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28 september

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2006 23:04    Onderwerp: 28 september Reageer met quote

Der Krieg im Westen
Paris, 28. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
In einem am 27. September nachts 11 Uhr ausgegebenen Bulletin heißt es u. a.: "Die Deutschen haben in der Nacht vom 25. aus den 26. und bis zum 27. bei Tag und Nacht auf unserer ganzen Front unaufhörlich mit unerhörter Heftigkeit ihre Angriffe erneuert, mit dem offenbaren Zweck, unsere Linie zu durchbrechen. Die gesamte Anlage der Angriffe beweist, daß Instruktionen vom Oberkommando gekommen sein müssen, eine Lösung der Schlacht zu suchen. Die französischen Kommandostellen teilen mit, daß die Stimmung der Truppen trotz der riesigen Anstrengungen ausgezeichnet sei."

Paris, 28. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die französische Regierung erklärt, der Generalissimus Joffre habe auf ihre Anfrage bestritten, daß die Kathedrale von Reims zur Aufstellung eines Beobachtungspostens gedient habe.

Paris, 28. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nach dem heute ausgegebenen Bulletin ist heute keine Änderung der Kriegslage eingetreten und herrscht ziemliche Ruhe. Auf der ganzen Front, abgesehen von heftigen Angriffen der Deutschen zwischen der Aisne und den Argonnen.

Paris, 28. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Der neuerdings gemeldete Besuch eines deutschen Fliegers über Paris erfolgte gänzlich unerwartet. Die erste Bombe fiel aus dem rechten Seine-Ufer beim Trocadero nieder, gerade gegenüber dem Palais, in dem der Fürst von Monaco bei seinen Besuchen in Paris zu wohnen pflegte. Die zweite Bombe zerschmetterte die Schornsteine eines Herrscherhauses; sie trug eine Flagge mit dem Namen des Fliegers: "von der Decken". Die "Taube" wandte sich dann westlich, überflog das Bois de Boulogne sowie den Rennplatz von Longchamps und warf mehrere Bomben; dann verschwand sie gegen Norden.
Ein zweiter deutscher Flieger erschien nachmittags über Passy und warf eine Bombe, die in einen Garten fiel, ohne Schaden anzurichten. Mehrere französische Flieger machten sich von Issy-les-Moulineaux aus an die Verfolgung, erreichten aber den Deutschen nicht. 2)

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2006 23:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 : British soldier allegedly spares the life of an injured Adolf Hitler

On September 28, 1918, in an incident that would go down in the lore of World War I history—although the details of the event are still unclear—Private Henry Tandey, a British soldier serving near the French village of Marcoing, reportedly encounters a wounded German soldier and declines to shoot him, sparing the life of 29-year-old Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler.


Tandey, a native of Warwickshire, took part in the First Battle of Ypres in October 1914 and the Battle of the Somme in 1916, where he was wounded in the leg. After being discharged from the hospital, he was transferred to the 9th Battalion in France and was wounded again during the Third Battle of Ypres at Passchendaele in the summer of 1917. From July to October 1918, Tandey served with the 5th Duke of Wellington Regiment; it was during this time that he took part in the successful British capture of Marcoing, for which he earned a Victoria Cross for "conspicuous bravery."


As Tandey later told sources, during the final moments of that battle, as the German troops were in retreat, a wounded German soldier entered Tandey’s line of fire. "I took aim but couldn’t shoot a wounded man," Tandey remembered, "so I let him go." The German soldier nodded in thanks, and disappeared.


Though sources do not exist to prove the exact whereabouts of Adolf Hitler on that day in 1918, an intriguing link emerged to suggest that he was in fact the soldier Tandey spared. A photograph that appeared in London newspapers of Tandey carrying a wounded soldier at Ypres in 1914 was later portrayed on canvas in a painting by the Italian artist Fortunino Matania glorifying the Allied war effort. As the story goes, when British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain traveled to Germany in 1938 to engage Hitler in a last-ditch effort to avoid another war in Europe, he was taken by the führer to his new country retreat in Bavaria. There, Hitler showed Chamberlain his copy of the Matania painting, commenting, "That’s the man who nearly shot me."


The authenticity of the Tandey-Hitler encounter remains in dispute, though evidence does suggest that Hitler had a reproduction of the Matania painting as early as 1937—a strange acquisition for a man who had been furious and devastated by the German defeat at Allied hands in the Great War. Twice decorated as a soldier, Hitler was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918 and was in a military hospital in Pacewalk, Germany, when he received news of the German surrender. The experiences of battle—first glory and ultimately disillusion and despondence—would color the rest of Hitler’s life and career, as he admitted in 1941, after leading his country into another devastating conflict: "When I returned from the War, I brought back home with me my experiences at the front; out of them I built my National Socialist community."


www.history.com
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Vistula River, 28 September-30 October 1914

The battle of the Vistula River (28 September-30 October 1914) was a German invasion of Poland launched to relieve the pressure on Austro-Hungary in the aftermath of the Russian victories during the battles of Lemberg.

The German plan involved moving four corps from East Prussia to Silesia, the western frontier of Russian Poland. From there this new Ninth Army would launch an invasion of south west Poland, aimed at Warsaw, which was believed to be lightly defended. The main Russian armies were still deployed along the line of the Carpathians in the south or around East Prussia in the north.

The new German army began to reach Silesia during the third week of September, forming up one a 100 mile front between Posen and Cracow. On 28 September the Ninth Army, 250,000 strong, began to advance north east towards Warsaw and the line of the Vistula.

At this moment there was indeed a gap in the Russian lines, between the Second Army at Warsaw and the Ninth Army on the River San. However, the Russians were also planning to redistribute their armies. They were under pressure from the French to launch an invasion of German Silesia, a heavily industrialised area, and had decided to pull three armies out of the Carpathians to prepare for the move west. The Tenth, First and Second armies were to guard the right flank of the advance, the Third and Eight to remain in the Carpathians and the Fifth, Fourth and Ninth to move west. The decision to form up on the line of the Vistula was made on 22 September.

The Russians soon discovered that there were German troops in Silesia. On 28 September the German advance began, and made rapid progress toward the Vistula. The plan was to capture all of the bridges over the river between Warsaw and the San, to protect the army advancing towards Warsaw.

As the Germans advanced towards the Vistula, the Russian armies began to arrive behind the river. The Fifth Army joined the Second Army at Warsaw, with the Fourth Army to their south. The Ninth Army moved north from the San onto the Vistula.

At the end of the first week of October the Germans were close to the Vistula, but they were unable to take advantage of their slight lead. Instead they found themselves fighting against Russian attempts to take and maintain bridgeheads on the western bank of the river.

The Germans discovered the true situation on 9 October, when they found a set of Russian orders. Eighteen German divisions faced sixty Russian divisions. The Russian plan was for their southern armies to hold the German army on the Vistula while the two armies from Warsaw attacked around the German left flank. If the plan had worked, the Russians might have been able to trap the entire German Ninth against the Vistula.

The German advance continued for several more days. On 12 October General Mackensen’s four divisions were within twelve miles of Warsaw, but the German advance was now mixed with preparations for a retreat.

Those preparations were soon put to the test. When the two Russian armies at Warsaw launched their counterattack, the Russian Second Army easily outflanked the German lines. Further south the Russian Fourth and Ninth Armies launched their own attack against the Austrian First Army along the Vistula. On 17 October Hindenburg and Ludendorff were forced to order a retreat.

The German retreat began in earnest on 18 October, the Russian pursuit on the next day. The Germans conducted a skilful fighting retreat that covered sixty miles in six days. The preparations they had made while moving forward now allowed them to blow bridges and block roads in advance of the Russian troops. By the end of October the Germans were effectively back at their starting line, at the cost of 40,000 men, 16% of the entire force engaged.

The battle of the Vistula is sometimes also known as the first battle of Warsaw. However, this name is often used to describe the second half of the battle, when the Russian armies in Warsaw launched their counterattack and pushed the Germans back towards Silesia.

The battle ended with a major Russian victory. The Germans had escaped with most of their army, but had failed to provide any significant aid to the Austrians, who soon had to abandon any progress they had made further east while the Russians were distracted. At the start of November the Germans were faced with a real danger of invasion by the powerful Russian armies gathering around Warsaw. The only army available to respond to this threat was the Ninth, so over the next ten days that army was rushed by railway from its line south east of Posen to a new line that ran north east from Posen to Thorn. They would then launch a second invasion of Poland (Second battle of Warsaw) that would be rather more effective.

Rickard, J (30 August 2007), Battle of the Vistula River, 28 September-30 October 1914 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_vistula_river1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Siege of Antwerp, 1914

Following the fall of the forts at Liege in Belgium on 16 August 1914, King Albert I ordered a withdrawal of Belgium's remaining 65,000 troops to Antwerp, another fortress city (along with Namur).

Together with 80,000 garrison troops, Antwerp's ring of 48 outer and inner forts presented formidable opposition to von Kluck's German First Amy's flank. Von Kluck had chosen to bypass Antwerp in the Germany army's advance through Belgium and into France. Nevertheless, the presence of so many troops at its flank presented a constant threat.

This danger transpired into sorties conducted from the forts on 24-25 August and 9 September, designed by the Belgians to distract the Germans from their attack upon the British and French at the Battles of Mons and Charleroi. Effective to a degree, von Kluck was obliged to detach four divisions solely to face attacks from Antwerp. Following the attack on 9 September however the German High Command, led by the German Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke in Berlin, determined to capture the Antwerp forts.

Before this could be done however, action at the Marne distracted all German attention to their advance upon Paris, followed after the Marne action by a retreat to the Aisne.

German General von Boseler was given the task of capturing Antwerp. Assigned a force of five divisions of mostly reserve forces and 173 guns, artillery bombardment began firing upon the outer south-east forts on 28 September. As at Liege and at Namur, the use of heavy guns such as the powerful Big Bertha (a 420mm siege howitzer), effectively put the forts out of commission.

The British Cabinet, led by Prime Minister Herbert Asquith, viewed with great disquiet the siege of Antwerp, fearful that once the city and its forts had been captured the German forces would quickly move towards the channel ports, possibly threatening Britain itself.

Consequently the British, led by Asquith, Kitchener (the Minister for War), Grey (the Foreign Secretary) and Churchill (the First Lord of the Admiralty), decided on 1 October to re-deploy a division of troops originally intended for the British Expeditionary Force led by Sir John French.

On 2 October the Germans succeeded in penetrating two of the city's forts. Churchill was sent to Antwerp to provide a first-hand report on the situation there. Leaving London that night he spent three days in trenches and fortifications around the city. He reported to Kitchener on 4 October that Belgian resistance was weakening with morale low.

Receiving a request from the Belgian government for more assistance, the British dispatched a further 6,000 Royal Navy troops, 2,000 on 4 October and 4,000 on the following day. The original division of 22,000 troops were also en route for Ostend.

