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27 augustus

 
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Richard



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2006 12:06    Onderwerp: 27 augustus Reageer met quote

1914: De Slag bij Helgoland.
1915: De Brit generaal Townshend krijgt opdracht de Turkse basis Kut-el-Amara in te nemen.
1916:Roemenië verklaard de oorlog aan Oostenrijk-Hongarije en valt meteen de provincie Transsylvanië binnen, waar veel etnische Roemenen wonen.
1917: Hevige gevechten op de rechtermaasoever bij Verdun.
1918: Zware gevechten tussen Arras en Somme
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2009 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brandeville: het drama van augustus 1914

Op 27 augustus 1914 ontving het garnizoen van Montmédy, bestaande uit zo'n 2300 man, het bevel van Joffre om de citadel van Montmédy te verlaten en richting Verdun te gaan. Tegen de avond voeren de mannen het bevel uit, en nadat ze de bewapening van de vesting onklaar hebben gemaakt, verlaten ze Montmédy. Omdat er niemand was om de mannen te leiden richting Verdun, raakten velen verdwaald, en tijdens de nachtelijke zwerftocht verdronken een aantal soldaten.
Tegen de ochtend van de 28ste augustus komen de meesten aan bij het Woëvre-bos bij Mouzay. Enkele patrouilles worden in zuidelijke richting gestuurd. Zij komen er achter dat het detachement aanzienlijke Duitse tegenstand staat te wachten.
Tijdens de nacht van 28 op 29 augustus komen de Fransen soldaten in de bossen van Brandeville terecht bij een grote groep Duitse soldaten. Er wordt besloten om niet meer verder te gaan richting Verdun, maar om in de ochtend van de 29ste aan te vallen om zo een ontsnappingsroute te creëren richting het zuiden

lees verder:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?p=273167#273167
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2009 17:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 - Britse marinesoldaten ontschepen in Oostende om in Antwerpen het Belgische leger te versterken. Het neutrale Nederland heeft geweigerd ze binnen te laten via de Schelde om zo in Antwerpen zelf te ontschepen.

1914 - Mechelen wordt voor het eerst gebombardeerd.

1916 - Roemenië verklaart de oorlog aan Oostenrijk-Hongarije.

1918 - Aan het Franse front veroveren de Amerikanen de stad Montfaucon.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 17:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 26-28 August, on the Southwest Front, General Brudermann's 3rd Austro-Hungarian Army, although badly outnumbered, attacked General Ruzskiy's 3rd Russian Army on the Zlota Lipa to the east and southeast of Lemberg, suffering a disastrous defeat and losing two thirds of his forces.

On 26-30 August, due to poor intelligence the Russian Northwest Front HQ believed the Germans were retreating and ordered Samsonov's 2nd Army to resume its advance and intercept them.

On 27 August, the Battle of Tannenberg opened in East Prussia. The German I Reserve, XX, I and XVII Corps were closing a ring around Samsonov's XIII, XV and half of the XXII Corps. In China, the Germans were defending Tsingtao.

On 27 August, on the Southwest Front, there was heavy fighting in Galicia at the Battle of Zamosc-Komarov, as the Russian 5th Army drove back the Austro-Hungarian 4th Army near Tarnawka, threatening the line of an Austro-Hungarian withdrawal. During the Battle of the Gnila-Lipa River, the Austro-Hungarian 3rd Army was thrown back on Lemberg by the Russian 3rd and 8th Armies. The Austro-Hungarians began a general retreat across the San River. The Russian 8th Army took Tarnopol, 120 km southeast of Lemberg, taking 20,000 prisoners and 70 guns.

http://warchron.com/tannenberg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 17:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur Machen on 27 August 1914 LeCateau spectral "cavalrymen

A friend of mine just sent me these remarks by the Welsh mystic and
fantasist Arthur Machen (1863-1947) about ghostly or angelic
"cavalrymen" seen by retreating British soldiers at Le Cateau, France on
the night of August 27, 1914 in World War I. Machen wrote these remarks
as part of an ongoing journalistic controversy about "The Bowmen,"
Machen's patriotic-supernatural tale of the "Angels of Mons" supposedly
seen by British troops over a Belgian battlefield in the early days of
World War I. Machen always claimed that the story was purely
fictional--but many British soldiers present at the battle of Mons wrote
claiming they themselves had actually seen the ghostly or angelic
mediaeval bowmen described by Machen. Was Arthur Machen, like Charles
Fort, an early postmodernist, an incongruous unwitting forerunner of
Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard, and Richard Rorty?
And was Machen's dawning awareness from 1899 of the world being
presented to him at a new angle, a strangeness in the proportion of
things, an anticipation of Ludwig Wittgenstein's "not /how /the world
is, is the mystical, but /that/ the world is" (/Tractatus
Logico-Philosophicus/, 6.44)?

Arthur Machen wrote:

It was somewhere about the autumn of 1899 that I began to be
conscious that the world was being presented to me at a new angle. I
find now an extreme difficullty in the choice of words to convey my
meaning; 'a new angle' is clumsy enough, 'here in this world he changed
his life' is far too high in its associations; but there certainly came
to be a strangeness in the proportion of things, both in things exterior
and interior. And it is in these latter that I held and still hold that
the true wonder, the true mystery, the true miracle reside. There is
the old proverb, of course: 'Seeing is believing' and , for once, the
old proverb is widely astray. All phenonmenal perception is apt to be
deceitful, and very often is deceitful.

I had a curious instance of this in the midst of the famous 'Angel
of Mons' controversy. An officer of very high distinction wrote to me
from the front, and described a most remarkable experience which had
been vouchsafed to him and to others during the retreat of August 1914.
The battle of Le Cateau was fought on 26 August. My correspondent's
division, as he writes -- his letter is quoted at length in the
introduction to the second edition of "The Bowmen" -- was heavily
shelled, 'had a bad time of it', but retired in good order. It was on
the march all the night of the 26th, and throughout 27th August, with
only about two hours' rest.

By the night of the 27th we were all absolutely worn out with
fatigue -- both bodily and mental fatigue. No doubt we also suffered to
a certain extent from shock; but the retirement still continued in
excellent order, and I feel sure that our mental faculties were still
quite sound and in good working condition. On the night of the 27th I
was riding along in the column with two other officers. We had been
talking and doing our best to keep from falling asleep on our horses.
As we rode along I became conscious of the fact that, in the fields on
both sides of the road along which we were marching, I could see a very
large body of horsemen. These horsemen had the appearance of squadrons
of cavalry, and they seemed to be riding across the fields and going in
the same direction as we were going, and keeping level with us. The
night was not very dark, and I fancied that I could see squadron upon
squadron of these cavalrymen quite distinctly. I did not say a word
about it at first, but I watched them for about twenty minutes. The
other two officers had stopped talking. At least one of them asked me
if I saw anything in the fields. I told him what I had seen.

