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20 oktober

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Okt 2006 6:56    Onderwerp: 20 oktober Reageer met quote

1918 : Turks send British officer to negotiate armistice terms

On October 20, 1918, General Charles Townshend travels from Constantinople to the Greek Isles to liaison with the British government over a possible armistice between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire in World War I.


Up until mid-September 1918, the ruling Ottoman government, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) or Young Turks, still believed ultimate victory for the Central Powers was possible. After learning evidence to the contrary—that Bulgaria had sought and been granted an armistice in late September and that Germany was on the verge of seeking one as well—the CUP was in shock. They felt they had been deceived by the army’s chief commander, Enver Pasha, who had maintained repeatedly that all was well for Turkey and its allies. The fall of Bulgaria cut the Ottoman Empire off from the overland routes to Austria and Germany, and consequently all its access to fuel, ammunition, other supplies and reinforcements. As the Ottoman finance minister wrote in his diary in October: "If [Enver Pasha] had said five or six months ago that we were in so difficult a situation, naturally we would have…made a favourable separate peace at that time. But he concealed everything, and…he deluded himself and brought the country to this state."


After Mehmed Talaat (Turkey’s foremost political leader since February 1917) called his CUP cabinet together and engineered their collective resignation—including his own—in an attempt to curry favor with the Allies, Sultan Mehmed VI appointed a new cabinet under Field Marshal Ahemt Izzet Pasha, who was determined to be more acceptable to the Allies. In mid-October, the new Ottoman government dispatched Charles Townshend, a British general and prisoner-of-war, to approach the British in Greece. Townshend, who had surrendered to the Ottoman army at the town of Kut-al-Amara in Mesopotamia in the spring of 1916, had lived since then under house arrest on an island off Constantinople. Despite his prisoner-of-war status, he enjoyed relative freedom and moved in some of the highest Ottoman political circles.


Townshend’s boat arrived early on the morning of October 20 at the Greek island of Mitylene, where it rendezvoused with a British vessel. The Turkish position—as reported by Townshend and wired to the British Foreign Office in London—was that Britain should leave the Ottoman Empire with Syria, Mesopotamia and perhaps the Caucasus as well, provided these territories were allowed autonomy within a revamped empire structure that would more closely resemble a confederation of states. After he had wired this proposal, Townshend traveled by ship to the headquarters of the British naval commander in the Aegean Sea, Admiral Arthur Calthorpe, on the Greek island of Lemnos.


Townshend’s mission was to impress upon London the idea that the Turks were prepared to continue waging war if these generous peace terms were not offered. In fact, the Ottoman government was in a much weaker position, as the Allies occupied nearly all of their Arabian territories; this weakness was exploited in the actual armistice agreement, signed October 30, 1918, which effectively marked the end of Turkish dominance and the beginning of a new phase in the history of the Middle East.

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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Okt 2006 7:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gefecht an der belgischen Küste
Großes Hauptquartier, 20. Oktober, vormittags.
Die deutschen von Ostende längs der Küste vorgehenden Truppen stießen am Yser-Abschnitt bei Nieuport auf feindliche Kräfte. Mit diesen stehen sie seit vorgestern im Gefecht. Auch gestern wurden Angriffe des Gegners westlich Lille unter starken Verlusten für den Angreifer zurückgewiesen.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz hat sich nichts Wesentliches ereignet. 1)

Die indischen Truppen in Frankreich
Genf, 20. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Wie aus Marseille gemeldet wird, sind dort gestern achtzehn englische Dampfer mit neuen indischen Truppen gelandet, deren Zahl 30000 betragen soll.

Der Kaiser an der Westfront
Berlin, 20. Oktober. (Amtlich.)
Seine Majestät der Kaiser weilt seit einigen Tagen bei den Truppen an der Westfront. Am 17. Oktober besichtigte er bei Mercy les Bas in Gegenwart des Heerführers Kronprinzen Wilhelm Teile der Angriffstruppen vor Verdun und nahm den Vortrag der Generale v. Lochow und Frhr. v. Lüttwitz entgegen. Nach Besichtigung von Rekrutendepots, Landsturmtruppen und eines vom Kreise Wolmirstedt gestifteten Soldaten-Erholungsheims begab sich Seine Majestät in Begleitung des Kronprinzen weiter in den Befehlsbereich des Generals v. Mudra und anschließend am 18. zur Armee des Generalobersten v. Einem.
Er verlieh dem Generalobersten v. Einem und den Generalen der Infanterie v. Mudra und v. Zwehl das Eichenlaub zum Orden Pour le mérite und den Truppen eine Anzahl Eiserner Kreuze erster und zweiter Klasse. 1)

(Es dürfte sich bei dieser neuen Landung um solche indische Truppenteile handeln, die England aus Ägypten, wo sie nicht zuverlässig genug erschienen, zurückzieht, um sie durch englische Truppen zu ersetzen.) 2)

Heftige Kämpfe östlich von Kortryk
Berlin, 20. Oktober, abends. (Amtlich.)
Östlich von Kortryk dauern heftige Kämpfe an. Beiderseits von Solesmes und Le Cateau sind auf breiter Front starke Angriffe des Feindes gescheitert. Erfolgreiche Teilkämpfe im Serre-Abschnitt und auf den Höhen westlich der Aisne. Östlich von Vouziers wurden feindliche Angriffe abgewiesen. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Okt 2006 7:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 20. Oktober 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Gefecht an der belgischen Küste