Landing at Ostend on 6 October the British naval forces were too late; the Belgian government relocated from Antwerp to Ostend the same day, with the city itself evacuated the following day under heavy artillery bombardment, formerly surrendered by its Military Governor, General Victor Deguise to the Germans on 10 October.

The division of British troops at Ostend had not in any event moved towards Antwerp upon hearing that the French government had declined to add relieving forces of their own. Nevertheless, British intervention had prolonged the defence of Antwerp for perhaps five days, giving the British valuable time for the deployment of troops in Flanders.

German forces continued to occupy Antwerp until its liberation in late 1918. Most Belgian and Allied forces had however managed to escape the city west along the coast, subsequently taking part in the defence at Ypres in mid-October.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/antwerp.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SMS Iltis

De kanonneerboot SMS Iltis hielp in 1900 mee de Boxer-opstand in China neer te slaan. Het schip maakte deel uit van het Duitse eskader dat het kustfort Taku bij Tientsin veroverde. Tijdens deze actie kreeg het schip diverse treffers, waarbij acht bemanningsleden omkwamen. Kapitein Wilhelm von Lans raakte zwaar gewond. Kapitein èn schip werden beide onderscheiden met de hoogste Duitse orde Pour le Mérite.

De rol die de Iltis tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog speelde was die van figurant. De gloriedagen van de Iltis waren allang voorbij en het schip stond op de nominatie uit de vaart te worden genomen, toen Japan in augustus 1914, met een begerig oog naar de Duitse koloniën in China, de oorlog verklaarde aan Duitsland. De Iltis bevond zich op dat moment in de haven van Tsingtau in het door Duitsland beheerste gebied Kiautschou. Tegen de overmacht van de Japanse belegering kon de Duitse bezetting het niet lang bolwerken.

De overgave van de Duitse kolonie aan Japan was onvermijdelijk. Pas nadat de Duitsers hun militaire, en ook veel civiele, installaties hadden vernietigd, legden ze de wapens neer. De Iltis werd op 28 september 1914 door de eigen bemanning tot zinken gebracht, evenals de zusterschepen Jaguar, Luchs en Tiger.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/berlijn/deel-05-vloot/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

OORLOGSRELAAS VAN FLORIMOND PYNAERT, DE LANDEGEMSE VRIJWILLIGER 1914-1918
door Jan Luyssaert

(...) Florimond Pynaert volgde vanaf 28 september 1914 met zijn kameraden van Merendree, Emiel Grootaert, Cyriel Wieme en Cyriel Coryn ongeveer dezelfde route die op 12 oktober werd gevolgd door Renaat De Rudder. De Rudder stapte te voet van Landegem langs de spoorlijn over Bellem naar Aalter. Vandaar kon hij met een voertuig van de genie meerijden tot Beernem. Hij sliep in Oostkamp en vertrok over Brugge met een andere groep vrijwilligers naar Oostende. Vandaar ging het te voet naar Nieuwpoort. Van Nieuwpoort ging de tocht met de tram naar De Panne. Met een brood als proviand trok hij langs de kust te voet naar Duinkerke waar hij inscheepte naar Cherbourg. Van Cherbourg reden de rekruten met de trein naar Champagné, waar het kamp van Auvours ligt. Ook Pynaert en zijn vrienden voeren van Calais langs de Engelse kust naar Cherbourg. Waarom deze lange omweg?

Volgens het Duitse Schlieffen-Moltke aanvalsplan (1912) zou Frankrijk verpletterd geraken door een aanval doorheen het neutrale België en Luxemburg. Het grootste deel van het Duitse leger zou ten noorden van Samber en Maas in een wijde boog omheen Parijs trekken. Maar de Duitsers zagen vlug in dat het uitvoeren van het oorspronkelijke plan heel veel eiste van de troepen en daarom zakten ze ten oosten van Parijs af. Ondertussen hadden de Fransen en Britten in de omgeving van Parijs dubbel zoveel troepen als de Duitsers (35 divisies tegen 18). De slag aan de Marne kon beginnen. Na het mislukken van het Schlieffen-Moltkeplan o.m. door de slag aan de Marne zou de nieuwe bevelhebber Erich von Falkenhayn over een front van zo'n honderd kilometer van de Noordzee tot aan La Bassée een offensief ontketenen in de richting van de Kanaalhavens Duinkerke, Calais en Boulogne. Om te vermijden dat Belgische ongeoefende vrijwilligers in het strijdgewoel zouden terecht komen, werden ze per boot overgevaren van Duinkerke of Calais naar Cherbourg in Normandië. (...)

http://www.landvannevele.com/artikelen/oorlogsrelaas%20Pynaert.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Redmond's campaign

As a result of the Act of Union in 1800, Ireland lost its parliament in Dublin and was governed directly from Westminster where it was represented by 100 MPs and 28 peers. Subsequently two forms of nationalist opposition to British rule emerged. A militant minority in Ireland inspired by the Wolfe Tone rebellion in 1798, formed successive, small, secretive organisations and aimed through the use of force to establish a fully independent Irish republic; rebellions were attempted in 1803, 1848, 1867 and 1916. In contrast, constitutional nationalists organised contested elections and had more limited objectives. Their aim was to restore a measure of self-government to Ireland by using their political influence to have the necessary legislation passed by the British parliament. They were highly successful. By the 1880s, the nationalist Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) was returning 80 MPs to the House of Commons; it had developed by then into the first modern political party in Westminster’s history.

The Party’s success was due to the gradual growth of political consciousness in Ireland (literacy levels had reached over 80 per cent by 1891), to the charismatic qualities of its leader, Charles Stewart Parnell (1878-90), and to the gradual extension of the franchise; by 1884 most heads of households among labourers and small farmers had the vote. Both its appeal and the expectations of its mainly Catholic supporters were also raised by the ‘conversion’ of Gladstone to Irish home rule in 1885 - he was leader of the Liberal Party, one of Britain’s two major parties. In 1886, he introduced the first Home Rule Bill to Westminster; it would have restored self-government to Ireland, creating a local assembly with two chambers sitting in Dublin, having jurisdiction over all 32 Irish counties. However, some members of the Liberal Party opposed and this helped ensure its defeat in the Commons. In 1892, restored again as prime minister, Gladstone introduced a second Home Rule Bill the following year. It was similar in content to the first, but on this occasion the measure was massively rejected by the conservative-dominated House of Lords.

Gladstone retired from politics in 1894. Parnell’s career had been prematurely ended by the Kitty O’Shea affair in 1890 and he died in 1891. The IPP then split but was eventually reunited under the leadership of John Redmond – a Catholic barrister and nationalist MP - in 1900. The party’s hopes rose again when in 1905 the Liberals once more formed a government – the last ever in their history. As a result of two general elections in 1910 the Irish MPs held the ‘balance of power’ at Westminster. In 1912 Asquith the then prime minister, dependent on Irish support, introduced the third Home Rule Bill. Self-government for Ireland at last seemed certain. Though it was opposed by the Ulster unionist movement, it seemed unlikely that this body could prevent it. It had the backing of the vast bulk of the population in Ireland and of a healthy majority of MPs in the Commons. Meanwhile, the powers of the House of Lords had been reduced in 1911; as a result, peers could delay legislation for up to two years, but they had lost the right to veto it altogether.

The political situation was transformed, however, by the outbreak of war in Europe. Both unionist and nationalist leaders agreed to support Britain’s war effort, and to postpone a settlement of the Irish question until after hostilities had ceased. The Home Rule bill became law on 28th September 1914 but its operation was suspended during the conflict which was expected to be over by 1915. Acting like an Irish Kitchener, Redmond urged his followers to enlist in the British Army. He justified his appeal by arguing that Britain was fighting ‘in defence of right, of freedom and of religion’. By this he meant the rights of gallant and catholic little Belgium, a small nation that had been invaded by Germany. Tactically there were strong arguments in favour of his response. To support England was a means of proving that Ireland could be trusted with self-government, and of disproving the unionist allegation that if given home rule it would inevitably stab England in the back in her hour of danger. In addition, there was even a possibility that Ulster unionists might be reconciled to Irish unity, once nationalists had provided such tangible evidence of their steadfast loyalty to the empire.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/prelude/pr01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Military Aircraft Insignia

The German Army obtained its first aeroplanes in 1910, and the German Navy in 1912. Before the First World War, German national markings consisted of a black stripe across each wing. On 28 September 1914 German Army aircraft adopted a black Maltese cross insignia. This was displayed on the wings, fuselage and across the fin and rudder, and was usually outlined in white, Naval aircraft adopted a 'straight-edged' black cross, similar to that of the navy ensign. This was marked on Wings and rudder only. By 1915, however, the Maltese cross was being applied to all aircraft. On 15 April 1918 the cross was changed to a straight-edged, so-called 'Balkan' cross. Some Bavarian units adopted black and white striped fuselage markings and an all-black rudder.

http://www.aircraft-insignia.com/page11.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Woche vom 28. September bis 4. Oktober 1914

Montag, 28. September 1914:

Westfront:
Die Deutschen erobern das bislang noch von den Belgiern gehaltene Lobartzyde.
Die BEF erobert Neuve-Chapelle zurück.

Ostfront:
Russische Truppen entsetzen das belagerte Lodz.
Das österreichisch-ungarische Heer in Galizien wird bei Sambor geschlagen

Politik & Diplomatie:
Prince Louis of Battenberg tritt auf politischen Druck (wegen seiner deutschen Herkunft) von seinem Amt als First Sea Lord zurück.

Zivilleben:
In Sarajevo beginnt das Gerichtsverfahren gegen die Mörder von Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand.

http://fl18.de/history/200/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTLE OF HELIGOLAND BIGHT - 28 AUGUST 1914

To the Secretary of the Admiralty.

"Euryalus,", 28th September, 1914.

Sir, I have the honour to report that in accordance with your orders a reconnaissance in force was carried out in the Heligoland Bight on the 28th August, with the object of attacking the enemy's Light Cruisers and Destroyers.

The forces under my orders (viz., the Cruiser Force, under Rear-Admiral H. H. Campbell, C. V. O., "Euryalus," "Amethyst," First and Third Destroyer Flotillas and the Submarines) took up the positions assigned to them on the evening of the 27th August, and, in accordance with directions given, proceeded during the night to approach the Heligoland Bight.

The Cruiser Force under Rear-Admiral Campbell, with "Euryalus "(my Flagship) and "Amethyst," was stationed to intercept any enemy vessels chased to the westward. At 4. 30 p.m. on the 28th August these Cruisers, having proceeded to the eastward, fell in with "Lurcher" and three other Destroyers, and the wounded and prisoners in these vessels were transferred in boats to "Bacchante" and "Cressy," which left for the Nore. "Amethyst" took "Laurel" in tow, and at 9. 30 p.m. "Hogue" was detached to take "Arethusa" in tow. This latter is referred to in Commodore R. Y. Tyrwhitt's report, and I quite concur in his remarks as to the skill and rapidity with which this was done in the dark with no lights permissible.