The third officer then confessed that he too had been watching these
horsemen for the past twenty minutes. So convinced were we that they
were really cavalry that, at the next halt, one of the officers took a
party of men out to reconnoitre, and found no one there ... The same
phenomenon was seen by many men in our column ..
.
I myself am absolutely convinced that I saw these horsemen; and I
feel sure that they did not exist only in my imagination.

Now I have not the faintest notion what really happened to the
Colonel, to the two officers and to many of the men in the column. What
concerns us for the moment is that these people were at first perfectly
certain that they saw sensible objects, that is, cavalrymen, and then
were perfectly certain that there were no sensible objects to see; and
therefore it may be concluded from this instance and from many
instances, of like sort, that the senses are deceptive; that the world
of the senses is very largely a world of illusion and delusion.

[Background tale that inspired Arthur Machen's 1914 short story "The
Bowmen" as related by Arthur Machen in (1923) from /Things Near And
Far/; now found in "The World of the Senses", in /Dancing with the
Dark/, ed. Stephen Jones, Carol & Graf, 1999, pp. 210-212.]


http://www.mail-archive.com/mythfolk@yahoogroups.com/msg01373.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Österreichisch-Ungarischen Dokumente zum Kriegsausbruch

Graf Berchtold an Grafen Clary in Brüssel, 27. August 1914

Z. 68798 / 7

W i e n , den 27. August 1914

T e l e g r a m m i n c l a r i s

Ich ersuche Eure · / ., dem königlich belgischen Minister des Äußern sofort folgendes zu telegraphieren:

»D'ordre de mon Gouvernement j'ai l'honneur de notifier à Votre Excellence ce qui suit:

Vu que la Belgique, après avoir refusé d'accepter les propositions qui lui avaient été adressées à plusieurs reprises par l'Allemagne, prête sa coopération militaire à la France et à la Grande­Bretagne qui, toutes deux, ont déclaré la guerre à l'Autriche­Hongrie, et en présence du fait que, comme il vient d'être constaté, les ressortissants autrichiens et hongrois se trouvant en Belgique ont, sous les yeux des autorités Royales, dû subir un traitement contraire aux exigences les plus primitives de l'humanité et inadmissible même vis­à ­vis des sujets d'un état ennemi, l'Autriche­Hongrie se voit dans la nécessité de rompre les relations diplomatiques et se considère dès ce moment en état de guerre avec la Belgique.

Je quitte le pays avec le personnel de la Légation et confie la protection de mes administrés au Ministre des Etats­Unis d'Amérique en Belgique.
De la part du Gouvernement I. et R. les passeports sont remis au Comte Errembault de Dudzeele.

C l a r y «

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/III,_182._Graf_Berchtold_an_Grafen_Clary_in_Br%C3%BCssel,_27._August_1914
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 17:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg, 26. - 30. August 1914

Die Ereignisse am 27. August 1914

Die Kämpfe des I. und XX.AK (Westgruppe)
Die Nacht zum 27. August verlief völlig ruhig. Zu allen Verbänden waren Offiziere des Oberkommandos entsandt worden, um bessere Nachrichtenübermittlung zu gewährleisten. Der Angriff sollte um 04:00 Uhr morgens beginnen. Am heutigen Tag sollte die Entscheidung fallen. Der Oberbefehlshaber Paul von Hindenburg wollte dem Geschehen nahe sein und das Zusammenwirken des I. und XX.AK selbst beobachten und regeln. Er hatte dazu seinen Gefechtsstand am Südende des Großen Damerau-Sees einrichten lassen, da dieser Standort eine weite Übersicht des Geländes ermöglichte. Unmittelbar vor der Abfahrt dorthin meldete das I.AK, Usdau sei seit 05:00 Uhr genommen. Beim Eintreffen auf dem Gefechtsstand aber stellte sich heraus, dass die Meldung auf einem Irrtumi beruhte.
Der inzwischen zum Generaloberst beförderte Hindenburg konnte von seinem Standort aus selbst sehen, wie auch jetzt noch starkes Feuer von eigener, leichter und schwerer Artillerie auf dem erhöht gelegenen, nur 7 km entfernten Ort Usdau lag.

Lees verder op http://www.tannenberg1914.de/3_tannb/2708.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 17:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers - Etreux - 27th August 1914

Location Information: Etreux is a village in the Department of the Aisne, 32 kilometres north-east of St Quentin and 20 kilometres west of La Capelle. The British Cemetery is in an orchard at the entrance of the village on the Landrecies road (D946).

Historical Information: On the 27th August, 1914, Etreux was the scene of the Rearguard Affair, in which the 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers were overwhelmed, after a long reistance, by nine German battalions. The British Cemetery is in an orchard on the Landrecies road, beyond the railway line, very close to the scene of the 2nd Munsters' last stand. It was made by the survivors on the 28th August, by permission of the enemy. It contains a Celtic Cross (erected by the mother of one of the Munsters' officers) and two big graves. There are 126 Commonwealth burials of the 1914-18 war commemorated in this site. Of these, 27 are unidentified. The cemetery covers an area of 755 square metres and enclosed on three side by a brick wall and on the forth by a farm building.

No. of Identified Casualties: 99

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=18811
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

27 August 1915 - Renewed attempt to take Hill 60
Between 27 and 29 August, a mixed force of Australian, New Zealand and British units again attacked Hill 60, gained some ground, but failed to take and hold the main Turkish position.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mercantile Marine - Australian Merchant Navy Ships and Horses - 1st Div 21st Battalion Light Horse AIF - Last day in Camp, Heliopolis Camp. 27 August 1915

http://photos.mercantilemarine.org/main.php?g2_view=slideshowapplet.SlideshowApplet&g2_itemId=1569
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extracts from a meeting of the Dardanelles Committee, 27 August 1915

Mooi pdf'je... http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/greatwar/pdf/g4cs2all.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mouquet Farm

The Fourth Division was thrown in again and attacked on the nights of 27 August, 29 August and 3 September, pushing towards Mouquet Farm. The farm, however, resisted capture and was still in enemy hands when the Australians were relieved on 5 September. Ten days later, on 15 September, in a major offensive on a wide front, with tanks being used for the first time, the British were moderately successful in advancing east of Pozières. But Mouquet Farm still held out and did not fall until 26 September 1916.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields/mouquet-farm-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ROMANIAN CENSORSHIP IN OLD ROMANIA (August 1916-1920)

The Establishment of Censorship

On August 27 1916 Romania mobilized and declared war against Austro-Hungary. On the same day the High Command Headquarters issued decree No.2798 proclaiming a state of siege. As a consequence of this, censorship procedures were established with the first day of censorship being August 27 1916. In the capital town of each county a censorship office was established by the military. All the mail from a particular county had to be censored at the capital town.

Leest verder op http://membres.multimania.fr/dgrecu/cenzWWI.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Romanian Army - 27 August 1916

http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/916MHAA.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OFFICERS DIED 1916

2nd Lieutenant ARTHUR LANCELOT APPERLY - Killed 27th August 1916 - 5th Battalion.
Listed on the Thiepval Memorial.

