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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Nov 2006 15:43    Onderwerp: 8 november Reageer met quote

1917 : New Russian leader Lenin calls for immediate armistice

On November 8, 1917, one day after an armed uprising led by his radical socialist Bolsheviks toppled the provisional Russian government, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin rises before the newly formed All-Russian Congress of Soviets to call for an immediate armistice with the Central Powers in World War I.


Lenin, in exile in Western Europe when the war broke out in 1914, managed to secure passage through Germany back to Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) in April 1917, after the first wave of Russia’s revolution in March overthrew the regime of Czar Nicholas II. In the months that followed, the Bolsheviks increased their influence, aided in their cause by Russia’s dismal economic situation and widespread frustration with the continuing war effort. In late June, the spectacular failure of an offensive ordered by the provisional government’s minister of war, Alexander Kerensky, sent the army into a tailspin, with millions of soldiers deserting the front and streaming home to join the socialist cause.


Over the next several months, Russia’s revolutionary fervor only increased, as Kerensky--by now serving as prime minister--struggled to maintain order in the face of growing opposition. Meanwhile, Lenin was hiding in Finland after an abortive workers’ uprising in July. He returned to Russia in late September, in time to push the Bolshevik Central Committee to organize an armed insurrection and seize power. The committee approved the plan in late October. On the night of November 6-7, under the direction of Leon Trotsky, an armed band of workers, soldiers and sailors stormed the Winter Palace, headquarters of the provisional government. The following morning, after a virtually bloodless victory, Trotsky announced that the government had fallen. Kerensky escaped and went into exile, while several other ministers were arrested later that day.


On November 8, Lenin made his first appearance before the Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks held a 60 percent majority. "We shall now proceed to the construction of the socialist order," he announced. The first order of business for the new Bolshevik state was putting an end to Russia’s participation in what Lenin and his followers considered an imperialist, upper-class war. That day, the Congress adopted a manifesto calling for "all warring peoples and their governments to open immediate negotiations for a just, democratic peace." A formal ceasefire between Russia and the Central Powers was declared on December 2.


Russia’s exit from the war--which was formalized in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the following March--shook the Allied war effort to its very foundations, as Germany and Austria-Hungary would be now be able to shift all their efforts to the west. Even more importantly, the rise to power of Lenin and the Bolsheviks in Russia announced the arrival of a new vision of the world order--a vision that would over the next decades rise to challenge the ideals of liberal democracy not only in Europe but around the world.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Nov 2006 15:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

Eine Höhe in den Argonnen genommen
Großes Hauptquartier, 8. November, vormittags.
Unsere Angriffe bei Ypern und westlich Lille wurden gestern fortgesetzt.
Am Westrand der Argonnen wurde eine wichtige Höhe bei Vienne le Château, um die wochenlang gekämpft worden ist, genommen. Dabei wurden zwei Geschütze und zwei Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
Sonst verlief der neblige Tag auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatze ruhig.
Vom Osten liegen keine neuen Nachrichten vor.


Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Eroberung serbischer Schanzen bei Krupanj
Wien, 8. November.
Amtlich wird gemeldet:
Auf dem südöstlichen Kriegsschauplatz dauerten die Kämpfe gestern den ganzen Tag auf allen Fronten mit unverminderter Heftigkeit an. Trotz des zähen Widerstandes des Gegners, bei dem die Parole "Bis auf den letzten Mann" gegeben war, wurde im Raume bei Krupanj Schanze auf Schanze von unseren tapferen Truppen erobert bis heute um 5 Uhr vormittags auch Kostajnik, ein von den Serben für uneinnehmbar gehaltener Stützpunkt, erstürmt wurde. Die Zahl der Gefangenen und der erbeuteten Geschütze ist bisher nur annähernd bekannt.
Ferner wird amtlich verlautbart:
Auf dem nordöstlichen Kriegsschauplatz fanden auch gestern keine Kämpfe statt. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Der Krieg im Orient
Konstantinopel, 8. November. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Amtliche Mitteilung des Hauptquartiers:
Gestern wurde bei der russischen Armee keine Bewegung bemerkt. Die Engländer landeten zum zweiten Male Truppen in Akaba, aber Gendarmen und eingeborene Stämme griffen sie an; nachdem ein englischer Offizier getötet worden war, warfen die Engländer ihre Munition fort und flohen.

Konstantinopel, 8. November, 6 Uhr abends. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Zweiter amtlicher Bericht aus dem Großen Hauptquartier:
In dem Kampfe der seit zwei Tagen an der kaukasischen Grenze andauerte, ist die russische Armee vollkommen geschlagen worden. Unsere Armee hält die russischen Stellungen besetzt. Einzelheiten werden später bekannt gegeben werden.

Konstantinopel 8. November. (W. B. Nichtamtlich )
Meldung des Großen Hauptquartiers:
Mit Hilfe Gottes ist die ägyptische Grenze gestern von den Unsrigen überschritten worden. - Da die russische Flotte sich in ihre Kriegshäfen zurückgezogen hat, hat unsere Flotte Poti, einen der bedeutendsten Häfen des Kaukasus bombardiert und allerlei Schaden angerichtet. Unsere Gendarmen und die auf unserer Seite stehenden Stämme haben die englischen Truppen, die in Akaba gelandet waren, vernichtet. Vier englische Panzerschiffe, die sich dort befanden, haben sich zurückgezogen; nur ein Kreuzer ist zurückgeblieben. 2)





Nach Tsingtaus Fall
Tokio. 8. November. (W. B. Nichtamtlich)
Die Japaner haben bei dem Sturm auf Tsingtau 2300 Gefangene gemacht. Sie hatten einen Verlust von 14 verwundeten Offizieren und 426 getöteten oder verwundeten Soldaten

London. 8. November. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Das Reutersche Bureau meldet amtlich aus Tokio: Die japanischen Verluste bei dem Schlußkampf um Tsingtau betragen 36 Tore und 182 Verwundete; auf Seiten der Engländer wurden zwei Offiziere verwundet. Die Deutschen sandten um 9 Uhr vormittags einen Vertreter, um wegen der Bedingungen der Übergabe zu verhandeln. Die Besprechungen fanden in der Moltke-Kaserne statt.

New York, 8. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Der japanische Botschafter in Washington erklärte, Japan werde sich mit China über Kiautschou nach dem Kriege auseinandersetzen. 2)


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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Nov 2006 15:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915

Einnahme von Krusevac
Großes Hauptquartier, 8. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
In den Vogesen schlossen sich nordöstlich von Celles an die Besetzung eines feindlichen Minentrichters durch unsere Truppen lebhafte Nahkämpfe mit Handgranaten und Minen an. Am Hilsenfirst wurde dem Gegner ein vorgeschobenes Grabenstück entrissen.
Leutnant Immelmannn schoß gestern westlich von Douai das sechste feindliche Flugzeug ab, einen mit drei Maschinengewehren ausgerüsteten englischen Bristol-Doppeldecker.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Hindenburg:
Südlich und südöstlich von Riga, ferner westlich von Jakobstadt beiderseits der Eisenbahn Mitau - Jakobstadt, und vor Dünaburg griffen die Russen nach starker Feuervorbereitung mit erheblichen Kräften an. Ihre Angriffe sind, teilweise unter schweren Verlusten für sie, abgeschlagen.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinz Leopold von Bayern:
Keine wesentlichen Ereignisse.
Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen:
Russische Angriffe nordwestlich von Czartorysk blieben erfolglos. 3 Offiziere, 271 Mann fielen gefangen in unsere Hand.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Österreichisch-ungarische Truppen haben Ivanijica und den Vijenac (896 Meter) 7 Kilometer nordöstlich davon erreicht.
Deutsche Truppen sind im Angriff auf die Höhen südlich von Kraljevo.
Zwischen Kraljevo und Krusevac ist die westliche Morawa an mehreren Stellen überschritten.
Krusevac wurde bereits in der Nacht vom 6. zum 7. November besetzt. Über 3000 Serben sind unverwundet gefangengenommen, über 1500 Verwundete wurden in Lazaretten gefunden. Die Beute besteht, soweit bisher festgestellt, in 10 Geschützen, viel Munition und Material sowie erheblichen Verpflegungsvorräten.
Im Tal der südlichen (Binacka-) Morawa wurde Praskovce durchschritten.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




S. M. S. "Undine"

Der Kleine Kreuzer "Undine" verloren
Berlin, 8. November.
Amtlich wird gemeldet:
Am 7. November nachmittags wurde der Kleine Kreuzer "Undine" bei einer Patrouillenfahrt südlich der schwedischen Küste durch zwei Torpedoschüsse eines Unterseebootes zum Sinken gebracht. Fast die ganze Besatzung ist gerettet.

Der Chef des Admiralstabes der Marine. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Beschießung von Riva durch die Italiener
Wien, 8. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Sapanow an der Ikwa, am Korminbach und westlich von Czartorysk wurden russische Angriffe abgeschlagen.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Ruhe an der Südwestfront hielt im allgemeinen auch gestern an. Im Nordabschnitte der Hochfläche von Doberdo hatten unsere Truppen wieder einzelne Vorstöße des Feindes abzuweisen. Um den Col di Lana wurde heftig gekämpft. Nachmittags fiel die Spitze dieses Berges in die Hände der Italiener, abends wurde sie von unseren Truppen durch einen Gegenangriff zurückgewonnen. Die feindliche Artillerie hat das Feuer auf die Südfront von Riva eröffnet.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die beiderseits des Moravicatales vordringenden österreichisch-ungarischen Kolonnen warfen den Feind aus seinen Höhenstellungen nördlich von Ivanijica.
Die deutschen Truppen der Armee des Generals der Infanterie v. Koeveß kämpfen auf den Höhen südlich von Kraljevo. Flußabwärts, bei Trstnik, haben sich unsere Streitkräfte den Übergang über die hochgehende Morawa erkämpft.
Krusevac und die Höhen östlich davon sind in der Hand des Generals v. Gallwitz.
Die bulgarische Armee gewinnt in erfolgreichem Fortschreiten die Ausgänge in das Becken von Leskovac.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 8. November.
An der Dardanellenfront bei Anaforta machte unsere Artillerie ein Geschütz einer feindlichen Batterie bei Purnatepe unbrauchbar und brachte ein Munitionsdepot zur Explosion. In diesem Abschnitt fand das gewöhnliche Infanterie- und Artilleriefeuer sowie Kämpfe mit Bomben statt. Unsere Bomben verursachten in den feindlichen Schützengräben beträchtlichen Schaden. Bei Sed ül Bahr auf dem linken Flügel lebhafteres Artilleriefeuer. Eine Mine, die der Feind auf dieser Front springen ließ, verursachte in seinen Schützengräben Schaden infolge einer Gegenmine.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Nov 2006 15:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916

Fortschritte an den siebenbürgischen Grenzpässen
Großes Hauptquartier, 8. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Nördlich der Somme ging tagsüber die Gefechtstätigkeit über mäßige Grenzen nicht hinaus. Nächtliche englische Angriffe zwischen Le Sars und Gueudecourt scheiterten in unserem Feuer.
Südlich der Somme griffen die Franzosen beiderseits von Ablaincourt an. Unsere in den Südteil von Ablaincourt vorgeschobenen Abteilungen wurden zurückgedrängt, das Dorf Pressoire ging verloren; auf dem Nordflügel des Angriffs wurde der Feind zurückgeschlagen.
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz:
Lebhafte Artilleriekämpfe im Maasgebiet.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generals der Kavallerie Erzherzogs Carl:
Der Tölgyesabschnitt war auch gestern der Schauplatz lebhafter Kämpfe. Der Gegner errang weitere kleine Vorteile. Vorwärts des Bodzapasses sind den Rumänen in den letzten Tagen gewonnene Teile unserer Höhenstellungen wieder entrissen; am Tatar Havaspaß sind feindliche Angriffe abgeschlagen.
Der Erfolg in der Gegend von Spini konnte weiter ausgenutzt werden; die Gefangenenzahl erhöhte sich.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Mazedonische Front:
Feindliche Angriffe im Cernabogen blieben erfolglos. Rege Artillerietätigkeit an der Belasitza- und Strumafront.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff.1)





Prinz Heinrich von Bayern gefallen

Prinz Heinrich von Bayern

München, 8. November.
Prinz Heinrich von Bayern hat den Heldentod erlitten. Der Prinz wurde am 7. November gelegentlich einer Erkundung schwer verwundet und ist in der Nacht vom 7. auf den 8. November gestorben.




