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11 november

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2006 0:11    Onderwerp: 11 november Reageer met quote

1918 : World War I ends

At 11 o’clock in the morning of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the First World War--known at the time as the Great War--comes to an end.


By the end of autumn 1918, the alliance of the Central Powers was unraveling in its war effort against the better supplied and coordinated Allied powers. Facing exhausted resources on the battlefield, turmoil on the home front and the surrender of its weaker allies, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire, Germany was finally forced to seek an armistice with the Allies in the early days of November 1918. On November 7, the German chancellor, Prince Max von Baden, sent delegates to Compiegne, France, to negotiate the agreement; it was signed at 5:10 a.m. on the morning of November 11.


Ferdinand Foch, commander in chief of all Allied forces on the Western Front, sent a message by telegraph to all his commanders: "Hostilities will cease on the entire front November 11 at 11 a.m. French time." The commanders ordered the fighting to continue throughout the morning of November 11, prompting later accusations that some men died needlessly in the last few hours of the war. As the historian John Buchan has written of that memorable morning: "Officers had their watches in their hands, and the troops waited with the same grave composure with which they had fought." As watch hands reached 11, "there came a second of expectant silence, and then a curious rippling sound, which observers far behind the front likened to the noise of a light wind. It was the sound of men cheering from the Vosges [mountains] to the sea."


The Great War took the life of some 9 million soldiers; 21 million more were wounded. Civilian casualties caused indirectly by the war numbered close to 10 million. The two nations most affected were Germany and France, each of which sent some 80 percent of their male populations between the ages of 15 and 49 into battle. At the peace conference in Paris in 1919, Allied leaders would state their desire to build a post-war world that would safeguard itself against future conflicts of such devastating scale. The Versailles Treaty, signed on June 28, 1919, would not achieve this objective. Saddled with war guilt and heavy reparations and denied entrance into the League of Nations, Germany complained it had signed the armistice under false pretenses, having believed any peace would be a "peace without victory" as put forward by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in his famous Fourteen Points speech of January 1918. As the years passed, hatred of the treaty and its authors settled into a smoldering resentment in Germany that would, two decades later, be counted--to an arguable extent--among the causes of the Second World War.


But that would all come later. On November 11, 1918, the dominant emotion for many on and off the battlefield was relief at the coming of peace, mixed with somber mourning for the many lives lost. In a letter written to his parents in the days following the armistice, one soldier--26-year-old Lieutenant Lewis Plush of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)--eloquently pondered the war’s lasting impact: "There was a war, a great war, and now it is over. Men fought to kill, to maim, to destroy. Some return home, others remain behind forever on the fields of their greatest sacrifice. The rewards of the dead are the lasting honors of martyrs for humanity; the reward of the living is the peaceful conscience of one who plays the game of life and plays it square."

www.history.com
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2006 0:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Unterzeichnung des Waffenstillstandes - Einstellung der Feindseligkeiten an allen Fronten
Großes Hauptquartier, 11. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Abwehr amerikanischer Angriffe östlich der Maas zeichneten sich durch erfolgreiche Gegenstöße das brandenburgische Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 207 unter seinem Kommandeur Oberstleutnant Hennigs und Truppen der 192. sächsischen Infanterie-Division unter Führung des Oberstleutnants v. Zeschau, Kommandeur des Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 183, besonders aus.
Infolge Unterzeichnung des Waffenstillstandsvertrages wurden heute mittag an allen Fronten die Feindseligkeiten eingestellt.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Gröner.

Amsterdam, 11. November.
Das niederländische Pressebureau Radio hat einen drahtlosen Bericht aufgefangen, daß der Waffenstillstand um 5 Uhr morgens französischer Zeit unterzeichnet wurde und um 11 Uhr französischer Zeit in Kraft tritt.
Foch schickte folgendes Radiotelegramm an den Oberkommandierenden:
Die Feindseligkeiten werden an der ganzen Front vom 11. November, 11 Uhr vormittags französischer Zeit an eingestellt werden. Die alliierten Truppen dürfen, bis ein neuer Befehl eintrifft, die an diesem Tage und zu dieser Stunde erreichte Linie nicht überschreiten. 1)
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Nov 2006 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote





Ich trat vor ein Soldatengrab
und sprach zur Erde tief hinab:
"Mein stiller grauer Bruder du,
das Danken läßt uns keine Ruh´.
Ein Volk in toter Helden Schuld
brennt tief in Dankes Ungeduld.
Daß ich die Hand noch rühren kann,
das dank´ ich dir, du stiller Mann.
Wie rühr´ ich sie dir recht zum Preis?
Gib Antwort, Bruder, daß ich´s weiß!
Willst du ein Bild von Erz und Stein?
Willst einen grünen Heldenhain?"


Und alsobald aus Grabes Grund
ward mir des Bruders Antwort kund:
"Wir sanken hin für Deutschlands Glanz.
Blüh´, Deutschland, uns als Totenkranz!
Der Bruder, der den Acker pflügt,
ist mir ein Denkmal, wohlgefügt.
Die Mutter, die ihr Kindlein hegt,
ein Blümlein überm Grab mir pflegt.
Die Büblein schlank, die Dirnlein rank
blühen mir als Totengärtlein Dank.
Blüh´, Deutschland, überm Grabe mein
jung, stark und schön als Heldenhain!"



Walter Flex
Gefallen 1917 auf Ösel
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De enige echte

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eagle



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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2010 15:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

" When an ex-serviceman broke the Armistice Silence at the Cenotaph in 1937, with his loud cry of protest against the hypocrisy of praying for peace while preparing for war, he had made clear what everyone was beginning to realise: the people who shared the Silence were not of one mind about what Remembrance meant."
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Nov 2010 9:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Nonne Bosschen, 11 November 1914

The battle of Nonne Bosschen was part of the wider first battle of Ypres and was the final German attempt to break through the British lines around Ypres. It was mounted by twelve and a half divisions from two army groups (Fabeck’s and Linsingen’s), under the overall command of Crown Prince Rupprecht, and involved an attack against a nine mile front, stretching from Messines to Reutel (close to Polygon Wood).