2nd Lieutenant CHARLES BRIEN - Killed in action 27th August 1916 - 5th Battalion
Lived in Cheltenham, where he was a tax surveyor. A territorial soldier before the war, he was commissioned June 1916. He was killed during an attack on German trenches and is buried at Mill Road Cemetery, Thiepval.

Lieutenant LIONEL WATSON MOORE - Killed in action 27th August 1916 - 1/5th Battalion
Killed near Pozieres Ridge. Aged 22. Son of Thomas and Ellen Moore, of Tewksbury, Glos. Listed on the Thiepval Memorial.

Lieut. CYRIL WILLIAM WINTERBOTHAM - Killed in action 27th August 1916 - 1/5th Bn
Born 27th February 1887, in Cheltenham. Educated Cheltenham College and Lincoln College, Oxford (Law degree). Commissioned September 1914. Killed when the Battalion, without support, attacked German positions near Mouquet Farm, Ovillers-la-Boiselle. Listed on the Thiepval Memorial. Winterbotham was a war poet.

http://glosters.tripod.com/1916off.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

[Akaba], 27.8. 17

This is written in a tent full of flies at Akaba, and the boat is leaving this afternoon. There is as usual nothing to say. I got here on the 17th of August, and found all as I had left it, except that my milk-camel has run dry: a nuisance this, because it will take me time to find another. I have too much to do, little patience to do it with, and yet things are going tolerably well. It is much more facile doing daily work as a cog of a machine, than it is running a campaign by yourself. However it's the maddest campaign ever run, which is saying quite a little lot, and if it ever works out to a conclusion will be imperishable fun to look back upon. For the moment it is heavy and slow, weary work, with no peace for the unfortunate begetter of it anywhere.

Newcombe is in Egypt ill; (nerves mostly). I've lost sight of everybody else. By the way I have returned to the Egypt Expeditionary Force, and should properly have no more to do with the Arab Bureau: but so eccentric a show as ours is doesn't do anything normal. Wherefore please address me as before, and don't put any fancy letters before or after my name. These things are not done by my intention, and therefore one can hardly count them.

I'm very glad you saw Mr. Hogarth. He will have probably given you a better idea than anyone else could give you of what we are really trying at. It consists of making bricks without straw or mud:- all right when it is a hobby, as with me, but vexatious for other people asked to do it as a job. By the way isn't it odd that (bar school, which was part nightmare and part nuisance), everything I've done has been first hobby and then business. It's an odd fortune, which no one else could say, because everybody else plays games. It was a mercy that I broke my leg long ago, and settled to sit down the rest of my days. Tell Arnie never to use an adjective that does not properly express what he means: slang reduces one to a single note, which is fatal.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170827_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 18:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

President Wilson's Reply to the Pope's Peace Note, 27 August 1917

The Papal Peace Note

Most people have heard of Pope Pius XII and the controversy surrounding his inaction in regard to the Holocaust in the Second World War. In 1999 John Cornwell reignited the controversy with the publication of a book on Pius.[1] However, few people have heard of the Pope of the First World War, Benedict XV, or his Peace Note of August 1917. Few people know that Benedict's peace initiative was perhaps the most significant attempt by a neutral to end the Great War by negotiation.

The Papal Peace Note was not the first peace move in the First World War, but it was the first one that included concrete proposals for a settlement. It was to be another six months before anyone else was publicly to state firm proposals to end the conflict, when President Wilson made his famous 'Fourteen Points' speech.[2]

Though Benedict's peace move attracted widespread attention during 1917, and was an ongoing news item in the European and American press in the second half of 1917, it has received little recognition in many texts on the First World War. This is not to say that historians have ignored the Papal Peace Note. There has been some historical writing on the Papal Peace Note in the context of war aims and peace diplomacy, however, general histories of the war have tended to overlook Pope Benedict's role in attempting to secure peace in 1917. Also, general histories have tended to accept the slurs made against Benedict's character by the right-wing press and some Allied government leaders during the war.

Early biographies on Benedict XV were sympathetic to the Pope and his peace efforts, but because people within the Catholic hierarchy wrote them, have had little impact on World War One historians. The British historian, John Pollard, writing from outside the Catholic tradition, has attempted to redress this imbalance and has written a biography on Benedict titled appropriately, The Unknown Pope. [3]

In September 1914 Della Chiesa was elected to the papacy and took the name of Benedict XV. From the outset Benedict was concerned about the war, and from 1914 to 1916 was involved in humanitarian efforts to alleviate the effects of the war as well as peace discussions with other neutrals and various peace activists. [4] After the failure of the American and German peace moves at the end of 1916 and with the growing strength of socialist attempts to end the war, Benedict began preparations for a public appeal for peace in 1917.

Benedict wanted his peace appeal to include specific proposals. Between May and July 1917 Benedict used his diplomatic contacts with Austria-Hungary and Germany to try to get the Central Powers' commitment to a number of key points which would lend credibility to the peace move. The Pope was also careful to include other items in his Note such as the "liberty and community of the seas" which were aimed to appeal to President Wilson who constantly mentioned the need to secure the "freedom of the seas" at the end of the war. Benedict was hoping that the public nature of his planned appeal would lead to an irresistible popular pressure on all the belligerent governments to come to the negotiating table.

The Pope was motivated by the following considerations in his desire to seek a negotiated end to the Great War:

•humanitarian concern for all those suffering, especially innocent civilians
•interest in the survival of Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, as it was a bastion of Catholicism in Europe and a counter-balance to Germany in Central Europe
•fear that socialist attempts to end the war, currently under way (i.e., the Stockholm Conference), would increase the influence of socialism in the post-war world
•fear that if the war did not end soon then the future of European civilisation (and Catholicism) would be at risk and violent revolution would engulf Europe.

In Germany some groundwork had been done to prepare the way for the Papal Note.

•Matthias Erzberger, a Centre Party (Catholic) politician working on his own initiative, had been instrumental in getting the Reichstag Peace Resolution passed on 19 July 1917. 62% of Germany's Reichstag deputies voted in favour of a "peace with no annexations" similar to the declaration made by the Russian socialists in April 1917 (i.e., the "Petrograd Formula").
•Eugenio Pacelli, the Pope's representative in Germany (later to become Pius XII), conducted a number of discussions with the German Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, and his successor, Michaelis, in an attempt to get a German undertaking that they would evacuate Belgium in the event of a peace settlement. Both made encouraging statements. [5] Pacelli also had a discussion with the Kaiser. The results of Pacelli's diplomacy were inconclusive. However, Benedict decided to press ahead as he felt the time was ripe for a peace initiative.

