on behalf of the Ministry of Munitions. In some cases anæsthetics are used, but in most of the experiments this is impossible without defeating the object of the experiments, and the experiments are made under Certificate A.

Sir G. GREENWOOD Are they paid out of public funds?

Sir G. CAVE I have no doubt they are, as they are acting under the Ministry of Munitions.

Mr. CHANCELLOR Can the right hon. Gentleman say how many of these goats have been killed in this way?

Sir G. CAVE No, I cannot give the exact number.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/nov/21/goats-experiments
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cambrai 1917 - 21 November 1917

IV Corps - On the 20th church bells had rung out a great victory back in the United Kingdom. Working in mutual support the tanks and infantry had advanced four or even five kilometres through some of the toughest defence works yet created. A large breach had been made in the Hindenburg Line for the cost of slightly more than 4 000 casualties. In comparison to previous attacks this was such an improvement that the number of prisoners captured outnumbered British casualties.

Only at Flesquières had there been any serious difficulties and, under the threat of being encircled, even that had been evacuated by the Germans during the night.

With the way now clear IV Corps was ordered to continue their assault in the direction of Bourlon Wood.

The imposing mass of this wood is an identifiable feature of the landscape visible from almost everywhere on the battlefield. Its height allows it to brood over the villages surrounding it and at night its silhouette forms a dark shadow on the horizon.

From their emplacements within the wood the Germans had a perfect view over the main road towards Cambrai and the villages of Anneux, Cantaing and Fontaine Notre Dame; the taking of which were vital to Byng's plans.

The Tank Corps had suffered heavy losses and were rushing to recover, repair and refuel as many of their machines as possible. All of this had to be done in the rear areas.

The tanks of B Battalion, who were being refitted eight kilometres behind the lines, only received their orders at 0900 hours and were obviously not in a position to advance with the 51st (Highland) Division at the allotted time an hour later.

After waiting thirty minutes the infantry decided to go without them and immediately the 1/4th Gordon Highlanders ran into a storm of fire from a well defended Cantaing which sat just behind the Masnières - Beaurevoir trench system.

The 2nd Cavalry Brigade tried working their way round to the east of the village but were held up by the fact that the Germans were currently fighting to regain Noyelles on their right flank.

The tanks arrive - Just after midday 13 tanks of B Battalion arrived at the front and were quickly joined by the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays) in an assault on the south-east of Cantaing.

The guns of the tanks eliminated much of the resistance and supported by men from the 14th Durham Light Infantry (6th Division) they joined up with the Highlanders coming from the west of the village.

With the aid of the tanks it had taken only slightly more than an hour to subdue the village.

To the left of Cantaing the 1/7th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders were assisted forward at 1500 hours by six tanks from H Battalion which dealt with the German field guns that had been impeding their advance.

Having taken Cantaing Mill the tanks and Argylls, now supported by the 1/4th Seaforth Highlanders, continued their advance into Fontaine Notre Dame.

Unbeknown to them, Major General Harper commanding the Division had issued orders that the attack was supposed to have halted at Cantaing until 62nd Division had dealt with Bourlon Wood, but this lack of information didn't stop the tanks from taking Fontaine and handing it over to the Highlanders shortly after nightfall.

General Harper's decision to halt rather than press his advantage signalled the closest the British were to get to Cambrai. Visiting the area today you can see that a roundabout and a few minutes drive is all that it takes to reach the town.

Lees verder op http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_cambrai_btl_06.htm
_________________

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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women's Death Battalion

In May 1917, Maria Bochkareva, persuaded Alexander Kerensky, Russia's new leader, to allow her to form a Women's Battalion. Initially Bochkareva had 2,000 women under her command, but after fighting for three months on the front-line, numbers had fallen to 250.

On 25th October, Bochkareva and the few remaining members of the Women's Battalion attempted to defend the Winter Palace against Bolshevik forces. John Reed, an American journalist in Petrograd during the revolution reported that "all sorts of sensational stories were published in the anti-Bolshevik press, and told in the City Duma, about the fate of the Women's Battalion defending the Palace. It was said that some of the girl-soldiers had been thrown from the windows into the street, most of the rest had been violated, and many had committed suicide as a result of the horrors they had gone through."

After meeting Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko, the British Military Attaché in Petrograd, Alexander Knox, managed to get the women released from prison.

The Duma appointed a commission to investigate the claims of ill-treatment and on 16th November, Dr Mandelbaum, reported that three had been violated, and that one had committed suicide. However, he claimed that none had been "thrown out of the windows of the Winter Palace."

On 21 November, 1917, the Bolshevik Military Revolutionary Committee officially dissolved the Women's Battalion. Its leader, Maria Bochkareva, managed to escape and eventually emigrated to the United States.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wdeath.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diaries and Letters - Letter from Dowager Empress Marie in exile to Nicholas II

Dowager Empress Maria to Nicholas II
21 November 1917
The last letter Nicky ever got from his mother.

Aitodor, 21st November, 1917.

My dear Nicky,

I have just received your letter of October 27th which has filled me with joy. I cannot find words to express my feelings and thank you with all my heart, my dear.

You know that my thoughts and prayers never leave you I think of you day and night and sometimes feel so sick at heart that I believe I cannot bear it any longer. But God is merciful He will give us strength for this terrible ordeal. Thank goodness you are allwell and that at least you live together and in comfort. A year has gone by already since you and darling Alexei came to see me at Kieff. Who could have thought then of all that was in store for us, and what
we should have to go through. It is unbelievable. I live only in my memories of the happy past and try as much as possible to forget the present nightmare. Misha has also written to me about your last meeting in the presence of witnesses and [illegible] and of your ghastly and revolting departure.

I received your first dear letter of September 19th and apologise for not having been able to answer it before, but Xenia will have explained the reason to you.

I am sorry you are not allowed to go for walks, I know how necessary it is for you and the dear children; it is an incomprehensible cruelty!

I have quite recovered from a long and tedious illness and am able to go out again after two months.

The weather is beautiful, especially during the last few days. We live very modestly and quietly and see nobody, as we are not allowed to leave the estate, which is a great nuisance.

It is a blessing I am with Xenia, Olga and the grandchildren, who dine with me by turns every day. My new grandson Tikhon is a source of joy to us all. He grows bigger and fatter every day and is such a darling, so charming and quiet. It is a pleasure to see how happy Olga is, and how delighted she is with her baby which she had hoped for for such a long time.

They live very snugly above the cellar. She and Xenia come to see me every morning, and we have our cocoa together, as we are always hungry. It is so difficult to get provisions, white bread and butter are the things I miss most, but sometimes I get some sent by kind people: Papa Felix [Yusupov, senior] sends crabs and butter for which I am very grateful.