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Italienische Angriffe im Colbricon-Gebiet abgeschlagen
Wien, 8. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generals der Kavallerie Erzherzogs Carl:
Südlich und südöstlich des Szurdukpasses wurden rumänische Angriffe abgeschlagen. Bei Spini und südwestlich von Predeal drängten wir den Feind weiter zurück. Beiderseits der Bodzastraße sind wir wieder im Besitz aller unserer früheren Stellungen. Nordwestlich von Tölgyes vermochten die Russen abermals etwas Raun. zu gewinnen. Bei Tartarow schoß ein österreichisch-ungarischer Flieger einen russischen Nieuportdoppeldecker ab.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Ruhe im Görzischen hält an. An der Fleimstalfront wurden Angriffe einzelner italienischer Bataillone im Colbricon-Gebiet und an der Bocchestellung abgewiesen. 3 Offiziere, 500 Mann und 2 Maschinengewehre fielen hierbei in unsere Hände.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See:
Am 7. d. M. nachmittags haben feindliche Flieger auf die Städte Rovigno, Parenzo und Citta Nuova Bomben abgeworfen. Es wurde nicht der geringste Sachschaden angerichtet und niemand verletzt. Eigene Flugzeuge stiegen zur Verfolgung auf. Eines derselben, Führer Linienschiffsleutnant Drakulic, schoß einen feindlichen Flieger ab, der bei in hoher See befindlichen feindlichen Torpedofahrzeugen niederging. Diese wurden von unseren Flugzeugen mit Bomben angegriffen und entfernten sich gegen die feindliche Küste. Am Abend des gleichen Tages warf ein feindlicher Flieger gleichfalls erfolglos Bomben bei Umago ab. Eigene Seeflugzeuge bewarfen abends die militärischen Objekte von Vremigliano und Monfalcone sehr wirkungsvoll mit Bomben und kehrten unbeschädigt zurück.

Flottenkommando. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Nov 2006 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Umfassung der Italiener am mittleren Tagliamento

Leutnant Wüsthoff

Großes Hauptquartier, 8. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
An der flandrischen Schlachtfront hat der Feind seine Angriffe nicht wiederholt.
Die Artillerietätigkeit blieb rege; sie steigerte sich namentlich gegen die Abschnitte an der Yser und bei Passchendaele, die Stadt Dixmuiden lag unter heftigem Minenfeuer.
Nördlich von Poelkapelle und bei Armentières wurden englische Erkundungsabteilungen abgewiesen.
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
Im Ailette-Grund wurden aus erfolgreichen Vorfeldkämpfen französische Gefangene eingebracht.
Heeresgruppe Herzog Albrecht:
Im Sundgau schwoll die schon seit einigen Tagen lebhafte Artillerietätigkeit zu beiden Seiten des Rhein-Rhone-Kanals zu größter Heftigkeit an. Französische Sturmtruppen stießen am Nachmittage nördlich und südlich vom Kanal vor. Bei Ammerzweiler wurde der Feind zurückgeworfen. Westlich von Heidweiler blieben vorspringende Grabenstücke in seiner Hand. Am Abend brachen hier erneute Angriffe der Franzosen verlustreich zusammen.
Seit dem 3. November verloren die Gegner im Luftkampf und durch Flugabwehrfeuer 24 Flugzeuge. Leutnant Wüsthoff errang seinen 24. und 25. Luftsieg.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Brody und an der Moldawa lebte das Feuer zeitweilig auf.
Mazedonische Front:
Im Cerna-Bogen hat sich die Artillerietätigkeit wieder verstärkt.
Italienische Front:
Unsere auf den Gebirgsstraßen vordringenden Abteilungen brachen den Widerstand feindlicher Nachhuten.
Dem am mittleren Tagliamento zwischen Tolmezzo und Gemona und an den ständigen Befestigungswerken des Monte S. Simeone noch ausharrenden Feinde verlegten umfassend angesetzte Angriffskolonnen den Rückzug. Bisher mußten sich 17000 Italiener (darunter ein General) mit 80 Geschützen ergeben.
In der Ebene entwickelten sich längs der Livenza Kämpfe. In frischem Draufgehen erzwangen sich deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Divisionen trotz zerstörter Brücken den Übergang und warfen den Feind westwärts zurück.
Die Gesamtzahl an Gefangenen hat sich auf mehr als 250000, die Beute an Geschützen auf über 2300 erhöht.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)





Die Parlamentarisierung der Reichsregierung


v. Payer

Berlin, 8. November.
Das Wolffsche Telegraphenbureau meldet:
Wie wir von gutunterrichteter Seite hören, dürfte als Nachfolger der Staatssekretärs Dr. Helfferich in seiner Stellung als Vertreter des Reichskanzlers der Reichstagsabgeordnete v. Payer in Frage kommen. Wie weiter verlautet, gilt die Besetzung der Stelle des Vizepräsidenten des preußischen Staatsministeriums durch den preußischen Landtagsabgeordneten Geheimen Regierungsrat Professor Dr. Friedberger als wahrscheinlich. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Der Übergang über die Livenza
Wien, 8. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die verbündeten Armeen des Feldmarschalls Erzherzog Eugen sind gestern in rastloser Verfolgung an die Livenza vorgestoßen. Der Feind setzte dem Überschreiten
des Flusses überall heftigsten Widerstand entgegen, wurde jedoch an mehreren Stellen durch österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Truppen geworfen und zu weiterem Rückzuge gezwungen.
Auch im Gebirge leisten die Italiener an zahlreichen Punkten zähe Gegenwehr. Südlich von Tolmezzo, hinter unserer Front, vermochte sich, gestützt auf die Werke S. Simeone, eine tapfere italienische Gruppe unter dem Kommandanten der 36. Division mehrere Tage hindurch gegen die umfassenden Angriffe unserer Gebirgstruppen und deutscher Jäger zu behaupten. Erst vorgestern abend stellten die italienischen Geschütze ihr Feuer ein. Gestern sprengte der völlig abgeschnittene Feind die Werke. Seine Versuche, sich durchzuschlagen, scheiterten. Nach ehrenvollem Kampfe streckte der Gegner, einige tausend Mann stark, die Waffen.
Auch in den Randgebirgen des Cadore und im Primör kam es zu heftigen Zusammenstößen. Unsere Truppen bemächtigten sich wichtiger Punkte. An Gefangenen und Beute sind gestern in die Hände der Verbündeten gefallen: 1 General, 1 Divisionsstab, 2 Obersten, 170 Offiziere, 17000 Mann, 80 Geschütze und 6 Flugzeuge. Die Gesamtzahl an Gefangenen ist auf 250000, die der erbeuteten Geschütze auf 2300 angewachsen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz und Albanien:
Unverändert.

Der Chef des Generalstabes. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 8. November.
Mazedonische Front:
Östlich des Prespasees lebhaftes Artilleriefeuer. Südlich des Dorfes Akandjoli in der Nähe des Dojransees fanden Patrouillenkämpfe statt, in deren Verlauf englische Gefangene gemacht wurden.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 8. November.
Kaukasusfront: Eine russische Patrouille geriet im linken Abschnitt in unsern Hinterhalt und wurde niedergemacht, zwei russische Soldaten fielen verwundet in unsere Hand.
Sinaifront: Am rechten Flügel Artilleriefeuer. In der Mitte und am linken Flügel dauern die Infanteriekämpfe an.
Nach den amtlichen englischen Meldungen aus Ägypten ist Ghaza am 7. November von den Engländern genommen worden. Diese Meldung entspricht, wie wir hören, insofern den Tatsachen, als die Stellung vorwärts Ghaza und der Ort selbst tatsächlich von den Türken planmäßig geräumt sind.





Einnahme von Gaza durch die Engländer

General Allenby

Amtlicher englischer Bericht vom 8. November.
General Allenby meldet:
Gaza ist heute früh genommen worden. Weitere Einzelheiten fehlen noch.
(Zusatz des W.T.B.: Wie wir hören, entspricht die Meldung insofern den Tatsachen, als die Stellung vorwärts Gaza und der Ort selbst tatsächlich von den Türken planmäßig geräumt sind.) 1

Absetzung Cadornas


General Cadorna


General Diaz

Rom, 8. November. (Meldung der Agenzia Stefani.)
Nachdem auf der Konferenz in Rapallo die Entschließung gefaßt worden ist, einen Interalliierten Obersten Politischen Rat für die gesamte Westfront zu schaffen, dem ein ständiger militärischer Zentralausschuß zur Seite stehen soll, wurden zu Teilnehmern an diesem militärischen Ausschuß ernannt: General Foch für Frankreich, General Wilson für England und General Cadorna für Italien. Um General Cadorna im italienischen Oberkommando zu ersetzen, ernennt ein königlicher Erlaß heute zum Chef des Generalstabes der Armee den General Diaz und zu Unterchefs die Generale Badoglio und Giardino. 1)





Sieg der bolschewistischen Revolution in Rußland - Lenin fordert Frieden


Lenin

London, 8. November.
Reuter erhielt ein Telegramm der amtlichen Petersburger Telegraphenagentur, die in den Händen der Maximalisten ist, in dem es heißt, daß die Maximalisten die Stadt in ihrer Gewalt haben und die Minister verhaften. Der Leiter der Bewegung, Lenin, verlangt sofortigen Waffenstillstand und Frieden. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Nov 2006 15:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Fortführung der Bewegungen zwischen Schelde und Maas
Großes Hauptquartier, 8. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Der Franzose, der sich nordöstlich von Oudenaarde erneut auf östlichem Schelde-Ufer festsetzte, wurde im Gegenangriff wieder über den Fluß geworfen. Zwischen der Schelde und der Maas haben wir die Bewegungen in letzter Nacht plangemäß weitergeführt. Vor unseren neuen Linien entwickelten sich Nachhutkämpfe, die südlich der Straße Valenciennes-Mons, an der Sambre, nördlich von Avesnes und auf den Maashöhen südwestlich von Sedan größeren Umfang annahmen. Sie endeten überall mit der Abwehr des Gegners. Der Feind stand am Abend östlich von Bavai - nördlich von Avesnes - östlich von La Capelle - südwestlich von Hirson - südlich von Signy-l´Abbaye, bei Poix Terron und auf den Maashöhen südwestlich von Sedan. Östlich der Maas Teilkämpfe in dem Waldgelände westlich von Brandeville.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Gröner. 1)





Abdankung der Welfen
Braunschweig, 8. November.
Herzog Ernst August, der Gemahl der Prinzessin Viktoria Luise, hat eine Urkunde unterzeichnet, daß er für sich und seine Nachfolger auf den Thron verzichtet. Die Urkunde befindet sich bei dem Soldaten- und Arbeiterrat in Braunschweig. Auf dem herzoglichen Schlosse weht die rote Fahne. Sonst ist die Ruhe aufrechterhalten worden.





Die Sozialdemokratie verlangt die Abdankung des Kaisers
Berlin, 8. November.
Die sozialdemokratische Parteileitung hat in ihrer gestrigen Sitzung folgendes Ultimatum an die Regierung beschlossen: Sie fordert:
1. Aufhebung der Verbote der gestrigen Versammlungen der Unabhängigen Sozialdemokraten,
2. Polizei und Militär sollen zur äußersten Zurückhaltung angehalten werden.
3. die Preußische Regierung soll sofort im Sinne der Reichstagsmehrheit umgestaltet werden,
4. der sozialdemokratische Einfluß der Reichsregierung muß verstärkt werden,
5. die Abdankung des Kaisers und der Thronverzicht des Kronprinzen ist bis heute mittag zu erwirken.
Werden diese Forderungen nicht erfüllt, so tritt die Sozialdemokratie aus der Regierung aus. Diese Erklärung der sozialdemokratischen Parteileitung wurde gestern nachmittag kurz nach 5 Uhr dem Reichskanzler Prinzen Max zugestellt.





Rücktrittsangebot des Reichskanzlers

Prinz Max von Baden

Berlin, 8. November.
Wie die Blätter melden, hat der Reichskanzler seine Demission angeboten. Dieses Rücktrittsgesuch ist mit der Kaiserfrage eng verbunden.
Dem Kaiser ist gestern noch telegraphisch Bericht über die Lage erstattet worden. Eine Antwort ist aber noch nicht eingetroffen.

Berlin, 8. November, 3 Uhr 10 Min.
Der Kaiser, welcher von dem Reichskanzler über die Gesamtlage genau unterrichtet ist, hat den Prinzen Max von Baden gebeten, einstweilen die Geschäfte des Reichskanzlers weiterzuführen, bis der endgültige Beschluß des Kaisers erfolgt. Dieser ist in kürzester Frist zu erwarten.





Abfahrt der deutschen Waffenstillstandskommission nach den französischen Linien


Erzberger

[img]http://www.stahlgewitter.com/jpg_personen/winterfeldt.jpg
[/img]
V. Winterfeldt


Vanselow

Berlin, 8. November. (Amtlich.)
Die deutsche Waffenstillstandskommission ist gestern mittag aus dem Großen Hauptquartier nach den französischen Linien abgefahren. Die Kommission besteht aus dem Staatssekretär Erzberger als Vorsitzenden, dem Gesandten Grafen Oberndorff, Generalmajor v. Winterfeldt, Kapitän zur See v. Vanselow.





Die Waffenstillstandsbedingungen den deutschen Unterhändlern mitgeteilt - 72 Stunden Frist
Berlin, 8. November. (Amtlich.)
Die Waffenstillstandsbedingungen sind unseren Unterhändlern mitgeteilt worden. Ihre Annahme in ihrer Gesamtheit wird bis Montag verlangt. Der Inhalt ist im Hauptquartier und in Berlin noch nicht eingetroffen.

