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19 september

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2006 5:54    Onderwerp: 19 september Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 19. September 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Die Offensive im Westen -
Eine russische Brigade geschlagen

Großes Hauptquartier, 19. September.
Die Lage im Westen ist im allgemeinen unverändert. Auf der ganzen Schlachtfront ist das englisch-französische Heer in die Verteidigung gedrängt worden. Der Angriff gegen die starken, zum Teil in mehreren Linien hintereinander befestigten Stellungen kann nur langsam vorwärts gehen.
Die Durchführung des Angriffes gegen die Linie der Sperrforts südlich von Verdun ist vorbereitet.
Im Elsaß stehen unsere Truppen längs der Grenze den französischen Kräften dicht gegenüber.
Im Osten ist am 17. die vierte finnländische Schützenbrigade bei Augustow geschlagen worden. Beim Vorgehen gegen Ossowiez wurden Grajewo und Szozuczin nach kurzem Kampfe genommen. 1)


Die Schlachten im Westen

Die "Frankfurter Zeitung" schrieb am 19. September 1914:
Die Nachricht, daß zwei französische Armeekorps und Teile einer weiteren Division bei Noyon entscheidend geschlagen und andere Angriffe der Franzosen gegen unsere neue Schlachtfront an der Aisne blutig abgewiesen worden sind, hat die gewaltige Spannung gelöst, in die uns das Bewußtsein, daß unsere Truppen in einem schweren und aufreibenden Kampf stehen, nicht zuletzt aber auch trotz aller Zuversicht - der widerwärtige Eindruck der phantastischen Lügenmeldungen unserer Feinde, versetzt hat. Die französische Armee hat in den letzten Tagen Großes geleistet. Nach einem wohldurchdachten Rückzug, zu dem sie der wuchtige Einfall unserer Truppen im Nordwesten Frankreichs gezwungen hat, der aber unter dem ungeheuren Druck unserer Verfolgung zu einer wilden Flucht geworden ist, haben sich die französischen Truppenmassen nochmals zusammengerafft und den Verfolgern entgegengeworfen. Auf unserm rechten Flügel, der weit vorgedrungen war, hatten sie Glück und die deutsche Flügelarmee mußte sich eilig einer Umgehung entziehen. Der Rückzug ist meisterhaft durchgeführt worden: in großartiger Ordnung sind unsere Divisionen in gewaltigen Märschen in Stellungen zurückgegangen, die nicht nur Schutz vor jeder weiteren Gefährdung unserer Flanke boten, sondern die so gewählt waren, daß die mühsam nachdringende französische Flügelarmee beim ersten Zusammenstoß entscheidend geschlagen werden konnte. Nahezu zweieinhalb Armeekorps sind in diesem Kampf zusammengebrochen. Dieser Erfolg ist von der größten Bedeutung. Mit einem Schlag hat sich gezeigt, daß unsere Lage sehr gut ist und zugleich wird man den moralischen Erfolg unseres Sieges nicht hoch genug einschätzen dürfen, weil die Franzosen - das geht aus ihren letzten Berichten und Betrachtungen klar hervor - fest davon überzeugt waren, auf ihrem linken Flügel bereits gewonnenes Spiel zu haben. Ja, sie hofften sogar, ihr Durchbruch müsse die allgemeine Flucht der gesamten deutschen Armee zur Folge haben, wollte diese nicht Gefahr laufen, von ihren Rückzugslinien abgeschnitten zu werden. Diese Hoffnung ist nun endgültig zerstört. Der allgemeine Vormarsch der Deutschen kann nicht ausbleiben. Die verzweifelten Versuche der französischen Truppen, uns aus unseren guten, neugewählten Stellungen zu verjagen, sind völlig gescheitert. Die Franzosen müssen bald erschöpft sein, und dann ist der Augenblick gekommen, in dem uns zum zweiten Mal die Niederlage unseres gefährlichsten Gegners gemeldet werden wird. Zum drittenmal wird er dann kein allzu starkes Heer uns entgegenstellen können. 2)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Ein russischer Vorstoß in Galizien abgewiesen

Wien, 20. September, mittags.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Die Neugruppierung unseres Heeres auf dem nördlichen Kriegsschauplatz ist im Zuge. Ein Vorstoß einer russischen Infanteriedivision am 17. September wurde blutig abgewiesen. Der ostseitige kleine, feldmäßig formierte Brückenkopf Siejawa, unsererseits nur von sehr schwachen Abteilungen heldenmütig verteidigt, zwang die Russen zur Entfaltung zweier Korps und schwerer Artillerie. Als die Befestigungen ihre Aufgabe erfüllt hatten, wurden sie freiwillig geräumt.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)


Ein Armeebefehl des Generals Dankl


Victor Dankl

Wien, 19. September. (W. B.)
Der Armeekommandant Dankl hat am 14. September einen Armeebefehl erlassen, in dem es heißt:
Die brave Erste Armee hat eine außerordentlich schwierige Operation glänzend erledigt. Bei Krasnik und vor Lublin habt Ihr die Russen entscheidend geschlagen. Dann habt Ihr zwei Wochen hindurch bei Tag und Nacht mit einem in festungsähnlichen Stellungen stehenden Feind gekämpft und seine ungezählten Angriffe stets erfolgreich abgewiesen. Nachdem die Russen sich täglich verstärkten und schließlich mindestens doppelt so stark waren als wir, stellten wir unsere Angriffe freiwillig ein, um Schulter an Schulter mit unseren übrigen Armeen, die sich uns anschließen, weiter zu kämpfen. Auch der Marsch durch Sümpfe und Wälder stellte ungeheure Anforderungen an Euch alle; aber auch diese Sache gelang dank Eurer Ausdauer und Zähigkeit. Die Russen haben kaum gewagt, Eure Märsche zu stören, und so steht denn die Erste Armee heute in dem ihr anbefohlenen Raume.
Ich danke allen Angehörigen meiner heldenmütigen Ersten Armee für das, was sie bisher in jeder Richtung Hervorragendes geleistet haben. Der Krieg hat bisher große Anforderungen gestellt, sie werden auch in Zukunft nicht kleiner sein. Aber Ihr Soldaten der Ersten Armee, Ihr werdet sie alle standhaft und erfolgreich überwinden zum Wohle des Vaterlandes und zum Ruhme unseres erhabenen Kaisers und Königs. 2)


Vom Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz

Rom, 19. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nach hier eingelaufenen Nachrichten haben sich die beiden montenegrinischen Heere, welche bisher getrennt unter den Generälen Martinowitsch und Wukowitsch operierten, bei Fotscha in der südlichen Herzegowina vereinigt; sie wollen auf Serajewo marschieren.
Aus Nisch wird vom 16. September gemeldet: Auf der Front von Sjanlavia bis Zvornik dauern die Kämpfe fort. Die Lage der serbischen Truppen ist im Zentrum befriedigend.

Mailand, 19. September. (W. B.)
Der "Corriere della Sera" meldet aus Paris: Mehrere englische und französische Kriegsschiffe liegen vor Durazzo, andere vor Cattaro in Blockadestellung. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im September 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2006 5:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 : British offensive begins in Palestine

On September 19, 1918, British forces in Palestine renew their offensive against the Turkish lines north of Jerusalem, beginning with the capture of Megiddo, the city mentioned in the Bible as the site of the Battle of Armageddon.

After leading the British forces in a successful campaign in Palestine and capturing Jerusalem in December 1917, the regional commander General Edmund Allenby lost many of his infantry troops to the Western Front when the Germans launched their massive spring offensive in 1918. Meanwhile, after a change of command—Erich von Falkenhayn was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders—the German and Turkish forces in the region dug in, resisting several British attacks and even regaining some ground by the summer. After new units arrived from India, however, Allenby’s forces were up to full strength, and the general prepared to launch a new offensive in September.

Beginning with a midnight bombardment on September 19, the British troops in Palestine went on the attack, executing a classic feint maneuver: after directing one attack up the Jordan Valley as a diversion, Allenby switched the force of his offensive to the west and up the coast, using the aerial superiority of the Royal Air Force and the Australian Flying Corps to block the Turks from seeing the movement of his cavalry and other troops. As Allenby reported, the attack met with smashing success: "On the north our cavalry, traversing the Field of Armageddon, had occupied Nazareth, Afule, and Beisan, and were collecting the disorganized masses of enemy troops and transport as they arrived from the south. All avenues of escape open to the enemy, except the fords across the Jordan between Beisan and Jisr-ed-Dameer were thus closed." Megiddo fell with little resistance the same day, and the aerial bombing of roads, railways and troop formations in the area over the following week disrupted all Turkish and German operations. From September 20 to September 21 alone, Allenby’s troops took some 7,000 Turkish prisoners. As the demoralized Turks retreated northward and eastward, they were attacked by more Allied aircraft. General von Sanders was forced to flee Nazareth as well, still wearing his pajamas.

The British attack at Megiddo set off a string of victories that led straight through the rest of the month, including the fall of both Beirut and Damascus to British control. Barely a month later, Turkey sued for peace, signing an armistice with the Allies on October 30, 1918. Made a British viscount in October of 1919, Edmund Allenby paid tribute to his victory in Palestine, taking as his title "First Viscount Allenby of Megiddo".

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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2006 6:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wien, 19. September.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Beiderseits des Oitoz-Tales haben wir starke rumänische Angriffe abgeschlagen. Durch raschen Gegenstoß wurde der an einer Stelle eingedrungene Feind völlig geworfen; seine Verluste sind erheblich.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei der Heeresgruppe des Feldmarschalls Freiherrn von Conrad führte der zur Wiedergewinnung eines vorübergehend dem Feind überladenen Frontstückes bei Carcano eingesetzte Gegenangriff zu vollem Erfolge. An Gefangenen wurden hier 6 Offiziere und über 300 Mann eingebracht.

Der Chef des Generalstabes


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Woonplaats: Jabbeke, Flanders - Home of the Marine Jagdgeschwader in WW I

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2006 19:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Centralen :

1918 : UB 104 gaat verloren op de Noordzee nadat ze op een mijn liep

Verbondenen :

1914 : de Britse duikboot AE1 wordt verloren door een ongeval nabij de Bismarck archipel
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 September 1914

Western Front - The Aisne: Strong general German attacks: also on the Meuse forts (Verdun).

Naval and Overseas Operations - Admiral Troubridge recalled into enquiry into escape of "Goeben" and "Breslau".

Political, etc. - Mr. Lloyd George's speech to Welshmen on German barbarities.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_09_19.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Lloyd George - September 19, 1914 - "International Honour"

I have come here this afternoon to talk to my fellow countrymen about this great war and the part we ought to take in it. I feel my task is easier after we have been listening to the greatest battle-song in the world[1].

There is no man in this room who has always regarded the prospects of engaging in a great war with greater reluctance, with greater repugnance, than I have done throughout the whole of my political life. There is no man, either inside or outside of this room, more convinced that we could not have avoided it without national dishonour. I am fully alive to the fact that whenever a nation has been engaged in any war she has always invoked the sacred name of honour. Many a crime has been committed in its name; there are some crimes being committed now. But, all the same, national honour is a reality, and any nation that disregards it is doomed.

Why is our honour as a country involved in this war? Because, in the first place, we are bound in an honourable obligation to defend the independence, the liberty, the integrity of a small neighbour that has lived peaceably, but she could not have compelled us, because she was weak. The man who declines to discharge his debt because his creditor is too poor to enforce it is a blackguard. We entered into this treaty, a solemn treaty, a full treaty, to defend Belgium and her integrity. Our signatures are attached to the document. Our signatures do not stand alone there. This was not the only country to defend the integrity of Belgium. Russia, France, Austria, and Prussia--they are all there. Why did they not perform the obligation? It is suggested that if we quote this treaty it is purely an excuse on our part. It is our low craft and cunning, just to cloak our jealousy of a superior civilization we are attempting to destroy. Our answer is the action we took in 1870. What was that? Mr. Gladstone was then Prime Minister. Lord Granville, I think, was then Foreign Secretary. I have never heard it laid to their charge that they were ever jingo.