Prince Shervashidze arrived a little while ago. It is very pleasant to have him as he is a great asset,
always in good spirits and amusing and so glad to be here and to have a rest after Petersburg where it was so awful.

I am very glad to get those dear letters from Alix and my granddaughters who all write so nicely. I thank and kiss them all.
We always think and talk about you. It is so sad to be separated, not to see one another, not to be able to talk.

I get letters from Aunt Alix and Waldemar [her sister and brother] from time to time, but they are so slow in coming and I just sit and wait. I long for news.
[Last phrase is in English]

I well understand how you must enjoy re reading your old letters and diaries, although those memories of a happy past rouse deep sorrow in the heart. I have not even got that consolation, for mine were all taken away from me in the spring when they searched the house all your letters, all those I received at Kieff, the children's letters, three diaries, etc., etc., and nothing has been returned yet, which is revolting, and for what reason, if I may ask?

Today is November 2nd, dear Misha's birthday. I believe he is still in town, God grant him health and happiness.

There has been a sudden break in the weather, a sharp wind is blowing and it is cold, only 3 degrees, and although the rooms are heated they are not warm enough, and my hands are cold.

Nikita saw K., the dentist [Kastritsky]. It was through him that I got some news about you. I am glad poor Alix does not suffer from toothache and that he has finished treating you.

I hope Isa B. [Buxhoeveden] has arrived safely and has recovered from her operation.

Please give my love to them all, also to Il. Tatishcheff.

Which servants have you got with you? I hope dear Teteridtnikoff went with you. I have only kept Yashchik and Poliakoff and have not enough words of praise for them, such splendid, trustworthy people. They serve at table and manage very well. Kukushkin and Yashchik are great friends and chatter a lot together.

On December 6th all my thoughts will be with you, my dear darling Nicky, and I send you my warmest wishes. God bless you, send you strength and peace of mind, and may He not allow Russia to perish.

I kiss you tenderly. May Christ be with you. Your fondly loving old

Mama

http://alexanderpalace.org/palace/mariefexile.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In Memoriam, by Ewart Alan Mackintosh (1893 – 1917)

Lieutenant Ewart Alan Mackintosh M.C. was a war poet and an officer in the Seaforth Highlanders. His best poetry has been said to be comparable in quality to that of Rupert Brooke. In 1916 he led a raid in which several of his men were killed, one of whom inspired this poem. Mackintosh was himself killed on 21 November 1917.

IN MEMORIAM
Private D. Sutherland killed in Action in the
German Trench, May i6, 1916, and the Others
WHO Died.

SO you were David's father,
And he was your only son,
And the new-cut peats are rotting
And the work is left undone.
Because of an old man weeping,
Just an old man in pain.
For David, his son David,
That will not come again.

Oh, the letters he wrote you,
And I can see them still.
Not a word of the fighting
But just the sheep on the hill
And how you should get the crops in
Ere the year got stormier,
And the Bosches have got his body.
And I was his officer.

You were, only David's father,
But I had fifty sons
When we went up in the evening
Under the arch of the guns,
And we came back at twilight -
O God ! I heard them call
To me for help and pity
That could not help at all.

Oh, never will I forget you,
My men that trusted me.
More my sons than your fathers'.
For they could only see
The little helpless babies
And the young men in their pride.
They could not see you dying.
And hold you while you died.

Happy and young and gallant,
They saw their first-bom go,
But not the strong limbs broken
And the beautiful men brought low,
The piteous writhing bodies,
The screamed, " Don't leave me, Sir,"
For they were only your fathers
But I was your officer.

Uit de bundel
A HIGHLAND REGIMENT
BY E. A. MACKINTOSH, M.C.
Lt. SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS

LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD
NEW YORK : JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMXVIII


http://www.archive.org/details/highlandregiment00mack & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewart_Alan_Mackintosh & http://librivox.org/in-memoriam-by-ewart-alan-mackintosh/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lwów pogrom (1918)

The Lwów pogrom (also called the Lemberg pogrom) of the Jewish population of Lwów (now Lviv) took place on November 21 - November 23 1918 during the Polish-Ukrainian War. In the course of the three days of unrest in the city, an estimated 52-150 Jewish residents were murdered and hundreds injured, with widespread looting carried out by Polish soldiers, lawless civilians, and local criminals. 270 more Ukrainian Christians were killed during this time as well." The Poles did not stop the pogrom until two days after it began. Over a thousand people, including some soldiers, were arrested by Polish authorities during and after the pogrom.

The events, widely publicized in the international press, led to US President Woodrow Wilson appointing a commission, led by Henry Morgenthau, Sr., tasked with investigating excesses against the Jewish population in Poland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lw%C3%B3w_pogrom_(1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SMS Seydlitz (German Battle Cruiser, 1913-1919)

Underway, probably on 21 November 1918 as she was en route to Scapa Flow to be interned. (...)

... remained active until the 11 November 1918 Armistice ended the fighting. Ten days later she steamed to Scapa Flow to be interned and was scuttled there by her crew on 21 June 1919. Her wreck was raised in 1928 and scrapped in 1930.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-fornv/germany/gersh-s/seydlitz.htm
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Operation ZZ

These are the orders issued by Admiral Sir David Beatty regarding the surrender and internment of the German Fleet, 21 November 1918.

MEMORANDUM - OPERATION ZZ.

1. OBJECT - To meet and escort to an anchorage in the Firth of Forth the ships of the German High Sea Fleet which are to be handed over for internment to the Grand Fleet.

Lees verder op http://www.gwpda.org/naval/opzz.htm
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hamont, Belgium

November 21, 1918: Two German ammunition trains explode in Hamont Belgium, 1,750 die

http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1918/november_21_1918_79633.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Th. Rothstein 1918: "The German Revolution"
Source: The Call, 21 November 1918, p. 3

The “last moujiks in Europe,” as Du Quercy, a prominent French Socialist of the early days of the Guesdist movement, once dubbed the Germans, have shown that they, too, when the conditions become ripe, can make a revolution in every way as radical as that which the French made after Sedan. The Kaiser and his dynasty are no more, and a Provisional Government, consisting exclusively of Socialists, is in possession of the supreme power in the country. The change has been as rapid and as bloodless as the March Revolution in Russia, and there can be no doubt that the developments in the near and nearest future will be no less profound.