Amsterdam, 8. November.
Das Bureau Radio teilt mit, daß die deutschen Bevollmächtigten Freitag morgen im Großen Hauptquartier der Alliierten die Bedingungen für den Waffenstillstand mit der dringenden Aufforderung erhielten, sie binnen 72 Stunden, die am Montag morgen um 11 Uhr französischer Zeit ablaufen, anzunehmen oder abzulehnen. Der deutsche Vorschlag zum sofortigen Abschluß einer vorläufigen Waffenruhe wurde von Marschall Foch abgelehnt. Der Text der Waffenstillstandsbedingungen wurde in das deutsche Hauptquartier durch Kurier geschickt.

Berlin, 8. November.
Die sozialdemokratische Parteileitung und die Fraktion haben sich entschlossen, um die Verhandlungen über den Waffenstillstand nicht zu gefährden, die Frist des Ultimatums bis nach der Entscheidung über den Waffenstillstand auszudehnen.





Die Ausrufung der Republik in Bayern


Kurt Eisner

Berlin, 8. November.
Über die Unruhen im Reich wird von zuständiger Stelle folgendes gemeldet:
In München brachen im Anschluß an Massenversammlungen am 7. November ernste Unruhen aus. Die Republik wurde ausgerufen. In der Nacht vom 8. November bildete sich ein Rat von Arbeitern, Soldaten und Bauern unter dem Vorsitz von Kurt Eisner. Dieser Rat erläßt an die Bevölkerung Münchens einen langen Aufruf, wonach er Ordnung sowie Sicherheit der Person und des Eigentums verbürgt. Die Soldaten in den Kasernen regieren sich durch Soldatenräte. Offiziere, die sich nicht widersetzen, dürfen ihren Dienst weiter versehen. Die Bauern verbürgen sich für Lebensmittelversorgung. Weiter wird gemeldet, daß der Polizeipräsident im Einvernehmen mit dem Arbeiter- und Soldatenrat unter gewissen Verpflichtungen seine Amtsführung weiter versieht.

Karlsruhe, 8. November.
Wie man aus der bayerischen Hauptstadt vernimmt, hat in der verflossenen Nacht der Arbeiter- und Soldatenrat die Macht in die Hand bekommen. Es kam zunächst zu schweren Ausschreitungen. Die Kasernen wurden gestürmt. Ein Teil der Garnison schloß sich dem Aufstand an. Vor dem Residenzschloß gab es große Demonstrationen. Der Hauptbahnhof wurde vom Arbeiterrat sogleich besetzt, der die rote Fahne hißte. Vor der Bavaria fanden unter Entfaltung roter Fahnen große Kundgebungen statt. Gestern abend schon wurden die meisten Läden aus Besorgnis vor Unruhen geschlossen. Heute ruht der Betrieb.





Die Aufstandsbewegung im Reiche
Berlin, 8. November.
Über die Unruhen im Reiche wird von zuständiger Stelle folgendes mitgeteilt:
Die Aufstandsbewegungen haben sich weiter ausgedehnt. Es sind davon unter anderen in Mitleidenschaft gezogen: Hannover, Köln, München, Braunschweig und Magdeburg. Hiermit ist jedoch noch nicht gesagt, daß diese Städte ganz in die Hand der Aufständischen sind. Die Nachrichten sind naturgemäß nicht zuverlässig und sind widerspruchsvoll. In Hannover ist z. B. ein Teil der Garnison fest in der Hand ihrer Führer und wehrt sich entschlossen gegen die Bewegung. Ähnliche Verhältnisse scheinen in Magdeburg, Köln und München vorzuliegen. Vom Industriegebiet sind die Meldungen noch nicht klar, es scheinen aber Versuche vorzuliegen, an einzelnen Orten Arbeiter- und Soldatenräte zu bilden.
Es zeigt sich jetzt ein gewisses planmäßiges Vorgehen. Überall dasselbe Bild.
Aus den Hauptzentren Kiel und Hamburg sind im Laufe des gestrigen Tages immer wieder Züge mit bewaffneten Matrosen und Aufrührern in das Land entsandt worden. Diese versuchen, in den wichtigsten Städten sich sofort der Verkehrszentren zu bemächtigen und die Kommandostellen auszuheben. Dann wird unter Heranziehung lichtscheuer Elemente, unter denen sich eine ganze Reihe Fahnenflüchtiger befindet, versucht, die Truppen zu verseuchen, indem ihnen vorgespiegelt wird, daß es sich gar nicht um eine revolutionäre Bewegung handele, sondern um militärische Reformen. Bei manchen Truppen ist der Versuch gelungen, bei anderen hat er energischen Widerstand gefunden. An zahlreichen Stellen ist bereits durch entsprechende Vorstellung von Entsandten der Regierung ein gewisses Einlenken erreicht worden. Die ganze Bewegung geht bei aller Unklarheit in Einzelheiten offenbar von Rußland aus, wobei die bisherige Berliner Vertretung der russischen Sowjetrepublik ja nachweislich mitgewirkt hat.

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1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment

8th November 1914
On the 8th November, "D" and "C" Companies suffered, so the Diary records, a "fearful shelling." Two officers were wounded; 11 other ranks were killed and 38 wounded. On the 14th, the day the Battalion was relieved, Captain G.R.K. Evatt was killed by a sniper's bullet. (Casualties between 3rd and 54th November-1 officer killed, 2 officers wounded, 72 other ranks killed and 70 wounded.) At the end of three days‘ rest the Battalion (in Brigade) marched off to relieve the 20th Brigade in the trenches at Houplines, the 1st Middlesex remaining in Brigade Reserve, billeted in a factory. On the 25th the Battalion relieved the Royal Welch Fusiliers in the front line east and north-east of, and about 800 yards from, Houplines, all companies manning the fire trenches, which are described as "very bad". Major Ash took over command of the Battalion on 29th November.

http://freespace.virgin.net/howard.anderson/trenches1914.htm
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German Reaction to the Japanese Capture of Tsingtao, 8 November 1914

Reproduced below is a commentary which appeared in a German newspaper on 8 November 1914, the day after the German-held territory of Tsingtao fell into Japanese control. The author of the article was Rear-Admiral Schlieper, who had served in Tsingtao some years earlier, and who had rejoiced in the territory's superior management by Germany.

In his article Schlieper mourned the loss of Tsingtao in passionate terms, and heaped scorn upon its joint conquerors, Japan and Britain.

German Reaction to the Fall of Tsingtao - A Newspaper Commentary by Rear-Admiral Schlieper, 8 November 1914

"We guarantee performance of our duty - to the last!"

A solemn heritage have these words become, these words which the governor, naval Captain Meyer-Waldeck, just managed to have transmitted by telegraph to his Commander-in-Chief, from far-away Kiau-chau as a characteristic German pledge.

Each one of us here in the Fatherland, clearly realizing that the message voiced much bitter tragedy, was grateful in his inmost soul to the brave man. Those of us, however, who had been permitted to witness that which out yonder had been undertaken and developed with enthusiasm and flaming love of country, will to-day, on the morning of November 8th, have felt especially sorrowful when they read these words: "Tsing-tau has fallen!"

The flags were yet waving in celebration of the German naval victory along the coast of Chile off Coronel - and already there comes in the quick succession of events the solemn tidings of the end of an heroic struggle, which was maintained on a rocky height against gigantic odds.

We saw it coming - and yet our thoughts rebelled against the accomplished fact, our whole being revolted against so much baseness and deceit which a dual alliance, consisting of our white cousins and of wily yellow Asiatics, had instigated against German possessions.

A sudden pang may flash through us when we view so much German blood spilled, but at the same moment our hearts should beat in fervent gratitude for our heroes of Tsing-tau.

For seventeen years the German flag waved above yonder rocky post. When in the nineties the awakening of the Asiatic East steadily progressed, when a slit-eyed island folk became always more desirous of mastering everything considered European, the time had come for Germany to get a foothold in order to be able to maintain her "place in the sun."

The commanders of our naval military forces had long had their orders for this reason to look around; and when the murder of two German missionaries in Shantung demanded energetic action, Admiral von Diedrichs, with the landing troops of the ships under his command, occupied the Chinese barracks on the northern cape of the bay of Kiau-chau.

On the same day he raised the German flag in spite of the vehement protests of the Chinese general who was stationed there. On March 6, 1898, China agreed to a lease which should run for ninety-nine years, by which the bay of Kiau-chau, and a territory, in accordance with her wishes, was ceded to Germany.

Thereupon, by sending a division, consisting of ships and marines and detachments of sailor-artillery, care was taken that the new possession received augmented protection. After the barracks and dwellings had been first of all thoroughly cleansed for weeks - as a brother-officer wrote to me at the time - German Kultur could placidly make its entrance in Tsing-tau and the surrounding country. And this came to pass.

With what love and care, with what pride and desire to create, the work was carried on in our far distant Kiau-chau, this pen is not capable of describing. But one could easily follow it up in the monographs and plans published annually by the Imperial naval office.

It has been my privilege to visit many of our colonies and for a long time, but nowhere did I meet such a beneficent joy in creating as in Tsing-tau. Every one wished to accomplish great things, and to emulate the other workers. Everything was permeated with German thought and German soundness. There it was demonstrated to foreigners, to those who have now stolen it from us. The German can colonize, even if he has pursued it only in recent years.

Seventeen years under the German flag! How everything developed during that time! German hydraulic architecture and energy called into existence an extensive harbour. Lighthouses, casting their beams far and wide, were erected on points and steep ridges. One villa after another arose, not pretentious and obtrusive, no, rather tasteful and snug.

Soon whistled the locomotive; the powerful step of our splendid marine artillery resounded on the well-cared-for new roads. Where once upon a time bleak rocks stood out prominently against the sky, the green of German afforesting soon covered the bare surfaces. Everything was furthered - even the annual stream of guests, who, coming especially from Shanghai, disported themselves on the beach of Tsing-tau.

The governors, Truppel and Jaeschke, shaped a territory which a Meyer-Waldeck with his faithful followers was to defend to the knife in the past months.

Yes, everything flourished in Kiau-chau; but for this very reason, desire, greed, always came nearer and wished to taste, no, not to taste, to possess the whole of it. The opportunity for highway robbery could not have been more favourable.

The World War had been enkindled - so quickly help yourself, for Germania has her hands full at home. Therefore act quickly; for we'll never gain our object more easily, and our white colleague there under the Union Jack, who always acts as if he were so superior but who really fears us yellow folks out here, he is fighting on our side, wants to crush his cousin with us. So quickly send an ultimatum to Germany, an insolent one to be sure, what does that matter. "Near is my shirt, but nearer is my skin"; and our colleague, John Bull, he would so much like it.

A disdainful rejection was the answer of Germania and then Meyer-Waldeck drew his sword! "War! War!" was re-echoed in the region of Tsing-tau, "war against a fine pair of brothers! So let it be: we shall fight to the last drop of blood."

And how they did fight! Nothing came of the desire to present the fall of Tsing-tau as a birthday present to the Mikado on October 31st, as the Japanese had planned. There was bitter fighting. The enemy often sustained bloody repulses.

The warships, including the Kaiserin Elizabeth, of the Austro-Hungarian navy, valiantly assisted. The Kaiserin Elizabeth wanted at all events to fight with us, to conquer, or to sink. Then on September 28th, Tsing-tau was completely cut off by land; the situation steadily became more serious. From far and near the compatriots had hastened there - they would not desert their dear Tsing-tau at such a critical time.

On September 27th combined Japanese and English forces had advanced to the Litsun River. In the ensuing engagements they left one hundred and fifty dead and wounded on the place of combat.

On October 14th two German forts fell after a heavy bombardment on the part of the hostile warships. But the German guns answered smartly. A 20-centimetre projectile strikes the deck of the English man-of-war Triumph and causes heavy damage.

In the meantime the German torpedo-boat S-90 has destroyed the Japanese cruiser Takashiho in a bold attack. What does it matter that it had later on to sacrifice itself, as it would otherwise have fallen the prey of a large hostile superior force! It was able to save its crew.

The odds steadily increase, the glances toward the German eagle become more covetous, as the latter, bleeding from many wounds, stakes his all to keep what he has acquired, but which under his protection only too readily has stirred up the envy of others, even as this despicable trait of our opponents is the real reason for the World War.

A dreary, melancholy, grey November day without! Gone is the decoration of flags and the rejoicing of the day of Coronel! Everything in its time! To-day the throb of our hearts belongs to you heroes out yonder, our whole mood, our whole sentiment; for you have fought as German heroes have never been better able to do.

But we here at home, we will continually repeat it to our children: Do not forget November 7, 1914: do not forget to pay back those yellow Asiatics, who had learned so much from us, for the great wrong they have done to us, stirred up though they were by the petty English mercenary spirit!

My pen refuses to go on! But one thing more I should like to attest to: Of a truth, ye heroes - ye dead, ye mortally wounded ones and ye survivors - ye did your duty to the last!