Großes Hauptquartier, 20. Oktober, vormittags.
Die deutschen von Ostende längs der Küste vorgehenden Truppen stießen am Yser-Abschnitt bei Nieuport auf feindliche Kräfte. Mit diesen stehen sie seit vorgestern im Gefecht. Auch gestern wurden Angriffe des Gegners westlich Lille unter starken Verlusten für den Angreifer zurückgewiesen.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz hat sich nichts Wesentliches ereignet. 1)



Gefangene französische Freischärler auf dem Weg zum Kriegsgericht
Gefangene französische Freischärler auf dem Weg zum Kriegsgericht
Verletzungen der Genfer Konvention

Berlin, 20. Oktober. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Der "Reichsanzeiger" schreibt in seinem amtlichen Teil:
Die Kaiserliche Regierung hat nachstehende Denkschrift über die Verletzungen der Genfer Konvention vom 6. Juli 1906 durch die französischen Truppen und Freischärler, in der gegen deren völkerrechtswidriges Verhalten scharfer Protest erhoben wird, der französischen Regierung sowie den Regierungen der neutralen Mächte zugehen lassen:

"In dem gegenwärtigen Kriege haben französische Truppen und Freischärler die zur Verbesserung des Loses der Verwundeten und Kranken bei im Felde stehenden Heeren getroffenen Bestimmungen der Genfer Konvention vom 6. Juli 1906, die von Deutschland und Frankreich ratifiziert worden sind, in flagranter Weise verletzt. Aus der großen Zahl der bekannt gewordenen Fälle werden in Anlagen diejenigen aufgeführt, die bereits durch gerichtliche Vernehmungen oder dienstliche Meldungen einwandfrei festgestellt wurden. An der Spitze der Genfer Konvention steht einer der ersten Grundsätze des Kriegsrechts, daß nämlich die Verwundeten und Kranken des feindlichen Heeres ebenso wie die Verwundeten und Kranken des eigenen Heeres geachtet und versorgt werden sollen (Art. 11 Abs. 1). Diesem Grundsatz haben französische Truppen und Freischärler ins Gesicht geschlagen, indem sie deutsche Verwundete, die in ihre Hände gefallen waren, nicht nur roh behandelt, sondern auch beraubt, ja sogar teilweise in bestialischer Weise verstümmelt und ermordet haben (Anlage 1 bis 8).
Für die beweglichen Sanitätsformationen sehen Artikel 6 und 14 der Genfer Konvention besonderen Schutz vor. Diesen Bestimmungen zuwider haben französische Truppen deutsche Automobile mit Verwundeten angegriffen (Anlage 6) und Sanitätswagen beschossen (Anlage 11 bis 14), obwohl das Rote Kreuz deutlich erkennbar war; auch wurden deutsche Lazarette überfallen, ihres Personals und ihrer Ausrüstung beraubt (Anlage 7).
In völkerrechtswidriger Weise haben sich ferner französische Truppen gegen den Artikel 9 der Genfer Konvention vergangen, der das Sanitätspersonal der kriegführenden Heere schützen, ja sogar sie neutral behandelt wissen will. Wie sich aus den Anlagen ergibt, wurde der Führer einer Sanitätskolonne von einem französischen Truppenführer verhaftet und weggeschleppt (Anlage 9), und ein Arzt, der einem Verwundeten helfen wollte, von französischen Truppen erschossen (Anlage 10); auch wurden die Ärzte und Begleitmannschaften eines Sanitätswagens unter Feuer genommen (Anlage 11), sowie Krankenträger bei der Bergung der Verwundeten durch französische Truppen und Freischärler angegriffen, verwundet und getötet (Anlage 12 bis 14) oder zu Kriegsgefangenen gemacht (Anlage 15). Ebenso wurde ein deutscher Feldgeistlicher von den französischen Truppen gefangen und wie ein gemeiner Verbrecher behandelt (Anlage 8).
Die Kaiserliche Regierung bringt mit Entrüstung diese dem Völkerrecht und der Menschlichkeit hohnsprechende Behandlung deutscher Verwundeter, deutscher Sanitätsformationen und deutschen Sanitätspersonals zur öffentlichen Kenntnis und legt hiermit feierlich Verwahrung ein gegen die unerhörten Verletzungen eines von allen Kulturstaaten geschlossenen Weltvertrages.