For what is the actual and potential character of the German Revolution? The great French Revolution of the end of the 18th century established the type and traditions of all the subsequent bourgeois revolutions throughout the world. A Provisional Government consisting of lawyers, journalists, and other Radical-minded intellectuals of the middle classes, committees of public safety, and “civic,” that is, bourgeois, guards to protect the conquests of the revolution against the attempts of other classes, the aristocracy not less than the proletariat; and lastly, a constituent assembly to draw up a constitution for the new parliamentary and unitary bourgeois State—such were the external forms of all revolutions in the course of the 19th century.

Russia in 1905 was the first to break with these traditions. For the first time in human history it fell to the lot of the proletariat to take upon itself the initiative in, and to lead a revolution. Accordingly, a new revolutionary form of organisation sprang up in, the shape of Councils of Workers’ Delegates which became the central pivots and authority of the Revolution. This was in itself a revolutionary innovation in the traditional practice of revolutions, and Trotsky, who already at that time was one of the guiding spirits of the revolution, rightly proclaimed it to be the beginning of a Socialist revolution.

It was nevertheless left to the March and, still more so, the November Revolutions to establish this innovation in its entirety. The Soviets, the Councils of Workers’ and Peasants’, as well as of Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Delegates, became the only real authority in the country, and after eight months of internal strife and self-elucidation, became also the sole formal possessors of supreme power in the State. The conception of a democratic, that is a bourgeois parliamentary, Republic was discarded in favour of a proletarian Republic of the Soviets; the Constituent Assembly was thrown overboard; the middle classes were disarmed and their civic guards replaced by Red Guards; a Council of People’s Commissioners, the trustees of the working class and poor peasantry, took the place of the Provisional Government of lawyers, journalists, professors, and other bourgeois intellectuals, and Russia was proclaimed a Federal State, in which every part was autonomous.

By the law of Recapitulation, which holds good in sociology as well as in biology, the German Revolution, after some hesitation, attached itself straightaway to the latest stage reached by its predecessor. Soviets—“the most important contribution made by the Russian Revolution,” as rightly observed by Lenin—immediately sprang up in every part and city of the former empire, thereby predetermining the federal character of the future Republic and assumed complete legislative, administrative, and judicial authority, both local and central. In Berlin, the capital of the new Republic, the government power passed into the hands of a Council of People’s Commissioners, consisting of leaders of the Soviet parties, who discharge executive functions pending the meeting of a congress of the Soviets. We have thus an exact parallel to Russia. Germany has effected not only a political, not only a social, but a Socialist Revolution by establishing the dictatorship of the proletariat. It remains to be seen what use will be made of this dictatorship by the leaders and the masses. Will they proceed to the overthrow of the capitalist regime as the Bolsheviks have done and are doing in Russia, or will they elect to act on a different programme?

The German Socialists who are leading the Revolution are split into three sections. There are, first, the Socialists of the old official party led by Scheidemann and Ebert. We know what they are and what part they played in the war. Scheidemann and his friends had already joined the Government under the old regime, and when the new regime had to be established they were in favour of a coalition with the bourgeois elements and of the immediate convocation of a Constituent Assembly. They might be called the German Mensheviks of the right wing, who, from conviction or from lack of courage, would rather not attempt a Socialist revolution “at present,” and whose abhorrence of Bolshevism is not a whit less than that of the capitalist parties. There are, second, the Socialists of the Independent party led, politically, by Haase and, theoretically, by Kautsky. They also repudiate Bolshevism, because they are “democrats”; they are prepared to introduce Socialism, but by way of universal suffrage and the gradual and painless extinction of the bourgeoisie. Lastly, there are the Socialists of the left wing, who are constituted in two organisations, the “Internationale,” more a literary body, of which Mehring, Rosa Luxemburg, and Klara Zetkin are the most prominent leaders, and the “Spartacus” group, of which Karl Liebknecht is the banner-bearer. The “Internationale” was affiliated to the Independent party, but the Spartacus Socialists stood aloof, thus forming the irreconcilable Left. Both groups may be said to constitute the equivalent of Russian Bolshevism, being in favour of transforming Germany forthwith into a Socialist Federal Soviet Republic.

The Extreme Left in Germany, therefore, is in a decided minority, but the experience of Russia has shown how easily a minority becomes a majority in revolutionary times if those in power fail to satisfy the needs and demands of the masses. It was, no doubt, with a view to forestalling the Bolshevik danger that the Scheidemannites, wiser in their generation than the Russian Socialists of the Right, not only took upon themselves the initiative in demanding and compelling the abdication of the Kaiser, but also agreed to forego the idea of a coalition with the bourgeois parties and to postpone the convocation of a Constituent Assembly in favour of an exclusive Soviet authority. The same fear has probably determined the Independents, in spite of their fetishism of universal suffrage, to accept the dictatorship of the proletariat at least as a temporary measure and to acknowledge the exclusive authority of the much-derided Soviets after the Russian style.

So far so good and none will be more gratified at the action of the German Socialists than the Bolsheviks of Russia, who advocated “all power to the Soviets” even at a time when they themselves were in hopeless minority, and who, on attaining power, invited the other Socialist parties to share it with them on a programme of peace and full power of the Soviets, but met with an indignant refusal. The Mensheviks of Germany have proved by their action that they are better Socialists and better statesmen than their comrades in Russia.

This is certainly a hopeful sign, and one is only too easily inclined to ascribe this auspicious beginning to the better education and higher sense of discipline of the German people. But one must not forget that the dictatorship of the proletariat in Germany has not yet been put into practice, and that the bourgeoisie, with its intellectuals, and the Junker class, with its generals and high bureaucrats, have so far acquiesced in the new order of things. The real test will come when the proletariat in power begins to draw conclusions from the situation and to lay its hand on the interests of capitalism and landlordism. Will, the German bourgeoisie and Junkerdom, too, prove so “educated” and “disciplined” as to offer no resistance and refrain from recourse to the weapons of boycott, sabotage, and armed insurrection? Will the Socialists themselves who are now in power have the courage and the will to carry out the economic and social demands of the masses? It is obvious that at the present stage it would not be profitable to reply to these questions, but it is equally obvious that if the German capitalists and landlords behave as their class brethren in Russia have behaved, there will be civil war with all the attendant bloodshed and terror which we have seen in Russia, and that if the present Socialist coalition does not prove equal to the occasion, it will be swept away by the masses in favour of the Extreme Left, who will have to act in the same fashion as the Bolsheviks of Russia have been compelled to act. No amount of education and discipline will, in either case, prevent a civil war.

About the enemies at the gate, with their hunger whips, there is no need of saying much at present, but here again the future developments, will not depend upon the “education” and “discipline” of the German people. On the whole, however, whether the situation develops in an “orderly” or turbulent fashion, its final outcome admits of no doubt. Germany is going to be a Socialist Republic just as Russia has become, and Bolshevism, in its practical applications, will celebrate another triumph.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1918/11/21.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2018 8:40, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Escapes from Alcatraz

San Francisco Examiner, 18 November 1918, page 9.