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/tsingtau_schlieper.htm
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Private 9743 Stephen CRONAN

Date of Death: 8 November 1914 (Died of wounds)
Grave No: I.A.25A.
Unit: n/k
Age: 20

Personal History: According to the SDGW database Stephen was born in St John's parish, Stockport, Cheshire, in the March quarter 1894. (Birth Index, NA)
There is no record of him or his family on the 1901 Census. Stephen is commemorated on the Stockport War Memorial as "S CRONIN" and the 1911 Census shows a Cronin family, Edmund and Emily, living at 13 Tabley Road, Reddish, Stockport (RG 14/21412). A Stephen Cronin (Piecer in a Cotton Mill) is boarding with the Foley household at 33 Mersey Square, Stockport. However, Edmund and Emily had only been married 5 years, so Emily is unlikely to be Stephen's mother.
There is certainly evidence of confusion in Stephen's surname, as the Medal Index Card contains two spellings - Cronan and Cronen - to add to Cronin!

Military History: Stephen enlisted in the Cheshire Regiment at Stockport, Cheshire. Currently his Army records are unavailable, probably destroyed in Second World War bombing.
His age and service number would suggest that he was a Regular Soldier serving with the 1st Battalion and at the outbreak of War and stationed in Londonderry. However, his Medal Index Card shows he entered France on 11 September 1914 so he was probably one of the 21 men to join the Battalion at Le Mesnil on the 24th September.
He died on 8th November 1914, probably in the Hospital at Boulogne. He was probably one of the 78 NCOs and men from the 1st Battalion wounded between 15 - 22 October in action at Voilaines.

http://grandadswar.mrallsophistory.com/wimereux_cem.html
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The Weather Doctor's Diary

8 November 1870, Washington, DC: The first storm warning is issued by the U.S. Signal Corps Weather Service.

8 November 1914, Bagdad, California: After a record rain-free stretch of 767 days, it finally rains in Bagdad, California.

http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/diarynov.htm
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Shot at Dawn

During the First World War there were 346 Military executions (this figure includes Commonwealth Troops) by firing squad. Soldiers' executions served a dual purpose, to punish the deserters and to dispel similar ideas in their fellow soldiers'. (...)

Worcestershire Regiment men
During the First World War there were 8 soldiers of the Worcestershire Regiment that were shot by firing squad.

Private Oliver W. Hodgetts (8662) 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment
He was serving with the 1st Battalion when they arrived in Western Front on the 8th November 1914 fresh from Egypt. Some 5 days later the Battalion took up a defensive position in trenches facing Neuve Chapelle and came under heavy bombardment from the enemy during which 7 men were killed and 25 wounded. During the next 3 days (16th to 19th November 1914) a further 13 men were killed and 27 wounded. During this period Private Hodgetts went missing but on this occasion no action was taken against him.

On the 19th November 1914 the men of the 1st Battalion exhausted climbed out of the trenches frozen and in heavy snow fall made their way back to billets at La Gorgue, six miles away. Next day one man in four suffered with frost-bitten hands or feet and in many cases feet or toes had to be amputated.

On the 9th May 1915 just prior to the attack on Festubert, Hodgetts went missing yet again just as the Battalion prepared to go into action. On the 12th May he reported to a nearby unit and claimed he had sprained his ankle, but when he was examined by the medical officer no injury was discovered. On the 22nd May 1915 he was brought to trial where he was undefended. Hodgetts conduct sheet showed that he had been sentenced to 90 days field punishment on the 1st March 1915. His commanding officer Major George W. St. G. Grogan at the trial described Hodgetts as a worthless fighting soldier who was only intent on saving his own skin. At his court martial Private Hodgetts was found guilty of cowardice. Field Marshal Sir John French confirmed the sentence and Private Hodgetts was shot by firing squad on the 4th June 1915. He was only 20 years of age.

He is buried at Royal Irish Rifles Graveyard, Laventie, Pas de Calais, France (Grave number IV.D.2).

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn
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Dover Anti-Aircraft Corps



This photocopy is of a scroll presented to the Mayor, Cllr E J Farley, in 1914. It lists those who formed the first roll, and their occupations.

Transcription:

First Roll Call
8th November 1914

Officers
Lieut-Commander Commanding Ian Howden RNVR
Lieut - Commander Instructor H D Capper RN


Lees verder op http://www.doverwarmemorialproject.org.uk/Information/Jottings/Miscellany/anti%20aircract%20corps.htm
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Sonntag, 8. November:

Westfront: Heftige Gefechte entlang der gesamten Linie Diksmuide - Ypern - La Bassee - Arras.
Die französische Armee nimmt ihre Invasion in den Argonnen wieder auf und erobert Vregny an der Aisne.

Ostfront: Die Russen erobern Eydtkuhnen und Stalluponen (Ostpreußen).

Balkanfront: Die dritte österreichisch-ungarische Invasion Serbiens beginnt: Drei Armeen rücken auf Nish, Shabats und Valyevo vor.

Naher Osten: Die Briten erobern die strategisch wichtige Halbinsel Fao (Mesopotamien).

Krieg zur See: Die russische Schwarzmeerflotte versenkt vier türkische Versorgungsschiffe im Schwarzen Meer.

http://www.fl18.de/artikel/223/
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The CEF on the Western Front

On 8 November 1914 No. 2 Canadian Stationary Hospital, Canadian Army Medical Corps, was transported across the English Channel and disembarked at Boulogne, becoming the first unit of the CEF to land in France.

The CEF served almost entirely on the Western Front. By the end of 1916 some 80,000 Canadian troops were in the trenches, serving in four infantry divisions that were grouped together as the ‘Canadian Corps’. This played a leading role in most of the British offensives on the Western Front from mid-1916, including the later stages of the Battle of the Somme, the Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) and the breaking of the Hindenburg Line in late 1918. The most famous victory won by the Canadians during the war was the capture of Vimy Ridge (9–12 April 1917).

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/canada-facts-and-stats
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Hermann Koopmann...

... was born in Oldenburg on May 7th 1893, the son of a railway administrative official. His family had just moved in the region a few weeks before his birth, he grew up there with his 3 brothers in comfortable middle-class surroundings. They were raised believing that they could accomplish anything they wanted in life, their father (Johannes) stressed the need for a good education and they were encouraged to attend institutions of higher learning, but the war came and shattered all those dreams.

“Sunday, the 8th of November 1914

Dear Parents!

Sunday, a day of peace. A magnificent morning. The sky is wholly blue and the
November sun is spreading its warm rays upon our cold hands and clothes which are soaked from the nightly fog and humidity. I can hear the Sunday bells ringing in the distance – I am certain of it! This beautiful Sunday calm is disturbed only by the bullets hissing above us, aimed at us from the enemy trenches only 250 meters away, and the cannons that are roaring further away from us today. We are lying on straw and I have never been so content and serenely cheerful as on this wonderful day.

Father’s dear third letter and the “news” from October 31st which arrived this morning are lying just next to me. They have made us extremely happy. Thank you very much, my dear parents, for the good news. So you have heard about my experiences from the wounded soldiers and meanwhile you must have also received my accounts. I am overjoyed even to receive the smallest message from you, and I am especially pleased that everything arrives, it seems, even though often quite late. The chocolate tastes wonderful! I don’t want to be immodest, but send more of it. May I list all my wishes? I believe that I am immodest and have talked too much about such things, but on the other hand, it is all part of our diet as the food is always the same here and often there is none at all.
It seems that the enemy knows that we receive a hot dinner at 7 p.m. when night falls. In the last few days they have regularly opened such murderous fire around that time that our cooking team could not come near to us, and as a consequence we had cold pea or bean soup at half past eight – there is nothing else but we are satisfied. Otherwise there is just bread and every now and then we receive a small piece of bacon as a special treat –father was right. So you can imagine how delicious your presents are. Please send more and plenty! Above all, it is chocolate we wish for, or candy, sausages and simply anything which is edible. Quantity is more important than quality. And now the joyous Christmas season is approaching, so there will be soon marzipan and other delicious wonders. You might think that your Hermann is quite demanding, but if you could see what is going on here and how happy you will make us with your presents, then you will pardon my gluttony.
Our battle is hard and, as I have read in the newspaper, the subject is being followed with the greatest interest and suspense. How many lives it has cost us! Last night, our third company commander succumbed to his wounds and D. was wounded, there is a spot in our trench where 20 soldiers were killed or wounded. God has really been mercifully protecting me until now and truly I have a premonition that I will see my native country again. And these premonitions often come true. How many have had premonitions about their death and, as I have heard in many cases, were then killed in action. Whatever that might mean, the most important thing is to be brave and that is what I have been doing so far. Victory is imperative and thank God that the chances are favourable. Sincerely,

Your Hermann.”

http://www.kaiserscross.com/40312/179301.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 14:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bravest of the Brave - Winners of the Victoria Cross
by B. M. S. Bisht, IRTS (Retd), Jan. 11, 2009

Lt. Col. Arthur Martin-Leake, Bar to the VC, FRCS
Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Martin-Leake was born in Standon, Hertfordshire in England on 4 April, 1874. He qualified as a medical doctor in 1898 but joined Hertfordshire Company of the Imperial Yeomanry as a Trooper in 1899 as he could not find a job in his own profession. He was subsequently transferred to Baden Powell's Police and was commissioned in 1901 at the age of 27 years as a Surgeon Captain in the South African Constabulary, then Royal Army Medical Corps of the British Army. Later in 1903 he qualified as a F.R.C.S.

There was a bitter war, known as the Boer war, during 1899-1902 between South African Republic (Transvaal) and Orange Free State on one side against Great Britain on the other. The Boers (South Africans of Dutch descent) had long resented the British advance into South African territories and the hostility was inflamed after the discovery of gold (1886) brought a influx of British prospectors.

It was during the Boer War in a battle on 8 February, 1902 at Vlakfontein in South Africa, Martin-Leake as Surgeon Captain went out into the firing lane and attended a badly wounded soldier. There was a very heavy fire from about 40 Boers hardly 100 yards away. Then he went to the assistance of a wounded officer and while trying to place him in a comfortable position Martin- Leake was shot three times. He was wounded on the right arm and thigh with three wounds but did not give in till he rolled over thoroughly exhausted. Nearby on the veldt 8 wounded soldiers lay and when Martin-Leake was offered water to help him he flatly refused till these men were served first. For this conspicuous bravery in the face of heavy enemy action he was given the highest gallantry award, the Victoria Cross. The award was gazetted on13 May, 1902.

Martin-Leake won his second Victoria cross as Surgeon Major - an extremely rare feat as till today only three have done this - for most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty throughout the Campaign during the period from 29October to 8 November, 1914 during the Great War (the First world War).The climax of his bravery reached at Zonnebeke in Belgium during the War when he rescued a large number of wounded soldiers who were lying close to the enemy trenches. This award was gazetted on 18 February, 1915.

Since a twice winner of the same award (medal) is not given the same medal physically twice; as per military traditions only a clasp is awarded to the medal. It is called Bar to the medal as it is in the shape of a horizontal bar that is worn horizontally across the suspension ribbon on which the first medal is hung on the award-winner's left chest on his uniform.

Martin-Leake later rose to the rank of a Lieutenant Colonel in Royal Army Corps and today after winning the Victoria Cross twice, we must remember him in military parlance as Major General Arthur Martin-Leake, Bar to VC, F.R.C.S.

http://www.irfca.org/articles/victoria-cross.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 14:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Emden

On Nov. 8, 1914, the Emden sent a landing party ashore to destroy the wireless station of Port Refuge in the Keeling Islands. Up steamed the Australian cruiser Sydney, half again as large as the Emden. After a running fight which lasted ten hours the Emden was driven ashore, a blazing wreck.

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,732301,00.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXV, Issue 8290, 8 November 1915, Page 4



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http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=AG19151108.2.20.3
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries

This covers the period 25 July 1915 to 20 November 1915.
Edie is at Casualty Clearing Station No. 3 near Ypres.


November] 7th. Little abdominal boy died quite peacefully at midnight. Quiet day. Went to 7o’c but not parade service. Weather foggy - cold -

[November] 8th. Very heavy day indeed - an extraordinary high per centage of seriously wounded - out of 28 admitted to my ward - all except 4 were very bad indeed - 3 or 4 have been to the theatre - & more are to go - & still they come - 10 p.m.

[November] 9th. A very busy day, with intakings - & evacuations by train & by death - & the 15 who stayed are extremely ill. The day’s work feels like walking miles quickly being bombarded right & left with requests for water - morphia, to be lifted up, turned over, etc, etc. & all the time we are trying to get the routine work done - dressings, feedings, etc. & if one were divided into 6 - all the bits would be busy.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol2/html/Vol2Text1.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Prince Heinrich of Bavaria

Prince Heinrich of Bavaria (June 24, 1884 - November 8, 1916) was a member of the Bavarian Royal House of Wittelsbach and a highly decorated Army officer in the First World War.