The Peace Note was dated 1 August but may not have been fully composed until 8 August. The Allied governments were given advance notice via cable of the gist of the Note sometime after 11 August. The news of the Note caused panic in Allied government circles because its publication could lead to a public debate on war aims, something the Allied governments were not prepared to do at this stage. In Britain an emergency meeting of the War Cabinet was held to discuss the Papal Peace Note and how best it could be handled. The governments of Britain, France and Italy were concerned about the following:

•Coming up with a reply to the Papal Note would entail a discussion of their war aims and perhaps a disclosure of their secret treaties.
•Many of the Pope's proposals were similar to President Wilson's peace statements made, as a neutral, in December 1916 and January 1917. If Wilson gave any backing to the Papal Note, then the Allied governments would be under enormous pressure to revise their war aims and consider a negotiated peace.
•Public pressure for peace at a time when war weariness is at its height. What would be the reaction of Catholics in Britain? What about Catholic reaction in Ireland?
•The Russians feared that a negotiated peace made on the basis of the Papal Note would be at the expense of Russia. They were quick to urge Wilson to reject the Pope's proposals. Note there was always a level of religious rivalry between the Vatican and orthodox Russia and a certain amount of mistrust.

As a result of their secret discussions the British War Cabinet decided to make no official response to the Papal Note and wait for the replies of the Central Powers.

Sometime after 15 August all the belligerent governments received the full text of the Papal Note as did the press. Newspapers across Europe and America carried headlines about the Papal Note and contained the full text of the Note (see a summary of the Note below). There was much public discussion about the Pope's proposals. In the US and in Britain the patriotic press attacked the Papal Note with the slur that it was "Austrian-inspired" and that the Pope's neutrality and even-handedness were suspect. Therefore, the right-wing patriotic press reasoned that the Note must be shunned. The left-wing liberal and the socialist press in Britain, however, saw the Papal Note as a great opportunity for the Allies to reformulate their war aims and make a positive reply. This, the liberals and socialists reasoned, would put pressure on the Central Powers to respond positively to the Note or risk social unrest.

The key to the whole affair hinged on the response of President Wilson. Since many of the Pope's statements were similar to pronouncements President Wilson had made about the war while still a neutral, it seemed feasible that the American president might respond positively to the Vatican peace initiative. Surprisingly, President Wilson expressed annoyance at the Pope's appeal and told his advisers that he was inclined to make no reply at all. [6] However, after canvassing the opinions of numerous senators and members of his own staff, Wilson became convinced of the propaganda value of making a public reply. On 27 August 1917 President Wilson's reply to the Pope was impressive, and its impact was as dramatic as the Papal Note had been (see the summary of Wilson's reply below). However, Wilson rejected a peace based on the Pope's proposals and implied that there was no chance of peace until the German people overthrew their government.

The Allied governments were relieved at Wilson's rejection of Benedict's peace initiative and were content to allow Wilson's reply to be theirs also, although they were not happy about Wilson's condemnation of secret treaties and economic war, which were directed at the Allied governments. Britain, France, Italy and Russia therefore made no formal reply, preferring to allow President Wilson to be their spokesman on this occasion.

In Germany the Papal Note caused intense discussions in the Reichstag. A "Committee of Seven" was formed to discuss the Papal Note with the Chancellor Michaelis. After weeks of further discussion in government circles the German and Austrian governments made official replies to the Papal Note on 19 and 20 September.[7] However, they were sufficiently vague on details (particularly about Belgium) that they were open to attack by the Allied governments for being insincere. The Central Powers thus failed to take the diplomatic initiative by making a clear positive reply which would have put the Allied governments under pressure from their people to negotiate on the Pope's proposals.

Historians generally agree that Wilson's rejection of Benedict's peace initiative was the main reason for its failure. The Central Powers' replies to the Note did not mark the end of the affair. [8] There were two secret peace feelers, one from Britain and France and the other from Germany, that grew out of this affair. Also the British and Italian governments were constantly called to account by opposition groups in parliament for their failure to reply to the Papal Note. Even more dramatic was the revelation late in 1917 [9] that there existed a secret clause in the Treaty of London (1915) in which Britain, France and Russia pledged to work with Italy to reject any Vatican peace initiative.

It is interesting to consider whether a Papal Peace in 1917 would have led to a more lasting settlement than the peace that was negotiated at Versailles in 1919.

Below is a summary of the main points of the Papal Note.

Note of His Holiness the Pope to the Belligerents, 1 August 1918 [10]

"We wish now to come to more concrete and practical proposals, and to invite the Governments of the belligerent peoples to come to an agreement upon the following points, which it would seem should be the bases of a just and lasting peace, leaving it to them to settle and complete the details."
•Disarmament: "A simultaneous and reciprocal reduction of armaments according to rules and guarantees to be established."
•Arbitration: "according to standards to be agreed upon and sanctions to be determined against the State which should refuse either to submit international questions to arbitration or to accept the decision."
•"The true liberty and community of the seas, which on the one hand would eliminate numerous causes of conflict, and, on the other hand, would open to everybody new sources of prosperity and progress." [11]
•Each side to pay for its own reconstruction to be funded by the reduction in armaments. "It would be impossible to understand the continuation of such carnage solely for economic reasons." Where special cases exist they "should be considered in the light of justice and equity." So, disarmament would pay for reconstruction of damaged areas except in special cases.
•Reciprocal restitution of occupied territories. Germany should totally evacuate Belgium and French territory and Germany's colonies should be returned. [12]
•In the contested territories [such as Alsace-Lorraine and between Italy and Austria] the aspirations of the people should be taken into account. [ie. by plebiscite] Armenia, the Balkan States and Poland should also be examined in a "conciliatory spirit."

A settlement on these principles would "render impossible a repetition of similar conflicts, and to prepare the way for the solution of the economic question, which is of so much importance for the future and the material well-being of all the belligerent States." [13]

The following is a summary of President Wilson's reply to the Pope.

President Wilson's Reply to the Pope's Peace Note, 27 August 1917 [14]

•The Pope's plan would not deliver a stable peace. "This agony must not be gone through again, and it must be a matter of very sober judgment what will insure us against it." In other words, if Germany is not thoroughly beaten now it will have to be done all over again later.
•Rejected Pope's proposal to return to the status quo ante bellum. This means returning to Europe's pre-war borders. Wilson wanted a thorough revision of borders to prevent future disputes.
•The object of the war is to destroy the German Government because:
◦it started the war and secretly planned to dominate the world.
◦"it is the ruthless master of the German people." [15]◦their word cannot be trusted.
•Germany could regain its strength after a period of peace and so a "permanent hostile combination of nations" would have to be created against Germany to keep it in check.
•"New-born Russia" would be abandoned to German influence and suffer a counter-revolution.
•"No peace can rest securely upon political or economic restrictions meant to benefit some nations and cripple others, upon vindictive action of any sort, or any kind of revenge or deliberate injury."
•The test of a peace plan is whether it is based on the will of the people or "merely upon the word of an ambitious and intriguing government" [ie. the German government]. The present rulers of Germany cannot be trusted to guarantee anything. There must be "conclusive evidence of the will and purpose of the German people themselves." [16]
•The United States Government seeks no material advantage of any kind.
•The United States Government is opposed to "punitive damages, the dismemberment of empires, the establishment of selfish and exclusive economic leagues", which are "in the end futile" and "no proper basis for a peace of any kind, lest of all an enduring peace. [17] That must be based upon justice and fairness and the common rights of mankind."