By the middle of November both the British and German armies were exhausted. The main German threat on 11 November would come from two fresh divisions, the 4th Divison and the Prussian Guards. These two divisions, with 10,000 men in twelve fresh battalions, would attack eleven tired British battalions, reduced in strength to around 4,000 men after three months of fighting, along the line of the Menin road.

The German attack was preceded by one of the heaviest artillery bombardments yet, lasting from 6.30-9.00 am. Along much of the line the advancing German troops were further protected by early morning mist, but the attacking troops had already lost their early enthusiasm and the attack was turned back by the accurate British rifle fire.

The most successful German attack was made by the 1st Guards Brigade. They were advancing towards the British 1st (Guards) Brigade, under Brigadier General Charles FitzClarence. This brigade contained battalions from the Scots Guards, Camerons and Black Watch regiments, and had around 800 men. They were outnumbered three to one by the Germans.

The advancing Germans emerged from the mist and overran the British front line, in a rare bayonet attack. However, enough resistance was offered to disrupt the German formations. Accurate British artillery fire then isolated the German Guards, preventing reinforcements from reaching them. Isolated British strong points combined with well aimed artillery fire then took any remaining momentum out of the German attack.

The 1st Food Guard Regiment retreated into Nonne Bosschen woods, the incident that gave the entire battle its name. They were then driven out of the woods by the 2nd Oxfordshire Light Infantry, ending the attack. FitzClarence then attempted to organise a counterattack to recover the British front line lost earlier in the day, but was shot and killed before the attack could begin. After his death the proposed counterattack was abandoned.

This was the last major German offensive of the battle. A series of minor attacks were mounted over the next few days, and in the official German history of the war the battle of Ypres does not finish until 30 November, but the real danger was over.

Rickard, J (pending), Battle of Nonne Bosschen, 11 November 1914 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_nonne_bosschen.html
Zie ook http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-on-land/61-battlefields/951-battle-nonnebosschen-11-november-1914.html
Zie ook http://www.1914-1918.net/bat7.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Nov 2010 9:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Lodz, 11-25 November 1914

Battle on Eastern Front during First World War. The recently formed German Ninth Army, under General August von Mackensen, had been sent to aid the beleaguered Austrians against Russian attack and to prevent any Russian attack on Central Germany. Mackensen struck between the Russian First and Second armies, crushing the First, and coming close to surrounding the Second, before Russian counterattacks aided by a march of seventy miles in forty eight hours relieved them. While the battle was technically a Russian victory, the Germans achieved their aim, and the Russians withdrew, never again to come so close to German soil.

Rickard, J. (23 February 2001), Battle of Lodz, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_lodz.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 0:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1920: The Burial of The Unknown Warrior

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/video/1545-the-burial-of-the-unknown-warrior.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Road to Chunuk Bair » Blog Archive » Thursday 11th November 1915

Coy in reserve trenches & doing light fatigues.

Joined the Coy.

10/2339 Thwaite J. Rtd from Hospital

http://www.wanganuilibrary.com/ww1/2010/11/11/thursday-11th-november-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

11 november 1915 - De in Merksplas op het Geheul geboren E.H. Jaak Ver­heyen onderscheidde zich op het slagveld. Gemobiliseerd op 1 augustus 1914, diende hij tijdens de eerste maanden van de veldtocht als brancardier in het militair hospitaal van Antwerpen. Na de val van Antwerpen kwam hij terecht bij de ziekendienst van de Belgische legerbasis in Calais. Hij bleef echter niet lang in de achterhoede want vanaf 9 maart 1915 belandde hij opnieuw aan het front. Ditmaal in de rangen van het 12de linieregiment, een regiment waarin hij trouwens heel wat streekgenoten aantrof. Al vrij vlug liet hij zich in deze eenheid opvallen door zijn moedig gedrag onder vuur. Op 11 november 1915 werd hij op de legerdag­order vermeld: “In de loop van de gevechten van twee oktober laatstleden heeft hij op zeer gevaarlijk terrein ijverig de gewonden verzorgd en hen met grote verachting voor het aanwezige gevaar in veiligheid gebracht.” (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Context of 'November 11, 1915: US Pressures Haiti into Signing Disadvantageous Treaty'

November 11, 1915: US Pressures Haiti into Signing Disadvantageous Treaty Under pressure from the United States, Haitian President Sudre Dartiguenave signs, and the Haitian senate ratifies, a treaty legitimizing the US occupation and putting Haitian finances and government under the control of the US for the next 20 years. The act also disbands the Haitian army, creating in its place a single US-led, 3000-man police force known as the Gendarmerie d’Haiti which answers to the US Secretary of State.

The Gendarmerie oversees the implementation of a US law reviving the practice of conscripted labor, or corv�e, which requires Haitian peasants to work on roads for three days a year. However, in some cases workers are forced to work bound with ropes for weeks and even months. The practice reminds Haitians of their slavery under the French and inspires a rebellion in 1918 (see Late 1918-1920).

Helemaal te lezen op http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=haiti_539
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/Nicholson/Sketches/sketch35.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXVII, Issue 3605, 11 November 1916, Page 5




http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=AG19161111.2.35.1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sigmund Freud to Karl Abraham, November 11, 1917

Vienna IX, Berggasse 19
11 November 1917

Dear Friend,

I have today been able to overcome a certain reluctance to answering your letter because we have just had the first news of Martin since the beginning of the offensive (23 October), and he is well. Ernst is still with us, and Oli is building on a bridge across the Dnjester.

I have a great deal to do, with 8-9 analyses a day and some in reserve, and am very pleased at being able to avoid brooding and worrying in this way. It is still very interesting. But I am ageing rapidly all the same, and occasionally feel doubtful whether I shall live to see the end of the war, whether I shall ever see you again, etc. During the war travelling to Germany is practically out of the question. The next blow that I expect is the stoppage of our journals; Heller is not threatening this, but with the continuation of the war it will become inevitable (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.052.0361a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

I SHALL REMEMBER MY GREAT GRANDAD FRANK!