Commodore Reginald Y. Tyrwhitt was in command of the Destroyer Flotillas, and his report is enclosed herewith. His attack was delivered with great skill and gallantry, and he was most ably seconded by Captain William F. Blunt, in "Fearless," and the Officers in command of the Destroyers, who handled their vessels in a manner worthy of the best traditions of the British Navy.

Commodore Roger J. B. Keyes, in "Lurcher," had on the 27th August, escorted some Submarines into positions allotted to them in the immediate vicinity of the enemy's coast. On the morning of the 28th August, in company with "Firedrake, " he searched the area to the southward of the Battle Cruisers for the enemy's Submarines, and subsequently, having been detached, was present at the sinking of the German Cruiser "Mainz," when he gallantly proceeded alongside her and rescued 220 of her crew, many of whom were wounded. Subsequently he escorted "Laurel" and "Liberty " out of action, and kept them, company till Rear-Admiral Campbell's Cruisers were sighted.

As regards the Submarine Officers, I would specially mention the names of:

(a) Lieutenant-Commander Ernest W. Leir. His coolness and resource in rescuing the crews of the "Goshawk's" and "Defender's" boats at a critical time of the action were admirable.

(b) Lieutenant-Commander Cecil P. Talbot. In my opinion, the bravery and resource of the Officers in command of Submarines since the war commenced are worthy of the highest commendation.

I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient Servant,

A. H. CHRISTIAN, Rear-Admiral.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1Battle1408HeligolandBight.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fort Koningshooikt

When the war broke out, the installation of the guns was not yet fully completed. During the German offensive in September 1914 on the line Walem-Lier, the Fort Konigshooikt was taken under fire by gun position, in the villages of Boortmeerbeek and Rijmenam. The German gun batteries were too far located for the Belgian fortress artillery, and they could not be reached.

When the German occupied the village Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Waver on September 28th , 1914, the fortress could reach the German positions for the first time. Futhermore, Fort Koningshooikt tried to take the German Army under fire, when they crossed the line Heist-op-den-Berg - Putte - Hofstade.

German Artillery fire was guided by Zeppelins, flying above the city of Mechelen and later above the village Putte.

As from September, 28th 1914, the Fort of Koningshooikt and the redoubt of Tallaert (located on the territory of the village of Koningshooikt ) , were taken under fire with 30 cm Artillery. The same day, the 26th Landwehr I.R. occupied the village. On September 30th and October, 1st 1914, the Forts were taken under fire, but this time with the powerful 42cm mortars. The results were disastrous. On 12 and 2.30 am, two major explosions took place, destroying both ammunition depots.

The situation became impossible to hold and on the Thursday of October 2nd , the Fort of Koningshooikt was considered lost and was abandoned on the next day.

http://members.fortunecity.com/milit/koning.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frederick William Dobson

Frederick William Dobson (9 November 1886- 15 November 1935) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 27 years old, and a private in the 2nd Battalion, Coldstream Guards, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 28 September 1914 at Chavanne, Aisne, France, Private Dobson twice volunteered to go out under heavy fire to bring in two wounded men. This undertaking involved crossing a good deal of open ground in full view of the enemy. Private Dobson, however, crawled out and found one of the men dead and the other wounded. He dressed the wounds and then crawled back, to return with a corporal and a stretcher, on to which they put the wounded man and then dragged him back to safety.

He later achieved the rank of Lance-Corporal. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the The Guards Regimental Headquarters (Grenadier Guards RHQ), London, England.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_William_Dobson
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Loos - September 1915

28th September 1915 - "Evacuation of wounded continues."

http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hoddy/loos.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

28 september 1915 - Aan de consul in Tilburg: “In antwoord op uw brief kan ik U melden dat er geen aanwijzingen zijn dat de Duitse autoriteiten de leden van de burgerwacht interneert bij hun terugkeer in het land. Verschillende leden van de burgerwacht van Turnhout waren teruggekeerd naar hun stad en werden niet verontrust.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; brief van de burgemeester, 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The "lost villages" of the Camp de Suippes, Champagne

(...) The final halt was just inside the western boundary of the camp, slightly north-east of the living village of Souain. This was to enable visitors to see the Foreign Legion Monument and Ossuary. The monument consists of a grey stone wall which surrounds the ossuary that contains the remains of 128 legionnaires who were killed nearby in late September 1915. The monument was erected by the family of one of the legionnaires, Henry Farnsworth, an American who died on 28 September 1915. The inscriptions recalled that Farnsworth was born in August 1890 at Dadham Massachusetts and enlisted in the Legion on 5 January 1915. 'He suffered, fought and died not for endangered home and friends and native land but for the universal cause of Liberty, Righteousness and Goodwill among men.' (...)

http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/charles40.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Max von Gallwitz, German General, 1852-1937

(...) On 28 September 1915 Gallwitz received the Oakleaves to his Pour le Mérite. He was also chosen to command the German 11th Army during the invasion of Serbia. On 7 October his army crossed the Danube east of Belgrade, while an Austro-Hungarian army crossed the river to the west. The Serbs were soon pushed back into the centre of the country, and then forced to retreat across Albania to the Adriatic. (...)

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_gallwitz_max.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tawau

Since Tawau is situated close to the boundary with Indonesia, it is noteworthy to mention here that the Sebatik boundary is in latitude 4'10'N which was delimited in 1912 by a Boundary Commission comprising of officials from United Kingdom and Netherlands. A joint report was prepared together with a map and duly signed by their respective commissioners in Tawau on 17 February 1913. By protocol between the U.K. and the Netherlands signed in London on 28 September 1915, the two governments confirmed the joint report and the map.

http://oasis.fortunecity.com/cuba/293/history.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Loos, 25 September - 18 October 1915

(...) 28 September - 3 October 1915: a lull between storms
Discussions between the British GHQ and French Tenth Army HQ on the morning of 28th September concluded that the French should relieve the 47th (2nd London) Division to enable the British First Army to create a reserve; that First Army would secure Hill 70, following which the French would extend their left to this position; the BEF would then push on to Pont a Vendin, some 3 miles East of Hulluch. Sir John French informed Sir Douglas Haig that he would supply the 12th (Eastern) and 46th (North Midland) Divisions to replace the shattered 21st and 24th. Both Divisions are ordered to move to the Loos area from Ypres. Units of French Tenth Army reach Hill 140, the crest of Vimy Ridge. German reserves are moved from the area facing the British to stem this attack.

28 September 1915
Loos area:
9.30am: 85th Brigade of 28th Division, supported by 83rd Brigade, attacked at the Dump and Fosse 8. Many casualties were suffered by both sides in desperate fighting in the confined trenches around the Hohenzollern Redoubt. At around 4.00pm, 2nd Guards Brigade attacks Puits 14 bis, but after suffering very heavy casualties from machine-guns firing from in front of Bois Hugo they are ordered to halt.

Doorlezen en je weet álles... http://www.1914-1918.net/bat13.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Seven Dolors of Mary

At the urging of His Eminence Cardinal Granito di Belmonte, ex-Nuncio to Brussels, and zealous apostle of the Sorrowful Heart of Mary, His Holiness Pope Benedict XV granted 100 days indulgence on Sept. 28, 1915 for this invocation, and then enriched it to 300 days just one year after his original sanction.

http://www.7dolors.com/sevendolors.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 28 SEPTEMBER 1916

WOOD, Sergeant John, on leave from Hanmer, died on the Pateena en route from Lyttelton. NOK: Mrs M Wood, Mornington, Dunedin. One time Secretary of the Early Settlers Assn. Had been to Wellington in order to say goodbye to his son leaving with the 17th Reinforcements.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn28sep1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Hulme

Thomas Ernest Hulme (16 September 1883 – 28 September 1917) was an English critic and poet who, through his writings on art, literature and politics, had a notable influence upon modernism. (...)

Hulme volunteered as an artilleryman in 1914, and served with the Royal Marine Artillery in France and Belgium. He kept up his writing for The New Age, with "War Notes" written under the pen name "North Staffs", and "A Notebook", which contains some of his most organised critical writing. He was wounded in 1916. Back at the front in 1917, he was killed by a shell at Oostduinkerke near Nieuwpoort, in West Flanders.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._E._Hulme#The_First_World_War
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Trawler ready for launching. Port Arthur, Ontario, 28 September 1917

Fotootje... http://www.heritage.nf.ca/society/e002713151.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Gotha GIV 602/16 neergestort bij Sas van Gent op 28-9-1917
Gepubliceerd op do 02-05-2013
Door: Adrie de Koster


Een tijdje geleden kreeg ik als eerste wereldoorlog verzamelaar de kans van mijn leven. Ik kon vijf fotokaarten van een neergeschoten vliegtuig in Nederland uit WO 1 kopen via een veiling in Antwerpen en dan ook nog eens gecombineerd met mijn 2de hobby Sas van Gent. Aangezien ik daar geboren en getogen ben maar nu naar de kern van het verhaal, de neergeschoten Gotha GIV 602/16.

Op 28 September 1917 kwam voor Sas van Gent de eerste wereldoorlog heel dichtbij. Een Gotha bommenwerper type GIV met kenteken 602/16 kwam neer juist achter de suikerfabrieken in de akkers aldaar. Tot op de dag van vandaag zijn er nog heel veel vragen over dit incident. Zoals wie was de bemanning en waren de bommen nog aan boord. En niet te vergeten, door wie was het toestel neergehaald. In dit artikel probeer ik aan de hand van wat gegevens en data uit toenmalige vluchtgegevens, opheldering te geven op sommige vragen.

Lees verder op https://www.ssew.nl/gotha-giv-60216-neergestort-bij-sas-gent-28-9-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duitse bunker Kolliemolenhoek

Vrijstaande, bovengrondse betonnen militaire post tegen een bosje achter Ieperseaardeweg 196, op zo’n 230 meter ten noorden van de straat, tegen de rand van een klein bosje. De militaire post ligt ten oosten van Kolliemolenhoek, ten westen van het gehucht De Ruiter.

Historiek - Deze militaire post is opgetrokken tegen de rand van een bosje, dat op Britse stafkaarten met 'Ell Copse' werd aangeduid. Ze lag op het tracé van de 'Flandern I Stellung'.

De verovering van deze regio tijdens het geallieerde Bevrijdingsoffensief in het najaar van 1918 verliep uiterst moeizaam. Nadat tijdens de eerste twee dagen vooruitgang kon worden geboekt (28 en 29 september 1918) was de geallieerde opmars in West-Vlaanderen vertraagd, om op 4 oktober helemaal stil te vallen. Dit was onder meer te wijten aan de 'Flandern I Stellung', de laatste echte linie die de Duitsers met een samenraapsel van fel uitgedunde eenheden hardnekkig trachtte te verdedigen. Deze stelling was vooral opgevat als een stelling om Roeselare te verdedigen, het zenuwknooppunt van het Duitse Vierde Leger in Vlaanderen. Roeselare vormde het knooppunt waar belangrijke aanvoerlijnen van het hinterland bijeenkwamen, waaronder de baan Roeselare-Menen, de spoorlijnen Roeselare-Kortrijk en Roeselare-Menen en het kanaal Roeselare-Leie.