Notes
[1] John Cornwell, Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII, New York, Viking, 1999.
[2] Some historians have argued that Wilson's "Fourteen Points" speech was influenced by the Papal Peace Note.
[3] John Pollard, The Unknown Pope: Benedict XV (1914–1922) and the Pursuit of Peace, London, Geoffrey Chapman, (1999). The two earlier biographies: Walter H. Peters, The Life of Benedict XV, Milwaukee, 1959; and Rev. Henry G. Rope, Benedict XV, London, John Gifford, 1941.
[4] See Pollard for a detailed outline of all these activities. John Pollard, op. cit., pp. 112–139. Pollard also mentions the visit by the American peace activist, Jane Adams, in June 1915. See p. 118.
[5] However, the fall of Bethmann-Hollweg in July 1917 and his replacement by Michaelis was a concern as the latter was an unknown. Benedict's fears were right. Michaelis ended up being far more under the thumb of Hindenburg and Ludendorff than Bethmann-Hollweg ever was.
[6] Zivojinovic argued that Wilson's attitude was that, if anyone was going to mediate an end to the war, he wanted it to be himself. Wilson therefore viewed the Pope's attempts at mediation as interference in his domain. Zivojinovic, Dragan R. The United States and Vatican Policies 1914–1918. Boulder, Colorado University Press, 1978, p. 96.
[7] John Snell has examined the reaction in Germany to Wilson's rejection of the Papal Note, particularly among socialist groups. John L. Snell, "Benedict XV, Wilson, Michaelis, and German Socialism." Catholic Historical Review 37 (April,1951–January 1952):151–178.
[8] Britain and France via John De Salis, the British representative at the Vatican. The German offer referred to is the Kuhlmann peace offer of September. The secret terms of this peace offer were described by Foreign Minister Balfour as very favourable. No record of the secret War Cabinet meeting to discuss this offer at the end of September has survived. See Denis Winter, Haig's Command, London, Viking, 1991, p. 103.
[9] Due to Trotsky's publications of the Allies' secret treaties in November 1917. See Stevenson, The First World War and International Politics, London, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 184.
[10] G.L. Dickinson, op. cit., pp. 47ff.
[11] In a subsequent interview Benedict equated his "liberty and community of the seas" with Wilson's "freedom of the seas". Benedict was deliberately using terms that would appeal to Wilson. He mistakenly saw Wilson as an ally in working for a negotiated peace.
[12] In other words the Allies could use the German colonies as a bargaining chip to get Germany to relinquish Belgium. The British Government was very uncomfortable with this suggestion, having no intention of surrendering captured German territory.
[13] Benedict was concerned about plans to wage economic war after hostilities. He would certainly have been thinking of the Paris Resolutions of June 1916 when the Allies pledged to wage an economic war against Germany once the military war was over.
[14] Dickinson, op. cit., pp. 50f.
[15] This was a theme ever since Wilson's war speech in April 1917. Wilson only saw the government of Germany as guilty and the war as a crusade to rid the world of the German government. This contrasted with the Allied governments who viewed the whole German race as guilty and therefore deserving of punishment.
[16] This is a strong hint that the German people should overthrow the Kaiser and the military leadership and install a democratic government. Then perhaps a negotiated settlement could be made.
[17] This is really a swipe at the Allied governments and their secret treaties and plans for an economic war after the fighting has stopped. The Allied leaders could not stomach this and similar statements made by Wilson.


http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/modern_history/core_study/ww1/papal_peace/page153.htm
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William Hew Clark-Kennedy

William Hew Clark-Kennedy VC, CMG, DSO & Bar (March 3, 1879, Scotland - October 25, 1961), was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 39 years old, and a lieutenant colonel in the 24th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, Commander during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 27/28 August 1918 on the Fresnes-Rouvroy line, France, the brigade of which Lieutenant Colonel Clark-Kennedy's battalion was a central unit suffered heavy casualties. At this juncture the colonel encouraged his men and led them forward, then by controlling the direction of neighbouring units and collecting stragglers he enabled the whole brigade front to advance. Next day he was severely wounded, but despite intense pain and loss of blood, he refused to be evacuated until he had gained a position from which the advance could be resumed.

Also considered Scottish. Grave/memorial at Buried at Mount Royal Cemetery, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Pine Hill Section. Reford Family Plot. Lot 258. Headstone.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hew_Clark-Kennedy
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Philip Gibbs on the Battle of Amiens, 27 August 1918

Reproduced below is an extract from a newspaper account of the Battle of Amiens by the official British wartime reporter Philip Gibbs. As an officially accredited journalist Gibbs' account was inevitably upbeat. In the event its tone was largely justified; the opening of the Amiens battle on 8 August 1918 transpired to be the onset of the final phase of the war, namely the Allied advance to victory culminating in the Allied-German armistice on 11 November 1918.

Philip Gibbs on the Battle of Amiens, 27 August 1918

In July it was Rupprecht's army that was the chief threat against us, and it was an army of perhaps 250,000 fresh troops, apart from those in line waiting to be hurled against us if the German Crown Prince could do without them.

We knew then that some of Rupprecht's divisions had been sent down hurriedly to his relief, but the question still remained whether the armies holding our part of the battlefront would still be strong enough to attack us or strong enough to check any attempt of ours to advance against them.

After that the tide turned in an astonishing way. It is now the enemy who is on the defensive, dreading the hammer blows that fall upon him day after day, and the initiative of attack is so completely in our hands that we are able to strike him at many different places.

Since August 8th we must have taken nearly 50,000 prisoners and nearly 500 guns, and the tale is not yet told because our men are going on, taking new strides, new batches of Germans, and more batteries.

The change has been greater in the minds of men than in the taking of territory. On our side the army seems to be buoyed up with the enormous hope of getting on with this business quickly. They are fighting for a quick victory and a quick peace so they may get back to normal life and wipe this thing clean from the map of Europe and restore the world to sane purposes.

That is, I am sure, their hope, and for almost the first time in very truth they see something of its reality in sight.

But there is a change also in the enemy's mind. Those German soldiers and their officers are changed men since March 21st, when they launched their offensive. They no longer have even a dim hope of victory on this western front. All they hope for now is to defend themselves long enough to gain peace by negotiation.

Many of them go even further than this and admit they do not care how peace comes so long as there is peace. They are sullen with their own officers, and some of those whom I saw today were more than sullen.

The arrival of the Canadians on August 26th was an immense surprise to the Germans. The last heard of them was outside of Roye after their glorious advance on the left of the French, and the last thing in the world which the enemy expected was to find them right in the north beyond Arras.