What did they do in 1870? That Treaty Bond was this: We called upon the belligerent Powers to respect that treaty. We called upon France; we called upon Germany. At that time, bear in mind, the greatest danger to Belgium came from France and not from Germany. We intervened to protect Belgium against France exactly as we are doing now to protect her against Germany. We are proceeding exactly in the same way. We invited both the belligerent Powers to state that they had no intention of violating Belgian territory. What was the answer given by Bismarck? He said it was superfluous to ask Prussia such a question in view of the treaties in force. France gave a similar answer. We received the thanks at that time from the Belgian people for our intervention in a very remarkable document. This is the document addressed by the municipality of Brussels to Queen Victoria after that intervention:

The great and noble people over whose destinies you preside have just given a further proof of its benevolent sentiments towards this country. The voice of the English nation has been heard above the din of arms. It has asserted the principles of justice and right. Next to the unalterable attachment of the Belgian people to their independence, the strongest sentiment which fills their hearts is that of an imperishable gratitude to the people of Great Britain.

That was in 1870. Mark what follows.

Three or four days after that document of thanks the French Army was wedged up against the Belgian frontier. Every means of escape was shut up by a ring of flame from Prussian cannon. There was one way of escape. What was that? By violating the neutrality of Belgium. What did they do? The French on that occasion preferred ruin, humiliation, to the breaking of their bond. The French Emperor, French Marshals, 100,000 gallant Frenchmen in arms preferred to be carried captive to the strange land of their enemy rather than dishonour the name of their country. It was the last French Army defeat. Had they violated Belgian neutrality the whole history of that war would have been changed. And yet it was the interest of France to break the treaty. She did not do it.

It is now the interest of Prussia to break the treaty, and she has done it. Well, why? She avowed it with cynical contempt for every principle of justice. She says treaties only bind you when it is to your interest to keep them. 'What is a treaty?' says the German Chancellor. 'A scrap of paper.' Have you any L5 notes about you? I am not calling for them. Have you any of those neat little Treasury L1 notes? If you have, burn them; they are only 'scraps of paper'. What are they made of? Rags. What are they worth? The whole credit of the British Empire. 'Scraps of paper.' I have been dealing with scraps of paper within the last month. It is suddenly found the commerce of the world is coming to a standstill. The machine had stopped. Why? I will tell you. We discovered, many of us for the first time--I do not pretend to say that I do not know much more about the machinery of commerce to-day than I did six weeks ago, and there are a good many men like me--we discovered the machinery of commerce was moved by bills of exchange. I have seen some of them--wretched, crinkled, scrawled over, blotched, frowsy, and yet these wretched little scraps of paper moved great ships, laden with thousands of tons of precious cargo, from one end of the world to the other. What was the motive power behind them? The honour of commercial men.

Treaties are the currency of international statesmanship. Let us be fair. German merchants, German traders had the reputation of being as upright and straightforward as any traders in the world. But if the currency of German commerce is to be debased to the level of her statesmanship, no trader from Shanghai to Valparaiso will ever look at a German signature again. This doctrine of the scrap of paper, this doctrine which is superscribed by Bernhardi, that treaties only bind a nation as long as it is to its interest, goes to the root of public law. It is the straight road to barbarism, just as if you removed the magnetic pole whenever it was in the way of a German cruiser, the
whole navigation of the seas would become dangerous, difficult, impossible, and the whole machinery of civilization will break down if this doctrine wins in this war.

We are fighting against barbarism. But there is only one way of putting it right. If there are nations that say they will only respect treaties when it is to their interest to do so, we must make it to their interest to do so for the future. What is their defence? Just look at the interview which took place between our Ambassador and great German officials when their attention was called to this treaty to which they were partners. They said: 'We cannot, help that. Rapidity of action was the great German asset. There is a greater asset for a nation than rapidity of action, and that is--honest dealing.

What are her excuses? She said Belgium was plotting against her, that Belgium was engaged in a great conspiracy with Britain and with France to attack her. Not merely is that not true, but Germany knows it is not true. What is her other excuse? France meant to invade Germany through Belgium. Absolutely untrue. France offered Belgium five army corps to defend her if she was attacked. Belgium said: 'I don't require them. I have got the word of the Kaiser. Shall Caesar send a lie?' All these tales about conspiracy have been fanned up since. The great nation ought to be ashamed, ought to be ashamed to behave like a fraudulent bankrupt perjuring its way with its complications. She has deliberately broken this treaty, and we were in honour bound to stand by it.

Belgium has been treated brutally, how brutally we shall not yet know. We know already too much. What has she done? Did she send an ultimatum to Germany? Did she challenge Germany? Was she preparing to make war on Germany? Had she ever inflicted any wrongs upon Germany which the Kaiser was bound to redress? She was one of the most unoffending little countries in Europe. She was peaceable, industrious, thrifty, hard-working, giving offence to no one; and her cornfields have been trampled down, her villages have been burned to the ground, her art treasures have been destroyed, her men have been slaughtered, yea, and her women and children, too. What had she done? Hundreds of thousands of her people have had their quiet, comfortable little homes burned to the dust, and are wandering homeless in their own land. What is their crime? Their crime was that they trusted to the word of a Prussian King. I don't know what the Kaiser hopes to achieve by this war. I have a shrewd idea of what he will get, but one thing is made certain, that no nation in future will ever commit that crime again.

I am not going to enter into these tales. Many of them are untrue; war is a grim, ghastly business at best, and I am not going to say that all that has been said in the way of tales of outrage is true. I will go beyond that, and say that if you turn two millions of men forced, conscripted, and compelled and driven into the field, you will certainly get among them a certain number of men who will do things that the nation itself will be ashamed of. I am not depending on them. It is enough for me to have the story which the Germans themselves avow, admit, defend, proclaim. The burning and massacring, the shooting down of harmless people--why? Because, according to the Germans, they fired on German soldiers. What business had German soldiers there at all? Belgium was acting in pursuance of a most sacred right, the right to defend your own home.

But they were not in uniform when they shot. If a burglar broke into the Kaiser's Palace at Potsdam, destroyed his furniture, shot down his servants, ruined his art treasures, especially those he made himself, burned his precious manuscripts, do you think he would wait until he got into uniform before he shot him down? They were dealing with those who had broken into their households. But their perfidy has already failed. They entered Belgium to save time. The time has gone. They have not gained time, but they have lost their good name.

But Belgium was not the only little nation that has been attacked in this war, and I make no excuse for referring to the case of the other little nation--the case of Servia. The history of Servia is not unblotted. What history in the category of nations is unblotted? The first nation that is without sin, let her cast a stone at Servia. A nation trained in a horrible school, but she won her freedom with her tenacious valour, and she has maintained it by the same courage. If any Servians were mixed up in the assassination of the Grand Duke they ought to be punished. Servia admits that; the Servian Government had nothing to do with it. Not even Austria claimed that. The Servian Prime Minister is one of the most capable and honoured men in Europe.

Servia was willing to punish any one of her subjects who had been proved to have any complicity in that assassination. What more could you expect? What were the Austrian demands? Servia sympathized with her fellow countrymen in Bosnia. That was one of her crimes. She must do so no more. Her newspapers were saying nasty things about Austria. They must do so no longer. That is the Austrian spirit. You had it in Zabern. How dare you criticize a Customs official? And if you laugh it is a capital offence. The colonel threatened to shoot them if they repeated it.

Servian newspapers must not criticize Austria. I wonder what would have happened had we taken the same line about German newspapers. Servia said: 'Very well, we will give orders to the newspapers that they must not criticize Austria in future, neither Austria, nor Hungary, nor anything that is theirs.' Who can doubt the valour of Servia, when she undertook to tackle her newspaper editors? She promised not to sympathize with Bosnia, promised to write no critical articles about Austria. She would have no public meetings at which anything unkind was said about Austria.

That was not enough. She must dismiss from her Army officers whom Austria should subsequently name. But these officers had just emerged from a war where they were adding lustre to the Servian arms--gallant, brave, efficient. I wonder whether it was their guilt or their efficiency that prompted Austria's action. But, mark, the officers were not named. Servia was to undertake in advance to dismiss them from the Army; the names to be sent on subsequently. Can you name a country in the world that would have stood that?

Supposing Austria or Germany had issued an ultimatum of that kind to this country. 'You must dismiss from your Army and from your Navy all those officers whom we shall subsequently name!' Well, I think I could name them now. Lord Kitchener would go; Sir John French would be sent about his business; General Smith-Dorrien would be no more; and I am sure that Sir John Jellicoe would go. And there is another gallant old warrior who would go--Lord Roberts.

It was a difficult situation. Here was a demand made upon her by a great military Power who could put five or six men in the field for every one she could; and that Power supported by the greatest military Power in the world. How did Servia behave? It is not what happens to you in life that matters; it is the way in which you face it. And Servia faced the situation with dignity. She said to Austria. 'If any officers of mine have been guilty and are proved to be guilty, I will dismiss them.' Austria said, 'That is not good enough for me.' It was not guilt she was after, but capacity.

Then came Russia's turn. Russia has a special regard for Servia. She has a special interest in Servia. Russians have shed their blood for Servian independence many a time. Servia is a member of her family, and she cannot see Servia maltreated. Austria knew that. Germany knew that, and Germany turned round to Russia and said: 'Here, I insist that you shall stand by with your arms folded whilst Austria is strangling to death your little brother.' What answer did the Russian Slav give? He gave the only answer that becomes a man. He turned to Austria and said: 'You lay hands on that little fellow and I will tear your ramshackle empire limb from limb.' And he is doing it.

That is the story of the little nations. The world owes much to little nations--and to little men. This theory of bigness--you must have a big empire and a big nation, and a big man--well, long legs have their advantage in a retreat. Frederick the Great chose his warriors for their height, and that tradition has become a policy in Germany. Germany applies that ideal to nations; she will only allow six-feet-two nations to stand in the ranks. But all the world owes much to the little five feet high nations. The greatest art of the world was the work of little nations. The most enduring literature of the world came from little nations. The greatest literature of England came from her when she was a nation of the size of Belgium fighting a great Empire. The heroic deeds that thrill humanity through generations were the deeds of little nations fighting for their freedom. Ah, yes, and the salvation of mankind came through a little nation. God has chosen little nations as the vessels by which He carries the choicest wines to the lips of humanity, to rejoice their hearts, to exalt their vision, to stimulate and to strengthen their faith; and if we had stood by when two little nations were being crushed and broken by the brutal hands of barbarism our shame would have rung down the everlasting ages.

But Germany insists that this is an attack by a low civilization upon a higher. Well, as a matter of fact, the attack was begun by the civilization which calls itself the higher one. Now, I am no apologist for Russia. She has perpetrated deeds of which I have no doubt her best sons are ashamed.

But what Empire has not? And Germany is the last Empire to point the finger of reproach at Russia. But Russia has made sacrifices for freedom--great sacrifices. You remember the cry of Bulgaria when she was torn by the most insensate tyranny that Europe has ever seen. Who listened to the cry? The only answer of the higher civilization was that the liberty of Bulgarian peasants was not worth the life of a single Pomeranian soldier. But the rude barbarians of the North--they sent their sons by the thousands to die for Bulgarian freedom.

What about England? You go to Greece, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and France, and all these lands, gentlemen, could point out to you places where the sons of Britain have died for the freedom of these countries. France has made sacrifices for the freedom of other lands than her own. Can you name a single country in the world for the freedom of which the modern Prussian has ever sacrificed a single life? The test of our faith, the highest standard of civilization is the readiness to sacrifice for others.

I would not say a word about the German people to disparage them. They are a great people; they have great qualities of head, of hand, and of heart. I believe, in spite of recent events, there is as great a store of kindness in the German peasant as in any peasant in the world. But he has been drilled into a false idea of civilization,--efficiency, capability. It is a hard civilization; it is a selfish civilization; it is a material civilization. They could not comprehend the action of Britain at the present moment. They say so. 'France', they say, 'we can understand. She is out for vengeance, she is out for territory--Alsace Lorraine. Russia, she is fighting for mastery, she wants Galicia.' They can understand vengeance, they can understand you fighting for mastery, they can understand you fighting for greed of territory; they cannot understand a great Empire pledging its resources, pledging its might, pledging the lives of its children, pledging its very existence, to protect a little nation that seeks for its defence. God made man in His own image--high of purpose, in the region of the spirit. German civilization would re-create him in the image of a Diesler machine--precise, accurate, powerful, with no room for the soul to operate. That is the 'higher' civilization.