De aanleg van de nieuwe 'Flandern I Stellung' was gestart in de winter van 1917/1918, na de Derde Slag bij Ieper. Door het Duitse Lente-Offensief (voorjaar 1918) zou deze 'Flandern I Stellung' nog maar weinig versterkt zijn (deze stelling zou geen nut meer hebben, mocht dit Duits voorjaarsoffensief geslaagd zijn). In september 1918 was de stelling helemaal niet voltooid. Toch blijkt deze stelling goed verdedigd te zijn tijdens het Bevrijdingsoffensief. Vele bunkers bleken goed gecamoufleerd te zijn, zodat de geallieerde observatievliegtuigen ze maar moeilijk konden detecteren. De geallieerde legers bleken niet zo goed op de hoogte van de sterkte van deze stelling. Vooral ter hoogte van Roeselare bleek het moeilijk om de 'Flandern I Stellung' te doorbreken, door hevige Duitse tegenstand met mitrailleurvuur.

De eerste twee dagen van het offensief hadden de geallieerden toch wat vooruitgang geboekt, tot aan Colliemolenhoek, maar vanaf 30 september 1918 blijven de Belgische eenheden dagenlang ter plekke trappelen: de vijand had zich gereorganiseerd en bezette met talrijke mitrailleurs de 'Flandern I Stellung'. Op 4 oktober kon De Ruiter uiteindelijk definitief ingenomen worden.

Volgens sommigen zou de militaire post bedoeld zou zijn als medische hulppost op de wijk De Ruiter. Of dit zo was, kon niet afgeleid worden uit de bronnen of de bunker zelf. Op de nabijgelegen hoeve Vantomme was aan het begin van de oorlog wel een 'veldlazaret' ondergebracht in houten barakken. In de nabijheid van de bunker werd een Duitse begraafplaats aangelegd, waar doden vanop de hoeve Vantomme en het 'Hauptlazarett' in de school van De Ruiter begraven werden.

Beschrijving - Vrijstaande, bovengrondse betonnen militaire post met nagenoeg rechthoekig grondplan. Het beton is gegoten tegen een houten bekisting. Het dak is ongeveer anderhalve meter dik. Twee toegangen, aan oostelijke en noordelijke zijde, vormen de uiteinde van één gang. De oostelijke muur is 140 centimeter dik en bevat een grote nis. De noordelijke muur is 150 centimeter dik. Vanuit deze gang kan een kleine ruimte betreden worden. In de muur tussen deze ruimte en gang steekt nog een kleine opening, die naar het midden toe versmalt. In de vloer onder deze opening steekt een vierkante opening, wellicht bedoeld voor afwatering. Ernaast steekt een nis (kachel?) in de muur.

Captured German Trench and Operations Maps from the National archives (CD-rom uitgegeven door The Naval & Military Press): Stellungskarte Ieperen, 6/10/1917; Stellungskarte Staden, 17/12/1917.
The Imperial War Museum Trench Map Archive on CD-rom (CD-rom uitgegeven door The Naval & Military Press in association with the Imperial War Museum): Roulers, 20 S.E.4, Ed. IA, 22/8/1917.
BACCARNE R. & STEEN J., Van het Vrijbos tot Roeselare. Eindoffensief, Langemark-Poelkapelle, 2002.
CALLEWAERT F., 90 jaar geleden brak de Eerste Wereldoorlog uit. Duitse verdedigingswerken in de regio Roeselare, in: Mandeldal, 2004, nummer 1.
GELDHOF Ph., Met de torens van Roeselare op de achtergrond. De strijd voor Roeselare tussen 28 september en 3 oktober 1918, in: DE BRUYNE M. e.a., Roeselare in de Eerste Wereldoorlog, Roeselare, 1998.
VANCOILLIE J., Het 4. Armee tijdens de 1ste fase van de Abwehrschlacht in Flandern, 28/9/1918 – 13/10/1918, in: Shrapnel, september 2008.
VERMEULEN R. 1979: De beide wereldoorlogen in: S.N., De Ruiter. Geschiedenis van een wijk te Roeselare, Roeselare, 182-204.
WEEMAES M., Van de IJzer tot Brussel. Het bevrijdingsoffensief van het Belgisch leger, 28 september 1918, Marcinelle, s.d.


U kunt deze tekst citeren als: Decoodt, Hannelore 2013: Duitse bunker De Ruiter [online], https://id.erfgoed.net/teksten/151175 (geraadpleegd op 28 september 2018).

https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/erfgoed/node/dibe_relict.215876/teksten/teksten/tonen
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Sep 2018 9:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Patrick Bugden

Patrick Joseph Bugden VC (17 March 1897, Tatham, New South Wales – 28 September 1917, Ypres, Belgium) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was approximately 20 years old and a private in the 31st Battalion, Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when he displayed the bravery for which he was posthumously awarded the VC.

Budgen enlisted in the A.I.F. at Brisbane on 25 May 1916, listing his civilian occupation as a hotel keeper and putting his age at 21. After completing a period of basic training, he embarked for England in September 1916 and arrived in Plymouth in December. Shortly afterwards he was admitted to hospital sick, before being sent to France in January 1917 and being taken on strength by the 31st Battalion in March. In May 1917 he was again admitted to hosptial with influenza, before being released and returning to his unit.

During the period 26 September to 28 September 1917 at Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke, Belgium, an advance was held up by strongly defended pillboxes. Private Bugden, despite devastating machine-gun fire, twice led small parties against these strong points and, successfully silencing the guns, captured the enemy at the point of the bayonet. On another occasion, he rescued a corporal from capture when, single-handed, he rushed up, shot one of the enemy, and bayoneted the other two. On five occasions he rescued wounded men under intense shell and machine-gun fire, showing an utter contempt and disregard for danger. He was killed during one of these missions.

He was reburied after the war at Hooge Crater Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery.

A memorial to his service stands at Alstonville, NSW, about 30km from Tatham. The local ANZAC Day march starts there. Bugden Avenue in the Canberra suburb of Gowrie is named for him.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Joseph_Bugden

In a letter written to Bugden's family by fellow Queenslander Alex Thomson, on 29 October 1917:

"Just then three 'Fritzes' jumped into the shell hole on top of me giving me no chance to put up a scrap. ...A moment or so after the above had occurred the Fritz who had just saved me from being shot made a jump into the next shell hole and got shot through the stomach. I looked up to see what was happening and saw a private named Paddy Bugden charging up with a few men to my rescue ... The whole of the above episode took place under very heavy shell, rifle and machine gun fire, so you can understand the debt I owe to Paddy Bugden for his bravery in rescuing me. I am exceedingly sorry to say that Bugden got killed by a shell a couple of nights later."

http://www.southbank.qm.qld.gov.au/Events+and+Exhibitions/Exhibitions/Permanent/Courage+of+ordinary+men/Private+Patrick+Joseph+Bugden+VC/Life+during+the+war+for+Private+Patrick+Joseph+Bugden+VC
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Surrender at Ziza 28 September, 1918

A force of nearly 5,000 from the Turkish Maan garrison was encountered by elements of the 5th Australian Light Horse Regiment at Ziza on 29 September 1918. This dramatic painting, Ziza by H. Septimus Power, depicts the unique event where members the Australian Light Horse for one night shared food and fire with soldiers of the Turkish Army and joined forces with the Turks against Arabs from the Beni Sakhr tribes.

Major General Chaytor’s successful campaign east of the Jordan. The Maan garrison was hopelessly cut off and had been fleeing northwards to Amman. On the morning of the 29 September 1918, their hasty defensive position at Ziza station was contacted by two squadrons of the 5th Light Horse Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel Donald Cameron. Thousands of Beni Sakhr tribesmen had gathered in the hills surrounding the Turkish Garrison, threatening to strike against them. The Turkish commander wanted to surrender but was unwilling to lay down their arms to the small Australian force since that might mean their annihilation by the Arabs. General Chaytor himself came forward late in the afternoon to consult with Cameron about the situation and decided that the Turks should remain in their trenches and keep their arms until stronger reinforcements arrived the following morning. The 7th Light Horse Regiment assisted in the defence of the position overnight and this unlikely coupling of Turkish and Australian troops stood guard until daylight. By the next morning the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade had arrived and it was safe to disarm the Turks and formally take them prisoner.

The original official surrender document, signed by “Ottoman Company Commander at Djezir, Ali Housain,” Commander of the Ziza Garrison, ceding troops, guns and other stores to the Australian Forces, is held at the Australian War Memorial and will be on display in the exhibition.

A detailed narrative account of the surrender at Ziza written by Donald Cameron can be read in the appendices of the war diaries for the 5th Australian Light Horse here. Cameron notes in the war diary that the Turkish forces, although having great superiority of numbers, were terrified of the Bedouins and seemed “worn out”.

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2007/05/04/surrender-at-ziza-28-september-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gedenkplaat omgekomen Grenadiers September 1918 (Passendale - WOI)

Na het mislukte Duitse lenteoffensief (voorjaar 1918) was het de beurt aan de geallieerden voor een poging tot de definitieve uitval. Het bevrijdingsoffensief van Vlaanderen moest op 28 september 1918 starten. Daarvoor werd de 'Legergroep Vlaanderen' gevormd, bestaande uit het Belgische Leger, het 2de Britse Leger, het 2de Franse Cavaleriekorps, 3 Franse Legerkorpsen en 2 Amerikaanse Divisies, onder het nominaal opperbevel van Koning Albert. 9 Belgische Divisies en 1 Franse, onderverdeeld in 3 groepen (Zuid, Centrum en Noord), zouden in 4 fasen een aanval uitvoeren vanaf hun posities tussen Wieltje en de Blankaart. De 4de fase zou niet meer moeten worden uitgevoerd, want op 11 november werd de wapenstilstand getekend. Het objectief van de eerste fase, van 28 september tot 4 oktober, was het veroveren van de Vlaamse heuvelkam. Die werd beschermd door opeenvolgende Duitse stellingen, op zich bestaande uit verschillende linies, uitgebouwd met loopgraven, bunkers en mitrailleursposten. Tijdens de vroege ochtenduren kon men door het verrassingseffect overal goed vorderen, ondanks de slechte toestand van het terrein. Daarna kon men maar ongelijk oprukken, want de Duitsers hadden zich kunnen herpakken. Nergens geraakte men door de Flandern-I-Stellung. Toch eindigde de eerste fase met een overwinning voor de geallieerden: de impasse was doorbroken. Passendale was de verantwoordelijkheid van de 'Groepering Zuid'. Die troepen stonden opgesteld tussen Wieltje en Langemark. Ook zij vorderden eerst goed en later minder. Tegen de avond was hun eindobjectief nog niet bereikt. Sommige regimenten hadden wel reeds contact met de 2de linie van de Flandern-II-Stellung, op de kam van de heuvel. Passendale was bereikt, maar de Duitsers bezetten er de dominerende hoogten. De daaropvolgende nacht vielen zij verder aan en op 29 september kon het Belgische 4de Regiment Karabiniers en het 1ste en 2de Regiment Grenadiers van de 12de Divisie het dorp (of wat er van overbleef) innemen. De Groepering Zuid trok verder over Moorslede, drong plaatselijk door in de Flandern-II-Stellung en hield Westrozebeke onder schot.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/505
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Louis McGuffie VC – won 28 September 1918

Scotsman, Sergeant Louis McGuffie VC aged 25 served in the 1/5th Battalion, The King’s Own Scottish Borderers.