That was a brilliant piece of secret manoeuvre. Before the Germans had any inkling of their presence the Canadians were advancing upon them with a sweep of shellfire in front of them. Without encountering much resistance, they swung around by Guemappe and Wancourt over the high ground on each side of the Cojeul.

Germans of the 214th Division, made up of men from Rhineland, Stettin, Lower Schleswig, and Hessians, were aghast at this sudden assault, and either retired or gave themselves up in the early stages of the Canadian advance.

Their resistance stiffened on the crest of Monchy Hill, and there was fierce fighting all night in the trench on the top of Wancourt Spur. But the Canadians were determined to get this place, and with great individual gallantry and good leadership and most dogged spirit, they worked around the machine guns which were holding them off and rushed them in the darkness.

By morning they held the spur, and this body of Canadians, who had taken over 820 prisoners yesterday morning, added another 150, with many machine guns, most of which were captured in the valley below the ridge. All told, the Canadians and Scots attacking with them had taken about 1,800 prisoners.

The highest point most desired by the Canadians was the old Wancourt tower on the tip of the crest, and this they gained in time for a new departure this morning, having to change their direction three times, owing to the lie of the ground, and face south instead of east after the beginning of the battle, which is always a difficult operation.

A little further north other Canadian troops, who had crossed Orange Hill and Monchy, that hill which dominates many miles of country, so that the loss of it a few months ago was serious to us, advanced again this morning to two woods on equally high ground beyond for which our men strove many times in vain in May of last year.

Those are the Bois du Sart and the Bois de Vert, which we used to see like green eyes staring down on our lines around Wancourt and Henin, and from which always there used to come wicked machine-gun fire when any of our troops moved in the open valley below.

The success of our infantry is the more remarkable because in this battle very few tanks have been used, and machine-gun nests had to be taken in many cases without their help.

This advance gives a sense of the enormous movement behind the British lines, and there is not a man who is not stirred by the motion of it. They are feeling that they indeed are getting on with the war. It is like a vast tide of life moving very slowly but steadily.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/amiens_gibbs.htm
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T. E. Lawrence to Major R. H. Scott

[Aba el Lissan], 27.8.18

Dear Scott,

I’m very sorry for bothering you, but I find my personal plans changed, and am without transport. So I rang you up today and asked you to get Sh. Yusuf to buy me (at N.0. expense) four v.g. riding camels, complete with saddlery, to hire me two Ageyl servants, give them a month's flour and rice, £10 and send them up to Aba Lissan most urgent. Then I'll be off. My bodyguard is as usual spread out over about a thousand miles of Arabia. I hope old Yusuf will do it without bothering you at all. If they get off from Akaba on the 28th they will be here on the 29th and that will be top-hole.

Feisal wants £2000 in notes. Will you send them up, if you have them and debit it to Special Grant? If this is not easy, please debit it to September, pending Cairo approval (asked for) of a gift to Feisal of £12000 in paper.

About blasting gelatine. Last consignment sent up was gelignite which is different. Will you see if there is any of the former, and if so let Aba Lissan know? I'll send down two camels then for it. A small baggage column of mine will turn up about Aug. 30 in Akaba, asking for Lewis gun and things. All easy.

We are involved in rings and rolls of dates, meandering at least eight times with a mazy motion, and I haven't the least idea if we are at last going to get anywhere and do anything or not. My head whirls. Salute the elect from me.

Yours

T. E. Lawrence

I just remembered that a lot of stuff for me, camel saddles and what-nots from Jidda, and tents from Egypt, are about due. If there are any such in Akaba will you send me up word?

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1918/180827_scott.htm
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Militär Maria-Theresien-Orden 1914-1918

Probably the most prestigious and eagerly sought military decoration that the Austro-Hungarian monarchy could bestow was the military order of Maria Theresia. The order was founded on the 22nd June 1757 by the Empress Maria Theresa to reward especially meritorious and valorous acts by commissioned officers. The order could be awarded in three grades: The grand cross, the commanders' cross and lastly the knights' cross. The grand cross holder was distinguished by a breast order and a shoulder sash on more formal occasions. The commanders' cross was a neck decoration and the "Ritterkreuz" could be worn on the left breast suspended by the traditional Austrian triangular ribbon or as was quite usual during the First World War with the ribbon being attached internally to the second button of the tunic and worn suspended in that fashion. A grand total of 131 awards of the Military Maria Theresa Order were bestowed on officers for their service in the First World War. The awards were officially presented at a ceremony known as a "Promotion". These ceremonies had been numbered consecutively since the1st Promotion on the 7th March 1758. During the war Promotions Number 171 on the 27th August 1914 to Promotion Number 185 on the 2nd October 1918 took place. A further ten Promotions were enacted after the war following the recommendations of the Chapter of the Order in which the deeds of deserving officers had been examined. The last of these was on the 3rd October 1931. The award could be awarded posthumously as in the case of a retrospective award of the Knights' Cross to Feldmarschall Boroević von Bojna on the195th Promotion on the 3rd October 1931.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/mmto.htm
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Advertisement by the Mij. voor Goede en Goedkope Lectuur (Wereldbibliotheek), Amsterdam, 27 August 1919 (publication)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:NRC_1919-08-27_Avondblad_C_p_4_advertisement_01.jpg
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Treaty Providing for the Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy

Signed in Paris, August 27, 1928, entered into force 24 July 1929

The President of the German Reich, the President of the United States of America, His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the French Republic, His Majesty the King of Great Britain Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the seas, Emperor of India, His Majesty the King of Italy, His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, the President of the Republic of Poland, the President of the Czechoslovak Republic.

Deeply sensible of their solemn duty to promote the welfare of mankind; Persuaded that the time has come when a frank renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy should be made to the end that the peaceful and friendly relations now existing between their peoples may be perpetuated;

Convinced that all changes in their relations with one another should be sought only by pacific means and be the result of a peaceful and orderly process, and that any signatory Power which shall hereafter seek to promote its national interests by resort to war should be denied the benefits furnished by this treaty;

Hopeful that, encouraged by their example, all the other nations of the world will join in this humane endeavor and by adhering to the present treaty as soon as it comes into force bring their peoples within the scope of its beneficent provisions, thus uniting the civilized nations of the world in a common renunciation of war as an instrument of their national policy;

Have decided to conclude a treaty and for that purpose have appointed as their respective plenipotentiaries:

The President of the German Reich: Dr. Gustav Stresemann, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
The President of the United States of America: The Honorable Frank B. Kellogg, Secretary of State;
His Majesty the King of the Belgians: Mr. Paul Hymans, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of State;
The President of the French Republic: Mr. Aristide Briand, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the seas, Emperor of India:
For Great Britain and Northern Ireland and all parts of the British Empire which are not separate members of the League of Nations:
The Right Honourable Lord Cushendun, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Acting Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;
For the Dominion of Canada: The Right Honourable William Lyon Mackenzie King, Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs;
For the Commonwealth of Australia: The Honourable Alexander John McLachlan, Member of the Executive Federal Council;
For the Dominion of New Zealand: The Honourable Sir Christopher James Parr, High Commissioner for New Zealand in Great Britain;
For the Union of South Africa: The Honourable Jacobus Stephanus Smit, High Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in Great Britain;
For the Irish Free State: Mr. William Thomas Cosgrave, President of the Executive Council;
For India: The Right Honourable Lord Cushendun, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Acting Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
His Majesty the King of Italy: Count Gaetano Manzoi2i, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Paris;
His Majesty the Emperor of Japan: Count Uchida, Privy Councillor; The President of the Republic of Poland: Mr. A. Zaleski, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
The President of the Czechoslovak Republic: Dr. Eduard Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
who, having communicated to one another their full powers found in good and due form have agreed upon the following articles:

ARTICLE I
The high contracting parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.