What is their demand? Have you read the Kaiser's speeches? If you have not a copy, I advise you to buy it; they will soon be out of print, and you won't have any more of the same sort again. They are full of the clatter and bluster of German militarists--the mailed fist, the shining armour. Poor old mailed fist--its knuckles are getting a little bruised. Poor shining armour--the shine is being knocked out of it. But there is the same swagger and boastfulness running through the whole of the speeches. You saw that remarkable speech which appeared in the _British Weekly_ this week. It is a very remarkable product, as an illustration of the spirit we have got to fight. It is his speech to his soldiers on the way to the front:--

Remember that the German people are the chosen of
God. On me, on me as German Emperor, the Spirit of
God has descended. I am His weapon, His sword, and His
vizard! Woe to the disobedient! Death to cowards and
unbelievers!


There has been nothing like it since the days of Mahomet.

Lunacy is always distressing, but sometimes it is dangerous, and when you get it manifested in the head of the State, and it has become the policy of a great Empire, it is about time when that should be ruthlessly put away. I do not believe he meant all these speeches. It was simply the martial straddle which he had acquired; but there were men around him who meant every word of it. This was their religion. Treaties? They tangled the feet of Germany in her advance. Cut them with the sword. Little nations? They hinder the advance of Germany. Trample them in the mire under the German heel. The Russian Slav? He challenges the supremacy of Germany and Europe. Hurl your legions at him and massacre him. Britain? She is a constant menace to the predominancy of Germany in the world. Wrest the trident out of her hands. Ah! more than that. The new philosophy of Germany is to destroy Christianity. Sickly sentimentalism about sacrifice for others--poor pap for German digestion. We will have a new diet. We will force it on the world. It will be made in Germany. A diet of blood and iron. What remains? Treaties have gone; the honour of nations gone; liberty gone. What is left? Germany--Germany is left--Deutschland uber Alles. That is all that is left.

That is what we are fighting, that claim to predominancy of a civilization, a material one, a hard one, a civilization which if once it rules and sways the world, liberty goes, democracy vanishes, and unless Britain comes to the rescue, and her sons, it will be a dark day for humanity. We are not fighting the German people. The German people are just as much under the heel of this Prussian military caste, and more so, thank God, than any other nation in Europe. It will be a day of rejoicing for the German peasant and artisan and trader when the military caste is broken. You know his pretensions. He gives himself the airs of a demi-god. Walking the pavements --civilians and their wives swept into the gutter; they have no right to stand in the way of the great Prussian junker. Men, women, nations --they have all got to go. He thinks all he has got to say is, 'We are in a hurry.' That is the answer he gave to Belgium. 'Rapidity of action is Germany's greatest asset,' which means 'I am in a hurry. Clear out of my way'.

You know the type of motorist, the terror of the roads, with a 60-h.p.car. He thinks the roads are made for him, and anybody who impedes the action of his car by a single mile is knocked down. The Prussian junker is the road-hog of Europe. Small nationalities in his way hurled to the roadside, bleeding and broken; women and children crushed under the wheels of his cruel car. Britain ordered out of his road. All I can say is this: if the old British spirit is alive in British hearts, that bully will be torn from his seat. Were he to win it would be the greatest catastrophe that has befallen democracy since the days of the Holy Alliance and its ascendancy. They think we cannot beat them. It will not be easy. It will be a long job. It will be a terrible war. But in the end we shall march through terror to triumph. We shall need all our qualities, every quality that Britain and its people possess. Prudence in council, daring in action, tenacity in purpose, courage in defeat, moderation in victory, in all things faith, and we shall win.

It has pleased them to believe and to preach the belief that we are a decadent nation. They proclaim it to the world, through their professors, that we are an unheroic nation skulking behind our mahogany counters, whilst we are egging on more gallant races to their destruction. This is a description given to us in Germany--'a timorous, craven nation, trusting to its fleet.' I think they are beginning to find their mistake out already. And there are half a million of young men of Britain who have already registered their vow to their King that they will cross the seas and hurl that insult against British courage against its perpetrators on the battlefields of France and of Germany. And we want half a million more. And we shall get them.

But Wales must continue doing her duty. That was a great telegram that you, my Lord (the Chairman), read from Glamorgan.[2] I should like to see a Welsh army in the field. I should like to see the race who faced the Normans for hundreds of years in their struggle for freedom, the race that helped to win the battle of Crecy, the race that fought for a generation under Glendower, against the greatest captain in Europe--I should like to see that race give a good taste of its quality in this struggle in Europe; and they are going to do it.

I envy you young people your youth. They have put up the age limit for the Army, but I march, I am sorry to say, a good many years even beyond that. But still our turn will come. It is a great opportunity. It only comes once in many centuries to the children of men. For most generations sacrifice comes in drab weariness of spirit to men. It has come to-day to you; it has come to-day to us all, in the form of the glory and thrill of a great movement for liberty, that impels millions throughout Europe to the same end. It is a great war for the emancipation of Europe from the thraldom of a military caste, which has cast its shadow upon two generations of men, and which has now plunged the world into a welter of bloodshed. Some have already given their lives. There are some who have given more than their own lives. They have given the lives of those who are dear to them. I honour their courage, and may God be their comfort and their strength.

But their reward is at hand. Those who have fallen have consecrated deaths. They have taken their part in the making of a new Europe, a new world. I can see signs of its coming in the glare of the battlefield. The people will gain more by this struggle in all lands than they comprehend at the present moment. It is true they will be rid of the menace to their freedom. But that is not all. There is something infinitely greater and more enduring which is emerging already out of this great conflict; a new patriotism, richer, nobler, more exalted than the old. I see a new recognition amongst all classes, high and low, shedding themselves of selfishness; a new recognition that the honour of a country does not depend merely on the maintenance of its glory in the stricken field, but in protecting its homes from distress as well. It is a new patriotism, it is bringing a new outlook for all classes. A great flood of luxury and of sloth which had submerged the land is receding, and a new Britain is appearing. We can see for the first time the fundamental things that matter in life and that have been obscured from our vision by the tropical growth of prosperity.

May I tell you, in a simple parable, what I think this war is doing for us? I know a valley in North Wales, between the mountains and the sea--a beautiful valley, snug, comfortable, sheltered by the mountains from all the bitter blasts. It was very enervating, and I remember how the boys were in the habit of climbing the hills above the village to have a glimpse of the great mountains in the distance, and to be stimulated and freshened by the breezes which, came from the hill-tops, and by the great spectacle of that great valley.

We have been living in a sheltered valley for generations. We have been too comfortable, too indulgent, many, perhaps, too selfish. And the stern hand of fate has scourged us to an elevation where we can see the great everlasting things that matter for a nation; the great peaks of honour we had forgotten--duty and patriotism clad in glittering white: the great pinnacle of sacrifice pointing like a rugged finger to Heaven. We shall descend into the valleys again, but as long as the men and women of this generation last they will carry in their hearts the image of these great mountain peaks, whose foundations are unshaken though Europe rock and sway in the convulsions of a great war.

[Footnote 1: 'The Men of Harlech.']
[Footnote 2: 'Glamorgan has raised 20,000 men.']


http://www.gwpda.org/1914/lloydgeorge_honour_1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 September, 1914: The Status of Armed Merchant Vessels

Department of State , Washington, September 19, 1914

A. A merchant vessel of belligerent nationality may carry an armament and ammunition for the sole purpose of defense without acquiring the character of a ship of war.

B. The presence of an armament and ammunition on board a merchant vessel creates a presumption that the armament is for offensive purposes, but the owners or agents may overcome this presumption by evidence showing that the vessel carries armament solely for defense.

C. Evidence necessary to establish the fact that the armament is solely for defense and will not be used offensively, whether the armament be mounted or stowed below, must be presented in each case independently at an official investigation. The result of the investigation must show conclusively that the armament is not intended for, and will not be used in, offensive operations. Indications that the armament will not be used offensively are:

1. That the caliber of the guns carried does not exceed six inches.

2. That the guns and small arms carried are few in number.

3. That no guns are mounted on the forward part of the vessel.

4. That the quantity of ammunition carried is small.

5. That the vessel is manned by its usual crew, and the officers are the same as those on board before war was declared

6. That the vessel intends to and actually does clear for a port lying in its usual trade route, or a port indicating its purpose to continue in the same trade in which it was engaged before war was declared.

7. That the vessel takes on board fuel and supplies sufficient only to carry it to its port of destination, or the same quantity substantially which it has been accustomed to take for a voyage before war was declared.

8. That the cargo of the vessel consists of articles of commerce unsuited for the use of a ship of war in operations against an enemy.

9. That the vessel carries passengers who are as a whole unfitted to enter the military or naval service of the belligerent whose flag the vessel flies, or of any of its allies, and particularly if the passenger list includes women and children.

10. That the speed of the ship is slow.

D. Port authorities, on the arrival in a port of the United States of an armed vessel of belligerent nationality, claiming to be a merchant vessel, should immediately investigate and report to Washington on the foregoing indications as to the intended use of the armament, in order that it may be determined whether the evidence is sufficient to remove the presumption that the vessel is, and should be treated as, a ship of war. Clearance will not be granted until authorized from Washington, and the master will be so informed upon arrival.

E. The conversion of a merchant vessel into a ship of war is a question of fact which is to be established by direct or circumstantial evidence of intention to use the vessel as a ship of war.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/armship.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag van Zanzibar

De Slag van Zanzibar of de Zeeslag van Zanzibar was een zeegevecht dat plaats vond op 20 september 1914 bij het schiereiland Zanzibar in Oost-Afrika en het begin was van de Oost-Afrika Campagne. Vergeleken met de grote zeeslagen zoals de Zeeslag bij de Doggersbank, was de Zeeslag van Zanzibar een klein zeegevecht. Beide partijen streden tegen elkaar met slechts één kruiser. De HMS Pegasus van de Royal Navy onder bevel van captain John Ingles en de SMS Königsberg van de Kaiserliche Marine onder bevel van Fregattenkapitän Max Looff.

Vlak na het begin van de Eerste Wereldoorlog, op 19 september 1914, bevond de Duitse SMS Königsberg zich in de Rufiji Delta, toen hij bericht kreeg dat een Brits oorlogsschip de haven van Zanzibar binnen voer. Fregattenkapitän Looff van de SMS Königsberg, veronderstelde dat het ofwel de HMS Astraea of de HMS Pegasus kon zijn. Kapitein Looff begon onmiddellijk een aanval te plannen tijdens deze reparaties in de haven van Dar es Salaam.

Lees verder op http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Slag_van_Zanzibar
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zaterdag 19 september 1914, volgens Petrus Van Nuffel:

De nacht bracht niets bijzonders, doch den 19 September begon van af 6 uur 's morgens het kanon te brommen en het gerucht naderde. Zeven Duitsche wielrijders vormden op de Markt een kleinen groep. Ten half 7 uur brak een hevige storm los; regen, met hagel gemengd, kletterden overvloedig neer. Eenige uren later bleef eene Belgische patroelje aan de poorten der stad even stil.
Op den buiten werden de windmolens afgebrand of onbruikbaar gemaakt.


Nog effe pluggen... http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=15616&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=50&sid=40233814a70aef9d9b383b6872b6791a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 19 September 1914.

Borkel en Schaft. Naar men van geachte zijde verneemt heeft onze gemeente-veldwachter de heer Adr. Verweijen met ingang 1 Oct. eervol ontslag aangevraagd uit zijne betrekking. Bijna drie en dertig jaar is Adriaan de bewaker geweest van onze have en goed, wars van alle vitterij steeds vriendelijk en behulpzaam jegens een ieder, wist hij zeer vele vrienden te verwerven en was van een ieder geacht en bemind. Eene langdurige en welverdiende rust zij den heer Verweijen van harte toegewenscht.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Day in African History: 19 September

1903, 19 September - King Leopold II of Belgium denies accusations of cruelty in the Congo Free State and demands that foreign powers no longer interfere in the running of his private country.