On 28 September 1918 near Wytschaete, Belgium:

For most conspicuous bravery and resourceful leadership under heavy fire near Wytschaete on 28th September, 1918. During the advance to Piccadilly Farm, he, single-handed, entered several enemy dug-outs and, single-handed, took many prisoners. During subsequent operations he dealt similarly with dug-out after dug-out, forcing one officer and 25 other ranks to surrender.

During the consolidation of the first objective, he pursued and brought back several of the enemy who were slipping away and was also instrumental in rescuing some British soldiers who were being led off as prisoners.

Later in the day, when in command of a platoon, he led it with the utmost dash and resource, capturing many prisoners. This very gallant soldier was subsequently killed by a shell.

He was killed in action, Wytschaete, Belgium, on 4 October 1918. Buried I. D. 12 Zandvoorde British Cemetery

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Regimental Museum of The Kings Own Scottish Borderers Berwick upon Tweed, Northumberland.

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/04/27/louis-mcguffie-vc-won-28-september-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Vardar, 15-29 September 1918

(...) On 28 September the Bulgarians agreed to surrender terms, which came into effect on 29 September. Under the terms of the armistice the Bulgarians demobilised their army, surrendered all territory gained during the war and placed her railways at the disposal of the Allies.

Bulgaria was the first of the Central Powers to surrender. (...)

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_vardar1918.html
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Armistice - Ludendorff and von Hindenburg

28 September 1918

General Erich Ludendorff was ever a man of mixed emotions and throughout the 28th had been suffering from a severe bout of depression. Enclosed in his office at the German High Command (OHL) in Spa, he raged against the world for the setbacks his armies were suffering as the Allied and American armies pressed them back across the entire Western Front.

By 1800 hours he had recovered his composure sufficiently to walk down the stairs to speak with Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg.

The two men had formed a solid partnership during the war and it was perhaps no great surprise that each had come to the same conclusion: Germany needed to seek an armistice. She could not win the war.

The following day the two military leaders met with the Kaiser, the Chancellor, von Hertling and the Foreign Secretary, von Hintze.

Ludendorff voiced his fears to the gathered meeting. He stressed the gravity of the situation and asked for suggestions as to how the nation back home could be prepared for the possibility that the much heralded victory of spring could turn into something less palatable by winter.

Somebody would have to be blamed, and it was important that the fault was not laid at the door of the military. The solution to the problem was in the blaming of the politicians.

It was agreed that a parliamentary government should be formed and at that, Von Hertling resigned. The Kaiser eventually persuaded his brother-in-law Prince Max of Baden to accept the position.

http://www.webmatters.net/history/ww1_armistice_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Milton Fowler Gregg

Milton Fowler Gregg, VC, PC, OC, CBE, MC, ED, CD (1892 – 1978) was a Canadian officer, and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest Commonwealth award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy", during the First World War. In later life, he was a Member of the Canadian Parliament, cabinet minister, academic, soldier, diplomat. (...)

Milton Gregg served during the First World War as an officer of The Royal Canadian Regiment. During combat in France in 1917, his actions earned him the Military Cross and in 1918 further valour added a bar to the Cross. Near Cambrai, Nord, France on September 28, 1918 his actions during the Battle of the Canal du Nord earned him the Victoria Cross. The citation for Gregg's Victoria Cross reads:

Lt. Milton Fowler Gregg, M.C., R. Can. Regt., Nova Scotia R. - For most conspicuous bravery and initiative during operations near Cambrai, 27th September to 1st October, 1918.

On 28th September, when.the advance of the brigade was held up by fire from, both flanks and by thick, uncut wire, he crawled forWard alone and explored the wire until he found a small gap, through which he subsequently led his men, and forced an entry into the enemy trench. The enemy counter-attacked in force, and, through lack of bombs, the situation became critical. Although wounded, Lt. Gregg returned alone under terrific fire and collected a further supply. Then rejoining his party, which by this time was much reduced in numbers, and, in spite of a second wound, he reorganised his men and led them with the greatest determination against the enemy trenches, which he finally cleared. He personally killed or wounded 11 of the enemy and took 25 prisoners, in addition to 12 machine guns captured in this trench. Remaining with his company in spite of wounds, he again on the 30th September led his men in attack until severely wounded. The outstanding valour of this officer saved many casualties and enabled the advance to continue.

He later achieved the rank of Brigadier.

His Victoria Cross was donated to the Royal Canadian Regiment Museum in London, Ontario in 1979. The medal was stolen from the museum in 1980 and has been missing ever since.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Fowler_Gregg
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The Hindenburg Line. The "impregnable" last hurdle

Tomorrow we are to take part in the greatest and most important battle that we have yet been in, for we are to assault the Hindenburg Line, the famous trench system which the Germans have boasted is impregnable.
- Diary entry, Captain Francis Fairweather, 28 September 1918.

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-battles/ww1/france/hindenburg.htm
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28 september 1919: De katholieke Vlaamsgezinden richten een eigen drukkingsorgaan op, de Katholieke Vlaamsche Landsbond

Uit het Vlaamsch-Belgisch Verbond van tijdens de oorlog ontstaat in juli 1919 het Algemeen Vlaamsch Verbond als een samenbundeling van Vlaamsgezinden die zich boven de partijgrenzen achter het minimumprogramma scharen. Dit programma behelst de volledige gelijkheid in rechte en in feite tussen Vlamingen en Walen. Dat betekent o.m. de volledige vernederlandsing van het onderwijs, de openbare besturen en het gerecht in Vlaanderen, de indeling van het leger in Vlaamse en Waalse eenheden en taalgelijkheid in de centrale besturen. Door het wantrouwen van de socialisten en liberalen vanwege de sterke katholieke inslag van het AVV wordt het geen succes. De Vlaamsgezinden in de katholieke partij richten de KVL op.

De krachtige kiescampagne van de KVL voor het minimumprogramma, de uitbreiding van het kiesrecht en de schok van de oorlog leiden bij de verkiezingen van november 1919 tot een grondige wijziging in de samenstelling van de katholieke Kamerfractie. Een veertigtal katholieke Vlamingen treedt op uitnodiging van Frans van Cauwelaert toe tot de Katholieke Vlaamsche Kamergroep, die verantwoordelijk zal zijn voor de eerste Vlaamsgezinde successen in het parlement tijdens de jaren 1920.

Van Cauwelaerts droom om de KVL om te vormen tot dé Vlaamse katholieke partij stuit op het veto van de Belgische Boerenbond en de christelijke arbeidersbeweging. Zij geven de voorkeur aan een Belgisch-nationale partijstructuur waarin de economische belangengroepen, standen genoemd, vertegenwoordigd zouden zijn. De in 1921 opgerichte Katholieke Unie berust dan ook op het principe van de standenvertegenwoordiging en stelt een nationaal overlegorgaan in tussen de organisaties van de arbeiders, de boeren, de middenstanders en de conservatieve Federatie van Kringen. De KVL blijft daarbuiten.

Ondanks de sterke positie van de Katholieke Vlaamsche Kamergroep kunnen de Vlaamsgezinde katholieken niet onmiddellijk doorstoten naar de regering, waar de oude politieke elites het voor het zeggen blijven hebben. Ze slagen er evenmin in om snel het minimumprogramma te realiseren. Dit draagt bij tot een radicalisering van sommige Vlaamsgezinde katholieken die geen genoegen meer nemen met het miminumprogramma van Van Cauwelaerts KVL. Als de volledige vernederlandsing niet mogelijk is, dan moeten de Vlamingen het heft in eigen handen nemen, redeneren zij. Zo komen ze op dezelfde lijn als de uit de Frontbeweging ontstane Frontpartij. Deze Vlaams-nationalistische partij stelt tegenover het mimimalisme de maximalistische eis tot zelfbestuur voor Vlaanderen, met andere woorden de federalisering van België. Aanvankelijk is dit onderscheid voor vele Vlaamsgezinden niet wezenlijk. Een echte scheiding der geesten ontstaat pas in 1925. De veroordeling van het Vlaams-nationalisme door het episcopaat heeft daarin een rol gespeeld.

http://users.telenet.be/frankie.schram/tijd/feit/tekst/19/1/9/09-28.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Omaha's Riot in Story and Picture - 1919
The following text and pictures are taken from a pamphlet published soon after the riot that took place in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1919. The causes and results of the riot remain controversial to this day. This page is not intended to glorify the event nor those involved, but merely to serve as a reminder of Omaha's past.

FOREWORD

The purpose of this book is educational. Its editors believe publicity is the surest cure for lawlessness. The story of the riot has its lessons for all thinking citizens. The dramatic facts of the mob scenes are herein set forth in word and picture, with the view of stimulating serious thought and a possible probe into conditions that seem to foster anarchy.

The student of sociology will find herein facts to fit his wildest theories. The psychologist will be interested in the mental reactions of the mob to the circumstantial stimuli. The layman will exercise a righteous curiosity in the hope of learning why law-abiding men and women become as wild beasts under the influence of the mob idea.

If this little book will only make the public mind less sluggish, then its publishers will feel that they have amply been repaid for their efforts.

THE EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Two hundred boys gathered near Bancroft School at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of Sunday, September 28, 1919. They discussed the assault upon Agnes Loebeck, 19 years old, their former schoolmate. They began a march to the county court house, where was imprisoned Will Brown, a negro, whom Miss Loebeck had identified as her assailant.

Nine hours later Brown was lynched, his body riddled by bullets and burned on a public pyre. Ed P. Smith, Omaha's mayor, was hanged. One white boy and a white man were dead. Fifty-six white persons were injured. Douglas County's magnificent court house, which cost $1,500,000, was in a mass of flames. The mob, whose numbers were estimated at 20,000, was looting hardware stores in search of ammunition and was assaulting all persons who attempted to brook its will. Two hundred policemen, representing state, county and city authority, were powerless to thwart the spammer of lawlessness.

The riot lasted until 3 o'clock in the morning of September 29. At that hour federal troops, under command of Colonel John E. Morris of the Twentieth Infantry, arrived from Fort Omaha and Fort Crook. Machine guns were placed in the heart of Omaha's business district and in the center of the "black belt." [Note: picture at Twenty-Fourth and Lake Streets] Major General Leonard Wood, commander of the Central Department, came the next day to Omaha by order of Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War. Peace, enforced by 1,600 soldiers, then brooded over the city.