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(...) At the age of 17, following his Abitur, Heinrich joined the Bavarian army with the rank of Leutnant. Initially, he served with the Royal Bavarian Infanterie-Leib-Regiment, but later was re-assigned the 1st Royal Bavarian Heavy Cavalry “Prince Charles of Bavaria”. After the outbreak of World War I, the regiment saw action on the Western front, where Prince Heinrich was badly wounded. Upon recovering, he returned back to his old infantry regiment and in June 1915, was promoted to Major. At the same time, he was put in charge of the III. Battalion of the newly established Deutsches Alpenkorps stationed in the Carnic Alps. In late 1916, the battalion was transferred to Romania where it fought at Turnu Roşu Pass. During the ensuing German offensive at Monte Sule by Hermannstadt (Sibiu) in Transylvanian Alps, on November 7, 1916, Prince Heinrich was fatally wounded by a sniper and died from these wounds a day later, on November 8, 1916. Prince Heinrich's body was transported back to Munich, where he was buried by his father’s side at the Theatinerkirche. Posthumously on March 6, 1917, for his exceptional bravery, the Prince was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Heinrich_of_Bavaria via http://www.trueknowledge.com/q/who_died_on_the_8th_november_1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 November 1916 → Commons Sitting

AIR RAIDS (GERMAN COAST).


HC Deb 08 November 1916 vol 87 c165 165

Mr. MIDDLEMORE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether any air raids have been made, or attempted, on the German coast other than those of 25th December, 1914, and 25th March, 1916; and, if so, when and with what results?

Dr. MACNAMARA Other attempts have been made than those referred to by my hon. Friend; but owing to weather conditions, they have not been successful.

Mr. MIDDLEMORE Is the statement that appeared in a German paper that there was a British raid on 22nd October correct?

Dr. MACNAMARA I cannot say. I do not know the statements to which my hon. Friend refers.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/nov/08/air-raids-german-coast
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cai E

Cai E or Tsai Ao (simplified Chinese: 蔡锷; traditional Chinese: 蔡鍔; pinyin: Cài È; Wade–Giles: Ts'ai O; 18 December 1882 – 8 November 1916) was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin (蔡艮寅 Cài Gěnyín) in Shaoyang, Hunan and his courtesy name was Songpo (松坡 Sōngpō).

In 1898, Cai studied at Yuelu Academy, and later went to Japan to study in 1899. Cai returned to China in 1900. He took part in the uprising of the Self-Support Army with Tang Caichang. When they failed, Cai went back to Japan. Cai later joined Tongmenghui or Chinese United League and took part in the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. After the revolution, he served as Commander-in-Chief of the Military Government of Yunnan.

Cai E was Governor of Yunnan from 1911-913. Tang Jiyao replaced Cai E as military Governor of Yunnan in 1913.

When Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself as the Emperor of a new Empire of China in 1915, Cai and Tang Jiyao launched the Republic Protection Campaign in Yunnan to crusade against Yuan. With only 20,000 soldiers, his army defeated Yuan’s army of 80,000 in Sichuan. With several provinces behind them, the revolutionaries successfully forced Yuan to abandon monarchism. According to popular folk tale, it was a young prostitute woman who inspired Cai E to turn against Yuan's Beijing government rule.

After Yuan died, Cai held the position of Governor-General and Governor of Sichuan. He later left for Japan for medical treatment, but died shortly after arrival.

Cai E is regarded by many as the man and general, who possibly changed the course of China's history. Although many warlords loyal to Yuan Shikai did not support his ambition to revive monarchy, Cai E was the leading figure to force Yuan to step down. He also served as the inspiration for a young Zhu De who would later become a military leader and found the Chinese Red Army, the forerunner to the People's Liberation Army.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cai_E
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Boy Soldiers on the Roll of Honour

Private Edward Claude Perkins (4503, 17th Battalion), a carpenter from Sydney, claimed to be 21 years 1 month old when he enlisted in January 1916. He was killed by shell fire near High Wood on the Somme, France, on 8 November 1916. He is buried in the AIF Burial Ground at Flers. His mother wrote that he was 16 years 8 months old when he died.

http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/boysoldiers.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The story of the Household Battalion in the First World War

(...) The new infantry battalion trained in Hyde Park and later in September, moved to camp in Richmond Park. Shortly after The Household Battalion entrained for France, on 8th and 9th November 1916, the Reserve of the Battalion moved from London to Combermere Barracks. Windsor, with the Reserve Regiment of The 2nd Life Guards. From here, drafts of over 2,000 men were sent out to the Western Front to replace casualties suffered by the Household Battalion during its 14 months of combatant service. The men were paid the cavalry rate of pay, a few pence more than the infantry, and they wore cavalry service dress on furlough with a distinctive cap badge, the design of which is perpetuated in the present day Household Cavalry Forage Cap Badge.

http://www.maxwall.co.uk/army/history.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 15:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Affair of Huj, 8 November 1917

The affair of Huj, 8 November 1917, was one of the more dramatic incidents of the British pursuit of the Turkish armies retreating after the third battle of Gaza (31 October-7 November). The advance of the British 60th Division towards Huj was held up at 2 p.m. by a well located Turkish rearguard. The Turks were located on a ridgeline south of Huj, where they had placed a mix of German, Austrian and Turkish artillery guns and four machine guns. Major General Shea, commander of the 60th Division, recognised how difficult it would be for his infantry to take this position, and so called on the Desert Mounted Corps for assistance.

The only troops available in the area were one and a half squadrons of the Worcestershire Yeomanry and one and a half squadrons of the Warwickshire Yeomanry, all from the 5th Mounted Brigade of the Australian Mounted Division, a total of 12 officers and 158 men.

This small cavalry force was able to reach a position 1,000 yards from the Turkish left flank under cover of a second ridge. From there they split into three. One squadron of the Worcesters attacked the main infantry force. One squadron of the Warwicks with the half squadron of Worcesters attacked the Austrian artillery and the machine guns at the centre of the line. The final half squadron of the Worcesters attacked a force of Turkish troops seen behind the main lines.

All three charges achieved their objectives. The infantry were dispersed, leaving the artillery exposed. The gunners stood and fought around their guns, but were cut down by the swords of the Yeomanry. The British captured 70 prisoners, eleven guns and four machine guns.

British casualties were heavy. All three squadron commanders were killed, and six of the surviving officers were wounded. Of the 158 men, 26 were killed and 40 injured. Of their 170 horses, 100 were killed. The cavalry troops involved in the attack were effectively out of action, but the 60th Division were able to continue their advance.

Rickard, J (3 September 2007), Affair of Huj, 8 November 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/affair_huj.html
Zie ook http://www.worcestercitymuseums.org.uk/coll/worsor/wos3.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 07 Nov 2010 16:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Lord Loveth A Cheerful Giver by Norman Rockwell
November 8, 1917 Issue of Life Magazine



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In this painting, Norman Rockwell shows us a mother who has two sons going off to war.

The "Great War", World War One, was just beginning. Young American men were enlisting to go to Europe to fight. Inevitably, brothers would be signing up together.

Through luck or planning, this lady's sons are entering different branches of the armed services. This should be some small comfort to her. At least chances are better that one or maybe even both will come home after the war ends.

One is enlisted as a sailor. One is serving as a soldier. Both will likely see action. Both will be in harm's way at some point during the conflict.

Over 100,000 American servicemen were killed during the "Great War" and over 200,000 wounded. Although the European countries suffered much greater casualties, that observation will be of little comfort to the families of American casualties.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-life-magazine-cover-1917-11-8-the-lord-loveth-a-cheerful-giver.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 1917

In November 1917 Russia got the world's first communist government. Lead by Lenin, communists took over the vital city of St Petrograd and removed the Provisional Government from power.

Lenin had already proved himself to the workers of the city with his slogans "Peace, bread and land" and "All power to the soviets". His middle class background was not held against him as he had been in prison for his beliefs and he was seen by the workers as the man to lead them.

Lenin had already decided that the workers were incapable of leading themselves as they did not have the necessary skills. He and other trained revolutionaries would do it.

Lenin promised the people of Russia a number of things. The first was that he would pull Russia out of the war. This proved extremely popular especially among soldiers. Secondly he promised land to the peasants. This was also popular as the Provisional Government had refused to do this. Third, he promised that the workers and soviets would control the factories. With these three promises, it is not surprising that support for Lenin grew at a great speed.

By October 1917, Lenin felt the time was right for a revolution. He returned in disguise from Finland and set the date for 6th/7th November. The actual details for the revolution were left to Leon Trotsky but the actual date for it to begin was left to Lenin.

November 6th/7th : Most of what we know about these two nights comes from an American journalist who was in Petrograd at the time. The man was called John Reed and he wrote about what happened in "Ten days that shook the world".

The Petrograd Soviet was meeting in the Smolny Institute - a former girls school. Speeches were made by Trotsky as to why people should support the communists. While he was giving these speeches, he knew that the Red Guards and armed workers were actually taking over key points in the city. By the time that the speeches had finished most of the city was in the hands of the Bolsheviks (communists led by Lenin) - as Trotsky had planned.

The telephone and telegraph buildings were taken over, as were the power stations. Bridges were captured. So were the railway stations.

There was very little bloodshed and it is probable that many people in Petrograd were unaware of what had happened when they woke up in the morning. In fact, while the communists were taking power, theatres and cinemas were still open !!

November 7th/8th : Now Lenin had to find the leaders of the Provisional Government and arrest them. He also had to get the support of the other political parties that existed in Petrograd then.

Throughout the 7th the Red Guards kept on occupying important buildings. By mid-afternoon, the only building not held by the Bolsheviks was the Winter Palace, the old home of the tsar. It was here that the Provisional Government met. In fact, the troops who were meant to be defending the building had gone home and only the Women’s Battalion remained.

The sign for the Red Guards to attack the Winter Palace was a shell fired by the naval ship the "Aurora". The attack was short lived and any opposition was easily overcome. The Provisional Government surrendered to the Red Guards. The attack took longer than it might have done because there were 1000 rooms in the Palace that they had to search.

In the Smolny Institute, those politicians who did not agree with what had happened and did not want the Bolsheviks in power walked out of the building. Trotsky said that they were going to where they belonged - the waste-paper basket of history.

At 1 a.m. on November 8th, a shabbily dressed man got to his feet and rose to speak. He took away a handkerchief from his face and was instantly recognised as Lenin. He told those in the Smolny Institute that he was forming a government of Bolsheviks and that it would contain no middle class people. The government would work to help the workers and peasants.

By the end of the day the members of the Provisional Government were under arrest, the tsar and his family were also under house arrest. Lenin's statement that he would overturn the government of Russia - made after his brother had been executed - was fulfilled.

But Lenin may have controlled Petrograd. Russia was a vast country and he did not control vast areas. These areas were openly hostile to the Bolsheviks.

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/november_1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sergeant Alfred Knight

Knight joined the 2nd Battalion of the 8th City of London Regiment (Post Office Rifles) in 1914. The 2nd Battalion initially served as a reserve regiment, supplying reinforcements for the 1st Battalion but in January 1917 the battalion also moved to the front line in France.

The battalion first saw action in the Second Battle of Bullecourt in May 1917 and during this battle Knight distinguished himself in the field by bringing in wounded men under enemy fire and thus was promoted to Sergeant.

Knight was later awarded the Victoria Cross for ‘most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the operations against the enemy positions’ (London Gazette, 8 November 1917, reprinted in the Post Office Circular, 20 November 1917) at the Battle of Wurst Farm Ridge, Alberta Section, Ypres on 20 September 1917.

The report in the London Gazette goes on to describe how

‘Sergeant Knight did extraordinary good work, and showed exceptional bravery and initiative when his platoon was attacking an enemy strong point, and came under very heavy fire from an enemy machine gun. He rushed through our own barrage, bayoneted the enemy gunner, and captured the position single-handed…His several single-handed actions showed exceptional bravery, and saved a great number of casualties in the Company. They were performed under heavy machine gun and rifle fire, and without regard to personal risk, and were the direct cause of the objectives being captured.’

http://postalheritage.org.uk/history/people/sergeantalfredknight
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On 8th November, 1917, John Reed spent time with Lenin:

"A short, stocky figure, with a big head set down in his shoulders, bald and bulging. Little eyes, a snubbish nose, wide, generous mouth, and heavy chin; clean-shaven now, but already beginning to bristle with the well-known beard of his past and future. Dressed in shabby clothes, his trousers much too long for him. Unimpressive, to be the idol of a mob, loved and revered as perhaps few leaders in history have been. A strange popular leader 'a leader purely by virtue of intellect; colourless, humourless, umcompromising and detached, without picturesque idiosyncracies - but with the power of explaining profound ideas in simple terms, of analysing a concrete situation. And combined with shrewdness, the greatest intellectual audacity."

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSlenin.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sport's fallen heroes of World War I

Cricket suffered a disproportionate number of deaths (almost one in six who went to war). At least 34 first-class players were killed among 210 county players who served. Kent and England's Colin Blythe, a left-arm spinner regarded as one of the best of his era, took 100 wickets in 19 Tests. He was killed by random shell-fire on a railway line during the Battle of Passchendaele on 8 November 1917.

http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/general/others/90-years-on-sports-fallen-heroes-of-world-war-i-991912.html
Zie zeker ook http://www.national-army-museum.ac.uk/exhibitions/cricket/page3.shtml
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A prison of our own: the AIF Detention Barracks 1917-1919.