1914, 19 September - World War I: Southern Africa
Lüderitzburg, German South West Africa, is captured by South African troops.

1916, 19 September - World War I: East Africa
Tabora, German East Africa, is captured by Belgian forces.

http://africanhistory.about.com/od/september/a/td0919.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marc Ferro, The Great War, 1914-1918 London: Ark Paperbacks, 1987

Since the turn of the century British policy had been one of containment (Eindämmung). Once convinced that Germany was threatening her hegemony, Britain abandoned her policy of isolation, tightened her links with France in 1904 and Russia in 1907 and accepted an unprecedented burden of defence. Lloyd George wrote, a few weeks after war broke out:

We have been living in a sheltered valley for generations. We have been too comfortable and too indulgent . . . and the stem hand of fate has scourged us to an elevation where we can see the great everlasting things that matter for a nation - the great peaks we had forgotten, of Honour, Duty, Patriotism, and, clad in glittering white, the great pinnacle of Sacrifice pointing like a rugged finger to Heaven. (Queen's Hall speech, 19 September 1914)

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ferro.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oxford Chronicle, reported in The World's Fair, 19 September, 1914:

Despite the chilling influences of the war on pleasure, despite a restriction on hours, St. Giles Fair is still going strong. If they had the power to stop it, the City Council would have probably have done so. But the masses of the people in Oxford and the surrounding country districts are evidently as attached to the Fair as ever and it has rarely been more crowded that it was at certain hours on Monday and Tuesday. Whether as much money as usual was taken at shows and stalls it is impossible to say but at all events the people were there, people of all sorts and conditions. Largely the Fair was as usual a children's festival and from quite an early hour in the morning, eager little people had been tasting the delights of the merry-go-round and the swingboat. But there were plenty of older people, even invalids in bathchairs, and, to remind us of the times in which we are living, many soldiers in khaki; while just at the edge of the Fair, gorgeous in scarlet, was a recruiting sergeant on the look-out for likely young men for the Lord Kitchener's army. One cinematograph boldly depicted "The Invasion of England", but reasurred us by the addendum, "Saved by the Territorials".

http://www.nfa.dept.shef.ac.uk/history/shows/giles.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

(Diary) By George H. J. Hanks, S. B. A. (Sick Berth Attendant)

This document is the memoir of my Grandfather, George H. J. Hanks, who was a Sick Bay Attendant (S. B. A.) on board the H.M.S. Carnarvon during the First World War. He wrote this memoir in Montreal in 1915

The "Highflyer" having made good her damaged parts, joins the flag on 19thSept. & together we search the islands until Sunday morning, when the "Highflyer" parts company & we go to St. Vincent. (The Carnarvon's Night Order Book advised the watch on 19 September 1914 that the Highflyer would be joining the ship. Carnarvon Fonds) Leaving next day we proceed to "Sierra Leone" arriving @ Freetown on Sat. Sept. 26, when we receive a mail.

A stay of a week is made here, during which the machinery is overhauled, yards are removed[,] half the bridge is cut away & various other improvements made. On Monday we coal ship. Tuesday the ship is cleaned & stores taken in and until Saturday morning when we proceeded to sea. The ship is given a light grey coat of paint.

http://www.vlib.us/medical/hanks/diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

19 september 1915 - Het geschut houdt heel de dag aan, maar de mensen bezien elkaar zonder te durven uitspreken dat ze er iets van verwachten.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0015.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spying - First World War - Fernando Buschman

This article covers the brief spying career of Fernando Buschman, who was executed at the Tower of London during World War One.

Fernando Buschman

Fernando Buschman was born on 16 August 1890, in Paris, of a naturalised Brazilian Father and Brazilian Mother, who was originally from Denmark. Fernando was sent to Austria for his education, before entering a mechanical school at Karlstein, and finishing at Zurich. Following the death of his Father in 1907, Fernando returned to his Mother in Vienna. However, Fernando soon travelled to work with his brother at a firm of mechanical engineers in Rio de Janeiro. After a couple of years, Fernando returned to his Mother in Vienna. This arrangement was not working, so Fernando decided to travel to Paris. After an unsuccessful attempt at an airplane manufacturing business, Fernando returned to Brazil, starting up a business called Buschman & Bello importing food from Germany and England, in turn exporting bananas and potatoes back to this countries.

After the outbreak of the First World War, Buchman travelled to Hamburg so he could tidy up his business affairs, which had been badly affected by the anti-German feeling in the UK.

On 14 April 1915, Buschman arrived in London staying at the Piccadilly Hotel. However, as he was short of money he sent a telegram requesting £12. Almost a week later, Buschman went to the office of Messrs Bolus & Co, which were located at 487-489 Salisbury House, London Wall, City of London. While at this office, Bushman met Emil Samuel Franco. Franco asked what Buschman wanted. He replied that he was a Brazilian with a German-sounding surname, and that Bolus & Co had stopped shipments from his company in Brazil. He was concerned that this could have been caused by the company ceasing to trade with a Germany-interests company. Their friendship flourished to the extent that they often went out drinking together.

At 9am on 23 April 1915, Buschman was seen off by Franco from London's Waterloo Rail Station. He had previously explained to Franco that he was visiting various food merchants in the Southampton area. Later that day, Buschman returned saying to Franco that he had returned from Portsmouth. Both Southampton and Portsmouth were major ports. The following day, Buschman moved to the cheaper Strand Palace and received a telegram from Flores Dierks & Co. Later in May 1915, Buschman travelled to Amsterdam, in neutral Holland. After returning on 16 May 1915. However money was still a problem so another telegram was sent to Flores requesting more money be sent to Buschman, who had moved into lodgings in Harrington Road, South Kensington.

The British Security Services had intercepted all the telegrams, as they were aware from previous spies that Dierks was a major organising officer for spies sent to the UK. On 4 June 1915, they decided to act. Very early on the morning of 5 June 1915, Buschman was arrested by Inspector George Riley (New Scotland Yard) at his lodgings. When he was later questioned, Buschman stated that he had been employed by Dierks & Co in Amsterdam. He added that although he was suspicious of Mr Dierks and that he had been asked to find out information, he said that he was not the sort of person to furnish such information. He also denied sending the telegrams to Dierks in Amsterdam, neither was he able to explain why Mr Dierks was so interested in a new employee that he was sending several transfers of money via telegram.

Fernando Buschman's courts-martial took place on 29-30 September 1915, at Middlesex Guildhall. The courts president was Major-General Lord Cheylesmore. The Prosecution Case was presented by Mr. A.H. Bodkin and Lieutenant Peevor. Buschman was represented by Mr. Curtis Bennett, and he pleaded not guilty. Buschman presented evidence on his own behalf.

Buschman was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. He asked that he be allowed to have his violin, to keep his mind occupied in his last hours. The request was granted. The night before his execution, Buschman played through the night. When his guard collected him for the walk to the miniature rifle range, Buschman picked up his violin and kissed it saying "Goodbye, I shall not want you any more".

At 7am on 19 October 1915, Fernando Buschman was executed by a firing squad composed of members of the 3rd Battalion Scots Guards.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/buschman.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rifleman George Peachment VC, A heroes story

(...) George enlisted 18th April 1915, in 5th King's Royal Rifle Corps, falsely giving his age as 19 years and one month, although he was actually only 17 years and 11 months. He then went absent from 7.30p.m. on 2nd July until 8.10a.m. on 5th July 1915 and for this he was fined seven days pay. Eventually George transferred to the 2nd Battalion on posting to France 27th July 1915. He was later confined to barracks for three days on 19th September 1915, for having a dirty sword (bayonet) whilst on guard mount parade. (...)

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/In%20memory/miscellaneous/george_peachment.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ON THE FRONT LINE IN LITHUANIA, 1915: STORIES OF JEWISH EYEWITNESSES

The Town of Glubokoe, District of Disna

From a personal letter dated September 19, 1915.

"Dear ..."

Starting September 7th and 8th, Cossacks rode in and started to commit excesses, rob stores and then houses. They visited all the residents, and did not distinguish themselves with good behavior. They called B. Kraut to the Cossack captain, who held him several hours and constantly threatened to hang him.

The Cossacks dishonored many women in town; they attacked the synagogue in the name of Kraut, and gathered there many girls. Some of the Cossacks with sabers stood openly around the synagogue, some were inside, and one could hear the screams and cries of those poor unfortunate girls. No one was allowed to go inside to help the unfortunate victims.

When they let Kraut go, he was met on the road by Cossacks who took his gold watch and his money and beat him so badly he barely got home alive, did not say a word and spent 24 hours half-dead. When he calmed down a bit the next day, he told everything that had happened to him, all his experiences.

Where Doctor Gets has his apartment, the Cossacks entered. There were girls there who were threatened with the same horror. The doctor asked the Cossacks to go with him and he would show them even better girls. Meanwhile, the girls hid. When the Cossacks understood that Doctor Gets had fooled them, they hit him several times on the head with a stone. His wounds are now visible.

Glubokoe was in such a situation for two days. On the third day, officers and police came. Only then did things start to quiet down. Now it’s peaceful in Glubokoe."

http://www.jewishgen.org/litvak/HTML/OnlineJournals/1915fline.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alfred Knox, report to British government (19th September, 1915)

If there has ever been a Government that richly deserved a revolution it is the present one in Russia. If it escapes, it will only be because the members of the Duma are too patriotic to agitate in this time of crisis. I saw Rodzianko (President of the Duma) and spoke of the preventable sufferings of the people and of my astonishment at their patience under conditions that would have very soon driven me to break windows. He only laughed and said that I had a hot head.

Over Alfred Knox:

Alfred Knox was born in Ulster in 1870. He joined the British Army and served in India where he reached the rank of Major General.

In 1911 Knox was appointed the British Military Attaché in Petrograd. Knox spoke Russian fluently and on the outbreak of the First World War, became liaison officer to the Russian Army. As well as working closely with George Buchanan, the British Ambassador in Russia, he also made several visits to the Eastern Front.

Knox's memoirs, With the Russian Army: 1914-1917, was published in 1921. As well as his work during the First World War the book contained a detailed account of the Russian Revolution. Alfred Knox died in 1964.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSknox.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of My Trip Abroad 1915-19 - 538 Cpl. Ivor Alexander Williams

September 19th 1915. Sunday again today. Just after Church Parade I had a very narrow squeak. A piece of shell, which I still have, whizzed passed my ear just scratching it. Half an inch further and I would not be here to tell the tale.

http://www.nashos.org.au/15diary.htm
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Diaries and Letters - Letters of Grand Duchess Maria - Extracts from the Letters of Maria to her Father

Sept. 19, 1915: "...We always have dinner upstairs now in the playroom. It's very cosy, I think. After dinner Mother, Aleksey, me and Vladimir Nickolayevich (Derevenko, a doctor) or Mr. Gilliard usually play the game which we call "The slower you go the sooner your reach your destination". It's fun because you can"eat" the others. We played this game last year in our hospital..."

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/mdiaries.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Luchthaven Schiphol in gebruik genomen

19 september 1916 - Het eerste vliegtuig is geland op de eerste luchthaven van Nederland. Op een hobbelige grasmat maakte een Farman F-22 tweedekker in de Haarlemmermeer een succesvolle landing.
Schiphol ligt 4 meter onder het zeeniveau in het drooggelegde gebied van de Haarlemmermeer. De naam komt van het fort dat aan de rand van de polder ligt: Fort Schiphol.

De minister van Oorlog had de goedkeuring gegeven om een stuk grond te kopen nabij het fort om daar een militair vliegveld aan te leggen. Het terrein was aanvankelijk 16 hectare, maar werd al snel vergroot naar 76 hectare.

Vanaf 17 mei 1920 werd Schiphol ook gebruikt voor nationale luchthaven voor burgers. Schiphol werd tevens de thuishaven voor de in 1919 opgerichte KLM. Jan Dellaert was op dat moment de stationschef en hij wordt ook wel de vader van Schiphol genoemd.