Berlin, 10. Oktober 1914"

Die Anlage

In Anlage 1 sagt Grenadier Haenseler, 2. Kompanie, 3. Bat., Garde - Ersatz - Brigade, über die Vorgänge am 5 September 1914 an der Eisenbahnbrücke über die Meurthe nördlich Rehainviller aus: Die Franzosen traten die liegengebliebenen Leute unseres Zuges mit den Füßen und als sie Lebenszeichen durch Schreien oder Stöhnen gaben, hörte ich Schüsse. Auch ich erhielt einen Fußtritt, verhielt mich aber völlig ruhig. Bei eintretender Dunkelheit sah ich mich nach meinen verwundeten Kameraden um und stellte fest, daß sie nach ihrer Lage tot sein mußten, während sie am Morgen nur leicht verwundet waren.
Anlage 2. Franz Mevissen, 4. Esk. Jäger-Regt. zu Pferde No. 7, sah am 7. September südwestlich Arlons auf belgischem Gebiet aus einem Versteck, wie Franzosen in der hellen Nacht auf dem Gefechtsfeld umhergingen und verwundete deutsche Jäger mit Lanzen erstachen.
Anlage 3. Musketier Theodor Mündel, 9. Komp., Inf. Regt. No. 138, wurde am 25. August bei Luneville verwundet. Ein Franzose, der Revolver und Degen trug, fragte den neben Mündel liegenden Gefreiten in gebrochenem Deutsch, wo er verwundet sei. Der Gefreite antwortete: Am Fuß. Darauf schoß der Franzose den Gefreiten mit dem Revolver durch den Kopf. Bei der Rückkehr der Franzosen erhielt Mündel selbst mit einem Bajonettkolben einen Schlag gegen die rechte Schläfe und über die linke Schulter, obwohl die bereits erlittene Verwundung an dem starken Austritt des Blutes durch die Uniform deutlich bemerkbar war.
Anlage 4. Musketier Kempen, 8. Komp., Inf. -Regt. No. 78, sah am 29. August in der Nähe von Cuise bei St. Quentin, wie ungefähr fünfzig französische Soldaten unter Führung mehrerer Offiziere im Zickzack über das Schlachtfeld gingen und mit dem Bajonett auf Verwundete einstachen, so auf einen Verwundeten, der zehn Schritt von Kempen entfernt lag. Als er "Hilfe!" rief, schoß ihm ein französischer Offizier mit der Pistole in den Mund. Kempen selbst, der sich tot stellte, erhielt neun leichte Verletzungen mit dem Bajonett.
Anlage 5 enthält einen Bericht der Oberärzte Neumann und Grünfelder von einem bayrischen Pionier-Regiment über die Beraubung und Verstümmelung deutscher Soldaten des 35. Landwehr-Regiments bei Orchies. Die aufgefundenen Leichname waren der Schuhe und Strümpfe und sämtlicher Erkennungszeichen beraubt. Ein Mann war rückwärts niedergeschossen, lag aber auf dem Rücken; die Mund- und Nasenlöcher waren mit Sägespänen vollgestopft. Einem anderen war das linke Ohr glatt abgeschnitten und das Gesicht blaurot, eine Folge des Erstickungstodes. Mund, Nase und Augen waren mit Sägespänen vollgestopft. Am Halse waren Würgezeichen. Einem anderen war der Goldfinger glatt vom Knöchel abgeschnitten. In der Bauchwand saßen vier Schusslöcher, von Pulverschmauch eingefaßt, ein Zeichen daß die Schüsse aus unmittelbarer Nähe abgegeben waren. Fünf andere Erschlagene zeigten Verletzungen durch stumpfe Gewalt. Einem waren die Augen ausgestochen. - Aus den festgestellten Tatsachen ergab sich, daß ein großer Teil der Leute unverwundet in die Hände der Feinde gefallen war.
Anlage 6 betrifft den Überfall von Verwundeten-Automobilen, die die Genfer Flagge führten bei Bethencourt am 8. September. Verwundete und Führer wurden ermordet und beraubt.
Anlage 7 enthält Meldungen des Armeearztes der zweiten Armee, nach denen das Kriegslazarett des 2. Armeekorps in Peronne von Franzosen allen Personals und Materials beraubt wurde.
In Anlage 8 berichtet der katholische Feldgeistliche Redemptoristen-Pater Bernhard Brinkmann, der am 7. September bei Esternay (bei Trefole) von Gendarmen abgeführt, in ein schmutziges Gefängnis ohne Fenster gebracht und ohne Nahrung gelassen wurde. Am anderen Tage wurde er durch eine Kette mit einem gefesselten französischen Zivilverbrecher zusammengeschlossen und mit diesem mehrere Tage unter Hohn und Spott der Bevölkerung durch viele Dörfer transportiert. 2)


Französische Berichte

Paris, 20. Oktober (Priv.-Tel.)
Die "Agence Havas" veröffentlicht folgende amtliche Note: Die Deutschen behaupten, um ihr neuerliches Bombardement von Reims zu rechtfertigen, die Franzosen hätten auf den Türmen der Kathedrale Beobachtungsposten aufgestellt, und fügen bei, man habe Lichtsignale bemerkt. Diese Behauptungen sind neue Lügen. Man braucht sich nur die Lage zu vergegenwärtigen, um feststellen zu können, daß wir kein Interesse daran haben, auf den beinahe demolierten Türmen Beobachtungsposten aufzustellen, und besonders von ihrer Spitze aus Lichtsignale zu geben, denn die ganze Ebene von Reims kann ebensogut und mit weniger Gefahr von den benachbarten Höhen aus beobachtet werden. Wenn wir auch Beobachtungsposten auf den Türmen gehabt hätten, so hätte es genügt, sie mit telephonischen Verbindungen auszustatten, was ihnen gestattet hätte, ihre Erkundungen weiterzugeben, ohne die Aufmerksamkeit des Feindes auf sich zu ziehen.