(...) Finally, on 8 November 1917, the first prisoners marched in to the AIF Detention Barrack. These were 17 AIF detainees transferred from the Woking Detention Barrack. The numbers of detainees held in the barrack would steadily increase throughout November and December until, by the end of December, the AIF Detention Barrack held 246 prisoners (plus 3 held in "safe custody").

http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4777290/A-prison-of-our-own.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anglo-French Joint Statement of Aims in Syria and Mesopotamia
The New York Times, November 8, 1918.

This statement was issued by the British Embassy in Washington at the request of the British Foreign Office.

The aim of France and Great Britain in carrying on in the Near East the war let loose by Germany's ambitions is the complete and final liberation of the peoples so long oppressed by the Turks and the establishment of governments and administrations deriving their authority from the initiative and the free choice of the native populations.

In view of following out this intention, France and Great Britain are agreed to encourage and help the establishment of native governments and administrations in Syria and Mesopotamia actually liberated by the allies, and in the territories they are now striving to liberate, and to recognize them as soon as effectively established.

Far from seeking to force upon the populations of these countries any particular institution, France and Great Britain have no other concern than to ensure by their support and their active assistance the normal working of the governments and institutions which the populations shall have freely adopted, so as to secure just impartiality for all, and also to facilitate the economic development of the country in arousing and encouraging local initiative by the diffusion of instruction, and to put an end to discords which have too long been taken advantage of by Turkish rule.

Such is the role that the two Allied Governments claim for themselves in the liberated territories.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Anglo-French_Joint_Statement_of_Aims_in_Syria_and_Mesopotamia
Zie ook: https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100000000833.0x00032d
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ultimatum by the Social Democrats

Vorwärts, November 8, 1918.

Just before the Armistice, German Social Democratic delegates placed the following items as 'demands' before the Reichstag. Later, some Germans used this agenda to assert that Germany had not 'lost' the war, but rather had been 'stabbed in the back' by the Social Democrats and Jews (Dolchstoßlegende).

Workers, Party comrades! The peace is secured -- in a few hours the Armistice will take effect.

Let there be no rash acts now which will revive the spilling of blood that has ended on the battlefields! The Social Democratic Party will do its utmost to see that your demands are fulfilled.

For this purpose the Executive Committee of the Social Democratic Party and the Social Democratic fraction have placed the following demands before the Reichstag:

1. Lifting of the ban against meetings.

2. Directions to the police and the military to use the utmost circumspection.

3. Abdication of the Kaiser and the Crown Prince before Friday noon.

4. Strengthening of Social Democratic influence in the Government.

5. Reorganization of the Prussian ministry to conform with the majority principle of the Reichstag.

If no satisfactory reply is received by Friday noon, the Social Democratic Party shall withdraw from the Government.

Await further word for us during the afternoon of Friday.

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC FRACTION IN THE REICHSTAG

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Ultimatum_by_the_Social_Democrats
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NEW ZEALAND DISASTERS AND TRAGEDIES
MATAROA, TAIHAPE, RAIL ACCIDENT, FRIDAY 8 NOVEMBER 1918 - 6.20am


On the Main Trunk Line, around 1 ½ miles north of Taihape near Mataroa, a large landslide of earth, trees and papa rocks fell on to the track at the entrance to a cutting.

The Auckland to Wellington express ploughed into this telescoping the engine and the mortuary car, mail van and the two front carriages, which were all badly smashed. Another train had passed only half an hour earlier.

The fireman had spotted the slip falling onto the line and promptly called for the brakes. Unfortunately as the train hit the slip, the two postal officials who were on duty in the mail van were killed instantly.

While the uninjured passengers were attending to the injured, another slip came down and buried the engine.

A coffin containing the body of an engine driver who was a victim of the influenza epidemic at Ohakune was being conveyed for internment. The coffin had been placed in the mortuary van next to the engine and was thrown clear of the line without any damage.

One of the victims, H Welsh, had his left thigh broken and his right foot almost severed. When told by the doctor that he could not live, he replied – “Give me a cigarette please doctor”. With this lighted he died.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/mataroarail1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Compiegne 1918 – het Treinstel

Op donderdagavond 7 november 1918 naderde een auto met daarin een Duitse delegatie bij Houdroy de Franse linies. Voorzien van een witte vlag en een hoornblazer die met regelmaat een viertonig herkenningsignaal blies passeerden ze de linies waarop een Franse hoornblazer de plaats van zijn Duitse voorganger innam. Rijdend door het troosteloze landschap naar La Capelle waar ze in een gereedstaande trein stapten die hen naar een geheime ontmoetingsplaats reed in de bossen rond de plaats Compiegne.

In de ochtend van vrijdag 8 november 1918 hield hun trein stil tegenover een ander treinstel welke zich bevond op een parallel lopende spoorlijn. Dat treinstel was het mobiele hoofdkwartier van generaal Ferdinand Foch, opperbevelhebber van de geallieerde strijdkrachten.

Om 9 uur die ochtend betrad de Duitse delegatie het door generaal Foch in gebruik zijnde omgebouwde restauratietreinstel 2419D met de opdracht om te onderhandelen over een wapenstilstand. Foch liet weten dat er geen sprake was van het voeren van onderhandelingen, enkel het volledig en zonder enig voorbehoud accepteren van de door de Fransen en Engelsen reeds opgestelde eisen. Deze hielden onder andere in dat de gevechten gestopt zouden worden, dat Duitsland vanaf de Rijnoever tot 30 kilometer landinwaarts binnen 28 dagen bezet zou worden, dat alle door Duitsland bezette gebieden binnen 14 dagen ontruimd moesten zijn, grote aantallen locomotieven, treinstellen, goederenwagons, (leger)vrachtwagens, oorlogsmaterieel zoals artillerie, vliegtuigen, machinegeweren etc. moesten worden overgeleverd evenals alle contanten en goud welke per direct moesten worden overhandigd en dat de Engelse zeeblokkade gehandhaafd bleef.

Foch gaf de Duitse delegatie 72 uur om met deze voorwaarden akkoord te gaan of ze te verwerpen, tot die tijd bleef de oorlog onverminderd doorgaan. Ontzet verliet de Duitse delegatie het treinstel en bracht ze de eisen over naar Berlijn aan de pas benoemde Rijkskanselier, prins Max von Baden. (...)

Lees verder op http://www.bertvanvondel.nl/compiegne-1918-het-treinstel/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Army Groups, 1914-1919, The Western Front

NUMBERED ARMIES, WESTERN FRONT

1st Army
GO v. Kluck (20 May 46-19 Oct 34) 2 Aug 1914-28 March 1915, wounded.
GdInf v. Fabeck (6 May 54-16 Dec 1916) 28 March 1915 - 17 September 1915, army disbanded.
Army reorganized, 19 July 1916
GdInf Fritz v. Below (23 Sep 53-23 Nov 1918), 19 July 1916 - 12 October 1918.
GdInf Otto v. Below (NB: Fritz v. Below's brother), (18 January 1857-9 March 1944), 12 October 1918 - 8 November 1918.
GdInf v. Eberhardt (6 December 1855 - 24 January 1939), 8 November 1918 - 2 December 1918.

Abbreviations:
GFM=Generalfeldmarschal (Field Marshal)
GO= Generaloberst (General)
GdI (or Kav or Art)= General der Infanterie (Kavallerie, Artillerie) Lieutenant General
GLT=Generalleutnant (Major General)
GM=General Major (Brigadier General)


http://www.gwpda.org/1914/gruppew.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 16:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 November 1918: Bavarian Free State

In the aftermath of the First World War there was an insurrection in Munich headed by the leader of the Bavarian Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD), Kurt Eisner. Eisner proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria on 8 November 1918. The main political feat of Eisner's government was to organize elections in January 1919. The USPD was roundly defeated. Eisner was murdered on 21 February 1919 by a rightist radical. A leftist radical government now came to power. This Soviet Republic of Munich existed only about two months.

http://www.iisg.nl/today/en/08-11.php
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 17:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rethondes - 8th November 1918

Having been placed on board a railway carriage with covered windows at Tergnier the German delegation was brought into the forest at Rethondes near the town of Compiègne.

Their train came to a halt alongside Maréchal Foch's wagon and he informed them that he would receive them in his carriage at 0900 hours.

To accommodate the meeting Foch had chosen a siding that had been used by French railway artillery to fire in the direction of Noyon (to the north) during the recent French advance.

It had the advantage that the twin spurs allowed the two parties to conduct their affairs in the quiet and solitude of the forest away from the gathering press. It also meant that it was not necessary to conduct the Germans as far as Foch's HQ at Senlis - a town which had been badly treated by the Germans in 1914 (The Maire and a number of other hostages had been shot).

The two parties met in Foch's newly furbished command wagon at 0900 hours and exchanged their introductions.

The German mission comprised of:

•Matthias Erzberger for the German Government
•Count Alfred von Obersdorff for the Foreign Ministry
•Captain Ernst Vanselow for the Navy
•Major General Detlev von Winterfeldt
That of the Allies:

•Maréchal Ferdinand Foch, Commander in Chief
•First Lord of the Admiralty, Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss
•Rear Admiral George Hope RN
•Général Maxime Weygand, Foch's Chief of Staff
The discussions got off to an awkward start. Foch asked Erzberger why he had come and Erzberger replied that they were there to listen to the Allied propositions for an armistice. Foch immediately replied that he had no proposals to make.

Confused the Germans tried a different wording: what were the conditions that the Allies were seeking for an armistice. Once again Foch replied that he had no conditions to discuss.

Erzberger then tried to explain that according to President Wilson's fourth note Foch was supposed to give him the conditions.

Foch finally made it clear what he was after. He was there with authority to reply should the German delegation ask for an armistice. If they were asking for an armistice then he would explain the terms.

Foch was determined that the Germans were going to have to ask for an armistice rather than the two sides simply sit and discuss the possibilities.

Finally hitting upon the required formula Erzberger asked Foch for an armistice.

Weygand read out the text which had been agreed upon by the Allied governments and on finishing a shocked Erzberger asked if a cease fire would be accorded whilst he transmitted the details back to his government in Berlin.

Foch replied that there would be no cease fire and that he was not authorised to increase the time limit for a German reply. They had until 1100 hours on the 11th to make up their minds.

Captain von Helldorff who was accompanying the German Mission was dispatched at 1300 hours to Spa. Erzberger told him that he doubted that the Allies would accept any form of negotiation though he would try and gain some extensions for the evacuations of the occupied territories.

The afternoon of the 8th saw an interview between von Winterfeldt and Weygand. Fighting for a lost cause von Winterfeldt expressed his concern that the Allies' wish to cripple the German Army would be counter-productive if Bolshevism, already rampant, took hold throughout Germany.

Weygand was extremely unsympathetic and was treated equally so in 1940 when the two sides of the table were turned in the very same railway carriage.

Von Winterfeldt's fears were not without reason for by the time Captain von Helldorff had reached Berlin on the 9th the Kaiser had been forced to abdicate and a Republic had been declared. Prince Max had resigned as Chancellor and handed over his office to the Socialist, Friedrich Ebert.

In the early hours of the 10th the Kaiser went into exile in the Netherlands and would stay there until he died in 1941.

Late that evening messages began arriving for the Germans in their train at Rethondes. The first stated that the German government accepted Foch's conditions. The second authorised Erzberger to sign. A third long message then arrived from von Hindenburg.

The decision to sign having been taken, it was important in order to save human lives to finish the hostilities.

Whilst the Germans were decrypting their messages Foch and Weygand retired to the nearby church at Rethondes to meditate on what the dawn would bring.

Lees verder op http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_rethondes.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 November 1918 - Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges

Im Juni 1918 steht der "Lange Max" vor Paris - ein riesiges Geschütz, gegossen bei Krupp in Essen. Für die 120 Kilometer Distanz braucht eine Ladung drei Minuten Flugzeit. Die Deutschen scheinen den Ersten Weltkrieg zu gewinnen. Nach dem Sieg über Russland haben sie alle Kräfte an der Westfront zusammengezogen. Doch die Oberste Heeresleitung unter den Generälen Paul von Hindenburg und Erich Ludendorff hat nur noch eine Chance: den schnellen Sieg. Denn Deutschlands Kriegswirtschaft steht kurz vor dem Kollaps. Zunächst geht die Offensiv-Taktik auf: An drei Abschnitten können deutsche Truppen die Front durchbrechen und gewinnen bis zu 60 Kilometer Gelände. Doch das reicht nicht. Die Verteidiger haben mehr Nachschub als die Angreifer. Provoziert von deutschen U-Boot-Angriffen sind auch die USA in den Krieg gegen Deutschland eingetreten. Sie haben zwei Millionen Soldaten, Waffen und Verpflegung geschickt. Zudem sind die Deutschen ausgehungert und demoralisiert. Für Deutschland ist der Krieg verloren.