Schiphol is de oudste luchthaven ter wereld.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1916-09-19/Luchthaven+Schiphol+in+gebruik+genomen
Zie ook http://www.schiphol.nl/InDeSamenleving/SchipholJunior/Weetjes.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 September 1917 - The Leader advises:

The man who wishes to be in at the death must enlist now, or he will certainly miss the glory of the triumphal entry into Berlin, and the peace demonstrations in London.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/19-september-1917/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Sep 2018 9:09, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harold Sandys Williamson

Harold Sandys Williamson was born in Leeds on 29 August 1892. He studied at the Leeds School of Art between 1911 and 1914. The following year he attended the Royal Academy Schools in London, 1914-15 and was awarded the Turner Gold Medal.

Following the outbreak of war, he attempted to enlist in the army, but was turned down on health grounds. He was finally accepted into the King's Royal Rifle Corps in January 1916 as a rifleman, and began his training at Winchester the following day. A week later he was posted to the 15th (Reserve) Battalion at South Down Camp, Sussex, where he stayed until he was sent to France at the beginning of August as part of the draft for the 8th Battalion (41st Brigade, 14th Division). By now a Lance Corporal, and hoping for a commission, he joined the battalion at Heucourt on the Somme in late August 1916. On the morning of 15 September he was wounded by a grenade fragment while taking part in an attack during the Battle of Delville Wood.

Letter to his parents, Base Hospital, France, Tuesday 19 September 1916

"At 6.20, then, on a misty morning, we were crouching in a 3 or 4 foot trench, bayonet fixed, & rifle loaded, a bomb in each pocket, empty sandbags hung on me, also one full of food! ...I got out of the trench, & walked forward, calling to the men near me who were a bit slow. A big bombardment was on. The ground rolled away, absolutely bare & brown - you could see not a stump nor a line of a parapet, only the general irregularity of the ground caused by the shell holes, which must have overlapped each other over areas of square miles..."

"...I had the impression of great numbers of men going forward slowly through the morning mist, in long lines. Suddenly, the Germans' hands shot up out of the ground - all you could see was a line of arms straight up & caps! However, just opposite me someone threw out 2 or 3 hand grenades, which burst some 8 yards away, & I felt a 'push' on my left elbow. My rifle & bayonet drooped more and more, until the left arm was powerless. I still went on, but found it impossible to command the rifle with one hand alone. I saw, without alarm, that my left thigh was soaked with blood, & realised it would be useless to go further, & turned back, rather disappointed at having so inglorious a part..."

http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/45/FatalSalient/index.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ishbel Ross, diary entry (19th September, 1916)

The wounded have been coming in all day, nearly all frightfully bad cases. We have our kitchen now, it is like an Indian bungalow all made of rushes. From the window we can see the ambulances arriving at the reception tent, and the poor men carried in. All the Serbs working in the camp are so pleased to have the hospital started at last, and indeed we are too. Poor Ethel is in the surgical ward and has had an awful day of it - three of the men, very badly wounded in the head, died tonight. We get the worse cases here and some of the wounded have been lying untended for two days.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wross.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldiers of the 38th

An attempt at an ongoing mass biography of the officers and men of the 38th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, during the First World War

Private William Martel

Born on 24 February 1895 in Hull, Quebec - son of Mrs. G. Martel, Aylmer, Quebec - at the time of his conscription in 1918: present address in Aylmer, Quebec; single; Roman Catholic; trade as plumber; no current or previous military service; height of 5 feet 6 inches; chest of 38.5 inches fully expanded; fresh complexion; blue eyes; light brown hair.

Conscripted into the 2nd Depot Battalion, Eastern Ontario Regiment, CEF, in Ottawa, Ontario, on 1 February 1918 (number 3320502) - taken on the strength of the 38th Battalion, CEF, on 10 or 11 June 1918 - wounded on 2 September 1918 - invalided to England on 19 September 1918.

(sources: Library and Archives Canada (www.collectionscanada.gc.ca), online attestation papers; Canadian War Museum, 19740281-001, Manu 58F 2 3, 207th Canadian Infantry Battalion and 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Nominal Roll; The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa Regimental Museum, A400-0007, Master Personnel List for the 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force)

Private George Edmund Martel

Born on 16 July 1886 in Renfrew, Ontario - brother of Miss Valida[?] Martel, Ottawa, Ontario - at the time of his enlistment in 1916: present address in Renfrew, Ontario; trade as stenographer; single; no current or previous military service; Roman Catholic; height of 5 feet 5.5 inches; chest of 34.5 inches fully expanded; dark complexion; dark brown eyes; dark hair.

Joined the 130th Battalion, CEF, in Ottawa, Ontario, on 19 September 1916 (number 788648) - taken on the strength of the 38th Battalion, CEF, on 14 or 15 November 1916 - invalided sick to England on 11 April 1917 - rejoined the 38th Battalion on 10 or 11 November 1917 - transferred to the 1st Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade, CEF, on 20 or 21 February 1918 - promoted to Corporal.

Awarded a Mention in Despatches.

(sources: Library and Archives Canada (www.collectionscanada.gc.ca), online attestation papers; Canadian War Museum, 19740281-001, Manu 58F 2 3, 207th Canadian Infantry Battalion and 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Nominal Roll; The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa Regimental Museum, A400-0007, Master Personnel List for the 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force)

http://38thbattalion.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Percy

Somewhere [Frankrijk], Sept, 19th, 1916

My Dear Sister Clytie,

Received your welcome post card about a week ago. I suppose it would seem a little change at first being back at work, but I hope it will not be long until you have the pleasure of house keeping for that best boy of yours. I met him a couple of times within the last few days (and incidentally borrowed 20 francs of him, being short of cash) he is camped only about a mile away. I suppose you have heard from him all about his adventures at Pozieres, and how he was told off to take Mouquet Farm with 26 men.

Have not had an opportunity at seeing Roy yet. He called at our billets while in Albert, but I had gone out for a walk at the time. Was very sorry to have missed seeing him. There was no address on your PC, so I will send this to G’ville. Trusting you are well and happy, your loving brother, Percy.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/p_3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Deely

(...) Saddest of all, perhaps, was the fate of William Henry and Catherine Deeley of 4 Haymarket, Piccadilly Circus, London, who lost two sons at the Western Front. The elder, simply recorded as 'J Deeley', was lost without trace on 31 October 1914, aged 23. He is one of the Deeleys commemorated at the Menin Gate Memorial. His younger brother, Frederick Thomas Deeley, was also lost without trace - on 19 September 1916, aged 20. His name is commemorated at the Thiepval Memorial, Somme. (...)

http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/requi.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Mk IV

On 19 September 1916 - four days after the first tanks went into action - the British Commander-in-Chief, Sir Douglas Haig, gave an order for 1000 further tanks to be constructed im­mediately. (This order was rescinded three weeks later by the Army Council, but immediately reinstated by Mr Lloyd George, Secretary of State for War, who had more foresight).

http://www.landships.freeservers.com/mk4_survivors.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - SEPTEMBER 1916

19/09/1916 - Rest of the Regiment having a spell. Washing clothes etc. Signals must present 4 complete rakes by evening stables or look out. So mob turned out making rakes from hoop iron and palm stems. I had my class in morning. Officers 2nd Light Horse learning sword drill. One officer on a mule.
19/09/1916 cont..
Rumoured we are to be turned into cavalry, cases of swords for us at KANTARA. Also rumour still floats we are shifting down towards the Canal within a week or so.

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/sept1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Scotsman - Wednesday, 19th September 1917

World War I rewards offered for American prisoners
Less than three months after they entered the war, American troops had become a significant force in the conflict. German commanders, in recognition of a changing tide in the fighting, issued an offer to their men for the first US soldier caught dead or alive. The reward was rich.

Krantenartikel... http://archive.scotsman.com/article.cfm?id=TSC/1917/09/19/Ar00503
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A prison of our own: the AIF Detention Barracks 1917-1919.

(...) Unfortunately, while everyone seemed to think the establishment of an AIF Detention Barrack a good idea, finding a suitable location presented something of a problem. The AIF had originally requested Wandsworth Prison. This request was rejected by the War Office, although no reason is given. The matter then seemed to fall into abeyance until September. It is possible that the telegram from the Governor General provided fresh impetus. Whatever the case may be, on 19 September, the War Office wrote to the AIF offering Dorchester Prison and Cambridge Prison as the site for a Detention Barrack. This offer was rejected because the two prisons combined could not offer adequate accommodation. Dorchester offered space for 145 while Cambridge could accommodate 125. This total of 270 was well short of the AIF's stated monthly average of detainees (320).(...)

http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4777290/A-prison-of-our-own.html
Of ga naar topic http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=23266
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Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 153, Sept. 19, 1917

An Englishwoman living in the East has a servant-girl who, when told about the War, remarked, "What war?" Another snub for the KAISER.

Two escaped German prisoners have been arrested at Wokingham by a local grocer. The report that he charged twopence each for delivery is without foundation.

Sixty-eight thousand persons, it is stated, have visited the maze at Hampton Court this season. Others have been content to stay at home and study the sugar regulations.

The crew of the U-boat interned at Cadiz, says a Madrid correspondent, have been allowed to land on giving their word of honour not to leave Spain during the continuance of the War. The mystery of how the word of honour came into their possession is not explained.

The Berlin authorities have ordered a "Shaveless day." As a measure of frightfulness this is doomed to failure against an Army like ours with tanks which will eat their way through all sorts of entanglements.

Because an officer omitted to salute him, Field-Marshal VON HINDENBURG stopped his car and said, "I am HINDENBURG." We understand that the officer accepted the explanation.

Lundy Island has just been purchased by Mr. AUGUSTUS CHRISTIE, of North Devon. We are relieved to know it is still on the side of the Allies

http://www.scribd.com/doc/2400246/Punch-or-the-London-Charivari-Volume-153-September-19-1917-by-Various
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Armeense genocide, Algemeen Handelsblad, 19 september 1917
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Voor de Armeniërs

Hooggeachte Redactie,

Naar aanleiding van de circulaire "Hulp voor het Armenische volk", gedateerd September 1917 en waarvan de inhoud geheel of gedeeltelijk, met of zonder commentaar door de Nederlandsche bladen is overgenomen, verzoek ik U beleefd het onderstaande in Uw blad te willen opnemen.

Een ieder zal het toejuichen indien menschen in den lande door edele gevoelens bezield zich vereenigen en tot liefdadigheid gedreven hun doel trachten te bereiken. Iets geheel anders is het echter, wanneer de liefdadigheid gewild of niet in politieke actie overgaat en dan nog wel gesteund door verschillende voormannen uit de Nederlandsche staatsmankringen. Toen in 1915 in konstantinopel Turksche bladen eenige aanvallen richtten tegen ons Indisch bestuur, heeft onze Regeering niet nagelaten bij het Turksche gouvernement daartegen te protesteeren. Dit laatste heeft dan ook gevolg aan onze wenschen gegeven. Zoo kan men zich thans afvragen of het nuttig en noodig was in dergelijke onpolitieke termen als de bovenbedoelde circulaire bevat de Turksche Regeering aan te vallen.

Dat daarmede de verhouding der beide landen, die toch op vriendschappelijken voet verkeeren, gediend zou zijn, betwijfel ik ten zeerste. Zonder in de onderhavige quaestie partij voor wie dan ook te willen kiezen, zou ik willen doen opmerken dat vóór dat "la quaestion arménienne" tot een "mot d'ordre'" was gemaakt, de Armeniërs zich zeker niet, evenmin als de onder Turksch bestuur levende Joden thans, over de Turksche Regeering te beklagen hadden. Armeniërs vond men in alle takken van bestuur en zij bekleedden de hoogste ambten. Het is niet dan nadat eenige groote mogendheden de Armeniërs als een welkom protext tot inmenging gemaakt hadden en nadat de Amerikaansche scholen de Armeniaansche jeugd een vernis van Europeesche beschaving hadden bijgebracht, dat de conflicten begonnen zijn.