Seeing as it's rememberance day (...) I thought I would write a post about my Great Grandad Frank who served in the 68th Battery at Ypres in 1917.

Against military orders, like many soldiers during those dark days, he managed to keep a diary (that's where I must have got my gene that likes to defy orders!).

Here is his diary update for 11th November 1917 which gives us a small insight into what those men had to endure.

"Raining hard, having an aweful job. Knee deep in mud, rolling shells from dump to gun. At 10.30pm enemy put up a gas bombardment which lasted till midnight. We had to shoot on harassing fire with our gas masks. Rotten!"

The other entry that really makes me think everytime I read it is the entry for the 25th December 1917

" Fired one shot from our gun; shell exploded in the barrel throwing gun onto the earthbox; no one was hurt luckily, but the gun out of action completely; very pleased this means no work for us for some days. Busy building a high chimney to make a draft for our fire. Enemy started shelling near us; we assumed he must have spotted our chimney, so camouflaged it as a light line railway. Christmas dinner postponed owing to lots of work around battery and cookhouse. Tomorrow instead."

Before the war my Great Grandad, Frank A Parkyn, was the manager of the British Columbia Telephone Company's directory advertising department, so suddenly finding himself on the front line of one of the worste wars in history must have been quite a shock to the old system.

After the war he worked there for a few more years then resigned and hit the road not knowing where he was going with his family, including my Nan who was a child at the time.

I often wonder what the knock on effects of the war were. Lots of children growing up without Dads and kids growing up with dads effected by what they saw during the war etc. Those that survived must of surely had a different out look on life after seeing the things that they saw.

I don't think that there could ever be another World War like World War I. Firstly the authorities would have hell of a job getting the young men of today to agree to go and fight. Secondly today there are too many people who would ask questions and disagree with the decision that war is the solution. Thirdly the carnage and bloodshed would be hard to hide with all the communication devices we have today. People get upset seeing up to 20 cars driving through Wooton Basset with returning fallen soldiers. Imagine how they would feel seeing hundreds and hundreds of thousands of cars driving continuously for hours after hours?

http://petevincent.typepad.com/rawwriter/2010/11/i-shall-remember-my-great-grandad-frank.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Orthodox Church. Historical background in brief

(...) Early in the 20th century the Russian Church began preparations for convening an All-Russian Council. But it was to be convened only after the 1917 Revolution. Among its major actions was the restoration of the patriarchal office in the Russian Church. The Council elected Metropolitan Tikhon of Moscow Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (1917-1925).

St. Tikhon of Moscow exerted every effort to calm the destructive passions kindled up by the revolution. The Message of the Holy Council issued on 11 November 1917 says in particular, "Instead of a new social order promised by the false teachers we see a bloody strife among the builders, instead of peace and brotherhood among the peoples - a confusion of languages and a bitter hatred among brothers. People who have forgotten God are attacking one another like hungry wolves... Abandon the senseless and godless dream of the false teachers who call to realize universal brotherhood through universal strife! Come back to the way of Christ!"

For Bolsheviks who came to power in 1917 the Russian Orthodox Church was an ideological enemy a priori, as being an institutional part of tsarist Russia it resolutely defended the old regime also after the October revolution. This is why so many bishops, thousands of clergymen, monks and nuns as well as lay people were subjected to repression up to execution and murder striking in its brutality. (...)

http://www.orthodoxphotos.com/Orthodox_Elders/Russian/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wapenstilstandstrein


Foto genomen juist na het ondertekenen van de Wapenstilstand op 11 november 1918 in het bos van Compičgne. Op de voorgrond Maarschalk Foch (tweede van rechts), geflankeerd door twee Britse officieren: schout-bij-nacht Hope (uiterst rechts) en admiraal Wemyss. De wagon was aan Foch geschonken door de fabrikant, Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wapenstilstandsdag
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 9:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Keizer Wilhelm II reist naar Amerongen

Op 10 november 1918 om zes uur ’s ochtends kwam de afgezette Duitse keizer Wilhelm II bij de Nederlandse grens aan. Na een hele dag wachten werd hem even na middernacht meegedeeld dat Nederland bereid was hem toe te laten en te beschermen. De volgende ochtend zette de keizer zijn reis voort naar Amerongen. Hieronder de dagboekaantekeningen van Sigurd von Ilsemann, de vleugeladjudant van de keizer, die met hem meereisde naar Amerongen, over de gebeurtenissen op 11 november 1918.

11 november 1918 - Een dag vol smaad en schande. Na het ontbijt liep ik met Gersdorff in de trein op en neer. Op het station heerste een levendige drukte. Soldaten kregen uit veldkeukens hun ochtendkoffie. Gersdorff vertelde mij, dat hij 's nachts had gedroomd dat hij weldra naar het vaderland zou terugkeren. Ik daarentegen zou in Holland blijven en daar mijn geluk vinden.

’s Ochtends om twintig over negen zette de trein zich in beweging. De gisteren aangekomen Duitse en Nederlandse heren zaten bij ons in de restauratiewagen. Over Maastricht, Roermond, Venlo, Nijmegen en Arnhem leidde de weg naar station Maarn. Het hele land was op de hoogte van deze reis van de Duitse keizer. In alle steden, dorpen en zelfs in de open plekken tussen de dorpen stonden de mensen hij duizenden. Overal tot Arnhem gejoel en gefluit, gebalde vuisten en gebaren die wilden zeggen: ‘Snij hem de keel af.' Het was werkelijk walgelijk. Waarom kon men dit de keizer niet besparen?’