Heimlich räumen Hindenburg und Ludendorff gegenüber den Parteien die drohende Niederlage ein. Da die Besetzung Deutschlands droht, wollen sie einen schnellen Waffenstillstand. Es folgen wochenlange Vorverhandlungen. Dann kommt die deutsche Delegation in Compiègne nördlich von Paris an. Sie wird von Matthias Erzberger von der Zentrumspartei angeführt. Während Erzberger in Compiègne wartet, bricht in Deutschland die Revolution aus. Er weiß nicht, was dort vorgeht. Die Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen beginnen am 8. November 1918. Am 10. November trifft eine Anweisung von Hindenburg aus dem deutschen Hauptquartier in Belgien ein. Erzberger soll auf jeden Fall unterschreiben - anstelle von Hindenburg. Die Unterzeichnung erfolgt am nächsten Tag im Wald von Compiègne im Salonwagen des französischen Marschalls Ferdinand Foch. Die Bedingungen des Waffenstillstands und des anschließenden Versailler Friedensvertrages: Besetzung der linksrheinischen Gebiete durch die Alliierten, Übergabe der schweren Waffen, Auslieferung der Hochseeflotte. Deutschland verliert etwa 14 Prozent seiner Fläche und zehn Prozent seiner Bevölkerung. Trotz hoher Reparationslasten bleibt Deutschland aber eine europäische Großmacht.

Kaum ist die Weimarer Republik gegründet und die Niederlage besiegelt, melden sich die Militärs zurück. Hindenburg vertritt die sogenannte Dolchstoßlegende. Die deutsche Armee sei im Feld unbesiegt geblieben, aber durch linke Propaganda von hinten erdolcht worden. Die Revolutionäre und die Unterzeichner des Waffenstillstandsvertrages werden als "Novemberverbrecher" diffamiert. Erzberger wird 1921 ermordet. Ludendorff versucht 1923 vergeblich einen Putsch - zusammen mit Adolf Hitler. Dieser kommt zehn Jahre später auch wegen seiner Hetze gegen den Versailler Vertrag an die Macht. Hitlers Absicht, das Abkommen von Versailles zu Fall zu bringen, bedeutet Krieg. Nach sechs Wochen ist der Feldzug gegen Frankreich 1940 gewonnen. Hitler setzt bei den Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen auf Revanche - im historischen Eisenbahnwaggon im Wald von Compiègne. Anschließend rollt dieser als Trophäe nach Berlin. Kurz vor Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges sprengt ein SS-Kommando den Wagen in die Luft - damit er nicht wieder in die Hände der Alliierten fällt.

Quelle WDR, http://ultimateheroswelt.blog.de/2008/11/09/8-november-1918-ende-ersten-weltkrieges-5007043/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Allied Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918

The Allies' armistice terms (reproduced below) were first presented to German negotiators on 8 November 1918; alarmed at the severity of the terms the Germans lodged formal protests before reluctantly signing revised terms at 5 a.m. on 11 November; the armistice was to come into effect six hours later, at 11 a.m.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/armisticeterms.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 17:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Le Quesnoy

“One of the Division’s most outstanding single feats was the storming of the medieval fortress of Le Quesnoy in October 1918, climbing the 60 foot high outer ramparts with ladders. A defiant German garrison commander refused to surrender, and the New Zealanders attacked, overcoming a series of barricades until the besieged town was finally forced to submit. The New Zealand Herald of Friday 8 November 1918 reported that Le Quesnoy was taken in ‘old-fashioned style’, using ladders, and it was only ‘new-fashioned’ machine guns that prevented the New Zealanders from storming the keep of the fortress. They fought with ‘resistless speed and achieved one of the most outstanding feats in the war’, and it was claimed to be the first occasion a besieged town had been formally summoned to surrender to British troops.

One New Zealander who took part in the liberation, Lawrence Morris ‘Curly’ Blyth, was awarded France’s highest military decoration, the Legion of Honour, and in 2000 he also had the distinction of having a street in the village of Beaudignies, near Le Quesnoy, named after him”.

http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/news/events/le-quesnoy/default.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd New Zealand Divisional Artillery: Brigadier Miles, the First CRA

(...) In December 1916 he won an MC, and in March 1918 he was again badly wounded. Again his great physical strength conquered and he returned to his unit in time to take part in the final advance from the Somme. As a major in July 1918 he gained a DSO that was both brilliant and prophetic. The enemy was attacking and he fought his guns until they were within 500 yards and his ammunition was exhausted. He then rallied infantry stragglers and manned a fire trench. After halting the enemy, he reconnoitred forward and brought back valuable information. Finally he was wounded by rifle fire at close range. (...) From August 1918 onwards he served as Brigade Major of the Divisional Artillery and Haig's despatch of 8 November 1918 specially mentions him.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2Arti-c1-1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'Surely it is the end!'
Shattered German army on point of surrender


Manchester Guardian, Nov 8 1918

News came to us last night over the wires that Germany was sending plenipotentiaries to ask for terms of armistice from the Allied supreme commander, Marshal Foch. And those men were coming over under a white flag knowing, through President Wilson, what those terms are and what surrender they will have to make of all their pride.

The enemy are now well on the other side of the Sambre to the east of the forest of Mormal and are fighting about Bavai. Yesterday evening heavy counter-attacks were repulsed with grave losses to the Germans. It is a general retirement on a wide front by exhausted men, whose divisions and battalions have been shattered so that only weak remnants can be gathered for this last show of resistance.

In the north, along our Second army front about Tournai, the line of the Scheldt is still held by machine gunners beyond the canal and floods, but they are now at the pivot of the salient, which is sharply increasing every day, so that it is only a question of time when they get out of that pocket. Tournai must be ours before long, and then all the enemy's line will have a landslide as far north as Ghent.

There, with water in front of them and lines of machine guns well placed and well hidden, the rearguard garrison makes it difficult for the Belgians to enter that fine old city of theirs, where thousands of people are awaiting liberation, and even now this could only be done by tragic loss of life. The Belgians would not spare themselves that price if it were worthwhile, but things are happening beyond the lines, on the Belgian front as on ours, which may make more sacrifice unnecessary.

Last night, British officers in touch with headquarters drew a sudden breath and said: "Then it is the end ... The last battle has been fought ... It is too wonderful to believe." I heard those words this morning again - in Valenciennes - among generals and staff officers gathered there in the Place d'Arrnes.

"It must mean the end of the war ... Surely it is the end at last! Who would ever have believed it?"

One man standing near me said, very gravely, "Thank God", and another who was a younger man laughed with a queer break in his voice and raised a big bouquet of flowers given to him by the townspeople, gave a little dance and said, "Back to peace again, and not too quick for me. Back to life."

In Valenciennes there was today a ceremony which seemed the celebration of this spirit of peace which is like a shining light before the eyes of all our soldiers. The men who had saved the city came with their generals to receive thanks from representatives of the people. Colours of many flags splashed down their streets and fluttered above their gables, and their balconies were draped with the Tricolour and Union Jack and the Stars and Stripes. Old citizens wore tall hats, and girls had taken their lace from hiding places where the Germans had not found it. Old women in black bonnets sat in the centre of window-places and clapped their wrinkled, hard-working old hands to every British soldier who passed - and there were thousands who passed.

It was glorious to see them march by and to know that perhaps these fighting men, these square-jawed boys of ours who have gone through the fires of war unscathed, may have fought their last battle and gained the final victory.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/14/first-world-war-armistice-german-surrender
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Radical Brisbane

So many startling events occurred during Queensland's Red Scare of 1918-19 that one could write a book about them. And in 1988 I did.

(...) Although trade unionists had protected a large red flag flying on the roof of Brisbane Trades Hall in early August 1918 from an attacking party of returned soldiers, after the official ban in mid-September, union officials had simply looked helplessly on as Military Intelligence officers confiscated the emblem to the cheers of watching loyalists. A Russian worker named Kritikoff complained to the Daily Standard:

When the red flag was hauled down…there was not a single voice of protest…If the rank and file do not realize the real meaning of the Red Flag - that sacred standard and symbol of solidarity and fraternity of Labor, which in the present struggle in Russia is protected by Bolsheviks at any price and by any means - then the time is not ripe yet for its hoisting on the Trades Hall.

The Russians, however, had their own humiliations to bear. Sunday Domain meetings of Russians and other radical leftists were physically attacked; the Russian Consul, Peter Simonoff was interned; other Russian spokespersons were officially gagged and on 8 November 1918 - the first anniversary of 'the overthrow of Capitalism in Russia' - an attempted celebration in the Centennial Hall was prohibited by the military. When the thwarted leftists attempted a street meeting instead, this too was violently dispersed twice by returned soldiers. (...)

http://www.vulgar.com.au/radbris.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vladimir Lenin: Speech At A Meeting Of Delegates From The Poor Peasants’ Committees Of Central Gubernias, November 8, 1918

Comrades, the organisation of the poor peasants is the key problem in our internal construction work, and even in our whole revolution.

The aim of the October Revolution was to wrench the factories from the hands of the capitalists so as to make the means of production the property of the whole people, and to reconstruct agriculture on socialist lines by handing over the land to the peasants.

The first part of this aim was much easier to accomplish than the second. In the cities, the revolution was dealing with large-scale industry employing tens and hundreds of thousands of workers. The factories belonged to a small number of capitalists, who gave the workers little trouble. The workers had already gained experience in their long struggle against the capitalists, which had taught them to act concertedly, resolutely, and in an organised way. Moreover, they did not have to split up the factories; the thing that mattered was to make all production serve the interests of the working class and the peasants and see that the products of labour should not fall into capitalist hands.

But agriculture is quite a different proposition. A number of transitional measures are required if socialism is to win here. To transform a vast number of small peasant farms into large farms is something that cannot be done immediately. Agriculture, which has hitherto been conducted on a haphazard basis, cannot immediately or in a short space of time be socialised and transformed into large-scale state enterprise, whose produce would be equally and justly distributed among all working people under a system of universal and equal labour service.

While the factory workers in the cities have already succeeded in completely overthrowing the capitalists and getting rid of exploitation, in the countryside the real fight against exploitation has only just begun.

After the October Revolution we finished off the landowner and took away his land. That, however, did not end the rural struggle. Gaining the land, like every other workers’ gain, can only be secure when it is based on the independent action of the working people themselves, on their own organisation, on their endurance and revolutionary determination.

Did the peasants have this organisation?

Unfortunately not. And that is the trouble, the reason why the struggle is so difficult.

Peasants who do not employ the labour of others, who do not profit at the expense of others, will, of course, always be in favour of the land being divided among all equally, of everybody working, of land tenure not serving as a basis of exploitation; they are against the concentration of land in the hands of a few. But it is different with the kulaks and the parasites who grew rich on the war, who took advantage of the famine to sell grain at fabulous prices, who concealed grain in anticipation of higher prices, and who are now doing all they can to grow rich on the people’s misfortunes and on the starvation of the village poor and urban workers.

They, the kulaks and parasites, are no less formidable enemies than the capitalists and landowners. And if the kulaks are not dealt with properly, if we do not cope with the parasites, the return of the tsar and the capitalists is inevitable.

The experience of every revolution that has occurred in Europe offers striking corroboration of the fact that revolution is inevitably doomed if the peasants do not throw off the domination of the kulaks.

Every European revolution ended in failure because the peasants could not cope with their enemies. In the cities the workers overthrew their kings (in England and France they executed their kings several centuries ago; it was only we who were late with our tsar), yet after a certain interval the old order came back. That was because in those days even in the cities there was no large-scale industry which could unite millions of workers in the factories and weld them into an army powerful enough to withstand the onslaught of the capitalists and the kulaks even without peasant support.

The poor peasants were unorganised, fought the kulaks badly, and as a result the revolution was defeated in the cities as well.

Now the situation is different. During the last two hundred years large-scale production has developed so powerfully and has covered all countries with such a network of huge factories employing thousands and tens of thousands of workers that today everywhere in the cities there are many organised workers, the proletarians, who constitute a force strong enough to achieve final victory over the bourgeoisie, the capitalists.

In former revolutions the poor peasants had nowhere to turn for support in their difficult struggle against the kulaks.

The organised proletariat—which is stronger and more experienced than the peasants (having gained experience in earlier struggles)—now holds power in Russia and possesses all the means of production, the mills, factories, railways, ships, etc.

Now the poor peasants have a reliable and powerful ally in their anti-kulak struggle. They know that the town is behind them, that the proletariat will help them, and is in fact already helping them with every means in its power. That has been shown by recent events.

You all remember, comrades, in what a dangerous situation the revolution was this July. The Czech revolt was spreading, the food shortage in the cities was worsening and the kulaks were becoming more insolent and violent than ever in their attacks on the towns, the Soviet government and the poor peasants.

We appealed to the poor peasants to organise. We proceeded to form Poor Peasants’ Committees and organise workers’ food detachments. The Left Socialist-Revolutionaries started an uprising. They said the Poor Peasants’ Committees consisted of idlers and the workers were robbing the working peasants of grain.

We replied that they were defending the kulaks, who realised that the Soviet government could be fought by starvation as well as arms. They talked about "idlers". And we asked, "But why does an individual become an ’idler’, why does he deteriorate, why is he impoverished, and why does he take to drink? Isn’t it because of the kulaks?" The kulaks, in unison with the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, raised an outcry against "idlers", but they themselves were raking in grain, concealing it and profiteering because they wanted to grow rich on the starvation and suffering of the workers.