Het walgelijke van de geheele zaak is echter dat die Armeniërs die de agitatie leiden en die door hunne oogmerken een direct gevaar voor de Turksche regeering waren, veilig en wel in Egypte, Londen, Parijs en Zwitserland voor den oorlog waren en nog zijn, getuige den millionair Boghos Nubar Pasja, waarvan toch een ieder wel weet dat hij de ziel der beweging is. Dat men zich in Holland echter tot politieke werktuigen van die menschen leent, zonder de zaken ernstig bestudeerd te hebben, is op zijn minst verwonderlijk.

De passage waartegen ik echter bij afwezigheid van mijn vroegeren chef, den heer Westenenk, den gewezen inspecteur-generaal, meen te moeten protesteeren, is die waarin gezegd wordt dat de beide "hoofdinspecteurs" werden weggezonden. Toen in September 1914 de inspecteur-generaal zag, dat van hervormingswerk in de hem aangewezen provincies niets meer kon komen, is hij op eigen initiatief en in overleg met de Turksche Regeering naar Nederland vertrokken. Gedurende het verblijf in Holland is aan den heer Westenenk, evenals aan zijn collega in Noorwegen, geregeld half tractement betaald, een op zichzelf zeer aanzienlijk bedrag. Toen in 1915 Turkije in vollen oorlog was, heeft hij van de opzeggingsclausule in het contract gebruik gemaakt, met inachtneming van den overeengekomen termijn. In de moeilijke tijden der Dardanellen-expeditie heeft de ondergeteekende in den korten tijd, van drie weken de aan de missie als schadevergoeding verschuldigde sommen, waarbij het om groote bedragen ging, integraal ontvangen. De onberispelijke houding in dat opzicht door de Turksche Regeering aangenomen, alsook de goede verstandhouding die steeds tusschen die regeering en den inspecteur-generaal heerschten, geven mij aanleiding om te protesteeren tegen de weinig kiesche wijze waarop de circulaire de Nederlandsche missie vermeldt.

Met de meeste hoogachting,
Uw dienstwillige dienaar,
Mr. C. L. Torley Duwel.

Wij willen den heer Torley Duwel de plaatsing van bovenstaand stuk niet weigeren, doch wijzen er op dat, hoe goed de Turksche regeering hare financieele verplichtingen tegenover de heeren Westenenk en Hoff moge zijn nagekomen, dit toch eigenlijk met de zaak van de Armenische moorden niets te maken heeft en de passage daaromtrent in den oproep van het Armenische comité van zóó weinig belang ten opzichte van de hoofdzaak is, dat wij er niet gaarne toe medewerken de aandacht van die hoofdzaak te doen afleiden.

Van de Armenische moorden, van de Turksche regeering, die deze moorden en andere wandaden heeft gelast, heeft voorbereid en georganiseerd, kan niet in te krachtige termen gesproken worden.

De tegenwoordige Turksche regeering hoeft zich een bedroevend "goed" opvolger getoond van "Abdul the damned on his internal throne." De Turksche regeering heeft den afschuw en de verachting van de geheele menschheid verdiend. Wij plaatsten gisteren een tegenspraak van de Turksche regeering, waarin de slachtingen in Armenië gedeeltelijk werden ontkend, gedeeltelijk goed gepraat. Maar om onze volle meening te zeggen: Die ontkenningen zijn het papier niet waard waarop zij geschreven zijn.

Wij hebben de ondergeteekende en beëedigde verklaringen gezien, in de merkwaardige boeken daarover reeds thans verschenen, van tientallen en tientallen getuigen, getuigen die verhalen van zulke verschrikkingen, zulke onmenschelijke en beestachtige mishandelingen en doodmartelarijen op groote schaal van vrouwen en kinderen, zulke afslachtingen van geheele dorpen en steden, dat elke twijfel is buitengesloten. De verhalen, de processen-verbaal mogen wij zeggen, herhalen met eentonige gelijkvormigheid dezelfde gruwelen – wie zulk een boek lezen moet, is te beklagen, zijn gemoedsrust is voor dagen weg, en de dingen erin beschreven – wij hebben er iets van verteld in ons avondblad van 1 Juni – zijn zoodanig dat wij ze onzen lezers niet konden en wilden oververtellen. En dat alles is getuigd niet alleen door Engelschen, Franschen, Armeniërs zelven. Neen, ook Duitschers, wetenschappelijke mannen, diep geschokt teruggekomen, hebben hun diepe verontwaardiging uitgeschreeuwd toen zij dien langen stoet mishandelden en ter martelbank en slachtbank geleiden voorbij hadden zien trekken, de lange rijen dooden waren voorbijgegaan. Duitsche liefdezusters, die met levensgevaar, doch tevergeefs, enkele kleine kinderen die hun ouders voor hun oogen hadden zien in stukken hakken, hadden trachten te redden, vertelden verhalen die geheel overeenkwamen met wat de Armeniërs zelven geschreven hebben. Red. H.

http://www.armeensegenocide.info/pers-nl/AH-19-9-1917.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Megiddo, 19-25 September 1918

The battle of Megiddo, 19-25 September 1918, was the climactic battle of the British invasion of Palestine of 1917-1918. It is also famous as the last great cavalry victory. The battle was subdivided by the British Battles Nomenclature Committee into the battles of Sharon, on the coast, and of Nablus, in the Judean Hills, either of which name makes rather more sense the Megiddo. The cavalry advance flowed past the ancient site of Megiddo, location of the first battle in recorded history (c.1457 BC), on the night of 19/20 September, and the temptation to adopt the name was clearly too great.

After the capture of Jerusalem in December 1917 the fighting died down over the winter. The spring of 1918 saw the series of great German offensives on the Western Front, forcing the British to abandon any plans for a further campaign in Palestine. General Allenby had the authority to undertake small scale operations, but any major offensive would have to wait until the crisis was over.

The Turks now had three armies in the line in Palestine, a total of 34,000 men to defend the line from the coast, across the Judean Hills, the Jordan valley and out to the Hejaz Railway, under the overall command of Liman von Sanders, a German officer who had spent three years in Turkey.

The British had 69,000 men in Palestine (57,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry). Allenby had decided to attack along the coast, on the Plain of Sharon, where the ground was well suited for cavalry. The Turkish front line defences were 3,000 yards deep, well constructed and protected by thin barbed wire. The second line, three miles to the rear, was less well prepared and consisted of unconnected strong-points, unprotected by wire.

During the spring of 1918 Allenby sent a series of expeditions into the Jordan Valley. This convinced the Turks that the British attack was going to come along the line of the Jordan. An advance up the valley would threaten Beisan and the railway supplying the Seventh and Eighth Armies, while further east a strike towards Deraa would threaten all three Turkish armies.

Allenby’s plan worked perfectly. By the middle of September the British had 35,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry and 383 guns on the western fifteen miles of the front line, facing 8,000 infantry and 130 guns. On the remaining forty five miles of the front the British had 22,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and 157 guns and the Turks and 24,000 men and 270 guns. 11,000 of them were east of the Jordan Valley, and were effectively out of the battle.

Allenby developed an ambitious plan for the battle itself. XXI corps, with five divisions, would attack along the coast and force the Turks to pull back along the line of the railway, north to Tul Keram and then east to Messudieh Junction. This would open a gap along the coast for the Desert Mounted Corps. Once they were past the Turkish lines their job was to ride north along the plain, cross a spur of the Judean hills and enter the Plain of Esdraelon. That would allow them to captured El Afule and Beisan, blocking the retreat of the Turkish Eighth and Seventh Armies. Their only possible line of retreat would have been east, across the Jordan Valley. XX corps was given the job of advancing along the hills towards Nablus to block the best passes down into the valley.

The preliminary operations began on 16 September. The Air Force bombed Deraa, further convincing Liman von Sanders that the British attack would come inland. At the same time a force of Arab rebels, amongst them T.E. Lawrence, cut the railways north, south and west from Deraa. Liman von Sanders moved some of his reserves east to deal with the perceived threat.

A second preliminary attack was launched by the 53rd Division of XX corps in the east of the Judean Hills. The attack was launched to move the 53rd Division into place for its main advance, to be once the attack on the left was well underway.

The main attack began at 4.30am on 19 September with a 15 minute artillery bombardment. The main infantry attack overwhelmed the outnumbered Turks in the front line. The 60th Division, on the left of the line, advanced 7,000 yards (nearly four miles) in the first two and a half hours, breaking through both the first and second Turkish lines, and capturing a bridgehead over the Nahr el Falik. This allowed the cavalry to begin its own advance. By the end of the first day XXI corps had captured most of the railway line north to Tul Keram. The Turkish Eighth Army, attempting to retreat through Tul Keram, was stopped by a combination of attack from the air, a rapid advance by the 5th Australian Light Horse and finally by the 60th Division, who by the end of the day had advanced seventeen miles and captured Tul Keram.

Meanwhile the cavalry advance achieved all of its objectives. By the end of the first day of the battle the cavalry had reached the edge of the Plain of Esdraelon, and by 2.30am on 20 September were advancing down into the valley. El Afule and Beisan were captured later in the day. The cavalry even came close to capturing Liman von Sanders in his headquarters at Nazareth. Early in the battle all communications with the front had broken down, as happened so often during the First World War. The approach of the British cavalry was the first warning Liman von Sanders received of the scale of the Turkish defeat. While the British attempted to find his headquarters, he made his escape back towards Tiberias.

By the end of the second day the Turkish Eighth Army had been destroyed and the Seventh Army was in serious danger. With the railway blocked, its only chance of escape was east from Nablus, along a road that led down the Wadi Fara into the Jordan Valley. This had been the target of XX corps, but their advance, which began during the afternoon of 19 September, had not been as successful as on the left. During 20 September XX corps made very little progress, and on the night of 20/21 September the Turks began to evacuate Nablus.

They were stopped by air power. Allied aircraft caught the Turkish column just east of Nablus, where the road passed through a gorge. Bombing soon blocked the road, and the survivors scattered into the hills, where most were soon captured. The advancing British found over 1,000 vehicles (including 90 guns and 50 lorries) abandoned on the road.

The British took 25,000 prisoners during the battle of Megiddo. Less than 10,000 Turkish and German soldiers escaped to retreat north. The pursuit continued throughout October. The Turks lost control of Damascus on 30 October. Ali Riza Pasha Rehabi, an Arab general in the Turkish army had been placed in command of the city by Liman von Sanders, but he was actually the president of the Syrian branch of the Arab Secret Society, and had met with T.E. Lawrence in 1917. Now with Turkish rule clearly collapsed, they seized control. On 1 October the first troops of the Arab Revolt entered the city, followed on the next day by the first of Allenby’s men.

Over the next month the British captured Beirut (8 October), Tripoli (18 October) and Aleppo (25 October). On 30 October, with Palestine, Syria and Iraq lost, the Turks requested an armistice. Megiddo was one of the best planned and executed British battles of the First World War, and had the most dramatic results. Allenby must take much of the credit for this, emerging as one of the more imaginative generals of the war.

Rickard, J (6 September 2007), Battle of Megiddo, 19-25 September 1918 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_megiddo1918.html
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Megiddo_(1918)
Kaart: http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/battle_of_megiddo_1918.htm

15th Light Horse Regiment

The 15th Light Horse Regiment was formed in Palestine in June 1918 from members of the Australian companies of the Imperial Camel Corps (ICC). The ICC had been disbanded because camel-mounted troops, a valuable addition to the British forces in the deserts of Egypt and the Sinai, were not suitable for the conditions being encountered in Palestine. Although many former light horse troopers were to be found in the ranks of the ICC, large numbers had also been recruited from infantry battalions and so several months of training were needed before the 15th was fit to commence operations as a horse-mounted regiment. The new regiment, along with another regiment of former cameleers – the 14th – and a regiment of French colonial cavalry, formed the 5th Light Horse Brigade, which became part of the Australian Mounted Division.