2 Prisoners At Alcatraz Make Escape

Military Convicts Rob Quarters of Officers, Don Uniforms and Boldly Leave Island on Boat

Disguised as Lieutenants, Armed With Stolen Weapons, Fugitives Pass Guards, Come Here

Disguising themselves in the stolen uniforms of lieutenants, L'Estrange Bach and Carl J. Zirker, military prisoners at Alcatraz Island, escaped last night after rifling the officers' quarters of $500 in Liberty Bonds, $225 in cash, two automatic pistols and other property.

Walking boldly aboard the United States tug General McDowell, the fugitives mingled with other officers and disembarked at the Presidio.

It was more than an hour later before their flight was discovered. A detail of ten soldiers was then dispatched from Alcatraz Island to assist the police in searching for the prisoners, a general alarm for the apprehension of whom had been sent out by the military authorities.

Broken lockers in the officers' quarters and the rifled trunks Lieutenants J. J. Meskill and Gail Fehrensen led to the discovery of the escape of the two men. They had been employed as trusties at Alcatraz and were held in such confidence that they had no trouble in getting the uniforms which enabled them to board the tug without being questioned.

It was shortly after 7 o'clock when they left Alcatraz and they landed at the Presidio less than a half hour later. By the time the police were notified of their escape the fugitives had nearly two hours start.

Bach, who is 24 years old, was sent to Alcatraz from Camp Lewis under a two and half year sentence and dishonorable discharge from the army for the theft of $31. He is described as a man 5 feet 11 1/2 inches tall, weighing 170 pounds, and smooth-shaven, with blue eyes and light hair. His home is at 351 East Forty-second street, Portland, Ore.

Zirker, who is 22, was sent to Alcatraz from American Lake to serve five years after being dishonorably discharged from the army for the theft of $75. He is about 5 feet, 9 inches tall, weighs 150 pounds, is smooth-shaven and had brown eyes and dark hair. He is a married man and before joining the army lived at 1802 North Main Street, Los Angeles.

San Francisco Examiner, 21 November 1918, page 6.

Alcatraz Fugitives Returned to Island

L'Estrange Bach and Carl J. Zirker, military prisoners at the disciplinary barracks on Alcatraz Island, who escaped Saturday night after donning uniforms stolen from the officers' quarters at the prison, were returned to custody at 4 o'clock yesterday afternoon.

Their preliminary hearing on charges of grand larceny, prison breaking and impersonating officers of the United States army is called for this morning, when the date for their trial well be set.

Bach is said to have confessed that he took $500 in Liberty bonds.

http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/sfoealc2.htm#n22
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2010 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Prince of Wales Visits TRs Grave

In the summer of 1919, Edward, the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VIII, embarked on a tour of the Dominions. After touring Canada for several months, the Prince decided to spend several days in the United States. His visit was the first visit of a Prince of Wales to the United States since that of his grandfather, Edward VII, fifty years earlier. On his last day in New York, Nov. 21, 1919, the Prince made a semiprivate journey to Oyster Bay. Film shows the Prince placing a laurel wreath on TR's grave in Youngs Memorial Cemetery; the Prince, Theodore Roosevelt Jr., wearing a mourning band, a man who is probably Joseph M. Nye, Chief of Special Agents, Dept. of State, and a group of men return down the path from the gravesite. Behind the Prince, the man wearing dark glasses is probably Viscount Grey, British Ambassador to the United States. A man wearing an ascot and walking in the rear of the group may be Rodman Wanamaker, Chairman of the Mayor's Committee on Reception to Distinguished Guests. The Prince tips his hat to people gathered alongside the path.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmdJCZEQbk0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 1:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4th Canadian Mounted Rifles - Formation and Movements - 1914-1915

1st - 21st November 1915 - After tactical schemes on the 1st, the Battalion moved east of Bailleul, into Aldershot Camp, near Neuve-Eglise [Nieuwkerke], Belgium, and attached to the First Canadian Division for final lessons in trench warfare. Alternate Companies went into the trenches, south of Messines, near St. Yves, for tours of 48 hours at a time starting on the 3rd. Two men are slightly wounded during a heavy artillery bombardment on the 4th. A further casualty was incurred (in "A" Company) on the 7th and 2 more (in "C" Company) on the 9th. The Battalion leaves the front line area and returns to the former billets between Meteren and Bailleul on the 10th. Parades and bomb throwing practice occupy the next few days, with Divine Service again being officiated by, now, L/Cpl. Hodge on the 13th. Baths are taken in the Asylum, in Bailleul on the 15th. There are further parades, soccer matches and leave passes to Bailleul until the 21st.

22nd - 30th November 1915 - The Battalion moves back towards the front line area on the 22nd, occupying billets at English Farm, and then moving on to the trenches, near Hill 63, Ploegsteert, on the 23rd. The Battalion now takes charge of its first defensive responsibility for part of the British Line in trenches 128 and 129. On the 24th, the Battalion's first loss in action occurs, with the death of 24 year old Toronto man (born in London, England), 109209, Pte. John Frederick Balmer, of the Machine Gun Section [Pte. Balmer now lies at rest in Berks Cemetery Extension, Comines-Warneton, Hainaut, Belgium]. The Battalion undertakes Pte. Balmer's burial ceremony on the 26th. The 6th CMR relieves the Battalion on the 27th, who move out to billets behind Hill 63, Grand Munque Farm and areas nearby without casualty or confusion. Companies supply fatigue parties for the next few days.

http://www.4cmr.com/regt191415.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 1:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 November 1916 - Pte Gilbert Burrington MM

703727 Pte Gilbert Burrington MM, 102nd Bn CEF (Central Ontario).

Born 13 June 1888 in Bridgewater, Somerset (UK), Gilbert was educated at King's School ,Gloucester before travelling to Canada and becoming the Deputy Game Warden for the Provincial Government of British Columbia. He enlisted in February 1916 and served as part of the Canadian Expeditionary Force as from July. Gilbert was killed on the Somme on 21 November.

In late November, Gilbert had partaken of a deed worthy of the award of the Military Medal, but he was killed before this award was announced. He was buried in Albert, but Gilbert's grave was later lost and he is now commemorated on the Vimy Memorial.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1560-21-november-1916-pte-gilbert-burrington-mm.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 1:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dead Man's Penny

Somewhere amongst the vandalised graves, rusting wrought iron railing and a few empty beer bottles, lays the final resting place of Private Robert John Bruce of C Company 46th Battalion, Australian Imperial Forces. His grave in the Will Will Rook cemetery located in Melbourne's outer suburb of Broadmeadows is impossible to find as many graves have long since disappeared through years of wanton destruction and an indifferent public appreciation of the historical significance of the cemetery.