Martial law was not formally proclaimed in Omaha, but it was enacted throughout the city. By the request of City Commissioner W.G. Ure, who was acting mayor, control over the police department was vested in the military commander of the troops.

Denunciation by press and pulpit throughout the nation followed Omaha's short reign of anarchy.

The story of the riot is more thrilling than any moving picture. Its inception in a boyish sense of chivalry; the formation and growth of the mob; the participation of women in its drastic deeds; the foolhardy bravery of the lads that led the crowd; the desperate plight of the bullet-besieged prisoners on the roof of the flaming court house; the mysterious notes that were thrown from a smoke-filled room on the fourth floor of the building; the capture of Brown; the lynching and subsequent carnival of crime form dramatic details of a story more picturesque than any yet filmed in the celluloid world.

The march of the boys' brigade from Bancroft School was intercepted by city detectives, headed by John T. Dunn, chief of the detective bureau. Dunn warned the lads to desist from their mad enterprise. They laughed at his warning and marched on.

A cordon of thirty policemen was guarding the court house when the boys arrived. It was about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. One boy, riding a horse from whose saddle hung a long rope, was leading the lads. Most of the boys were smiling. On only a few of the boyish faces was evident that serious determination which proved such a grim foreboding of the things that followed.

Police tried to cajole the crowd from its purpose. Fifteen or twenty boys refused to be cajoled. The rest of the crowd swapped banter with the officers until the police were led to believe that nothing serious would result from the gathering. A report to that effect was made to central police station. The police captain in charge sent to their homes fifty patrolmen whom he was holding as a reserve.

Then the storm broke. Adults joined the mob. By 5 o'clock in the afternoon fully 4,000 persons thronged the street on the south side of the court house. They began to rush the policemen. They pushed one officer through the pane of glass in a door. They assaulted two patrolmen who had attempted to use their clubs on leaders of the mob.

At 5:15 o'clock policemen played a hose upon the throng. The mob's response was a shower of bricks and sticks. Nearly every window on the south side of the building was broken. The crowd began anew to storm the lower doors. Policemen within the building discharged their revolvers down the elevator shaft. If it was their hope to frighten the crowd they were doomed to disappointment. The sound of the shots seemed to stir the throng to greater frenzy. Its members rushed again at the cordon of police. One of the big quarter-oak doors leading to the basement of the building broke to splinters beneath the weight of the attack. The mob shouted at this evidence of its strength.

It was at this serious moment that Marshal Eberstein, chief of police, arrived. He asked leaders of the mob to give him a chance to talk to the crowd. He mounted to one of the window sills. Beside him was a recognized chief of the gang. At the request of its leader the crowd stilled its clamor for a few minutes. Chief Eberstein tried to tell the mob that its lawless mission would best be served by letting justice take its course. The crowd refused to listen. Its members howled so that the chief's voice did not carry more than a few feet. He ceased his attempt to talk and entered the besieged building.

By this time (6 o'clock in the evening) throngs swarmed about the court house on all sides. That curious psychological phenomenon, known as "mob spirit," was evident frequently. The crowd wrested revolvers, badges and caps from policemen. They chased and beat every colored person who ventured into the vicinity. White men, who attempted to rescue innocent negroes from unmerited punishment, were subjected to physical abuse. Law-abiding citizens became maniacal anarchists.

The reign of terror had begun.

By 7 o'clock most of the policemen had withdrawn to the interior of the court house. There they joined forces with Michael Clark, sheriff of Douglas County, who had summoned his deputies to the building with the hope of preventing the capture of Brown. The policemen and sheriffs formed their line of last resistance on the fourth floor of the court house. There they stood, optimistically believing that they could foil all efforts of the crowd to take its intended victim from the "mob-proof" jail on the fifth floor.

But they did not estimate correctly the desperate lunacy of the mad mob that surged beneath them. Before 8 o'clock they discovered that the crowd would resort to any means to gain its end. Soon they saw tongues of flame leaping up at them. The crowd had set the magnificent building on fire. Its frenzied leaders had tapped a nearby gasoline filling station and saturated the lower floors with the flammable liquid.

Bullets began to spit. Members of the mob pillaged hardware stores in the business district and entered pawnshops, seeking firearms. Police records show that more than 1,000 revolvers and shotguns were stolen that night.

Into the burning building the most brazen of the mob's leaders rushed. They shot at any policeman who dared to show himself. Seven officers got bullets in their bodies when they tried to remonstrate with the mob. However, none of the policemen was injured seriously.

Louis Young, 16 years old, a mere stripling, was killed while leading a gang up to the fourth floor of the building. Witnesses say the boy was the most intrepid of the mob's leaders. A bullet that entered his stomach stopped the lad's daring dash toward the elevator that led to the county jail.

Pandemonium reigned outside the building. The spirit of fury had unleashed itself to the full. At Seventeenth and Douglas Streets, one block from the court house, James Hiykel, 34 years old, fell to the pavement with two bullets in his body. Death ensued. Hiykel was a respected business man in Omaha for ten years.

Bullets and rocks were continuously whizzing through the air. Spectators were shot. Participants inflicted minor wounds upon themselves. Women were thrown to the ground and trampled. Negroes were dragged from street cars and beaten.

About 11 o'clock, when the frenzy was at its height, Mayor Smith came out of the east door of the court house into Seventeenth Street. He had been in the burning building for hours. As he emerged from the door way, a shot rang out.

"He shot me. Mayor Smith shot me," a young man in the uniform of a United States soldier yelled.

The crowd surged toward the mayor. He fought them. One man hit the mayor on the head with a baseball bat. Another slipped the noose of a rope around his neck. The crowd started to drag him away.

"If you must hang somebody, then let it be me," the mayor gasped.

The mob tugged at the rope. Around the corner into Harney Street it dragged him. A woman reached out and tore the noose from his neck. Men in the mob replaced it. Spectators, who had retained some sanity, wrested the mayor from his captors and placed him in a police automobile. The throng overturned the machine and grabbed him again. Once more the rope encircled the mayor's neck. He was carried to Sixteenth and Harney Streets. There he was hanged to a metal arm of a traffic signal tower.

Mayor Smith's body was suspended in the air when State Agent Ben Danbaum drove a high-powered automobile into the throng right to the base of the signal tower. In the car with Danbaum were City Detectives Al Anderson, Charles Van Deusen and Lloyd Toland. They grasped the mayor's body. Russell Norgard, 3719 Leavenworth Street, untied the noose. The detectives brought the mayor to Ford Hospital. There he lingered between life and death for several days, finally recovering.

"They shall not get him. Mob rule will not prevail in Omaha," the mayor kept muttering during his delirium.

Meanwhile the plight of the police in the court house had become desperate. The fire had licked its way to the third floor. The officers faced the prospect of roasting to death. Appeals for help to the crowd below brought only bullets and curses. The mob frustrated all attempts to raise ladders to the imprisoned police.

"Bring Brown with you and you can come down," somebody in the crowd shouted.

One policeman picked up a telephone receiver and gave the number in his home. His wife answered. He tried to explain the situation and to bid her good-bye. Every married policeman in the room called his wife by telephone. There was a throb in each man's voice as he spoke. There was a tear in each man's eyes as he finished.

On the second floor of the building three policemen and a newspaper reporter were imprisoned in a safety vault, whose thick metal door the mob had shut. The four men hacked their way out through the court house wall. The mob shot at them as they squirmed out of the stifling vault.

The gases of formaldehyde added to the terrors of the men imprisoned within the flaming building. Several jars of the powerful chemical had burst on the stairway. Its deadly fumes mounted to the upper floors. Two policemen were overcome. Their companions could do nothing to alleviate their sufferings.

Sheriff Clark led his prisoners (there were 121 of them) to the roof. Will Brown, for whom the mob was howling, became hysterical. Negroes, fellow prisoners of the hunted man, tried to throw him off the roof. Deputy Sheriffs Hoye and McDonald foiled the attempt.

Female prisoners temporarily lost their sanity. They tore their hair out by the roots. They screeched hysterically. They huddled together like frightened sheep. The sheriff and his men tried to keep them apart for fear that their concentrated weight would warp the overheated roof. The women refused to separate. Then Sheriff Clark ordered that they be taken from the building. They ran down the burning staircases clad only in prison pajamas. Some of them fainted on the way. Members of the mob escorted them through the smoke and flames. Negro women as well as white women were helped to safety.

Fury was throbbing through the throngs in the streets as they saw the female prisoners come out of the building. They poured more gasoline into the building. They cut every line of hose that firemen laid from nearby hydrants. The flames were rapidly lapping their way upward. It seemed like certain cremation for the prisoners and their protectors.

Then three slips of paper were thrown from the fourth floor on the west side of the building. On one piece was scrawled: "The judge says he will give up Negro Brown. He is in dungeon. There are 100 white prisoners on the roof. Save them."

Another note read: "Come to the fourth floor of the building and we will hand the negro over to you."

The mob in the street shrieked its delight at the last message. Boys and young men placed firemen's ladders against the building. They mounted to the second story. One man had a heavy coil of new rope on his back. Another had a shotgun. Together they climbed up the outside west wall of the court house. Grasping cornices and window ledges, they squirmed upward. Automobilists turned powerful searchlights on the building to light their perilous way. The mob applauded each nimble twist of the lithe bodies. Never, perhaps, in any mob scene was there such a spectacular sight.

Two or three minutes after the unidentified athletes had clawed their perpendicular path to the fourth floor, a mighty shout and a fusillade of shots were heard from the south side of the building.

Will Brown had been captured. A few minutes more and his lifeless body was hanging from a telephone post at Eighteenth and Harney Streets. Hundreds of revolvers and shotguns spat at the corpse as it dangled in mid-air. Then the rope was cut. Brown's body was tied to the rear end of an automobile. It was dragged through the streets to Seventeenth and Dodge Streets, four blocks away. The oil from red lanterns used as danger signals for street repairs was poured on the corpse. It was burned. Members of the mob hauled the charred remains through the business district for several hours.

Sheriff Clark said that negro prisoners hurled Brown into the hands of the mob as its leaders approached the stairway leading to the county jail. Newspapers have quoted alleged leaders of the mob as saying that Brown was shoved at them through a blinding smoke by persons whom they could not see.

The spammer of lawlessness continued for several hours after Brown had been lynched. The police patrol was burned. The police emergency automobile was burned. Three times the mob went to the city jail. The third time its leaders announced that they were going to burn it. Soldiers arrived before they could carry out their threat.

With dawn came a reaction of public spirit against the mob, as sober-minded citizens viewed in daylight the destruction that had been wrought.

The arrest and prosecution of mob leaders was demanded by all.