The 5th Light Horse Brigade fought in only one major operation – the great offensive launched by the battle of Megiddo on 19 September 1918. On this morning British infantry opened a gap in the Turkish front to the north of Jaffa, allowing mounted forces to penetrate deep into their rear areas, severing roads, railways and communications links. In ensuing days the Turkish front collapsed and as the Turks retreated into Syria they were harried by mounted troops, supported by aircraft, in close pursuit. In ten days from 19 September, the 5th Light Horse Brigade advanced over 650 kilometres. The Brigade entered Damascus on 1 October 1918, and carried out mopping-up and garrison tasks in the vicinity of Damascus for most of October. The Brigade was moving forward to join the drive on Aleppo when Turkey surrendered on 30 October. (...)

http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_10577.asp
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1918)

19 september 1918 - Er werd een Proces Verbaal opgesteld tegen vijf dienstweigeraars van de lichting 1917. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=191:09-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EDWARD GERALD PALMER FENN - 2ND. Sept. 1894 – 19th. Sept. 1918 - R.I.P.

Schitterende PDF! http://www.thekingscandlesticks.com/index_htm_files/Fenn%20Edward%20Gerald%20Palmer.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Lieutenant Frank Luke (1897-1918), The Arizona Balloon Buster.

Frank Luke, Jr. was the second highest scoring USAS Ace of WWI, with 18 victories. He was born in Phoenix, Arizona, May 19, 1897 to Mr. and Mrs Frank Luke, Sr.

Frank Luke enlisted in the Signal Corps, U.S. Army, on September 25, 1917, as a private. He was then sent for flying training to Rockwell Field, San Diego, California, on January 23, 1918, and was subsequently commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Aviation Section, Signal Officers Reserve Corps.

Arriving overseas for advanced flying training, he was stationed at the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudon, France, where he remained untl May 30, 1918, leaving for Caziaux. On July 26, 1918, he was ordered to active duty at the front with the 27th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, in the Aisne-Marne salient.

Frank Luke stood out among the others, as a lone wolf flyer at a time when formation flying was becoming the order of the day. He continued to make savage solo attacks at the enemy, even against orders to the contrary. He made a specialty of attacking observation balloons, possibly the toughest target any pilot in WWI could face, as they were protected by scores of machine guns and AA artillery, not to mention the occasional fighter squadron.

Yet, Frank Luke managed to down no fewer than 13 of these formidable targets in just one week of September 1918, two days of which he did not fly. One on day alone, September 18, 1918, he shot down 2 balloons and 3 aircraft. Yet, he would be dead, killed in action just 10 days later.

On September 28, 1918, while attacking two German observation balloons, the law of averages caught up with the young ace. He was severely wounded, and forced to land near the town of Murvaux, but not before he made a strafing run against a column of German soldiers along the road, killing six, and wounding many more.

When his plane landed, not far from where he attacked the German infantry. He got out to find himself surrounded by the enemy. The Germans called for him to surrender, but that was the last thing on his mind. He pulled his pistol and started shooting, the German infantry returned fire, ending his brief career.

Only 21 at the time of his death, he was also the ranking US ace at that time, with 14 balloons, and 4 airplanes for a total of 18 kills. He was the first of only two US aces to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for deeds of bravery in WWI (Eddie Rickenbacker being the second).

The testimony of witnesses to Luke's death:

We the undersigned, living in Murvaux, Department of the Meuse, certify to have seen on 19 September 1918 toward evening an American aviator, followed by an escadrille of Germans in the direction of Liny, descend suddenly, vertically toward the earth, then straighten out close to the ground, and fly in the direction of Briers Farm, where he found a German captive balloon he burned. He flew toward Milly where he found another balloon which he also burned in spite of incessant fired directed toward his plane. He shot down a third balloon and two planes. He apparently was wounded by a shot from rapid- fire cannon. He came back over Murvaux and with his guns killed six German soldiers and wounded as many more. Following he landed and got out of his machine to quench his thirst at the stream. He had gone fifty yards when, seeing the Germans come toward him, he had the strength to draw his revolver to defend himself. A moment after, he fell dead from a serious wound he received in the chest. The undersigned placed the body of the aviator in a wagon and conducted it to the cemetery.

Voliner Nicholas
Cortine Delbart
Mayor Auguste Garre
Murvaux, 15 January 1919

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Luke
Zie ook http://www.usaww1.com/Frank_Luke.php4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Vrijdag 19 September 1919.

Valkenswaard. Woensdag werd op de schietbaan door de burgerwacht een schietwedstrijd gehouden. Door den president der burgerwacht den heer H. Hoekx werd ƒ 25 in geldprijzen beschikbaar gesteld. Van de geoefenden werden de prijzen behaald als volgt: Peels, Vos, Moonen, Prinsen, Driessen, B. Peels, v. Gaelen, Pluimers en Verhappen. Van de ongeoefenden werden de prijzen behaald als volgt: Dureaij, Withoos, v. Heijst, v. Dooren, Geldens, v.d. Linden, Baken-Meegers en de Louw. De wedstrijd had een aangenaam verloop, waarna aan de winnaars de prijzen werden uitgereikt onder een toepasselijk woord. Een woord van dank werd gebracht aan den president die dezen wedstrijd zoo steunde.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19192.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Labor History

19 September 1919 - Looting, rioting and sporadic violence broke out in downtown Boston and South Boston for days after 1,117 Boston policemen declared a work stoppage due to their thwarted attempts to affiliate with the American Federation of Labor. Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge put down the strike by calling out the entire state militia.

http://www.lutins.org/labor.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2010 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tank Plaque, Museum of Lincolnshire Life, Lincoln

In the history of combat, few things can have had more dramatic effect than the invention of the Tank. Lincoln was at the forefront of the invention of this fighting machine which changed the face of warfare.

In the "Great War" of 1914-1918, the opposing forces quickly became bogged down on the battlefields of France. Infantry and cavalry were useless against the mud and the enemy machine guns and casualties were running at horrific levels. In an attempt to find a solution the Admiralty Landships Committee was formed and they in turn approached a Lincoln firm, William Foster & Company Limited, an engineering company specialising in agricultural machinery. They had, before the war, experimented with a caterpillar tracked vehicle for difficult terrain. Foster’s heavy Daimler tractors were already being used to haul massive howitzer guns and heavy military equipment so their credentials were already known to the military. To keep the project secret the workforce were told that they were working on "water carriers for Mesopotamia". From this somewhat awkward title the workers came up with their own, more simple name —"THE TANK".

Foster’s managing director, William Tritton, had re-vitalised Foster’s trading position in the pre-war years and quickly adapted to the new opportunities that wartime threw up. It took just 37 days to produce the first prototype tank and it was tested on waste ground near the factory on 19th September 1915. Known as "Little Willie" it was a simple 15 ton armoured box on top of American caterpillar tracks which had the unfortunate habit of coming off whenever a manoeuvre was carried out. Different designs were tried and finally one with tracks which went all the way around the tank body was adopted. This 28 ton version was known initially as "Big Willie" but later as "Mother" - an appropriate name as it was the mother of the modern battle tank. The "Mother" tank proved much more reliable than its predecessor and taking just 141 days from the inception to testing Fosters quickly went into full-scale production. The tank saw its first action at Flers in France seven months after the first order had been placed. It changed the pattern of the war.

This plaque, which can be found in the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, was one of a set made by William Foster & Co. Ltd. to present as a token of thanks to firms that had provided materials for the tank.

Foto... http://www.flickr.com/photos/lincolnian/4510081647/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldiers welding together sections of a boat, 19 September 1918.

The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway owned boats, including ferries which took people over to Ireland and the Isle of Man. However, this boat may be being built to be used during the First World War.

Fotootje... https://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/results.asp?image=10444171
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 8:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 September 1918 - Signaller John Ashworth died on this day

John Ashworth was born in the spring of 1898 to Joseph and Margaret, 46, Cleaver St, Burnley, Lancashire. By the time of the April 1911 Census, and still only 12, John was a part time weaver while still attending school. There were 7 in the family, living in the 4 rooms of 84 Waterbarn Street, Burnley.

John enlisted in January 1916 and went out to Salonica in late December 1917. He died of his wounds on 19 September 1918.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/on-this-day/19-september-1918-signaller-john-ashworth-died-on-this-day/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 8:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ARSUF : THE CAVALRY DASH ALONG THE SEA COAST ON THE MORNING OF THE 19TH SEPTEMBER 1918

Object description: A column of British cavalry moves along a sandy beach that is flanked by rocky cliffs.
History note: Wellington House commission, transferred to Dept and Ministry of Information and then to the Imperial War Museum.

Schilderij... https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/18133
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 9:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 september 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Hector Maes is op 24 april 1894 geboren in Langemark. De ongehuwde zoon van Alphonse en Mathilda Florence Depoorter treedt in 1916 in dienst van het Belgisch leger. Op 18 september 1917 wordt hij op de weg naar Lampernisse door een obusscherf getroffen en geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep. Hij overlijdt daar de volgende dag om 14 uur. Het slachtoffer wordt op 21 september 1917 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Oeren. Op het bidprentje staat verkeerdelijk 21 oktober 1917.
Zijn broer Jules Maes sneuvelde twee jaar eerder en ligt naast hem begraven in Oeren.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/19-september
(Het mooiste woord van deze maand staat hier... 'verkeerdelijk')
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 9:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldiers’ Newsletter, 19 September 1917
We'll See Them Through - Northwestern Pritzker School of Law in the World War I Era

No. [?]

September 19, 1917

Dear friends: After a lapse of several weeks another news budget is starting on its way. It goes out with a considerably reduced mailing list, due to the number of old subscribers who have “moved and left no forwarding address” – a common failing among lawyers, as evidenced by constantly changing alumni records. We have delayed getting out the bulletin, expecting that as soon as the new officers were settled in their training quarters, they would write and tell us about it. In the last few days we have heard from several, and hope this will stir up some more.

We were very glad to hear from Serg. Lodwick, as he set sail early in August for “port unknown”. He reports from Cuba: “We don’t know what we’re here for, and most of us don’t care. We are quite well fed and housed; work very hard – what more should one want in war time? Succeeded in getting lost in a tropical forest last week, and have the nicest collection of cacti in and around my anatomy. My idea of zero in athletics is being lost in a tropical forest at night.”

We are filled with pride and delight at the prospect of having our Major with us again next week. We only wish that he might come marching at the head of the stalwart sons of Northwestern, now in service the world over! It will be a glad and proud day for all of us when Johnnie does come marching home.

The Major has a message for us: “On the Sept. 4 parade of the Drafted Men in Washington, Major Wigmore was in the ranks with the war Department contingent. In the first line, led by the Secretary of War and General Scott, Chief of Staff, came the chiefs of bureaus, then came the General Staff, then the Provost Marshal General’s staff, to which Major Wigmore belongs for the time. The parade started at the Capitol, went up Pennsylvania Ave., and was reviewed by the President in front of the White House grounds. Next day, the rumor went round the Provost Marshal General’s office that the Major might be a German spy. An explanation of this baseless slander being promptly demanded by him (at the point of the pen), he was told by a Major friend that its origin was this: It was notorious that he had had no prior service in our army; and yet his military carriage and demeanor in the march was striking and unmistakeable; hence it must have been gained in some other army, therefore possibly the German army! The Major successfully explained away this superficial and weak inference (on logical principles well known to veterans of Evidence I) by disclosing that he had ample marching experience, viz. in successfully leading six hundred stalwart Northwestern rooters over the State Street cobblestones, to welcome Marshal Joffre, away back in April last. This was deemed conclusive. (By the way, doesn’t that Joffre day seem away back in the past? Well, there will be another Northwestern parade, for sure, when we all get back).”

Much interest centers around every bit of news we can glean from our Hospital Unit. We give you here a large part of a letter just received from Comrade Bovard: “Your little news letters are as welcome as a pardon on a scaffold or a good cigarette in France. It certainly pute “pep” into us to know that you are backing us up. My work as ward orderly involves too many brooms and mops and not enough bayonets and battle axes to suit my taste. But perhaps this is a good training for my first year in a law office. I am also getting “fed up” with petty orders from pettycoats, but I find relief in heated arguments with the offending skirts. Rauhoff works in the cook house with several of the English boys, and is also keen for debates. The other day one of his garbage can assistants was scoffingly pointing out the futility of America’s hopes to do the job quickly when England -had fought so long without the desired result. Rauhoff finished him off with this: Rauhoff – “Well we licked the Germans once and we can do it again.” English Potato peeler: “When was that?” M.A.R. “When you hired them to fight us in ‘76.” E.P. batteries silenced.