Private Bruce was wounded at Pozieres on the 4 August 1916 and after 8 weeks in hospital returned to fight at Bullecourt, Ypres etc and was invalided home on the 18 September, 1917. Unfortunately, he died of war-related injuries on the 21 November 1918 aged 33. His parents, John and Mary Bruce, laid their son to rest with due reverence and the knowledge that he had made the supreme sacrifice for King and country. As the next of kin, a grateful British Government sent his parents a Memorial Death Plaque, commonly called the 'Dead Man's Penny' by the troops.

The history of the Dead Man's Penny began in 1916 with the realisation by the British Government that some form of an official token of gratitude should be given to the fallen service men and women's bereaved next of kin. The enormous casualty figures not anticipated at the start of WWI back in 1914 prompted this gesture of recognition. In 1917, the government announced a competition to design a suitable plaque with a prize of 250 pounds. There were 800 entries from all over the Empire, the Dominions, and even from the troops on the Western Front. Mr E Carter Preston of Liverpool, England, the eventual winner.

The selected design was a 12 centimetre disk cast in bronze gunmetal, which incorporated the following; an image of Britannia and a lion, two dolphins representing Britain's sea power and the emblem of Imperial Germany's eagle being torn to pieces by another lion. Britannia is holding an oak spray with leaves and acorns. Beneath this was a rectangular tablet where the deceased individual's name was cast into the plaque. No rank was given as it was intended to show equality in their sacrifice. On the outer edge of the disk, the words, 'He died for freedom and honour'.

A scroll, 27 x 17 centimetres made of slightly darkened parchment headed by the Royal Coat of Arms accompanied the plaque with a carefully chosen passage written in old English script,

'He whom this scroll commemorates was numbered among those who, at the call of King and Country, left all that was dear to them, endured hardness, faced anger, and generally passed out of sight of men by the path of duty and sacrifice, giving up their own lives that others may live in freedom. Let those who come after see to it that his name be not forgotten.'

Beneath this passage, written in the same style, was the name, and rank and service details of the deceased. To accompany the scroll, again in old English script, a personal message from King George V.'

'I join with my grateful people in sending you this memorial of a brave life given for others in the Great War.' ------------George R I.

The plaques were packaged in stiff cardboard wrapping folded like an envelope and sent to the next of kin. Production of the plaques and scrolls, which was supposed to be financed by German reparation money, began in 1919 with approximately 1,150,000 issued. They commemorated those who fell between 4 August 1914 and 10 January 1920 for home, Western Europe and the Dominions whilst the final date for the other theatres of war or for those died of attributable causes was 30 April 1920. Unfortunately, the production and delivery of the plaques was not a complete success and the scheme ended before all the families or next of kin of the deceased received the official recognition they should have. There were some relatives who returned the pennies to the Australian Government in protest as they felt it was insulting and it did not replace their loved one's life. Of course, nothing can replace a life lost but for those 'Dead Man's Pennies' that are in private or public collections, museums and national archives, they are a constant reminder of the ultimate price paid by the men and women of the armed services during the Great war of 1914-1918.

Reference
Dead Man's Penny. Australian War Memorial Encyclopaedia.
A Very Poor Exchange. Elizabeth Rummins. Western Ancestor Article, June 1995. Digger History. Internet. www.diggerhistory.info/pages-medals/dea-penny.htm Photographs. Author's collection.
R.J.Bruce. Service record from National Archives [Canberra] and personal information in author's collection.


http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/index.php?view=article&catid=51%3Amemorials&id=166%3Adead-penny&option=com_content&Itemid=92
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 1:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 21 NOVEMBER 1918

RECIPIENTS OF THE VICTORIA CROSS

LAURENT, Sgt H J, Rifle Brigade, awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions when charging the enemy support line where his group brought in 112 men who had surrendered, another 30 enemy having been despatched.

CRICHTON, Pte J, Auckland, has been awarded the Victoria Cross for his bravery in face of the enemy notwithstanding having been wounded.

DEATHS FROM INFLUENZA IN MILITARY CAMPS

Fifty-four more men have succumbed to influenza, the following are the names of the Auckland men: BROWN, Pte Kenneth G, 14 Nov – Mrs Agnes Brown, Takapuna, Auckland (w); BURTON, Pte Edward, 14 Nov – Mrs M Burton, Auckland (w); CONNELL, Pte John, 14 Nov, influenza and pneumonia – M J Connell, Auckland (b); FOLLEY, Pte Lionel, Palmerston North Hospital, 13 Nov, bronchial pneumonia – Mrs Folley, Mt Roskill, Auckland; GALVAN, Pte Alfred, 14 Nov, pneumonia – Mrs Galvan, Raglan (m); HOOTON, Ptye Fred Wm R, 14 Nov – W Hooton, Auckland (f); MELVILLE, 2nd Lieut J A, 15 Nov – Mrs Melville Snr, Cambridge (m); PULLMAN, Pte Peter Webb, 15 Nov – Mrs E E Pullman, Onerahi, Whangarei (w); SMART, Pte Neil Alf H, 15 Nov, bronchial pneumonia – Mrs Agnes Smart, Remuera, Auckland; STEWART, Pte Robert, 14 Nov, pneumonia – Miss C Stewart, Auckland; SULLIVAN, Pte Arthur Geo, 14 Nov – Mrs A Sullivan, Epsom, Auckland (w)

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn21nov1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 1:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henri Philippe Pétain (1856-1951)

Named marshal of France on Nov. 21, 1918, Pétain emerged from the war second only to Ferdinand Foch in prestige.

http://biography.yourdictionary.com/henri-philippe-petain
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2011 7:31    Onderwerp: The Friedrichshafen Raid – 21 November 1914 Reageer met quote

The Friedrichshafen Raid – 21 November 1914

Background
When WW1 started in August 1914 the German airship (mainly the Zeppelin) was perceived as being a significant threat. It could fly higher, faster, further, had a greater rate of climb and carry a greater payload than any aircraft of the day. To the Royal Navy, it was potentially more effective than the cruiser for reconnaissance and there were great fears that it would be used for bombing, which in 1914, with no aircraft capable of interception, would be unstoppable, thus giving the Germans command of the air.

If they could not be destroyed in the air then they must be destroyed on the ground. The First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, drew an analogy of getting rid of hornets by destroying their nest. Therefore the best way to counter the Zeppelin was to destroy its bases, and to this end the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was charged with instigating the world's first strategic bombing campaign.