The kulaks were squeezing the poor peasants dry. They were profiting from the labour of others, at the same time crying, "Idlers!"

The kulaks waited impatiently for the Czechs. They would most willingly have enthroned a new tsar so as to continue their exploitation with impunity, to continue to dominate the farm labourer and to continue to grow rich.

The only salvation was in the village uniting with the town, the rural proletarians and semi-proletarians (those who do not employ the labour of others) joining the town workers in a campaign against the kulaks and parasites.

To achieve this unity a great deal had to be done about the food situation. The workers in the towns were starving, while the kulak said: "If I hold my grain back a bit longer they may pay more."
The kulaks, of course, are in no hurry; they have plenty of money; they say themselves they have tons of Kerensky notes.[2]

But people who during famine can conceal and hoard grain are vicious criminals. They must be fought as the worst enemies of the people.

And we have begun this fight in the countryside.

The Mensheviks and S.R.s tried to frighten us by saying that in forming the Poor Peasants’ Committees we were splitting the peasants. But if we don’t split the peasants? The countryside will be left at the kulak’s mercy. And that is exactly what we do not want, so we decided to split them. We said: true, we are losing the kulaks—we cannot avoid that misfortune (laughter )—but we shall win thousands and millions of poor peasants who will side with the workers. (Applause.)

And that is exactly what is taking place. The split among the peasants only served to bring out more clearly who are the poor peasants, who are the middle peasants not employing the labour of others, and who are the parasites and kulaks.

The workers have been helping the poor peasants in their struggle against the kulaks. In the civil war that has flared up in the countryside the workers are on the side of the poor peasants, as they were when they passed the S.R.-sponsored law on the socialisation of the land.

We Bolsheviks were opposed to this law. Yet we signed it, because we did not want to oppose the will of the majority of peasants. The majority will is binding on us always, and to oppose the majority will is to betray the revolution.

We did not want to impose on the peasants the idea that the equal division of the land was useless, an idea which was alien to them. Far better, we thought, if, by their own experience and suffering, the peasants themselves come to realise that equal division is nonsense. Only then could we ask them how they would escape the ruin and kulak domination that follow from the division of the land.

Division of the land was all very well as a beginning. Its purpose was to show that the land was being taken from the landowners and handed over to the peasants. But that is not enough. The solution lies only in socialised farming.

You did not realise this at the time, but you are coming round to it by force of experience. The way to escape the disadvantages of small-scale farming lies in communes, artels or peasant associations. That is the way to improve agriculture, economise forces and combat the kulaks, parasites and exploiters.

We were well aware that the peasants live rooted to the soil. The peasants fear innovations and tenaciously cling to old habits. We knew the peasants would only believe in the benefits of any particular measure when their own common sense led them to understand and appreciate the benefits. And that is why we helped to divide the land, although we realised this was no solution.

Now the poor peasants themselves are beginning to agree with us. Experience is teaching them that while ten ploughs, say, are required when the land is divided into one hundred separate holdings, a smaller number suffices under communal farming because the land is not divided up so minutely. A commune permits a whole artel or association to make improvements in agriculture that are beyond the capacity of individual small owners, and so on.

Of course, it will not be possible to change everywhere to socialised farming immediately. The kulaks will put up every resistance—and frequently the peasants themselves stubbornly resist the introduction of communal farming principles. But the more the peasants are convinced by example and by their own experience of the advantages of communes, the greater progress will be.

The Poor Peasants’ Committees have an immensely important part to play. They must cover the whole of Russia. For some time their development has been quite rapid. The other day a Congress of Poor Peasants’ Committees of the Northern Region was held in Petrograd. Instead of the 7,000 representatives expected, 20,000 actually turned up, and the hall booked for the purpose could not accommodate them all. The fine weather came to the rescue and the meeting was held in the square outside the Winter Palace.

The Congress showed that the rural civil war is being properly understood: the poor peasants are uniting and fighting together against the kulaks, the rich and the parasites.

Our Party Central Committee has drawn up a plan for reforming the Poor Peasants’ Committees which will be submitted for the approval of the Sixth Congress of Soviets. We have decided that the Poor Peasants’ Committees and the rural Soviets must not exist separately, otherwise there will be squabbling and too much useless talk. We shall merge the Poor Peasants’ Committees with the Soviets and turn the Poor Peasants’ Committees into Soviets.

We know kulaks sometimes worm their way even into the Poor Peasants’ Committees. If this continues the poor peasants will have the same sort of attitude towards the Committees as they had towards the kulak Soviets of Kerensky and Avksentyev. A change of name will fool nobody. It is therefore proposed to hold new elections to the Poor Peasants’ Committees. The right to vote will only go to those who do not exploit the labour of others, who do not make the starving people a source of plunder, and who do not profiteer on or conceal grain surpluses. There must be no place for kulaks and parasites in the proletarian Poor Peasants’ Committees.

The Soviet government has decided to assign one thousand million rubles to a special fund for improving farming. All existing and newly formed communes will receive monetary and technical assistance.

We shall send trained experts if they are required. Although most of these experts are counter-revolutionary, the Poor Peasants’ Committees should be able to harness them and they will work for the people no worse than they used to work for the exploiters. Our specialists are now quite sure they cannot overthrow the workers’ government by sabotage or wilful damage to work.

We are not afraid of foreign imperialism either. Germany has already burnt her fingers in the Ukraine. Instead of the sixty million poods of grain which Germany hoped to carry off from the Ukraine, she got only nine million poods, and Russian Bolshevism into the bargain, for which she was not so keen. (Storm of applause.) The British should watch out the same thing does not happen to them. We might warn them not to choke themselves! (Laughter and applause.)

The danger, however, continues to exist as long as our brothers abroad have not everywhere rebelled. And we must therefore continue to organise and strengthen our Red Army. The poor peasants should be particularly concerned in this matter for they can only carry on farming under the protection of our army.

Comrades, the transition to the new form of agriculture may perhaps proceed slowly, but the beginnings of communal farming must be carried into practice unswervingly.

There must be no let-up in the fight against the kulaks, and no deals must be made with them.

We can work together with the middle peasants, and with them fight the kulaks. We have nothing against the middle peasants. They may not be socialists, and may never become socialists, but experience will teach them the advantages of socialised farming and the majority of them will not resist.

We tell the kulaks: We have nothing against you either, but hand over your surplus grain, don’t profiteer and don’t exploit the labour of others. Until you do so we shall hit you with everything we’ve got.

We are taking nothing from the working peasants; but we shall completely expropriate all those who employ hired labour and who grow rich at the expense of others. (Stormy applause.)

http://marxistsfr.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/nov/08.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Timeline of the Irish War of Independence

8 November 1920: An IRA column mounted an ambush at Grange, County Limerick; four British soldiers were killed when their lorry was fired on. The IRA column under Tomas Malone retreated when seven more British troop lorries arrived.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Irish_War_of_Independence
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 November 1920 → Commons Sitting

MARRIAGE WITH DECEASED HUSBAND'S BROTHER.


HC Deb 08 November 1920 vol 134 cc821-2 821

Mr. WATERSON asked the Prime Minister if he will introduce a Bill legalising marriage with a deceased husband's brother?

The PRIME MINISTER The answer is in the negative.

Mr. HOGGE Is my right hon. Friend aware that, as a result of the casualties in the War, a great many widows of soldiers who were killed are now living with their husband's brothers, which is the same as is permitted under the law with respect to a man and a deceased wife's sister, and will he not consider the question?

Mr. J. JONES What about "equality of the sexes?

Mr. HOGGE May I have an answer to my question? Will the Prime Minister look into the matter?

The PRIME MINISTER I know from long experience of this House how dangerous it is to begin to interfere with the law in this respect, and I certainly cannot offer any hope that the Government will consider anything of that sort at this moment?

Mr. HOGGE Why does the right hon. Gentleman defend marriage with a de- 822 ceased wife's sister, when the widow cannot marry the deceased husband's brother?

The PRIME MINISTER I am neither defending nor criticising. I am indicating that it is quite impossible, in the present state of public business, when there are so many things to be done, to bring in a Bill dealing with this question. [HON. MEMBERS: "Why!"] I remember the struggles over the Deceased Wife's Sister Bill*.

Mr. WATERSON Is the right hon. Gentleman aware that many hon Members are keenly interested in this subject?

* http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/bills/deceased-wifes-sister-bill

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/nov/08/marriage-with-deceased-husbands-brother
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abraham Kuyper

Abraham Kuyper (Maassluis, 29 oktober 1837 – Den Haag, 8 november 1920) was een Nederlands theoloog, predikant, staatsman en journalist.

Kuyper was oprichter van de eerste politieke partij in Nederland, de ARP, stichtte de Vrije Universiteit, droeg bij aan de vorming van de Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland en was van 1901 tot 1905 minister-president.

Kuyper werd voorman en woordvoerder van de orthodoxe vleugel van het Nederlands protestantisme (hoewel niet alle orthodoxen zich achter hem schaarden: niet de zogenaamde 'ethischen', noch de bevindelijk-gereformeerden). Onder zijn leiding werden de gereformeerden zeer invloedrijk, zowel in de Hervormde Kerk (na 1892 in hun eigen Gereformeerde Kerk), als in de politiek, die beide op dat moment werden gedomineerd door de liberalen.

Voor zijn achterban, een volksdeel dat wel wordt aangeduid als de "kleine luyden" (eenvoudige mensen), was hij de gevierde leider. Zijn tegenstanders waren op kerkelijk gebied vooral de modern-protestanten, terwijl hij in de politiek vooral streed tegen de liberalen en later ook de socialisten. Hij vond zijn politieke bondgenoten bij andere christelijke partijen, waaronder hij ook de rooms-katholieken rekende. Voor de politieke tegenstelling tussen christenen en niet-christenen ontwikkelde Kuyper het begrip antithese.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Kuyper
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 22:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Handen af van onze koningin
Door: Bas Kromhout

Toen de socialistische voorman Troelstra in 1918 zinspeelde op een revolutie, namen duizenden Nederlanders de wapens op om koningin en regering te verdedigen. Het leek alsof ze spontaan in actie kwamen, maar in werkelijkheid werden ze van bovenaf geregisseerd.

(...) niet alleen de socialisten keken gespannen naar wat er over de grenzen gebeurde. Op vrijdag 8 november 1918 verscheen de militair commandant van Den Haag op het hoofdkantoor van de Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij en vroeg om een gesprek met de directeur, tevens oud-minister van Oorlog en Eerste Kamerlid namens de Antirevolutionaire Partij, Hendrikus Colijn. De commandant maakte zich zorgen omdat de regeringsgebouwen onbeschermd waren tegen een eventuele aanval van rode gardisten. Zou Colijn met zijn contacten bij de regering niet kunnen zorgen dat dit euvel zo snel mogelijk werd verholpen?

Colijn bleek in Londen te zijn, maar twee naaste medewerkers, F.C. Gerretson en H.A.A. van Gybland Oosterhoff, besloten zelf te handelen. Ze stelden een nota op waarin ze de regering aanspoorden snel voorzorgsmaatregelen te treffen. Omdat zijzelf geen ingang hadden bij het kabinet, vroegen ze het Tweede Kamerlid A.F. de Savornin Lohman van de Christelijk-Historische Unie te bemiddelen. De nota werd ’s avonds bij Lohman thuis bezorgd, maar hij was ziek en liet het papier voorlopig liggen. Kennelijk zag hij minder acuut gevaar dan de assistenten van Colijn.

Op diezelfde 8ste november vergaderden katholieke Kamerleden over de revolutionaire dreiging. Als typische politici stelden ze onmiddellijk een commissie samen om het probleem diepgaand te onderzoeken. De vraag werd gesteld of de katholieke arbeiders loyaal zouden blijven aan het wettig gezag. Men dacht van wel, maar achtte het raadzaam een oogje in het zeil te houden. Zonder echte besluiten te nemen ging de commissie uit elkaar, om weer bijeen te komen als de situatie daarom zou vragen. (...)

Goed artikel. Lees verder op https://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/nl/artikel/31631/handen-af-van-onze-koningin.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Nov 2018 10:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Journal From Our Legation In Belgium, by Hugh Gibson

Brussels, Sunday, November 8, 1914.---Barges of food are beginning to come in, and we have the place filled with people with real business concerning the food and a lot of the usual "halo-grabbers" anxious to give advice or edge into some sort of non-working position where they can reap a little credit.

We are put on German time to-day.

On November 4th the Governor-General came out with a proclamation ordering that German money be accepted in all business transactions. It is to have forced currency at the rate of one mark to one franc, twenty-five centimes. As a matter of fact, it is really worth about one franc, seven centimes, and can be bought at that rate in Holland or Switzerland, where people are glad enough to get rid of their German money. Any shop refusing to accept German paper money at the stipulated rate is to he immediately closed, according to the Governor's threat.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/Legation/Gibson7.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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