ARTICLE II
The high contracting parties agree that the settlement or solution of all disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be sought except by pacific means.

ARTICLE III
The present treaty shall be ratified by the high contracting parties Named in the preamble in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements, and shall take effect as between them as soon as all their several instruments of ratification shall have been deposited at Washington.

This treaty shall, when it has come into effect as prescribed in the preceding paragraph, remain open as long as may be necessary for adherence by all the other Powers of the world. Every instrument evidencing the adherence of a Power shall be deposited at Washington and the treaty shall immediately upon such deposit become effective as between the Power thus adhering and the other Powers parties hereto.

It shall be the duty of the Government of the United States to furnish each government named in the preamble and every government subsequently adhering to this treaty with a certified copy of the treaty and of every instrument of ratification or adherence. It shall also be the duty of the Government of the United States telegraphically to notify such governments immediately upon the deposit with it of each instrument of ratification or adherence.

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty in the French and English languages both texts having equal force, and hereunto affix their seals.

Done at Paris the twenty-seventh day of August in the year one thousand nine hundred and twenty-eight.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Treaty_Providing_for_the_Renunciation_of_War_as_an_Instrument_of_National_Policy
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Aug 2010 19:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

For Russia and Against the War

With the slogan "For Russia and against the war", on 27 August 1920 the Socialni Demokrat reports on a meeting of the Czech workers' party. At the time the Russian Red Army is engaged in a counteroffensive against the White Russians. The paper is afraid of new Western intervention, which could lead to another world war and the involvement of Czechoslovakia. The newspaper calls for readers to do nothing that might support the counterrevolution.

http://www.iisg.nl/today/en/27-08.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geld in nood

Iedereen kent wellicht de verhalen over boter en eieren die tijdens de oorlog van het platteland naar de stad werden gesmokkeld. Maar hoe werden die boter en eieren dan wel betaald?

Bij het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog bleven aanvankelijk de gekende biljetten van de Nationale Bank in gebruik. Maar de Nationale Bank had, ondermeer met het oog op een nakend gewapend conflict, reeds vanaf 1912 maatregelen genomen. Biljetten met een waarde van 5 frank werden voorbereid om in geval van oorlog in omloop te brengen. Het dreigende internationale conflict zorgde voor paniek bij de bevolking. Er groeide wantrouwen tegenover de bankbiljetten en men haastte zich eind juli - begin augustus 1914 naar de Nationale Bank om de biljetten in te ruilen tegen muntstukken. Daarnaast ontstond er in deze periode een probleem in het kleine betalingsverkeer. De vijffrankstukken en de zilveren pasmunt verdwenen uit de omloop. Men begon ze immers op te potten vanwege hun metaalwaarde. Hiervoor bracht de Nationale Bank op 27 augustus 1914 inderhaast vervaardigde biljetten van 1 en 2 frank type rekening-courant uit. Toch zou dit niet volstaan om de geldschaarste op te vangen …

Meer en meer gemeenten kwamen in serieuze financiële problemen. Naast de dagelijkse uitgaven werden ze geconfronteerd met de bijkomende oorlogslasten. Militievergoedingen, militaire opeisingen,oorlogsschattingen, … vielen ten laste van de gemeenten, die geen beroep meer konden doen op hun financiële reserves. Deze waren gedeeltelijk geblokkeerd door oorlogsmaatregelen, zoals het moratorium op de deposito’s dat de opvragingen sterk begrensde.

De eerste gemeenten vonden in augustus al een creatieve oplossing voor hun financiële moeilijkheden in de vorm van noodbiljetten of kasbons. Dit betekende concreet dat gemeenten zelf geld in omloop brachten zodat de gemeente, maar ook haar burgers, terug financiële middelen hadden. Andere gemeenten volgden snel dit voorbeeld zodat uiteindelijk meer dan 480 gemeenten in België eigen noodbiljetten in omloop brachten.

De gemeenten hadden nu wel opnieuw geld, maar hadden de mensen wel vertrouwen in dat nieuw gecreëerde betaalmiddel? Sommige gemeenten hadden dwangmaatregelen uitgewerkt indien de noodbiljetten niet zouden aanvaard worden, maar ze moesten er nauwelijks een beroep op doen.

Er rezen wel een aantal andere problemen waar de gemeenten in eerste instantie niet aan gedacht hadden. Binnen welke grenzen waren de noodbiljetten geldig? De lokale handelaars moesten zich immers kunnen bevoorraden buiten de gemeente of stad. Sommige kleine gemeenten waren voor bepaalde producten zelfs helemaal afhankelijk van een nabijgelegen stad. De gemeente Kessel-Lo bijvoorbeeld, was voor haar voedsel- en randstofvoorziening nagenoeg helemaal afgestemd op de stad Leuven. Voor Kessel-Lo was het dus belangrijk dat haar noodgeld ook aanvaard werd in Leuven. Om deze problemen op te lossen werden er akkoorden gesloten tussen steden en gemeenten opdat het noodgeld in een ruimer geografisch gebied betaalkracht had. In de provincie Oost-Vlaanderen werd de “Bond van de gemeenten van het Land van Waas” opgericht die de stad Sint-Niklaas met twintig gemeenten uit de buurt verenigde. Ook de gemeenten uit de omgeving van Doornik sloten een gelijkaardig akkoord.

Over de juridische kant van het noodgeld bekommerden de gemeenten zich aanvankelijk niet al te veel. Nochtans is er in België maar één instelling die geld mag uitgeven, m.n. de Nationale Bank. Om dit juridisch probleem op te lossen werd noodgeld daarom beschouwd als schuldbewijs van bijzondere aard, dat enkel gebruikt werd binnen de grenzen van de (samenwerkende) gemeenten om levensnoodzakelijke producten aan te schaffen.

Tot slot verdient het noodgeld uit Gent nog een speciale vermelding. Slechts in enkele gemeenten in België werden naast papieren noodbiljetten ook noodmunten gemaakt. Eén van de 4 gemeenten was Gent. Aanvankelijk werden de munten uit ijzer met een laagje koper geslagen, tot de Duitse bezetter dit in 1918 verbood. Vanaf dan bracht de stad kartonnen munten in omloop.