The RNAS Commander, Captain Murray Sueter, approved the first raids against the Zeppelin bases at Dusseldorf and Cologne, achieving mixed results. The next target selected was the main Zeppelin works at Friedrichshafen, on the north east coast of Lake Constance where the borders of Germany, Austria and Switzerland meet.
 

Why the RNAS?
When the Royal Flying Corps was formed in April 1912 it amalgamated the Army and Naval aviation resources under one umbrella. But from the start it was divided into a Military Wing, a Naval Wing and a Central Flying School. The two wings had incompatible needs, and didn’t fully understand the other's roles, even though it was envisaged that they would support each other when need be. The Military Wing needed slow stable aircraft for observation and reconnaissance, while the Naval Wing with their various roles, took a much wider view of aviation in general.

Within a couple of weeks of the RFC being formed, Captain Murray Sueter visited Germany and took a ride in a Zeppelin. He immediately recognised the military threat that it could present to Britain, and in a report which outlined the Zeppelin’s capabilities, concluded with "In any future war with Germany . . . . . . It is difficult to exaggerate the value of this advantage to Germany".

Churchill had become First Lord of the Admiralty in October 1911, and saw the potential of aircraft beyond the limited view of the Military Wing. In October 1913 he wrote a paper describing how Britain needed fighter aircraft for its defence, and bombers to attack the Zeppelins.

The Royal Naval Air Service was formed on 1 July 1914 from the Naval Wing of the RFC, with Murray Sueter as its first Director. It was given as its main role, fleet reconnaissance, attacking enemy coastal territory and defending Britain from enemy air raids. As the Zeppelin was the only means of performing an air raid, the RNAS was therefore responsible for countering it.
 

Planning
With Austria and Germany being allies, and Switzerland neutral, Friedrichshafen could only be approached from France to the west. The nearest convenient base from which to launch the attack was an airship station at Belfort in eastern France. Belfort is 125 miles from Friedrichshafen, 50 miles west of the German border and 12 miles north of Switzerland. After protracted negotiations, the French eventually agreed to its use for the operation, but insisting the raid be mounted in complete secrecy and within one month.

Belfort, being an airship station, had no runway, so the aircraft would have to be crated and transported by train. This also preserved secrecy, as the arrival of four aircraft loaded with bombs would not have gone unnoticed.

The reconnaissance and planning of the operation was entrusted to an extraordinary character, Noel Pemberton-Billing who had been trying to sell his aircraft to the Naval Wing of the RFC for a long time. Sueter wasn’t interested in his aircraft, but saw something in Pemberton-Billing that he thought made him suitable for the task, and so enrolled him in the RNVR with the rank of Temporary Acting Flight Lieutenant and gave him the job.

Pemberton-Billing left England by car on 21 October 1914 in the company of Lieutenant Frank Arthur Brock, arriving at Belfort three days later where he found the air staff most cooperative. He inspected the two airship sheds and obtained permission to use one of them to house the RNAS aircraft and personnel. He also travelled to Switzerland on a reconnaissance mission from where he could see Friedrichshafen across the lake. Pemberton-Billing returned to England on 28 October. He reported back to Murray Sueter, who briefed Churchill who then gave his approval.

Now they needed aircraft. The Avro 504 biplane seemed to be the most suitable so, on 30 October, the RNAS ordered six from A.V.Roe at Newton Heath, of which the first three were for the raid. The Avro 504 had a top speed of 80mph with a four hour endurance. It was a two seater but, for the operation, the second seat was used for an extra fuel tank. The bombs to be used were four 20 lb Hale bombs per aircraft, each containing 4.5 lbs of explosive, for which new bomb racks had to be designed and made. There were fears that the aircraft would not be ready in time.

Squadron Commander Briggs was given responsibility for modifying, packing and later erecting four of the airframes, for which a party of five riggers were selected to accompany the crated aircraft. The engines to be used were the rotary 80hp Gnome, of which the RNAS had a stock. Flight Commander Babington selected six of these, along with an adequate supply of spares, crated them up and sent them to Southampton. Babington selected a ground crew of five to fit and maintain the engines.

An eleventh man was selected from the staff of A.V.Roe to accompany the aircraft and take responsibility for the newly designed bomb racks. This man was Roy Chadwick, later of Avro Lancaster bomber fame.


Travel and Arrival
In command of the party travelling to Belfort was Squadron Commander Shepherd who, as yet, had received no briefing or orders. They travelled down to Southampton on 10 November to board a steamer whose destination the captain of the vessel refused to disclose until he was at sea.

Just before the ship was due to sail, Pemberton-Billing arrived in a white car, gave Shepherd his sealed orders and a small bag containing £500 in French banknotes and gold sovereigns, and departed just as the vessel was casting off. Meanwhile, the crated airframes, engines and bombs had been loaded on board a different ship, also bound for Le Havre.

When they arrived at Le Havre they found Pemberton-Billing was already supervising the loading of the crates and his car on to the train which was to transport them to Belfort. The train arrived at Belfort after dark on 13 November. The crates were off loaded and moved into one of the airship sheds, and the next day the ground crew started to assemble the aircraft.

To preserve secrecy, no one was allowed to set foot outside the airship shed, which meant that they ate, slept and worked there. Living in the airship shed and sleeping on a bare concrete floor in winter proved to be too much for Shepherd who soon fell ill.
 

Preparation
The assembly of the aircraft was completed in two days and the engines were test run inside the shed. Being an airship station, Belfort had no runway, just rough ground, so a runway of sorts was made by clearing stones and removing fences. Shepherd, while conducting taxiing trials in his aircraft, damaged the undercarriage, propeller, tail skid and a wing tip on the rough ground necessitating rapid repairs.

Shepherd’s taxiing accident had put paid to any thought of test flights, as the risk of damage and the limited spares could jeopardise the operation. This meant that the aircraft’s maiden flight was to be the attack itself. To help the pilots in case the aircraft were not rigged correctly, Briggs provided bungee cords to attach to the control columns to hold them in place.

Shepherd’s condition worsened, and so as not to jeopardise the entire operation, in case others also succumbed to illness, Pemberton-Billing took a risk and moved the RNAS personnel to a nearby hotel and obtained a car to transport them daily. Briggs assumed command of the operation and Roland Cannon took Shepherd’s place in his repaired aircraft.

As some of the pilots hadn’t flown a 504 before, there was a great deal of apprehension about flying an unfamiliar and overloaded aircraft, and they must have wondered if they could even take off with a full load of fuel and bombs.