Police and military authorities apprehended many of the mob leaders and held them for trial.

http://www.historicomaha.com/riot.htm
Not for the fainthearted... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Omaha_courthouse_lynching.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Sep 2010 22:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Capture of Mallow Barracks Provokes Reprisals

(Irish War of Independence - Second Cork Brigade)

September 28, 1920 was the date of the attack of Mallow Barracks, the only military barracks to be captured during the Irish War of Independence.

Mallow had been a garrison town for several hundred years. Eight miles to the north lay Buttevant where one of the largest military barracks in the country was located. Not far from Buttevant were the great military training camps of Ballyvonaire, while nineteen miles to the north-east was Fermoy with its large permanent military garrisons and huge barracks adjacent to the big training centres of Kilworth and Moorepark. Twenty miles to the south-east was the city of Cork with its many thousands of troops both in the posts within the city and at Ballincollig, about six miles west of it, on the Macroom road. Thirteen miles westward a detachment from a British machine gun corps held Kanturk. And every town and village had its post of RIC men armed to the teeth.

The idea of capturing the barracks came from two members of the Mallow I.R.A. Battalion, Dick Willis, a painter, and Jack Bolster, a carpenter, who were then employed on the civilian maintenance staff of the barracks which was occupied at the time by the 17th Lancers. Willis and Bolster were able to observe the daily routine of the garrison and formed the opinion that the capture of the place would not be difficult. They were instructed by their local battalion officers to make a sketch map of the barracks. After that was prepared Liam Lynch and Ernie O'Malley went with Dick Willis and Tadhg Byrnes to Mallow to study the lay-out of the surrounding district. Among the details of the garrison's routine that Willis and Bolster reported to the Column leaders, was the information that each morning the officer in charge, accompanied by two-thirds of the men, took the horses for exercise outside the town. It was obvious to the two Mallow volunteers that this would be the ideal time for the attack.

Situated at the end of a short, narrow street and on the western verge of the Town Park, Mallow barracks stood on an unusually low-lying location and was relatively small in size. Surrounded by a high stone wall, the place could be approached from the town park as well as from the main street. The various details were carefully studied by Lynch and O'Malley. While Dick Willis and Jack Bolster were allotted tasks within the walls of the barracks, Tadhg Byrnes and Jack Cunningham were chosen to attack with the main body of the column which included Commandant Denny Murphy of Kanturk.

On the morning of September 27, at their Burnfort headquarters, the men were ordered to prepare for action. Under cover of darkness they moved into the town and entered the Town Hall by way of the park at the rear. The eighteen men of the column were strengthened by members of the Mallow battalion, A number of men were posted in the upper storey of the Town Hall, from which they could command the approaches to the nearby R.I.C. barracks. in the event of the RIC going to the assistance of the military. Initially it was planned that Willis and Bolster would enter the military barracks that morning in the normal way, accompanied an officer of the column who would pose as a contractor's overseer. The officer was Paddy McCarthy of Newmarket who, a few months later would die in a gun battle with the Black and Tans at Millstreet.

McCarthy, Willis and Bolster entered the barracks without mishap. Members of the garrison followed their normal routine, with the main body of troops under the officer in charge leaving the barracks with the horses. In the barracks remained about fifteen men under the command of a senior N.C.O., Sergeant Gibbs.

Once the military had passed, the attackers, numbering about twenty men and led by Liam Lynch, advanced towards the bottom of Barrack Street. All were armed with revolvers which were considered the most convenient and suitable weapons for the operation. Liam Lynch had issued strict instructions that there was to be no shooting by the attackers, unless as a last resort. Inside the walls were Paddy McCarthy, Dick Willis and Jack Bolster, their revolvers concealed. Then Ernie O'Malley presented himself at the wicket with a bogus letter in his hand. Behind him and out of sight of the sentry were the other members of the main attacking party, led by Liam Lynch, Paddy O'Brien and George Power. When the gate was opened sufficiently, O'Malley wedged his foot between it and the frame and the soldier was overpowered. In rushed the attackers. McCarthy, Bolster and Willis immediately went to the guardroom where they held up the guard. Realising what was happening, Sergeant Gibbs, rushed towards the guardroom in which rifles were kept. Although called upon to halt, he continued even though a warning shot was fired over his head. As he reached the guardroom door, the I.R.A. officer and one of the volunteers in the guardroom fired simultaneously. Mortally wounded, the Sergeant fell at the guard-room door.

By that time the majority of the attacking party was inside the gate. Military personnel in different parts of the barracks were rounded up and arms were collected. Three waiting motor cars pulled up to the gate and into them were piled all the rifles and other arms and equipment found in the barracks. In all some twenty-seven rifles, two Hotchkiss light machine-guns, boxes of ammunition, Verey light pistols, a revolver, and bayonets, were taken away. The prisoners were locked into one of the stables, with the exception of a man left to care for Sergeant Gibbs. The whole operation had gone according to plan, except for the shooting of the sergeant. Twenty minutes after the sentry had been overpowered the pre-arranged signal of a whistle blast was sounded and the attackers withdrew safely to their headquarters at Burnfort, along the mountain road out of Mallow.

Expecting reprisals, the column moved to Lombardstown that night, and positions were taken up around the local co-operative creamery as it was the custom of the British to wreak their vengeance on isolated country creameries after incidents such as what had just occurred. The Mallow raid, however, was to have greater repercussions than the destruction of a creamery and co-operative stores. The following night, large detachments of troops from Buttevant and Fermoy entered Mallow. They rampaged through the town, burning and looting at will. High over the town, the night sky was red with the flames of numerous burning buildings.

The raiders first descended upon the Town Hall. As in the majority of towns, the building was the centre of the administrative and social life of the district. A lorry load of uniformed soldiers, frenzied and officer less, gathered in front of it. Petrol was liberally sprayed all over the large building. Within a short space of time the hall was a mass of flames. Warming to their task the British next set fire to the drapery establishment of Mr. J.J. Forde, the Bank Place residence of Town Clerk, Mr. Wrixon and with it the pharmacy of his son, which was in the same building. Firing their weapons wildly, the British continued their spammer of destruction. Up in the flames went the hotel of Mr. George Hanover, the boot and shoe establishment of Mr. Thomas Quinn, the merchant tailor's shop and residence of Mr. R. M. Quinn, the drapery shop of Mrs. Cronin, the residence of Mr. Stephen Dwyer at West End, the garage and premises of Mr. W. J. Thompson and finally the giant creamery of Cleeves which gave employment to three hundred people in Mallow. Townspeople ran through the blazing streets, in search of refuge. A number of women and children were accorded asylum in the nearby convent schools. Another group of terrified women, some with children in arms, took refuge in the cemetery at the rear of St. Mary's Church, where they knelt or lay, above the graves. It was a night of terror such as which had never before been endured by the people of Mallow.

The extent of the wanton destruction outraged fair-minded people all over the world. Details of the havoc that had been wrought and pictures of the scenes of destruction were published worldwide.

The Times of London printed the following editorial:

“Day by day the tidings from Ireland grow worse. The accounts of arson and destruction by the Military at Mallow as revenge for the Sinn Fein raid which caught the 17th Lancers napping, must fill English readers with a sense of shame.

The authorities would have been fully entitled, after the raid, to arrest on suspicion of complicity any townsfolk against whom a prima facie case could be established. No complaint could have been made had they dealt summarily with any insurgent caught in possession of arms. They were not entitled to reduce to ruins the chief buildings of the township and to destroy the property of the inhabitants merely as an act of terrorism”.

On the following Sunday morning St. Mary's Parish Church was crowded for eight o'clock Mass. Canon Corbett, parish priest of Mallow addressed the people from the pulpit. In a voice that shook with emotion he described the scenes he had witnessed on Mallow's night of terror:

“The rush of frantic women and children to my door at midnight asking, for God's sake, to provide them with some place of safety or refuge; bullets hissing over our heads as I tried to stow them into the Convent School; another crowd in St. Mary's cemetery—mothers with infants at their breasts sitting on the family burying ground, as if they thought their dead could aid them. Splendid business premises burned to the ground, and a winter of unemployment made sure for hundreds by the burning of Cleeve's factory. These are amongst the signs of victory, won not by Zulus or Sioux Indians, but by Englishmen; the great victory of Mallow at midnight of the 28th of September, 1920.

'Reprisals' they said by the civil and military authorities. They are not reprisals. They are, as Mr. Arthur Griffith points out, a calculated policy to goad our people into insurrection now as in 1798, an excuse for drenching the country in blood. I have only to repeat the advice of our good Bishop: ' Be patient.' God sees all and, in His own good time, will deliver His people who trust in Him”.


With these words, Canon Corbett broke down and left the pulpit.

http://homepage.eircom.net/~corkcounty/Timeline/Mallow.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2010 18:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vandaag 92 jaar geleden stierf Raoul Snoeck.
Zie het boek van André Gysel:' In de modderbrij van de IJzervallei' uitgegeven bij Snoeck-Ducaju.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eindoffensief aan de ijzer 1918 - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4V0wkwJhvLs
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naamsteen 24: "Eindoffensief Steenbeek - 28 september 1918"

De 25 'naamstenen' werden van 1984 tot 1988 geplaatst op belangrijke sites voor het Belgisch leger in de Eerste Wereldoorlog waar nog geen gedenktekens aanwezig waren. Op de gedenksteen staan naast specifieke tekst het gekleurde wapenschild van de provincie West-Vlaanderen en het monogram van Koning Albert I.

https://www.tracesofwar.nl/sights/50910/Naamsteen-24-Eindoffensief-Steenbeek---28-september-1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 september 1918 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Marcel Coeman is op 28 mei 1898 geboren in Aartrijke. De ongehuwde zoon van August en Romanie Gadeyne is kleermaker van beroep, 1,68 meter groot en heeft zwart haar. Op de eerste dag van het eindoffensief raakt hij zwaar gewond tijdens de verovering van het beruchte bos van Houthulst dat vanaf midden oktober 1914 door de Duitsers wordt bezet en uitgebouwd tot een goed gecamoufleerde stelling.

Marcel Coeman wordt overgebracht naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, gevestigd in het Gasthuis Clep en overlijdt daar nog dezelfde dag aan zijn verwondingen. 's Anderendaags wordt hij begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Sint-Rijkers, grafnummer 7. Op 23 november 1921 wordt hij herbegraven op de gemeentelijke begraafplaats van Aartrijke.

Daar rust ook zijn broer, Basiel Coeman, 1° Sergeant-Majoor bij hetzelfde linieregiment. Hij overlijdt amper één dag later, eveneens in het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, aan zijn verwondingen opgelopen tijdens de slag om de Stadenberg. Zo verliest het gezin Coeman uit Aartrijke op twee dagen tijd twee zonen. Marcel is amper 20 jaar geworden, zijn broer Basiel net geen 24.