Mailand, 20. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Das "Journal de Rouen" teilt mit, daß eine der stärksten Stellungen der Deutschen zwischen Roye und Arras der Grand Canal du Nord sei, der noch unausgebaut ist und dessen 95 Kilometer lange Rinne von den Deutschen als Laufgraben benutzt wird, worin gedeckt große Truppenverschiebungen stattfinden. Die Kämpfe bei Lassigny, Roye, Nesle, Roisel toben um diese starke Stellung. 2)


Die indischen Truppen in Frankreich

Genf, 20. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Wie aus Marseille gemeldet wird, sind dort gestern achtzehn englische Dampfer mit neuen indischen Truppen gelandet, deren Zahl 30000 betragen soll.
(Es dürfte sich bei dieser neuen Landung um solche indische Truppenteile handeln, die England aus Ägypten, wo sie nicht zuverlässig genug erschienen, zurückzieht, um sie durch englische Truppen zu ersetzen.) 2)


Der Seekrieg

London, 20. Oktober. (W. B.)
Das Reutersche Bureau meldet aus Tokio: Nach amtlicher japanischer Bekanntmachung ist der Kreuzer "Takatschio" am 17. Oktober in der Kiautschoubucht auf eine Mine gelaufen und gesunken. Von der 264 Mann betragenden Besatzung sollen ein Offizier und neun Mann gerettet sein.
("Takatschio" war allerdings ein veraltetes Schiff, das 1885 vom Stapel gelaufen ist, von 3700 Tonnen Wasserverdrängung, 18 Seemeilen Geschwindigkeit, bestückt mit acht 15 Zentimeter- und zwei 5.7 Zentimeter - Geschützen. Aber auch wenn die militärische Bedeutung dieses Verlustes nicht überschätzt werden darf, so wird er von Japan mit seiner kleinen Flotte doch sehr schmerzlich empfunden werden, und vor allem beweist er, daß unsere Truppen auf dem fernen ostasiatischen Posten es verstehen, auch unter ungünstigsten Umständen dem Gegner empfindlichen Schaden zuzufügen. )

Amsterdam, 20. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Der "Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant" veröffentlicht einen Bericht des Kapitäns des in Rotterdam angekommenen Dampfschiffes "Drottning Sofia", dessen zweiter Steuermann das Gefecht der deutschen Torpedoboote mit dem englischen Geschwader beobachtet hatte. Darin heißt es: "Ein Torpedoboot sahen wir sinken, aber wir bemerkten auch deutlich, daß eines der englischen Torpedoboote durch ein Torpedo getroffen wurde und wir sahen eine Wolke von Dampf über diesem englischen Torpedoboot aufsteigen, woraus wir den Schluß zogen, daß der Kessel gesprungen war." Aus dieser Mitteilung geht hervor, daß der englische Bericht, die englischen Boote seien so gut wie unverletzt, nicht ganz wahr sein kann.

London, 20. Oktober. (W. B.)
Der Kreuzer "Undaunted" und die vier Zerstörer, die am 18. Oktober in Harwich ankamen, berichteten über den Kampf in der Nordsee: Wir verließen Harwich am Samstag zu einem Patrouillendienst. Es gelang uns, die deutschen Schiffe zum Kampf zu zwingen, die tapfer gegen die Übermacht fochten. Die großen Geschütze des "Undaunted" eröffneten das Feuer auf fünf Meilen Entfernung. Der Kreuzer, der durch die Begleitschiffe gegen Torpedoboote geschützt wurde, richtete das Feuer gegen zwei feindliche Boote, während die britischen Zerstörer die zwei anderen beschädigten. Die deutschen Torpedoboote sanken nacheinander, bis zuletzt tapfer kämpfend. Das Gefecht dauerte anderthalb Stunden. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im Oktober 1914
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 20 October, in Poland, the German 9th Army attacks in front of Warsaw were weakening. The Russians began taking the offensive. General Dankl's Austro-Hungarian 1st Army began withdrawing from Ivangorod to Krakau.

http://warchron.com/warsaw.htm

On This Day - 20 October 1914

Western Front
Battle round Arras: fierce German attack repulsed.
Poelcapelle captured by the Germans.
Indian Expeditionary Force (Cavalry, Meerut and Lahore Division) reaches the front.
Heavy fighting near La Bassee.

Eastern Front
Poland: German attacks in front of Warsaw weakening: Russians begin to take the offensive.

Political, etc.
Germans report 149,000 French, 107,000 Russian, 32,000 Belgian, and 9,000 British prisoners.
British losses to date 57,000, including sick.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_10_20.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First Battle of Ypres

German assault begins
A map of the battles in and around Ypres October—November 1914.The German assault began on the morning of 20 October. Haig’s I Corps was en route to Ypres, arriving to the west of the town during the day. Dorrien’s Corps, to the north, was left facing the full-force of five German Corps of the German Fourth Army. The initial German attack, owing to French’s orders to advance, caught II Corps without any defensive preparation. At Le Pilly, the 2nd Royal Irish Regiment of the 8th Brigade 3rd Division was cut off and surrounded in Le Pilly after which they surrendered. During the course of its doomed defence, one Battalion lost 257 of 578 ranks, including its GOC (General Officer Commanding). Some 290 of the casualties were Prisoner of War. The operations staff of 3rd Division had recognised it was too far forward and intended to pull it back. After heavy fighting, II Corps was becoming exhausted, particularly 5th Division, who were forced to abandon La Basse. II Corps received the welcome news that night, that I Corps had just reached Ypres.