Toen wij Maastricht voorbij waren, zei de heer Koster tot mij: Godlof', dat het achter ons ligt: ik was bang dat de mensen met stenen naar ons zouden gooien.' Ik antwoordde alleen maar: 'Ja, maar waarom liet u ons dan niet ‘s nachts reizen?’ Steeds weer lieten wij in de restauratiewagen, waarin ook de Nederlandse heren zalen, de rolluiken zakken, totdat de keizer tenslotte zei: 'Ach, laat maar, het maakt toch allemaal niet meer uit.' Wat moet de voorname heer op deze reis innerlijk hebben doorgemaakt.' 's Morgens voor het vertrek in Spa zei hij: 'Het maakt immers niets uit waar ik heen ga, ik ben overal in de wereld gehaat!'

Nu zag hij hoezeer hij gelijk had; door het land van de vijand zelf had de reis niet vernederender kunnen zijn. In deze toestand van innerlijke opwinding wilde de keizer niet alleen zijn: hij zat de hele tijd met ons in de restauratiewagen en sprak continu met de Nederlandse en Duitse gasten.

Om twintig over drie liep de trein station Maarn binnen. De straten in de nabijheid van het station stonden vol met auto’s, fietsen en rijtuigen, dicht opeengepakt, met daartussen honderden mensen, onder wie naar wij later hoorden de vrouw van de Engelse gezant, verder ook vijandelijke geďnterneerde officieren. Goed dat het regende, want anders waren er nog veel meer mensen geweest.

Graaf Bentinck ontving de keizer. Gontard, Niedener, Estorff en Grünau gingen met hem
mee. De andere heren moesten in de trein blijven wonen, totdat de keizer zijn uiteindelijke woonplaats aangewezen was.

We zaten net in de restauratiewagen aan de thee met het gevoel na alle zware uren eindelijk wat rust te krijgen, toen een Nederlandse officier ons meedeelde dat wij ook naar Amerongen moesten, aangezien de trein door de regering in beslag genomen zou worden. Erg tevreden met deze verandering waren wij niet. Voor de laatste keer betrad ik het compartiment waar ik de laatste jaren menige dag en menige nacht had doorgebracht: het was een stuk vaderlandse bodem waarvan wij nu ook afstand moesten doen, een onbekende toekomst tegemoet.' Snel werden de spullen gepakt en vervolgens stapten wij in de auto's die voor het station voor ons klaar stonden. Met Hirschfeld en mij reed een Nederlandse kapitein mee, die ons openhartig vertelde dat slechts enkele heren bij de keizer konden blijven en dat de overigen geďnterneerd zouden worden. De sabels mochten we behouden, maar de vuurwapens moesten we afgeven.

Na een rit van dertig minuten stonden we stil voor kasteel Amerongen. De graaf en drie van zijn zonen ontvingen ons zeer vriendelijk. Reeds wachtte een volgende vernedering: de Nederlandse interneringsgeneraal trad ons onbeschoft tegemoet. Op brutale en tactloze wijze maakte hij Plessen duidelijk dat sabels ook wapens waren en dus eveneens afgegeven moesten worden. Plessen antwoordde dat men ons bij aankomst had gezegd dat wij de sabels mochten behouden, waarop de generaal antwoordde dat niemand behalve hij daarover te beslissen had.

Wij waren allen verontwaardigd over deze behandeling. Ook de verklaring van Plessen dat zijn sabel een eerbewijs en geschenk van de oude keizer Wilhelm was en dat hij hem in de oorlogen van 1864, 1866, 1870-1871 en in de laatste strijd had gedragen, liet de onaangename generaal geheel koud.

Zonen des huizes brachten Hirschfeld, Molltke, Zeyss en mij naar hotel Lievendael, waar men ieder van ons een kamer aanwees die leeg was op een eenvoudig bed en een wastafel na. Verlichting: een kaars. Het deed ons denken aan een gevangeniscel. We hadden de generaal ons erewoord gegeven dat wij het land niet zouden verlaten zonder goedkeuring van de regering en verder de grenzen van de kleine gemeente Amerongen niet zouden overschrijden.

Om acht uur waren wij ontboden in het kasteel. Daar plotseling weer een heel ander beeld: een heerlijk oud landhuis. De graaf met zijn drie zonen, zijn broer, de burgemeester jonkheer van Weede en de commissaris van de koningin, graaf Lynden van Sandenburg. Allen in smoking, de dochter des huizes, haar nicht en een gezelschapsdame in avondjurk. De tafel was overladen met zilver en bloemen en het diner had vele gangen en zeer goede wijnen.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/keizer-wilhelm/amerongen.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Allied Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918

With German military morale in evident decline on the Western Front and revolution brewing at home - Kaiser Wilhelm II was himself obliged to abdicate on 9 November 1918 - the German government determined to negotiate an armistice with the Allies on 6 November, having issued preliminary diplomatic feelers two days earlier.

Consequently on 7 November the German Army Chief of Staff Paul von Hindenburg exchanged a series of telegrams with the Supreme Allied Commander, Ferdinand Foch, to agree a date, time and place for formal negotiations. (Click here and here to read Allied eyewitness accounts of the armistice negotiations; click here to read an account by a German delegate.)

Although Germany had insisted that it would only enter into negotiations on the understanding that U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's so-called 'Fourteen Points' would form the basis for a settlement, the armistice terms were nevertheless punitive. The Allies agreed to an armistice only on the basis that Germany effectively disarm herself, thereby preventing the latter from renewing hostilities.

The Allies' armistice terms (reproduced below) were first presented to German negotiators on 8 November 1918; alarmed at the severity of the terms the Germans lodged formal protests before reluctantly signing revised terms at 5 a.m. on 11 November; the armistice was to come into effect six hours later, at 11 a.m.

President Wilson shortly afterwards announced details of the armistice to Congress, and further celebrated the agreement in a Thanksgiving Address at the close of the month.

I. Military Clauses on Western Front

One - Cessation of operations by land and in the air six hours after the signature of the armistice.