Also, as none of the pilots had ever dropped a bomb before, Chadwick had to instruct them in how to operate the release mechanism. The bombs were held on their racks by split pins and the pilot had to pull four separate wooden toggles, attached by cable to the pins, to release them.

The French produced a last minute surprise by insisting that no maps should be carried that could reveal that they had flown from France, so the first part of the route had to be memorised.
 



Take Off
After waiting days for suitable weather, finally on 21 November, the best weather for some days dawned, and the decision to go was made. They would have to go early to ensure the returning aircraft had enough light in which to land. At 09:30 all four aircraft were lined up awaiting last minute checks, then took off at three minute intervals. Because of the shortness of the makeshift runway, each aircraft was restrained by the ground crew until the engine was at full power, then released for a quick getaway.

First away was Briggs in 873, then Babington in 875, followed by Sippe in 874. Last was Cannon in Shepherd’s repaired 179, but he failed to get airborne, tried again, but damaged the aircraft on the rough ground and had to abort. Now there were only three.

The flight plan was to fly 10 degrees north of east for 85 miles at 4,000ft to clear the Black Forest Mountains, then eight degrees south of east for the next 40 miles to the target.

The rotary engines of the 504s only had two speeds, stop and full speed, the speed could not be adjusted. Consequently, flying in formation for a coordinated attack was impossible. Instead it was very much three individual attacks.

Although no one knew exactly what the target looked like, they were confident that large sheds beside a large lake shouldn’t be that hard to find. In the event, the weather was clear and sunny, and they all found the target.
 

The Attack

Briggs was the first to arrive at Friedrichshafen at about 11.50, and dropped his bombs, but his aircraft was hit by anti-aircraft in its fuel system and the engine lost power. Wounded in the head Briggs had no option but to land in front of the sheds he had just tried to bomb. Many accounts erroneously state that he was beaten up by civilians. He was arrested and taken to hospital and then on to captivity, later escaping.

Sippe reached the western end of Lake Constance at 11.30 and descended to within ten feet of the surface of the water in the hope that he could approach Friedrichshafen undetected. Following the north shore of the lake until he was about five miles from the target, he then started to climb to around 1,200 feet. When half a mile from the target, he dived to 700 feet flying into anti-aircraft fire, dropped his first bomb in the hope of putting the gunners off their aim. His second and third bombs were released as he passed over the Friedrichshafen sheds and works. The fourth bomb failed to release and as he headed north out of the range of the anti-aircraft fire he decided to make another run at the floating seaplane shed nearby. Again the bomb failed to release and he was forced down to ground level to avoid anti-aircraft machine gun fire as he headed out over Lake Constance and home. He reached Belfort at 13.50.

Babington was the last to arrive at Friedrichshafen, having had trouble with his aircraft which was nose heavy, and with his engine not producing full power, limiting his ceiling to 4,000ft. On arrival, he overflew the target, turned and lined up for his bombing run with the sun behind him. He believed that the Zeppelin shed was hit and Zeppelin inside damaged. He didn’t make it back to Belfort, because he was not allowed to carry maps. Carefully flying a reciprocal course he became disorientated as he flew over unfamiliar countryside, and running short of fuel, he decided to land to get directions. Fortunately he had landed in France, 30 miles SW of Belfort, and a local farmer took him to a telephone, where he contacted Belfort and arranged to be picked up.

The RNAS party left for England the next day. They arrived back in England to great acclaim, with awards to the pilots of both the Distinguished Service Order and the French Legion d’honneur.
 

Damage Reports
Accounts of the time differ as to the extent of the actual damage caused by the raid. The British naturally emphasised the effectiveness of the raid for propaganda reasons, but actually, only one bomb hit a workshop causing minor damage, and no airships were damaged because the nearest bomb had exploded between two buildings 60 feet away, breaking a window.

British Report
Quote:
Admiralty, 17th December, 1914
ON 21st November, 1914, Squadron Commander EF Briggs, Flight commander JT Babington, and Flight Lieutenant SV Sippe, royal Navy, carried out an aerial attack on the Zeppelin airship sheds and factory at Friedrickshafen on Lake Constance
.


==> http://www.worldnavalships.com/forums/showthread.php?t=9619
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 8:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918

The Parliament (Qualification of Women Act) 1918 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It gave women over 21 the right to stand for election as an MP. It did not alter the minimum age for a woman to vote in an election, which had been 30 since the Representation of the People Act 1918. It was not until the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928 that women were given the vote on equal terms with men, at the age of 21. At 27 words it is the shortest UK statute.

Lees verder op https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_(Qualification_of_Women)_Act_1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 8:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Paterson: The German fleet after surrender, Firth of Forth, 21 November 1918

“The greatest naval surrender in the world's history” was how the Glasgow Herald recorded the surrender of the German fleet in the Firth of Forth on 21 November 1918. It signalled not only the end of German naval power but also the public humiliation of the country that Britain had fought bitterly for four long years. Some seventy journalists, press photographers and marine painters flocked to Edinburgh to witness “a triumph to which history knows no parallel.” Among them was James Paterson. The artist watched the surrender from the deck of HMS Revenge. This painting is an accurate record of what happened that day. The sun rising through the haze and fog creates a beautiful glow across the water, contrasting against the aggressive forms of the camouflaged vessels.

Schilderij... https://www.nationalgalleries.org/art-and-artists/2531/german-fleet-after-surrender-firth-forth-21-november-1918

How does art help us remember World War One?
Lezen, menschen! http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zgmq7ty
(overigens via https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30128199)
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2018 9:10, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 8:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ORDER OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TO GEN. DUKHONIN, RUSSIAN COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF TO PROPOSE AN IMMEDIATE ARMISTICE TO THE ARMIES OF THE CENTRAL POWERS

21 November 1917 - Protokoly, p. 54

The Council of People's Commissars, on the authority of the AllRussian Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, has taken over the government, and therewith the obligation to propose to all belligerent nations and to their Governments an immediate armistice on all fronts and the immediate opening of negotiations with a view to concluding peace on democratic principles. Now, when the Government of Soviets has been upheld in all the most important centres of the country, the Council of People's Commissars considers it necessary to make without delay a formal armistice proposal to all belligerent countries, both to Allies and to those engaged in hostile operations against us. An announcement to this effect has been sent by the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs to all the plenipotentiary representatives of Allied countries in Petrograd.

In fulfilment* of the decision of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, the Council of People's Commissars directs you, Citizen Supreme Commander-in-Chief, immediately upon receiving the present announcement, to address to the military authorities of the hostile armies a proposal to cease military operations immediately with a view to opening peace negotiations. Whilst charging you with the conduct of these preliminary negotiations the Council of People's Commissars orders you, first, to report constantly to the Council by direct wire regarding the progress of your negotiations with the representatives of the hostile armies; second, to sign the act of armistice only after previous agreement with the Council of People's Commissars.

https://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1917/November/21a.htm
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 8:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Naval History on 21 November 1916

The Australian ship WARILDA was converted to a hospital ship at Garden Island, Sydney.