Near Ennetieres, the 2nd Sherwood Foresters of Brigadier General Walter Norris Congreve VC, 18th Brigade, 6th Infantry Division under J. L. Keir were destroyed in a retreat to La Valle. German formations approached in the after noon, and the German 26th Division of XIII Corps, supported by the German 25th Reserve Division at dusk, caught the British infantry in shallow trenches. In a two night battle, the Foresters were overwhelmed by superior enemy numbers. In the retreat to Le Valle, some survivors were intercepted by advanced German elements. In the confusion, German formations were mistaken for being British reinforcements. The entire battalion was lost, some 1,119 casualties were taken.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Ypres
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of La Bassée, 10 October-2 November 1914

(...) On 20 October the Germans went onto the attack. A major offensive was launched all along the German line from Arras to the sea. Fortunately, that day II corps had halted their offensive and been ordered to hold their line. German attacks on 20 and 21 October were repulsed, but Smith-Dorrien decided to retreat to a stronger defensive line that had been prepared behind the front line.

Although work had begun on preparing this new line, it was still very basic compared to the trench lines that would follow. Very little barbed wire was available, all of it taken from local fields, while there had not been the time or labour to dig proper trenches. What the line did have in its favour was that its line had been carefully selected by the engineers. (...)

Rickard, J (25 August 2007), Battle of La Bassée, 10 October-2 November 1914 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_la_bassee.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First Blood

A very important but also a very unspectacular event took place on 20th October 1914 just off southern Norway, when SM U 17 (Kptlt. Feldkirchner) sank the British steamer SS Glitra (866 tons) according to prize rules after investigating the cargo of the vessel and letting the crew leave the ship and board the lifeboats. This was the first time a submarine sank a merchant vessel and for the future, merchantmen should become the prime targets of the submarine.

http://www.uboat.net/history/wwi/part2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary written by Fred G. Ainge

1914, Oct 20 - Enlisted in 2/1st S.M.7. Amb. At Gt. Brook St. B’ham

http://www.laurarossi.com/diary-1-september-20th-1914-to-october-24th-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"The Opinion of the World" Speech (October 20, 1914) - Woodrow Wilson

Mr. President, Gentlemen of the American Bar Association:

I am very deeply gratified by the greeting that your president has given me and by your response to it. My only strength lies in your confidence.

We stand now in a peculiar case. Our first thought, I suppose, as lawyers, is of international law, of those bonds of right and principle which draw the nations together and hold the community of the world to some standards of action. We know that we see in international law, as it were, the moral processes by which law itself came into existence. I know that as a lawyer I have myself at times felt that there was no real comparison between the law of a nation and the law of nations, because the latter lacked the sanction that gave the former strength and validity. And yet, if you look into the matter more closely, you will find that the two have the same foundations, and that those foundations are more evident and conspicuous in our day than they have ever been before.

The opinion of the world is the mistress of the world; and the processes of international law are the slow processes by which opinion works its will. What impresses me is the constant thought that that is the tribunal at the bar of which we all sit. I would call your attention, incidentally, to the circumstance that it does not observe the ordinary rules of evidence; which has sometimes suggested to me that the ordinary rules of evidence had shown some signs of growing antique. Everything, rumor included, is heard in this court, and the standard of judgment is not so much the character of the testimony as the character of the witness. The motives are disclosed, the purposes are conjectured, and that opinion is finally accepted which seems to be, not the best founded in law, perhaps, but the best founded in integrity of character and of morals. That is the process which is slowly working its will upon the world; and what we should be watchful of is not so much jealous interests as sound principles of action. The disinterested course is always the biggest course to pursue not only, but it is in the long run the most profitable course to pursue. If you can establish your character, you can establish your credit.

What I wanted to suggest to this association, in bidding them very hearty welcome to the city, is whether we sufficiently apply these same ideas to the body of municipal law which we seek to administer. Citations seem to play so much larger a role now than principle. There was a time when the thoughtful eye of the judge rested upon the changes of social circumstances and almost palpably saw the law arise out of human life. Have we got to a time when the only way to change law is by statute? The changing of law by statute seems to me like mending a garment with a patch, whereas law should grow by the life that is in it, not by the life that is outside of it.

I once said to a lawyer with whom I was discussing some question of precedent, and in whose presence I was venturing to doubt the rational validity, at any rate, of the particular precedents he cited, "After all, isn't our object justice?" And he said, "God forbid! We should be very much confused if we made that our standard. Our standard is to find out what the rule has been and how the rule that has been applies to the case that is." I should hate to think that the law was based entirely upon "has beens." I should hate to think that the law did not derive its impulse from looking forward rather than from looking backward, or, rather, that it did not derive its instruction from looking about and seeing what the circumstances of man actually are and what the impulses of justice necessarily are.