Two - Immediate evacuation of invaded countries: Belgium, France, Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg, so ordered as to be completed within fourteen days from the signature of the armistice. German troops which have not left the above-mentioned territories within the period fixed will become prisoners of war. Occupation by the allied and United States forces jointly will keep pace with evacuation in these areas. All movements of evacuation and occupation will be regulated in accordance with a note annexed to the stated terms.

Three - Reparation beginning at once to be completed within fifteen days of all the inhabitants of the countries above enumerated (including hostages, persons under trial or convicted).

Four - Surrender in good condition by the German armies of the following war material: Five thousand guns (2,500 heavy, and 2,500 field), 25,000 machine guns, 3,000 minenwerfer, 1,700 airplanes (fighters, bombers - firstly, all of the D 7'S and all the night bombing machines). The above to be delivered in situ to the allied and United States troops in accordance with the detailed conditions laid down in the note (annexure No. 1) drawn up at the moment of the signing of the armistice.

Five - Evacuation by the German armies of the countries on the left bank of the Rhine. The countries on the left bank of the Rhine shall be administered by the local troops of occupation. The occupation of these territories will be carried out by allied and United States garrisons holding the principal crossings of the Rhine (Mayence, Coblenz, Cologne), together with the bridgeheads at these points of a thirty-kilometre radius on the right bank and by garrisons similarly holding the strategic points of the regions. A neutral zone shall be reserved on the right bank of the Rhine between the stream and a line drawn parallel to the bridgeheads and to the stream and at a distance of ten kilometres, from the frontier of Holland up to the frontier of Switzerland. The evacuation by the enemy of the Rhine-lands (left and right bank) shall be so ordered as to be completed within a further period of sixteen days, in all, thirty-one days after the signing of the armistice. All the movements of evacuation or occupation are regulated by the note (annexure No. 1) drawn up at the moment of the signing of the armistice.

Six - In all territories evacuated by the enemy there shall be no evacuation of inhabitants; no damage or harm shall be done to the persons or property of the inhabitants. No person shall be prosecuted for offences of participation in war measures prior to the signing of the armistice. No destruction of any kind shall be committed. Military establishments of all kinds shall be delivered intact, as well as military stores of food, munitions, and equipment, not removed during the time fixed for evacuation. Stores of food of all kinds for the civil population, cattle, etc., shall be left in situ. Industrial establishments shall not be impaired in any way and their personnel shall not be removed.

Seven - Roads and means of communication of every kind, railroads, waterways, main roads, bridges, telegraphs, telephones, shall be in no manner impaired. All civil and military personnel at present employed on them shall remain. Five thousand locomotives and 150,000 wagons in good working order, with all necessary spare parts and fittings, shall be delivered to the associated powers within the period fixed in annexure No. 2, and total of which shall not exceed thirty-one days. There shall likewise be delivered 5,000 motor lorries (camion automobiles) in good order, within the period of thirty-six days. The railways of Alsace-Lorraine shall be handed over within the period of thirty-one days, together with pre-war personnel and material. Further, the material necessary for the working of railways in the countries on the left bank of the Rhine shall be left in situ. All stores of coal and material for the upkeep of permanent ways, signals, and repair shops shall be left in situ. These stores shall be maintained by Germany in so far as concerns the working of the railroads in the countries on the left bank of the Rhine. All barges taken from the Allies shall be restored to them. The note, annexure No. 2, regulates the details of these measures.

Eight - The German command shall be responsible for revealing within the period of forty-eight hours after the signing of the armistice all mines or delayed action fuses on territory evacuated by the German troops and shall assist in their discovery and destruction. It also shall reveal all destructive measures that may have been taken (such as poisoning or polluting of springs and wells, etc.). All under penalty of reprisals.

Nine - The right of requisition shall be exercised by the allied and United States armies in all occupied territories, subject to regulation of accounts with those whom it may concern. The upkeep of the troops of occupation in the Rhineland (excluding Alsace-Lorraine) shall be charged to the German Government.

Ten - The immediate repatriation without reciprocity, according to detailed conditions which shall be fixed, of all allied and United States prisoners of war, including persons tinder trial or convicted. The allied powers and the United States shall be able to dispose of them as they wish. This condition annuls the previous conventions on the subject of the exchange of prisoners of war, including the one of July, 1918, in course of ratification. However, the repatriation of German prisoners of war interned in Holland and in Switzerland shall continue as before. The repatriation of German prisoners of war shall be regulated at the conclusion of the preliminaries of peace.

Eleven - Sick and wounded who cannot be removed from evacuated territory will be cared for by German personnel, who will be left on the spot with the medical material required.

II. Disposition Relative to the Eastern Frontiers of Germany

Twelve - All German troops at present in the territories which before belonged to Austria-Hungary, Rumania, Turkey, shall withdraw immediately within the frontiers of Germany as they existed on August First, Nineteen Fourteen. All German troops at present in the territories which before the war belonged to Russia shall likewise withdraw within the frontiers of Germany, defined as above, as soon as the Allies, taking into account the internal situation of these territories, shall decide that the time for this has come.

Thirteen - Evacuation by German troops to begin at once, and all German instructors, prisoners, and civilians as well as military agents now on the territory of Russia (as defined before 1914) to be recalled.

Fourteen - German troops to cease at once all requisitions and seizures and any other undertaking with a view to obtaining supplies intended for Germany in Rumania and Russia (as defined on August 1, 1914).

Fifteen - Renunciation of the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk and of the supplementary treaties.

Sixteen - The Allies shall have free access to the territories evacuated by the Germans on their eastern frontier, either through Danzig, or by the Vistula, in order to convey supplies to the populations of those territories and for the purpose of maintaining order.

III. Clause Concerning East Africa

Seventeen - Evacuation by all German forces operating in East Africa within a period to be fixed by the Allies.

IV. General Clauses

Eighteen - Repatriation, without reciprocity, within a maximum period of one month in accordance with detailed conditions hereafter to be fixed of all interned civilians, including hostages under trial or convicted, belonging to the Allied or associated powers other than those enumerated in Article Three.