Strickler is King of the Bathhouse, and has entered the realm of Politics with marked success. After exhibiting his prowess at track and baseball he has been elected president of the athletic council. Frank Clauson’s mustache with its waxed tips, is the envy of the whole camp, but especially of ”hoot” Myers , whose attempt resembles a crop of bayenets on “no man’s land”. McKenzie is corporal in the QQM. Dept. and to uphold the dignity of his position he feels it necessary to shine his shoes three times a. day with my polish and brush. However, he hasn’t forgotten that he was in the ranks once himself.”

The W.G.N. of yesterday prints a picture the ambulance drivers of Section 65, and gives the title of the valient leader of the Class of ’16 as “Sous(e) Chef”. We always knew our Louie was versatile, and could accomplish whatever he set out to do; but just that field of endeavor we never dreamed of for him. But whatever they may call him, we are most enthusuastically proud of the record he is making as subchief of the section which has been awarded the Croix de Guerre, of which it has been written “they have acted with perfect selfcontrol and with a courage which has drawn the admiration of every one.—On the night of August 31 twenty-six of these boys spent the night in a mushroom cellar on the aide of a hill half a kilometer from the fierce German attack, carrying the wounded under the direction of Chief Thompson and Subchief Caldwell.”

We learn, also through the public press, that Messrs. Hightower, Davies and James are anxious to get into more active branches of service. They expect to have to come home to enlist. Mr. Sherwood as already returned and is taking the aviation tests.

As to the present location of men who received commissions in the 1st T.C., we have very hazy notions. 2nd Lieut. C.W.Johnson writes from Columbus, N M.: “Only three days in Columbus and am longing for a busy and muddy trench in France. But one should not (dis)cuss the country as Harold Bell Wright said it was God’s country. It is. God made it and couldn’t get rid of it, so it is still his. I like the work and am glad to be with a Regular outfit. Am officer of the Guard to-day, and we have with us 700 I.W.W.’s. As yet I have not seen any other N.W. men on the range.” Mr. Johnson is Lieut. 12th Cav. U.S.A.

2nd Lieuts. Rose, White and E.N. Maher, we note, were transferred from Camp Grant to Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, Texas. We have not heard from them. Lieut. Larimer paid us a call on his way east to join the other heavy artillerymen. (This does not refer to the scales). He “looked the part” as a real soldier. 2nd Lieuts. Marshall, Golding, Groth and Thorsness are located at Camp Grant, Rockford. The whereabouts of the rest are unknown to us.

Our knowledge of the Law School men in the 2nd T.C. is also inaccurate. Those we know to be there are Messrs. Brewer, Hiebsch, West Kuflewski and Hutchins. Mr. Hutchins has written of his interest in the life and work up there.

Mr. A.B. Chipman has joined the military; is with the Sanitary Deployment 4th Ind. Inf. Has been appointed 2nd Serg. of the detachment and is located at Fort Benj. Harrison.

Mr. Smokiewicz is with the U.S. American Ambulance Co, at Allen-[Rowan?] Pa. He reports that one contingent has already left for France, and she rest are hopeful of getting away shortly. He says “Every section has a mascot. They vary from several species of dogs to a [cub?] bear, a monkey, angora goat, parrot and cats, but the most affectionate of all the animals here are the mosquitoes.”

Copies of the lllinois Law Review have been sent to all of our students now in service abroad. If they have not be en received, we hope you will so notify us.

Harry S. Norton has gone to Houston with the 2nd Ills. F.A. Summer breezes had been blowing so briskly along the lake front that the boys were glad to go even to the land of centipedes and rattlesnakes.

It is reported that Mr, Henderson has left the Ambulance Corps and has joined the Aviation corps, Mr. Wohl has started his training in that service, and Mr. Wade has been accepted for training.

Jos. H. Wagner (also Fritz Seifred) is one of the shining lights in the Rainbow Division of the N.G., in the much praised 149th Art., now located on Long Island.

It is our desire to follow you up in your travels with this little news letter, but the patience of Uncle Sam is none too long these days, with all his extra worries, and we cannot promise to do it, unless you are willing to do your share by sending us your own address and that of any other N.W.L.S. man you may know.

https://sites.northwestern.edu/plrcwwi/student-newsletter-19-september-1917/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 9:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Unterhaltungsblatt und Anzeiger für den Kreis Schleiden und Umgegend (Amtliches Kreisblatt) vom 19. September 1917

Vogelbeeren sollen zur Marmeladengewinnung gesammelt werden.

Bekanntmachung.
Gemäß Verfügung der Bezirksstelle für Gemüse
von Obst in Aachen sollen möglichst alle Vogelbeeren
zur Lieferung an die Marmelandenfabriken erfaßt
werden. Für den Zentner Vogelbeeren, die möglichst
ohne Stiele zu sammeln sind, werden 10-12 Mark
bezahlt. Bei folgenden Unterkommissionären, welche
die Beeren zur Verladung annehmen, kann jede weitere
Auskunft eingeholt werden:
Ortsvorsteher Berners in Schöneseiffen, Franz
Theißen in Goetenich, Feldhüter Hilgers in Dreiborn,
Gemeindevorsteher Eich in Uedelhoven, Johann Krings
in Ripsdorf, Jakob Merzenich in Eichs, Bernhard,
Lieberg in Untervlattern, Jakob Heumann in Mecher-
nich, Johann Dinger in Gemünd.
Ferner sind als Unterkommissionäe in Aussicht ge-
nommen und bei der Bezirksstelle zur Genehmigung
vorgeschlagen: Karl Jülich in Schleiden, Hubert Rade-
macher in Frohngau, Heinrich Laaf in Reifferscheid,
Heinrich Kragwinkel in Blankenheim, Wilhem Peetz
in Dollendorf.
Schleiden, den 10. September 1917
Der Vorsitzende des Kreisausschusses:
Graf v[on] Spee.

https://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/41594
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 9:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meerle tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog - De dagboeken van burgemeester Lodewijk Van Nueten (1914-1918)

Woensdag 19 september 1917
Ruw weder, blijft droog.

Geen nieuws van den oorlog.

Van af gisteren is den dag eene uur later, ’s nachts was het 1 na 3 gegaan, in april waren er 2 maal 2 uur en A en 2B.

Gisteren avond kwam bevel om heden patatten te keuren.

bij Havermans W op 1 aar.

(kantlijn per aar)

20 Kilog groote eetaardappelen

20 Kilog zetaardappelen

126 Kilog kleine en zieke aardappelen

bij Jansen Frans Mik

100 K. groote eetaardappelen

20 K. zetaardappelen

64 K. zieke aardappelen

bij Ant Meeuwissen Ginnekenseinde

180 K. eetaardappelen

20 K zetaardappelen

24 K. kleine en zieke aardappelen

-> gemiddeld K 19100 per hectaar, de prijs is nu heden: 20 fr % Kilog, dat is zeer duur.

Ik vernam heden nieuws aan de Braederbosschen te Ulikoten, groot 300 hectaren: Men bied voor het hout 175000 guldens dat is aan de wissel van heden 655000 franken 36 centen. Men bied voor den eigendom 1000000, 1 millioen franken. De huidige eigenaars hebben dien eigendom nog in den oorlog gekocht, van zekere Koning en Cie. en winnen er zeker de helft op. Er staat eene rent op van 100000 gulden. (Kantlijn: firma: Koning en Bakker)

A. Soil 17 Generalstaat 17 Brussel is bestuurder. Men raad hem aan in het geheim, niet te verkoopen (CDR). Koning (firma) was een Amsterdammer, een gelukzoeker, was in den oorlog tot eene boete veroordeeld in smokkel, daar om verkocht hij den eigendom, men kon hem niet aanslagen, maar ander eigenaars gaan nu met het vet loopen.

Allemaal werk van de Rolin die alles hebben bewerkt en nooit iets hebben genoten, alles aan vreemde.

http://www.meerle14-18.be/2017/09/19/woensdag-19-september-1917/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2018 9:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reginald Roy Inwood, VC - 19 September 1917

Reginald Roy Inwood, VC (14 July 1890 – 23 October 1971) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross.

He was 27 years old, and a private in the 10th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when he performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

Born 14 July 1890 at North Adelaide, South Australia, the eldest son of Edward Henry Inwood and his wife Mary Anne (Minney). The family later moved to Broken Hill where, after leaving school, he began work in the local mines. Inwood enlisted in the 1st AIF, 10th Infantry Battalion on 24 August 1914 and on 20 October he embarked for Egypt where he took part in the Gallipoli Campaign landings. His battalion was in the first wave of the landing at Anzac Cove.

Inwood was awarded the Victoria Cross for actions during the period 19–22 September 1917 in an attack at Polygon Wood, near Ypres, Belgium during the Battle of Menin Road:

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the advance to the second objective. He moved forward through our barrage alone to an enemy strong post and captured it, together with nine prisoners, killing several of the enemy. During the evening he volunteered for a special all night patrol, which went out 600 yards in front of our line, and there – by his coolness and sound judgment – obtained and sent back very valuable information as to the enemy’s movements. In the early morning of the 21 September, Private Inwood located a machine gun which was causing several casualties. He went out alone and bombed the gun and team, killing all but one, whom he brought in as a prisoner with the gun

He later achieved the rank of sergeant. Inwood’s two younger brothers also served and saw action on the Western Front. Pte Harold Ray Inwood, 43rd Battalion, returned to Australia in 1917; while Sergeant Robert Minney Inwood, also of the 10th Battalion, fought at Gallipoli and was killed in action on the second day of the Battle of Pozières on 24 July 1916 at the age of twenty.

Inwood returned to a hero’s welcome in Broken Hill in October 1918 but at an event organised in his honour gave a controversial public speech. He claimed he had “been stoned by mongrels at the train” when he had departed to fight and with his return “those mongrels were the first to shake me by the hand”.] He told the crowd “I would like to be at one end of the street with a machine-gun and have them at the other end”. In the House of Representatives Rep Michael Considine accused Inwood of trying “to incite trouble between returned soldiers and the working classes”.

No longer welcome in Broken Hill Inwood moved to Adelaide where he found difficulty finding work. Inwood married a 23-year-old widow, Mabel Alice Collins Weber on 31 December 1918 but they divorced in 1921, whereupon he moved to Queenstown, Tasmania to work in the mines. He later moved to Kangaroo Island where he worked in a Eucalyptus distillery. Inwood married Evelyn Owens in 1927 and following her death married Louise Elizabeth Gates in 1942. Returning to Adelaide in 1928 he was employed as a labourer by the Adelaide City Council until 1955 when he retired. During the Second World War, Inwood served as a warrant officer with the Citizens Military Force.

Inwood died on 23 October 1971, given a military funeral he was buried at the West Terrace AIF Cemetery, Adelaide, South Australia.

In his will Roy Inwood bequeathed all his war medals to the 10th Battalion Club who, when informed, indicated they would donate the Victoria Cross itself to the Australian War Memorial. Inwood objected and stated he wanted the medal to remain in Adelaide. In June 1971, with Inwood’s consent, the VC was presented to the City of Adelaide. The VC was stored in the high security vault in the Council’s Archives while a replica was put on display.

In 2005 Inwood’s VC became the centre of considerable media and community debate with calls for it to be displayed in the Australian War Memorial’s national Victoria Cross Collection. After consulting with the Inwood family and other interested parties, it was decided to honour Inwood’s dying wishes. In December 2005 funds were allocated to provide security so the original Victoria Cross could be displayed in the Adelaide Town Hall instead of the replica. In 2007 the debate briefly reignited and the matter remains a “touchy” subject.

http://eyewitnesstours.com/reginald-roy-inwood-vc-awarded-100-years-ago-19-september-1917/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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