Understand me, gentlemen, I am not venturing in this presence to impeach the law. For the present, by the force of circumstances, I am in part the embodiment of the law, and it would be very awkward to disavow myself. But I do wish to make this intimation, that in this time of world change, in this time when we are going to find out just how, in what particulars, and to what extent the real facts of human life and the real moral judgments of mankind prevail, it is worth while looking inside our municipal law and seeing whether the judgments of the law are made square with the moral judgments of mankind. For I believe that we are custodians, not of commands, but of a spirit. We are custodians of the spirit of righteousness, of the spirit of equal-handed justice, of the spirit of hope which believes in the perfectibility of the law with the perfectibility of human life itself.

Public life, like private life, would be very dull and dry if it were not for this belief in the essential beauty of the human spirit and the belief that the human spirit could be translated into action and into ordinance. Not entire. You cannot go any faster than you can advance the average moral judgments of the mass, but you can go at least as fast as that, and you can see to it that you do not lag behind the average moral judgments of the mass. I have in my life dealt with all sorts and conditions of men, and I have found that the flame of moral judgment burned just as bright in the man of humble life and limited experience as in the scholar and the man of affairs. And I would like his voice always to be heard, not as a witness, not as speaking in his own case, but as if he were the voice of men in general, in our courts of justice, as well as the voice of the lawyers, remembering what the law has been. My hope is that, being stirred to the depths by the extraordinary circumstances of the time in which we live, we may recover from those depths something of a renewal of that vision of the law with which men may be supposed to have started out in the old days of the oracles, who communed with the intimations of divinity.

http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3792
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extracts from the H.M.S. Carnarvon's Night Order Books

20 October 1914, on patrol in the north Atlantic (without radio): "Navigation lights to be ready to be switched on at once if necessary. We may be in traffic during night & there is no necessity to risk collision."

http://www.vlib.us/medical/hanks/nob.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battles of Ieper, Belgium (1914-1915), via SikhSpectrum.com Monthly

For the British Indian troops, Europe was a totally new and a strange experience. They did not understand the language and were not understood and their culture was completely different. The Indians and the French or the Belgians looked upon one another with strange eyes. Nevertheless, the Indians were well received by the French population.

From Marseilles the Indian troops went north, over Orleans. When the 47th Sikhs were moving up to the front, they were billeted in a large monastery near Saint-Omer on 20th October 1914 and were well received by the monks. However, the curious troops continually scrutinised the statues of the twelve apostles in the main corridor of the abbey. Finally, they accepted their British officers’ explanation that these were images of Christian gurus!

http://www.sikhspectrum.com/012003/ieper_war.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - OCTOBER 1915 Mundros/Lemnos

20th October 1915 Wednesday - While having breaker Sergeant appears on scene and notifies all A Class men to parade ready to move off at 8.00 a.m. Fall in and I am handed web equipment, which has to be assembled, 30 rounds and 3 days iron rations. There is a very young English Lieutenant in charge. Afraid we will miss trawler.

10.00 a.m. He walks to fast to suit. Presently he is heading along the road at head of 16 men and about 40 well in the rear. Presently those men become aware of the situation and commence to fall back too. This makes the laughable sight of our Lieutenant striding along with swinging cane at the head of four men. The rest are 80 or 100 yards behind enjoying the joke. Presently he wakes up and halts and explains that we must hurry if the boat is to be caught. Anyway he had too much sense to rouse.

Get on what looks like a Thames ferry, thence to Khedival line packet. Small steamer. El Kahira. G.H.Q. "Arragon". "Packet of Woodbines" (five funnel Russian cruiser), Lord Brassafe Yacht now a hospital ship for officers. The proud "Acqutania" is another hospital ship. Two dismantled (or rather with guns stripped off) warships which are being used to transport troops from England. Two funnelled with funnels side by side. English and French man-o-war, latter painted enamel or grey blue. Dozens of French and English transports. An English gunboat whose deck seemed wholly occupied with one monster gun. Painted grey and white in triangles and zigzags, a bit futuristic.

Several fast looking cross channel Isle of Wight and Isle of Man packets being used to convey troops to the Peninsular. All armed with formidable looking guns. Twelve pounders I should say. One of these came close and we could hear the hum of her turbines. Twin screw with two funnels at a rakish angle. Painted black and around each funnel three black and around each funnel three broad red bands. This is the same packet that passed us going out of Mundros a few days ago. Loaded with troops whose khaki seemed to blend fine with the blackness of the boat and racing along at a good speed, she was a sight for sore eyes.

Some of the packets have had special platforms built projecting from sides of ships, port and starboard. So as to give the guns plenty of sweep.

Moving out we passed a balloon boat. The crew gave us a cheer and some of them asked as whether we were down hearted. Most roared "No." Some "Yes." One wag added to the "No" "But we soon will be."

I bought a feed of meat and potatoes from the Maltese cooks, for a bob after the officers' mess had been served. Maltese crew. Jack Tars aboard of course. Forward we had a cargo of hand and mortar grenades and ammonal cartridges for blasting purposes. Left about 4.00 p.m.

Arrived Anzac at 9.00 p.m. Got ashore in steam lighter to a pier, new to me. Not the old landing but nearly ¾ of a mile up shore. Walkers Ridge about opposite. Some new features. Maltese labourers. Hand truck railway. English officers. Marques and tents under shelter of cliffs. Guide sorts us out and we start off. Points out roughly direction and saps we are to take and leaves us after coming about 1.4 mile. Luckily I met a solitary 3rd Light Horseman who took me up to Regimental Head Quarters. Went into signal office and Bill BOYERii being on duty lent me his blanket and dugout for the night and I sleep the sleep of the just. Bill surprised to see me and asked what I had done with the rest.