Nineteen - The following financial conditions are required: Reparation for damage done. While such armistice lasts no public securities shall be removed by the enemy which can serve as a pledge to the Allies for the recovery or reparation for war losses. Immediate restitution of the cash deposit in the national bank of Belgium, and in general immediate return of all documents, specie, stocks, shares, paper money, together with plant for the issue thereof, touching public or private interests in the invaded countries. Restitution of the Russian and Rumanian gold yielded to Germany or taken by that power. This gold to be delivered in trust to the Allies until the signature of peace.

V. Naval Conditions

Twenty - Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea and definite information to be given as to the location and movements of all German ships. Notification to be given to neutrals that freedom of navigation in all territorial waters is given to the naval and mercantile marines of the allied and associated powers, all questions of neutrality being waived.

Twenty-one - All naval and mercantile marine prisoners of the allied and associated powers in German hands to be returned without reciprocity.

Twenty-two - Surrender to the Allies and United States of all submarines (including submarine cruisers and all mine-laying submarines) now existing, with their complete armament and equipment, in ports which shall be specified by the Allies and United States. Those which cannot take the sea shall be disarmed of the personnel and material and shall remain under the supervision of the Allies and the United States. The submarines which are ready for the sea shall be prepared to leave the German ports as soon as orders shall be received by wireless for their voyage to the port designated for their delivery, and the remainder at the earliest possible moment. The conditions of this article shall be carried into effect within the period of fourteen days after the signing of the armistice.

Twenty-three - German surface warships which shall be designated by the Allies and the United States shall be immediately disarmed and thereafter interned in neutral ports or in default of them in allied ports to be designated by the Allies and the United States. They will there remain under the supervision of the Allies and of the United States, only caretakers being left on board. The following warships are designated by the Allies: Six battle cruisers, ten battleships, eight light cruisers (including two mine layers), fifty destroyers of the most modern types. All other surface warships (including river craft) are to be concentrated in German naval bases to be designated by the Allies and the United States and are to be completely disarmed and classed under the supervision of the Allies and the United States. The military armament of all ships of the auxiliary fleet shall be put on shore. All vessels designated to be interned shall be ready to leave the German ports seven days after the signing of the armistice. Directions for the voyage will be given by wireless.

Twenty-four - The Allies and the United States of America shall have the right to sweep up all mine fields and obstructions laid by Germany outside German territorial waters, and the positions of these are to be indicated.

Twenty-five - Freedom of access to and from the Baltic to be given to the naval and mercantile marines of the allied and associated powers. To secure this the Allies and the United States of America shall be empowered to occupy all German forts, fortifications, batteries, and defence works of all kinds in all the entrances from the Cattegat into the Baltic, and to sweep up all mines and obstructions within and without German territorial waters, without any question of neutrality being raised, and the positions of all such mines and obstructions are to be indicated.

Twenty-six - The existing blockade conditions set up by the allied and associated powers are to remain unchanged, and all German merchant ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture. The Allies and the United States should give consideration to the provisioning of Germany during the armistice to the extent recognized as necessary.

Twenty-seven - All naval aircraft are to be concentrated and immobilized in German bases to be specified by the Allies and the United States of America.

Twenty-eight - In evacuating the Belgian coast and ports Germany shall abandon in situ and in fact all port and river navigation material, all merchant ships, tugs, lighters, all naval aeronautic apparatus, material and supplies, and all arms, apparatus, and supplies of every kind.

Twenty-nine - All Black Sea ports are to be evacuated by Germany; all Russian war vessels of all descriptions seized by Germany in the Black Sea are to be handed over to the Allies and the United States of America; all neutral merchant vessels seized are to be released; all warlike and other materials of all kinds seized in those ports are to be returned and German materials as specified in Clause Twenty-eight are to be abandoned.

Thirty - All merchant vessels in German hands belonging to the allied and associated powers are to be restored in ports to be specified by the Allies and the United States of America without reciprocity.

Thirty-one - No destruction of ships or of materials to be permitted before evacuation, surrender, or restoration.

Thirty-two - The German Government will notify the neutral Governments of the world, and particularly the Governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Holland, that all restrictions placed on the trading of their vessels with the allied and associated countries, whether by the German Government or by private German interests, and whether in return for specific concessions, such as the export of shipbuilding materials, or not, are immediately cancelled.

Thirty-three - No transfers of German merchant shipping of any description to any neutral flag are to take place after signature of the armistice.

VI. Duration of Armistice

Thirty-four - The duration of the armistice is to be thirty days, with option to extend. During this period if its clauses are not carried into execution the armistice may be denounced by one of the contracting parties, which must give warning forty-eight hours in advance. It is understood that the execution of Articles 3 and 18 shall not warrant the denunciation of the armistice on the ground of insufficient execution within a period fixed, except in the case of bad faith in carrying them into execution. In order to assure the execution of this convention under the best conditions, the principle of a permanent international armistice commission is admitted. This commission will act under the authority of the allied military and naval Commanders in Chief.

VII. The Limit for Reply

Thirty-five - This armistice to be accepted or refused by Germany within seventy-two hours of notification.

This armistice has been signed the Eleventh of November, Nineteen Eighteen, at 5 o'clock French time.

F. FOCH.
R. E. WEMYSS.
ERZBERGER.
A. OBERNDORFF.
WINTERFELDT.
VON SALOW.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/armisticeterms.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NY Times - Page 1 - 11-11-1918



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armistice_with_Germany
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stad was in feest op 11 november 1918
woensdag 10 november 2010, 17u31

GERAARDSBERGEN - De Geraardsbergenaars konden na vier jaar bezetting opgelucht ademhalen toen de Duitsers op 11 november 1918 de wapenstilstand tekenden. In de stad brak meteen een volksfeest uit nadat er tot het allerlaatste moment was gevochten tussen Franse en Duitse soldaten.
Maandag 11 november begonnen de Duitsers zich terug te trekken uit onze stad, de Franse troepen naderden. Het kwam in Zarlardinge nog tot een schermutseling waarbij nog voor 11 uur, het officiële einde van de vijandelijkheden, een Franse soldaat sneuvelde.