In February 1918 the ship was torpedoed by a German submarine in the English Channel, but the torpedo failed to explode.

On 3 August the ship was torpedoed again off Le Havre, and sank with a loss of 123 lives, many of whom were wounded soldiers.

https://www.navyhistory.org.au/21-november-1916/

Australian Naval History on 21 November 1918

HMA Ships AUSTRALIA, (battle cruiser), SYDNEY, and MELBOURNE, (cruisers), were present at the surrender of the German Fleet in the Firth of Forth, Scotland.

AUSTRALIA led the Port Division of the British Fleet, while MELBOURNE and SYDNEY were in their normal places in the 2nd light cruiser squadron.

https://www.navyhistory.org.au/21-november-1918/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2018 10:04, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rijksarchief in België - '100 jaar Groote Oorlog'

11 november 1918: de Wapenstilstand is een feit! Maar slechts een deel van het Belgisch grondgebied is bevrijd. Talrijke Duitse troepen bevinden zich nog steeds in België en Noord-Frankrijk. Als gevolg van revolutionaire beroering in Duitsland zijn ze echter minder omkaderd waardoor problemen ontstaan met de discipline. In Brussel wordt een “Soldatenraad” opgericht. Officieren worden mishandeld en opstandige soldaten raken slaags met collega’s die het regime trouw blijven. Winkels worden geplunderd, zoals de zaak Van Gelder aan de Noordlaan in Brussel. Meerdere dagen hebben noch de Belgen noch de Duitsers de situatie in de hand. Wanneer het einde van de gevechten wordt afgekondigd, verlaten de soldaten bij gebrek aan duidelijke bevelen of informatie hun post om zich naar huis te begeven. Onderweg verkopen ze hun uitrusting aan Belgische burgers. In een aantal stations worden treinen met munitie en militair materieel geplunderd door Duitsers en burgers. Door onvoorzichtigheid ontploffen sommige wagons, waarbij aanzienlijke schade wordt aangericht (15 doden en 2.300 beschadigde huizen in Schaarbeek en Brussel-Zuid). De aftocht van de Duitse militairen vergt tijd. De laatste Duitse treinen verlaten België op 21 november 1918.

https://www.facebook.com/rijksarchief/photos/a.1904364416323942/1909271719166545/?type=3&comment_id=1909925155767868&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 8:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwsblad van Friesland, 21 november 1918: De Russen in Gaasterland

GAASTERLAND, 21 Nov. Honger is een scherp zwaard en Russen zijn een raar volkje. En als ze dan zooveel hebben meegemaakt als de Russische krijgsgevangenen, die langen tijd in een Duitsch gevangenkamp honger en ontbering hebben moeten lijden, en dan nog altijd uitgehongerd en slecht gekleed en onder voldoende bewaking, in den nacht worden overgebracht, loopende van St. Nicolaasga, nog bijna vier uren ver naar het interneeringskamp in Gaasterland. dan laat het zich denken, dat het op zoo’n tocht niet strikt ordelijk is toegegaan. Vele der half uitgehongerde vreemdelingen verlieten den troep en brandschatten de bewoners langs den weg, stelend alles wat van hun gading was. 's Anderen morgens vond men op den weg her en der het versleten schoeisel der doorgetrokkenen, dat ze hadden verwisseld tegen klompen, die ze op de erven vonden staan. Ook werden melkbussen leeggedronken, of de boeren opgeklopt om voedsel of onderdak. Iemand, die bij Kippenburg met een woonschip lag, zag na 't eerste bezoek van een viertal Russen, zich genoodzaakt om 't vaartuig midden in 't vaarwater te brengen, om zoo meerdere bezoekers te weren
Ook thans is de bewaking nog zeer onvoldoende. De Russen mogen officieel het kamp niet verlaten, doch ze zwerven op alle Gaasterlandsche wegen, en de veiligheid is er daardoor niet grooter op geworden, 't Is te hopen, dat hierin spoedig verandering komt.

http://www.frieslandzoalshetwas.nl/, aflevering 137, 'November 1918'
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 9:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Mouncey diary, 31 May 1917-21 November 1918 31 May 1917-21 November 1918
BY ERNEST DE MOUNCEY

Sapper E. de Mouncey, a clerk telegraphist of Perth, Western Australia, was born in Ballarat, Victoria. He was aged 42 when he enlisted and embarked from Sydney, New South Wales, on board HMAT A68 Anchises, 8 August 1917. He served with the 16th Reinforcements of the 4th Divisional Signallers in France and Belgium, 1917-1918. He returned to Australia Nov. 1918 and was discharged as medically unfit

Online dagboek... http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/collection-items/de-mouncey-diary-31-may-1917-21-november-1918
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 9:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HET KASTEEL VAN LOPPEM

(...) Loppem, gelegen tussen het front en Brugge, kent tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog een streng regime van opeisingen, verboden en boetes door de Duitse bezetter. Ook baron Albert van Caloen ontkomt er niet aan. Hij is vanaf 14 oktober verplicht om zijn kasteel te delen met Duitse hoge officieren.

Naast burgemeester van Loppem is Albert van Caloen ook vader van drie zonen die aan het front strijden. Op 17 oktober 1918 slaan de Duitsers, die in Loppem gestationeerd zijn, op de vlucht. Gedurende bijna een maand, van 24 oktober tot 21 november 1918, verblijven koning Albert I, koningin Elisabeth en kroonprins Leopold op het kasteel van Loppem. Vandaaruit leidt de vorst het toen al bezige bevrijdingsoffensief tot zijn einde op 11 november 1918. Ook organiseert hij er zijn consultaties, die op 21 november 1918 leiden tot de vorming van de ‘Regering van Loppem’. (...)

http://herita.be/ontdek/kalender/tentoonstelling-het-kasteel-van-loppem-in-1914-1918
Zie ook: http://www.kasteelvanloppem.be/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 9:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

FARMYARD, FRANCE, 21 NOVEMBER 1916

Object description: a view across a farmyard bordered by bomb damaged buildings. An open gate in the wall in the background leads out towards some tall trees.
Creator: Anderson, William McDougall
Production date: 1916-11-21

Schets... https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/289
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2018 10:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HISTORISCHE KRANTEN: Het Poperinghenaartje - 21 november 1916

http://www.historischekranten.be/issue/HPO/1916-11-21/edition/null/page/1
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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