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/oct1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul Morchain : French Snipers at a Field Kitchen Marne October 1915

Schilderijtje... http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/Paul-Morchain/French-Snipers-At-A-Field-Kitchen-Marne-October-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27th Field Ambulance

After being involved in the First phase of the Somme Battles, the 27th Field Ambulance rested away from the front for the whole of August and September, re-entering the fray for the final stages during October. Now the equinoctial rains turned the battlefield into a slippery bog. Haig soldiered on in the mystic belief that somehow, somewhere an exhausted foe might suddenly break. The British army was equally exhausted. Conditions became even more appalling.

On returning to the battle zone the 27th Field Ambulance experiences some success in retrieving casualties after dark from no-mans-land. Teams of 100 men were dispatched, manned by assistance from other brigades, and these bring back 40-50 casualties. The exercise is not without hazard, and Elsner comments "several men were hit and one was killed". These activities seem to have been brought to a halt on 19th October 1916 when 100 stretcher bearers return from their activities without a single casualty, having failed to meet up with their guide.

19th October 1916 - Pouring with rain. Front line trenches are appalling. Seeking corrugated sheeting for temporary shelters.

20th October 1916 - Losses of stretchers causes concern and responsibility for accounting for them passes to FA units. Bed socks, Pyjamas, mitts and hot water bottles sought from Red Cross stores for patient comfort.

21st October 1916 - "The condition of these trenches is appalling - there are quantities of rifles, equipment and at least 12 stretchers half buried in the deep and adhesive mud. There are also a few corpses I think". Attack to continue on 25th.

23rd October 1916 - cases of Trench Foot arriving.

http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hoddy/somme2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian battleship Imperatritsa Mariya

Imperatritsa Mariya (Russian: Императрица Мария: Empress Maria) was an Imperatritsa Mariya-class dreadnought of the Imperial Russian Navy, lead ship of her class. Construction began before World War I and she saw service with the Black Sea Fleet during the war. She provided cover for older pre-dreadnought battleships as they bombarded Ottoman facilities, although she engaged the ex-German light cruiser Midilli several times without inflicting anything more serious than splinter damage. Imperatritsa Mariya was sunk at anchor in Sevastopol by a magazine explosion on 20 October 1916. She was subsequently raised, but her condition was very poor, and she was finally scrapped in 1926.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Imperatritsa_Mariya
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Black Friday of 1916

The name "Black Friday" was given to the date of October 20, 1916, after a violent storm sank ships and ended lives on Lake Erie. The James B. Colgate and her crew were among the victims, and only the captain survived.

A cargo of hard coal had come aboard at Buffalo and was consigned to Fort William, ON (now Thunder Bay). Despite a rising wind and the sound of waves crashing the outer breakwall, the vessel cast off lines and departed on its final voyage shortly after midnight October 20.

Lake Erie, the shallowest of the five Great Lakes, responded to the high winds with towering seas that pounded the James B. Colgate as it made its way west. That evening the ship developed a list and, within hours, slid bow first to the bottom of the lake.

Without radio communications and unable to launch the lifeboats, the crew struggled in the frigid waters to cling to anything that floated free. Three men, including the captain, found a small life raft. The cruel waves flipped their flimsy craft several times, and by morning only the captain was alive.

Fortunately, the lake settled down, and he survived the day and another night before the crew of the carferry Marquette & Bessemer No. 2 spotted the almost lifeless body on the raft and pulled him to safety.

Others also perished on the lake that day. The lumber carrier Marshall F. Butter sank, but all were rescued. The schooner D.L. Filer went down and only one sailor, who clung to the mast, was rescued. Finally, the Merida, with 23 on board, was lost with all hands.

The James B. Colgate was built at West Superior, WI and launched on September 21, 1892. The 320 foot long whaleback design bulk carrier sailed for the American Steel Barge Company, Bessemer Steamship Company, Pittsburgh Steamship Company, and Standard Transit before being lost. It is shown in a photo from the collection of Captain Ken Lowes.

Divers located the hull of James B. Colgate in 1991. It rests upside down, some 12 miles southwest of Erieau, ON.

Uit de 2003 Spring/Summer issue of Mariners Weather Log, op http://freaquewaves.blogspot.com/2006/10/black-friday-of-1916_21.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Air Raid, 19/20 October 1917 Air Raid

In December 1914 the first German Zeppelin appeared over the English coast and in Feburary 1915 the first bombs were dropped from Zeppelins at Yarmouth. By April 1915 the use of airships by the Germans increased. Zeppelins began attacking London. They were also used for naval reconnaissance, to attack London and smaller balloons were used for reconnaissance along the Western Front. They were only stopped when the introduction of aeroplanes shot them down.

In November 1916 the first German air raid on London took place. The Germans hoped that by making raids on London and the South East, the British Air Force would be forced into protecting the home front rather than attacking the German air force.