Ook in Geraardsbergen-centrum bleven de Duitsers tot net voor 11 uur op post. Aan de opgehaalde Wijngaardbrug stond een Duitse patrouille. Zij boden nog even weerstand maar kozen al snel het hazenpad. Die dag sneuvelde er nog een Duitser, hij werd neergeschoten op de Edingseweg.

Om 11 uur werd het stil, de oorlog zat er op. De Franse generaal Lavigne-Delvelle had even voordien de stad ingenomen, meteen een van de laatste veroveringen van de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

De Geraardsbergenaars begonnen aan een spontaan volksfeest, de Markt stond afgeladen vol. Maar het bleef niet bij feesten alleen, er werd ook geplunderd en de collaborateurs werden opgejaagd.


Een volksfeest op de Markt op 11 november 1918

Meer op http://www.nieuwsblad.be/article/detail.aspx?articleid=BLJLI_20101110_001
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Haig's war diary, 11 November 1918

Luisterhoekje... http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/armistice/haigs-war-diary-11-november-1918-play.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"4 a.m.11 November 1918"

A still night; crescent moon; the faintest breeze.
Some wit might say, 'Peaceful, innit, Tommy? '
Two hours before the usual time for attack.
I wonder what they've got up their sleeve for today.
A bit too quiet right now, I'd say

Careful how you breathe or talk
this chilly night, out there in the open trench;
frozen breath will draw the sniper's rifle sight

The sharp nose of some human terrier
passing over the familiar smells -
cordite, rifle oil, linseed for the wooden butt, the stench of death,
yesterday's corpses half submerged -
may detect, just over there, the unmistakeable smell
of fierce French 'Caporal' cigarettes;
there in front, strong German 'Zeppelins';
round here, cheap Woodbines linger in the air

hardly a human difference
worth fighting over.

- Michael Shepherd

http://poemhunter.com/poem/0121-4-a-m-11-november-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Blog Article - The diaries of C.E.W. Bean: 11 November 1918
9 November 2009 by Robyn Van Dyk.

The notebooks and diaries of C.E.W. Bean provide valuable insight into the last days of the First World War. Bean was Australia’s sole official correspondent and he worked assiduously throughout the four years of the war recording events, often from the front line.

Charles Bean was staying in Lille, France during November, 1918. He was an experienced investigator and interviewer and his diaries of the weeks before Armistice detail the emotions and concerns of those who knew the war was coming to an end. Bean, who generally had access to all levels of command, writes of conversations with Generals John Monash and William Birdwood and discusses the opinions of members of the international press and political leaders including Australia’s Prime Minister Billy Hughes on the peace process. Bean spent much of his time throughout the war interviewing Australian soldiers and recording their stories. During the last months of the war he takes the time to observe and record the feelings of average French civilians noting their opinions and feelings towards Germany.

The weeks leading up to Armistice are described by Bean in his diary as subdued. He wrote “I think it is the dead who rise up between the survivors” that prevents “any sort of Bacchanalian rejoicing”. Journalists and those in command that Bean talked to were initially sceptical about Germany’s intentions. After the Kaiser and his son had abdicated and fled on the 10 November, scepticism turned to a concern about what position Germany would be in to negotiate peace and who was in command. He noted conversations that he had with military commanders, politicians and journalists and recorded their concerns about the potential break up of Germany. Many feared that the country would slide into Bolshevism. Bean wrote that if Germany split there may not be money to compensate Belgium and France. By November Bean did not support the demands on Germany strongly expressed by Billy Hughes. Australia’s Prime Minister was in France lobbying through the press and political channels for extensive reparations for all the Allied countries including Australia. Bean described the speech that Hughes gave to the French War Cabinet as unrealistic.

Bean observed and recorded the feelings of some of the French citizens that he encountered. The French people were calling for broad compensation from Germany for the destruction and devastation of their country. Bean was billeted with an elderly French civilian woman in Lille and was meeting her in the morning for coffee on the 11th of November. He describes in his diary some of her experiences during the war including the destruction of her home. On the morning of the 11th he was getting ready before meeting her and heard a “few hoarse cheers from the street”. He notes the cheers were by men from a British labour company and mentions “a few of the Lille people strung out on either side of their road through the square”. He “could hear a child’s tin trumpet bleating” in the distance and guessed that the war had ended but wrote that this was only confirmed to him later.

Bean had planned to spend most of 11 November visiting the battlefield of Fromelles. He intended to photograph and record details of the site before it became altered after the war. At 11 o’clock he was near Fromelles and mentioned being photographed by Casserly who was accompanying him from the Official Photograph Records Section in front of an old estaminet aptly called “Fin de la Guerre”. Bean described the battlefield of Fromelles as “full of our dead”. He describes Australian kit strewn everywhere and a cluster of Australian water bottles near a water channel. He speculated that the injured may have made their way there to get water.


Fromelles, France. 11 November 1918 E04032

As Bean made his way home from the Fromelles battlefield he noticed as he passed through the villages’ a few French youths walking about mainly with the tricolour draped on their shoulders – not waiving them. And as it got dark he noticed lights in the villages for the first time and an old lighthouse that hadn’t worked for four years. “There has been little shouting – not so much as on a Saturday night at home. It is quiet now – 11: 45 pm. And so it is Peace.”

The AIF was not fighting at war’s end. Heavy casualties and the 1914 enlistees being given long term leave had reduced many of the battalions to as little as 150 men. Most of the AIF were on recreation leave behind the lines from early October 1918. Bean records that although the men were designated to be on three months leave, after one month, many of the units were brought back into the line. It was proposed that some would be going into battle in early November. These battles were postponed and thankfully the war ended.

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2009/11/09/the-diaries-of-c-e-w-bean-11-november-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldiers of the 353rd Infantry near a church at Stenay, Meuse in France, wait for the end of hostilities.