Op die eerste dag van het eindoffensief zijn 59 slachtoffers in de hospitalen van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer en Hoogstade overleden, of in Groot-Alveringem begraven: Alphonse Bavinckhove, Jean Boschmans, Louis Boufteu, Georges Burton, Edmond Callebout, Henri Carême, Lucien Clignet, Marcel Coeman, Fernand Corbisier, François Dapels, Bernard De Corte, Maurice Decaestecker, Victor Derop, Joseph Desmyttere, Firmin Dever, Michael Dewaele, Jan Dillen, Edouard Doom, Albert Dressen, Sylvain Elchardus, Ignace Evrard, Joseph Evrard, Julien Haeyaert, Maruice Haghebaert, Arthur Herrebrant, Gustaaf Heyvaert, Julien Legros-Collard, Prosper Lepoutre, Stephanus Lorson, Fernand Mayeur, Luciaan Meeuws, Leon Nelissen, Joannes Peeters, Victor Questienne, Charles Raes, Georges Raty, Emile Rombaut, Leonard Rombaut, René Saelens, Remi Sanders, Omer Sarrazyn, Alfons Scheirsens, Achiel Schottey, Amedeus Sonck, Jean Thomsin, Jozef Troonbeeckx, Henri Van Calster, Gaston Van Geluwe, Joseph Van Kelst, Sebastiaan Van Landeghem, Georges Vanderbisse, François Vanmechelen, François Vereecke, Josse Vermeir, Norbert Vernez, Hendrik Vernie en Remi Wils

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/28-september-1918
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Sep 2018 9:06, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting of 28 September 1915

Sir R. PRICE asked the Home Secretary whether he is aware that a large and increasing number of Belgians are now leaving this country for Belgium via Holland; and if he is taking any and, if so, what precautions against news reaching the Germans in that way?

Sir J. SIMON No passenger can leave this country for Belgium via Holland without a permit from the Permit Office, which was established early in the year for the express purpose of regulating and restricting this passenger traffic in the interests of the Allies. In considering applications for permits special attention is given to the question whether the individual is in a position to carry any information which might be of value to the enemy; and unless the Permit officers are satisfied on this point, permits are refused.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/sep/28/belgians-special-permits
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 SEPTEMBER JARIG: ETHEL ROSENBERG

Ze is met haar man de enige die in de Verenigde Staten ter dood veroordeeld is voor spionage voor de Russen. Tot vandaag is haar veroordeling omstreden, omdat het directe bewijs voor haar betrokkenheid in het doorspelen van staatsgeheimen aan de Sovjet-Unie nooit is gevonden. Ethel Rosenberg wordt geboren op 28 september 1915.

Lees verder op https://isgeschiedenis.nl/nieuws/28-september-jarig-ethel-rosenberg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The First World War Letters Of H.J.C. Peirs

8th Queens
B.E.F
28.9.1915
(Recd 4 Oct 1915)

My dear Father,

I am too miserable for words. We have had a most awful doing & are reduced by half, the C.O. & Charlie Crossy both killed & probably 3 more & the rest out of 12 wounded. We went into action on Sunday with 20 officers & 10 came out. I am quite all right, tho why I wasn’t touched I don’t know.

The Brigade is reduced to about 1500 & I believe we are to go back to reform.

The men were wonderful & tho caught on the flanks by machine guns & later on by wire they went on as if on a field day & when they couldn’t get through the wire they strolled back. I got left behind on a flank with a Platoon & had an awful job to get back over 600 yards of open ground with snipers at us all the time.

We got into the trenches on Saturday night & the attack came off at 11 on Sunday. We were only warned ½ hr before & we got caught because the Brigade on our flank let us down. The G.O.C. of the Division and Brigade have both complimented us on our showing & except for the misery of having such a fine Brigade cut up, I should feel quite proud but I am simply heart broken now. The Corps Commander has also congratulated us & said the losses were not in vain as the attack kept 18 Battalions of the Bosches from going to help against the French.

I will write more when I feel more cheerful & will give you as full a description as I can. The map of our district appeared in Monday’s Telegraph showing the district where the operations went on on Saturday & we went over the same ground on Sunday.

Yours

Jack.

Please don’t say a word about Charlie as they had better get the official information first & I do not know absolutely for certain that he is killed as no one has seen his body, but I am afraid he is. Jo is wounded, but only in the foot & should be home soon. His Mother at Mount Hermon Road Woking will give you his address & if in town he may be able to tell you about it all.

Commentary

Neither Peirs nor most of the men in the 8th Queen’s had ever been under fire before they went into the British trenches near Loos on September 25, 1915. They went up the line just as the first day of the battle was winding down. That evening, the commander of the 8th Queen’s, Lt. Col. Fairtlough, was briefed by his superiors that the battalion would move out in support of an attack the following morning, September 26th. In the early hours of the morning, he was ordered to prepare the battalion for action.

Fairtlough was given no concrete orders and was only informed that their objective would be the ground south of Hulluch Village. The regimental history records how ignorant the battalion’s officers were of the task ahead of them:

No written orders were given, and no zero hour was mentioned, and no objective pointed out, while dusk had now fallen, and the troops knew nothing of the country, the position of the enemy, or the whereabouts of our own forces (238).
As a Kitchener battalion, the 8th Queen’s consisted of volunteers, and was led (largely) by officers who were not professional soldiers. Though the men of the battalion no doubt had enthusiasm (as well as trepidation), they were not battle-tested. Inexperience, when combined with poor staff work, vague orders, and no intelligence as to the unfolding battlefield before them, was a recipe for disaster. And that’s exactly what befell the battalion as it attacked the German second line at 11 AM on September 26, 1915.

The bloodying of the 24th Division on the second day of the Battle of Loos is an infamous moment in British military history. In a wider context, the attack at Hulluch was one part of a larger battle, one that was hardly going the way that British commanders hoped it would. In his authoritative battle history, Loos 1915, Nick Lloyd writes that there is much ‘myth and misunderstanding’ to the 24th Division’s attack across the ‘field of corpses’, the events of the day confusing and infamously mythologized (168). That being written, the 8th Queen’s suffered greatly in their first action of the war, the awfulness of the day apparent to Peirs’s family from his letter.

Peirs’s letter to his father indicates much confusion and some degree of shock from what he had been through. This was his first letter home since the battle. He was no doubt too busy in the intervening days to write; he was one of the few officers who had survived the action unscathed and was now in command of the battalion. We have the advantage of hindsight now and other sources that we can use to piece together a narrative of events. Peirs had none of this. Imagine the difficulty in trying to put into a letter home what he had seen? He had no concept of the larger battle and very little perspective beyond the limited portion of a battlefield that stretched twenty miles. What he knew was what he witnessed.

His letter begins with an emotional confession – absolute misery at the loss of his friends – and then he informs his father of the grave losses suffered of the battalion’s officers, most of whom were wounded, their commanding officer killed, as well as Peirs’s friend Charlie Crossey. He is clearly shocked, perhaps even guilty, that he emerged without injury. The letter then unfolds in a disorganized way – unusual for him – but with enough details that we can gain a portrait of what happened.

The battalion was ordered to attack with little preparation. They advanced through shelling. They met an enemy line of barbed wire that was uncut. They were under machine gun fire from the front as well as both both sides. After suffering heavy casualties, they retired, in reasonably good order, Peirs remaining behind the rest of the battalion, walking six-hundred yards under fire until he reached safety in the trenches from which they had emerged earlier in the day.

The regimental history confirms this basic story, but adds a few additional details. The 8th Queen’s were under shrapnel and machine gun fire from the moment they began their attack. Once reaching the German wire, they were ordered to lie down, to minimize casualties of the remaining men, while they attempted to cut the wire while being ‘scourged by machine-gun fire from both flanks at the closest range’ (238). Altogether, the battalion lost 409 men killed, wounded, or missing. Twelve of their officers were severely wounded or killed.

These were men that Peirs had known intimately over the last year. He trained with them, messed with them, reprimanded and disciplined them, and talked with them about their lives at home and their families. They were the men whom he observed and wrote to his family about, imitating their speech and dialect, laughing at their antics as they scrounged for drink and food with French farmers only weeks before. This sad letter indicates much pride in their conduct during the battle – he describes their attack as ‘wonderful’ – but however orderly their execution of their orders was, this letter is unbelievably tragic, a moment where an officer is struggling to maintain composure and piece together events that were likely the worst he had ever witnessed in his life.

For further reading, see Nick Lloyd’s Loos 1915 and the Colonel H.C. Wylly’s History of the Queen’s Royal (West Surrey) Regiment in the Great War.


http://jackpeirs.org/letters/28-september-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2017 10:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 September 1915 - Third tragic loss for local family

News reached Jersey this week of the death of Kenneth Strickland Dunlop, the youngest son of Dr and Mrs Dunlop. Tragically, Kenneth is the third son that they have lost in action since the war began.
Kenneth, who was 33, was living in South America when war broke out, but immediately returned home to volunteer for military service. The former Victoria College pupil received a commission into the South Staffordshire Regiment, spending some time training with its 4th Battalion presently stationed in Jersey. During that time, news that his brothers Julian and Frederick had been killed came through.
In recent days, the parents, who live at Belgrave House, Great Union Road, received an official War Office telegram announcing Kenneth’s death as well. Tragically, the Dunlops also lost two other sons killed during the Boer War of 1899 to 1902.
It seems that Kenneth fell on 25 September, the opening day of the latest British offensive in France. He is just one of many Jersey soldiers killed in this and earlier 1915 battles, with families across the Island affected by the loss and the need to settle their deceased relative’s affairs.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/28-september-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2018 9:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 september 1918 - 1e dag eindoffensief in Westrozebeke

Na het Duitse lenteoffensief van april 1918 was het tij gekeerd in het voordeel van de geallieerden. De Duitsers waren op het einde van hun krachten en zetten volop in op defensie.

De geallieerden bereidden intussen een groot offensief voor die een einde moest maken aan de oorlog. Tussen Diksmuide en Ieper gingen de Belgen massaal in de aanval en konden snel oprukken.

Op 28 september 1918 startte een grote artillerieaanval in de frontstreek rond Houthulst-Langemark-Poelkapelle- Zonnebeke. In de loop van de voormiddag werd Hooglede-Gits onder vuur genomen. De troepen die daar ingekwartierd waren namen positie in bij het front om de infanterieaanval af te slaan. Naast deze artillerieaanval was er ook een infanterieaanval tussen Ieper en Diksmuide waarbij de geallieerden konden oprukken tot de heuvelrug van Westrozebeke. De soldaten slaagden er echter niet in om die dag de heuvelrug in te nemen. Die dag werden wel Zonnebeke, Passendale, Langemark, Poelkapelle en Houthulst bevrijd.

De opmars van de Belgen werd iets voor Westrozebeke gestopt ter hoogte van de Spriet, de Zeugeberg en de Goudberg. Aan de voet van de Goudberg verweerden de Duitsers zich sterk en sneuvelde de Vlaamsgezinde luitenant Jules De Winde.

Op de foto zie je het verwoeste Westrozebeke dat tijdens het eindoffensief het zwaar te verduren kreeg.

Bekijk die foto op http://veertienachttien.be/fr/node/4553
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