On the night of 19/20 October 1917 a 300lb bomb from Zeppelin L45 fell at Glenview Road, Hither Green [now Nightingale Grove]. It destroyed 3 houses and damaged many others. Killed in this incident were 5 women and 9 children, also 2 men, 3 women and 2 children were injured. This was the last bomb dropped on London by a Zeppelin.

http://lewishamwarmemorials.wikidot.com/incident:air-raid-ww1-19-20-october-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lenin's Appeal for Revolt, 20 October 1917

Reproduced below is the text of a published appeal by Lenin, dated 20 October 1917 (2 November 1917 using the West's Gregorian calendar), in which he urged a continuation of the civil unrest he had detected in recent weeks, the aim being to provide further support for the revolutionary Bolshevik cause, and as a means of undermining the government.

Appeal for Revolt Issued by Lenin, 20 October 1917

There is no doubt that the revolution in Russia has reached its turning point.

In a country of peasants, under a revolutionary Republican Government, supported by the parties of the Revolutionary Socialists and the Menshevists, parties which until recently had the majority of the bourgeoisie behind them, there is rising today a peasants' rebellion.

This fact has not surprised us - the Bolshevists. We have always maintained that the policy of the famous "Coalition" with bourgeoisie was a policy of an imperialist war, a policy of protecting capitalism and Junkerdom from the people.

There exists in Russia, thanks to the treason of the Revolutionary Socialists and Menshevists, at the same time as the Government of the Soviets, a Government of capitalists and Junkers. Why should we be surprised that in Russia, with all the wretchedness brought by the continuation of the imperialist war upon the nation, a peasants' rebellion should break out and spread?

Not only has the policy of the followers of Prince Lvov broken down; but also the Revolutionary Socialists, who suffer a Kerenski in their midst, have sunk to the level of a party hostile to the people, hostile to the peasants, to the level of a counter-revolutionary party.

The Russian Revolution has reached a turning-point. A peasants' rebellion in a country of peasants against the Government of the Revolutionary Socialist Kerenski, against the Menshevists Nikitin and Gvozdeff, against the other Ministers - representatives of Capital and Junkerdom! - that is the situation. The crushing of this rebellion by military force at the command of the Republican Government - that is the consequence of this situation!

In the face of these facts, is it possible for an honest adherent of the peasants' cause to deny, with indifference, that the crisis has come to a head, and that the victory of the Government over the peasants is the death-knell of the Revolution, and the triumph of the counter-revolution?

Yes, the leaders of the Central Executive Committee are practicing a regular policy of protecting the bourgeoisie and the Junkers. And there is no doubt that the Bolshevists who were to let themselves be caught in the snare of constitutional illusions, of "belief" in the elections to the Constituent Assembly, of the "expectation" of the Congress of all the Soviets, and so forth, that such Bolshevists would be nothing less than miserable traitors to the cause of the proletariat.

The crushing of a peasants' rebellion by a Government, which is compared even by the Delo Naroda to Stolypin, means the destruction of the Revolution. They drivel about anarchy, about the indifference of the masses: the masses cannot be indifferent in the elections if the peasantry is obliged to rebel, and if the revolutionary democracy suffers that rebellion to be quelled.

To allow the rebellion to be crushed at this hour means to allow the elections for the Constituent Assembly to be tampered with, and this would be done more barefacedly than was the case of the elections for the Democratic Conference, and for the Preliminary Parliament.

The crisis is approaching its final stage. The whole future of the Russian Revolution is at stake. The whole future of the International Proletarian Socialistic Revolution is at stake.

The final stage of the crisis is at hand.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lenin_20oct1917.htm
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lenin_19oct1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The War Illustrated: No. 166 - 20 October 1917

http://www.antiqbook.com/boox/nort/813a1482.shtml
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October 1917

Saturday 20th October, 1917 - Up at 7 a.m. and at work as usual, very nice day but hazy. Fritz plane over very low about dinner time, also over very high again later. Our planes very busy and guns booming. Went into Reninghelst with Will Hill after tea and bought some Xmas cards, back and in camp at 9.30 p.m.

http://www.anzacs.net/Anzac-Diaries/1917/October1917.htm
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Suffragists Parade Down Fifth Avenue, 1917

Suffragists "march in October 1917, displaying placards containing the signatures of over one million New York women demanding to vote."

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Suffragists_Parade_Down_Fifth_Avenue,_1917.JPG
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2010 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armistice with Germany

(...) The third German telegram was sent on 20 October.

Woodrow Wilson responded to the request for a truce with three diplomatic notes. As a precondition for negotiations he demanded the retreat of Germany from all occupied territories, the cessation of submarine activities and - in between lines - the Kaiser's abdication. (...)

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Armistice_with_Germany_(Compi%C3%A8gne)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Okt 2018 7:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De bevrijding van Maldegem op 20 oktober 1918
Samenstelling: Jozef Dobbelaere

(...) Op zondag 20 oktober 1918 werd de strijd hernomen. Het
was nu de beurt aan de 2e Gidsen om het voortouw te
nemen. Aan de overgang van de Ede nabij Bogaarde
boden Duitsers veel weerstand en vijf ruiters van de 2e
Gidsen werden gedood. (...)

Lees verder op https://www.maldegem.be/bevrijding-maldegem-2018---jozef-dobbelaere
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