This photo was taken at 10:58 a.m., on November 11, 1918, two minutes before the armistice ending World War I went into effect

http://www1.va.gov/opa/vetsday/vetdayhistory.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2010 10:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On 11 November 1918, German canons lay all around in the place de l'Opéra and along the boulevards, in the middle of the celebratory dancing.



Source: L'Illustration - l'album de la guerre 1914-1919, http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichecitoyennete.php?idLang=en&idCitoyen=1
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Price of Glory



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Dec 2010 12:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The last day of World War One was November 11th 1918

Known as Armistice Day. Despite November 11th being the last day of the war, on many parts of the Western Front fighting continued as normal. This meant, of course, that casualties occurred even as the people of Paris, London and New York were celebrating the end of the fighting.

After three days of intense negotiations in a rail siding just outside of Compiegne (see photo), the German delegation that had been brought to the personal carriage of Marshall Ferdinand Foch was ordered by its government in Berlin to sign any terms put on the table by the Allies. Potentially serious social upheaval had forced the government in Berlin into giving out this instruction as people had taken to the streets as a result of chronic food shortages caused by the British naval blockade. Therefore, the German delegation led by Matthias Erzberger signed the terms of the Armistice.

This was done at 05.10 on November 11th. However, the actual ceasefire would not start until 11.00 to allow the information to travel to the many parts of the Western Front. Technology allowed the news to go to capital cities by 05.40 and celebrations began before very many soldiers knew about the Armistice. In London, Big Ben was rung for the first time since the start of the war in August 1914. In Paris, gas lamps were lit for the first time in four years. But on the Western Front, many tens of thousands of soldiers assumed that it was just another day in the war and officers ordered their men into combat.

Quite a number of the final casualties were at Mons in Belgium – ironically one of the first major battles of the war in 1914. In a cemetery just outside of Mons in the village of Nouvelle, there are nine graves of British soldiers. Five are from August 1914 while four are dated November 11th 1918.

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) states that their records show that 863 Commonwealth soldiers died on November 11th 1918 – though this figure also includes those who died on that day but of wounds received prior to November 11th.

In particular, the Americans took heavy casualties on the last day of the war. This was because their commander, General John Pershing, believed that the Germans had to be severely defeated at a military level to effectively ‘teach them a lesson’. Pershing saw the terms of the Armistice as being soft on the Germans. Therefore, he supported those commanders who wanted to be pro-active in attacking German positions – even though he knew that an Armistice had been signed. In particular, the Americans suffered heavy casualties attempting to cross the River Meuse on the night of the 10th/11th with the US Marines taking over 1,100 casualties alone. However, if they had waited until 11.00, they could have crossed the river unhindered and with no casualties. The 89th US Division was ordered to attack and take the town of Stenay on the morning of November 11th. Stenay was the last town captured on the Western Front but at a cost of 300 casualties.

The CWGC records that the last British soldier killed in World War One was Private George Edwin Ellison of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers. He was killed at Mons (where he had also fought in 1914) at 09.30, just 90 minutes before the ceasefire.

The last French soldier to die was Augustin Trebuchon from the 415th Infantry Regiment. He was a runner and was in the process of taking a message to his colleagues at the front informing them of the ceasefire. He was hit by a single shot and killed at 10.50. In total, 75 French soldiers were killed on November 11th but their graves state November 10th. Two theories have been forwarded for this discrepancy. The first is that by stating that they died on November 10th before the war had ended, there could be no question about their family’s entitlement to a war pension. The other theory, is that the French government wanted to avoid any form of embarrassment or political scandal should it ever become known that so many died on the last day of the war.

The last Canadian to die was Private George Lawrence Price of the Canadian Infantry (2nd Canadian Division) who was killed at Mons at 10.58. Officially, Price was the last Commonwealth soldier to be killed in World War One.

The last American soldier killed was Private Henry Gunter who was killed at 10.59. Officially, Gunter was the last man to die in World War One. His unit had been ordered to advance and take a German machine gun post. It is said that even the Germans – who knew that they were literally minutes away from a ceasefire – tried to stop the Americans attacking. But when it became obvious that this had failed, they fired on their attackers and Gunter was killed. His divisional record stated:

“Almost as he fell, the gunfire died away and an appalling silence prevailed.”

Information about German casualties is more difficult to ascertain. However, it may well be the case that the last casualty of World War One was a junior German officer called Tomas who approached some Americans to tell them that the war was over and that they could have the house he and his men were just vacating. However, no one had told the Americans that the war had finished because of a communications breakdown and Tomas was shot as he approached them after 11.00.

Officially over 10,000 men were killed, wounded or went missing on November 11th 1918. The Americans alone suffered over 3,000 casualties. When these losses became public knowledge, such was the anger at home that Congress held a hearing regarding the matter. In November 1919, Pershing faced a House of Representatives Committee on Military Affairs that examined whether senior army commanders had acted accordingly in the last few days of the war. However, no one was ever charged with negligence and Pershing remained unapologetic, remaining convinced that the Germans had got off lightly with the terms of the Armistice. He also stated that although he knew about the timing of the Armistice, he simply did not trust the Germans to carry out their obligations. He therefore, as commander in chief, ordered the army to carry on as it would normally do as any “judicious commander” would have done. Pershing also pointed out that he was merely carrying out the orders of the Allies Supreme Commander, Marshall Ferdinand Foch, that were to “pursue the field greys (Germans) until the last minute”.

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/november_11_1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2011 10:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



11 november 1918, 7.30. Maarschalk Foch poseert bij de wagon in Compiegne alvorens naar Parijs te vertrekken met de getekende wapenstilstandspapieren.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2014 11:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ger @ 11 Nov 2014 11:10 schreef:
Ondertekening wapenstilstand Eerste Wereldoorlog (1918)

http://historiek.net/ondertekening-wapenstilstand-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918/38466/

Bron: Historiek.net
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