Inge Vervloesem, museumgids

Bronnen: Janssens V., De Belgische Frank. Anderhalve eeuw geldgeschiedenis, Brussel, 1975, pp.155-167; Waerzeggers R., Het noodgeld uitgegeven door het Leuvens stadsbestuur 1914-1918, in: Revue belge de Numismatique, Bruxelles, 1978, pp.105-180. Het noodgeld van Oost-Vlaanderen tijdens WO I en WO II, Brussel, 1989, pp.3-9. Les monnaies communales en Belgique pendant la guerre 1914-1918, in: NBB-BNB, 1953, n°2, pp.1-16.; De rekening-courantreeks omvatte ook biljetten van 1000, 100 en 20 frank en was o.m. bedoeld voor de uitbetaling van de banktegoeden.; Andere bronnen spreken van ongeveer 600 gemeenten.

http://www.nbbmuseum.be/nl/2007/02/emergency-money.htm
Zie bijvoorbeeld ook http://www.stanny-van-grasdorff.be/noodgeld.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 27 Aug 2010 0:30, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

27 augustus 1914 - De burgemeester schreef veertien verblijfsvergunningen uit voor gevluchte Duitse kloosterlingen uit Leuven en Luik. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=187:05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pancho Villa, Alvaro Obregon and John J. Pershing, August 27, 1914

http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb3c6008kp/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Datheen: de eerste legerpredikant
30-12-2005, W. H. van Egdom

(...) Zo waren het niet de calvinisten die geestelijke verzorging in het Nederlandse leger invoerden. „Het waren de Spanjaarden die geestelijke verzorgers inzetten in hun legers in de Nederlanden”, poneert Yska. „Wat dit fenomeen betreft, zie je dat de rooms-katholieken de protestanten trouwens steeds een stap voor waren. De hertog van Parma stelde de Nederlandse jezuïet Coster aan als een van de eerste geestelijke verzorgers voor zijn troepen in Nederland. Hij kreeg opdracht om dat werk te organiseren en uiteindelijk werkten er twaalf geestelijke verzorgers in het Spaanse leger in Nederland. Zo is het begonnen.”

Willem van Oranje, zelf luthers, nam het idee van de geestelijke verzorging voor de soldaten over van zijn Spaanse tegenstander. „Een van de predikanten die destijds als veldprediker werkten, was Petrus Datheen, de man van de psalmberijming. Later stelde Maurits, de grote legerhervormer, de predikant Johannes Wttenbogaert aan als veldprediker. Zoals het toen was georganiseerd, zo bleef het grofweg tot na Napoleon.”

Garnizoenszielszorg
In 1850 beginnen de rooms-katholieken in Nederland zich te roeren. Zij voelen zich op het gebied van geestelijke verzorging in het leger achtergesteld en ze wenden zich tot koning Willem III. Yska: „Die stemt op 3 januari 1850 in met het feit dat rooms-katholieke geestelijken in de zogenoemde garnizoensplaatsen geestelijke verzorging mogen bieden aan de soldaten. Let wel: we hebben het dan over garnizoenszielszorg. Verricht door de plaatselijke pastoor of kapelaan. De geestelijke kwam nimmer op de kazerne. Alleen bij sterfgevallen of gevangenschap.

Toen dat eenmaal goed liep, voelde de protestanten zich weer achtergesteld. Uiteindelijk werd de regeling zo dat zowel katholieken als protestanten garnizoenszielszorg mochten verlenen. Dat betekende bijvoorbeeld concreet dat hier in Ede op allerlei plaatsen dingen georganiseerd werden voor de soldaten, maar dan wel buiten de kazerne.”

Als in 1914 de mobilisatie wordt afgekondigd, lopen de garnizoensplaatsen leeg. „De meeste soldaten worden namelijk naar de grenzen gestuurd en dat betekent dat er van garnizoenszielszorg amper nog sprake is. We hebben het dan over zo’n 200.000 soldaten die in 1914 opgeroepen zijn en dat getal loopt op tot zo’n 450.000 in 1918.”

De synode van de Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk komt op 5 augustus 1914, enkele dagen na de afkondiging van de mobilisatie, bijeen en buigt zich dan over de geestelijke verzorging van de militairen. „Ze schrijven onder andere een brief naar de minister van Oorlog”, vertelt Yska. „Ook de rooms-katholieken komen in het geweer met als doel dat de soldaten aan de grens toch geestelijke verzorging kunnen krijgen. Uiteindelijk gaat de minister overstag en stelt hij het leger officieel open voor de geestelijke verzorgers. Althans: het zogenaamde veldleger. Er worden door koningin Wilhelmina op 27 augustus 1914 acht veldpredikers aangesteld en vier aalmoezeniers. Vier veldpredikers waren er voor de protestantse soldaten van orthodoxen huize en vier voor de soldaten van vrijzinnigen huize. En dan waren er vier rooms-katholieke aalmoezeniers. Later wordt dit aantal nog uitgebreid met reservepredikanten. Je zou kunnen zeggen dat er vanaf toen echt sprake was van geestelijke verzorging in het leger.”

Na de Eerste Wereldoorlog brokkelt het Nederlandse leger snel af en ook met de organisatie van de geestelijke verzorging gaat het bergafwaarts. „Ook toen hadden de rooms-katholieken het beter voor elkaar dan de protestanten. Dat blijkt in 1939 als er opnieuw een mobilisatie wordt afgekondigd. Er zijn dan officieel nog maar drie veldpredikers in dienst voor de protestantse militairen. Wel worden dan nog snel extra veldpredikers en aalmoezeniers ingezet -meest van gereformeerden huize-, maar het zijn er lang niet genoeg. (...)

http://www.refdag.nl/nieuws/datheen_de_eerste_legerpredikant_1_151295
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charlie Chaplin - The Masquerader (1914)

Charlie Chaplins 24th Film Released Aug. 27 1914

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vThwIdMbay4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Hill 60 (Gallipoli)

(...) The attack resumed on 27 August and further progress was made up the slope but the summit of the hill was still held by the Turks. Now the Australians from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, who had fought at The Nek, were fed into the battle as reinforcements. On the night of 27 August 1915, the 9th Light Horse Regiment were sent in to what proved to bed the final assault on Hill 60. One wave of about 80 men led by the new Commander, Lt Col Reynell lost its way and was caught in open by Turkish machine gunners. The result was the death of Reynell and 27 men. (...) On 28 August the Australians captured some of the Turkish trenches at the summit but the Turks clung to the vital northern face which overlooked Suvla. (...)

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Battle_of_Hill_60_%28Gallipoli%29/1
Zie ook http://www.warandremembrance.be/versie%202009/Gallipoli.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2010 0:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De derde slag bij Ieper — 27 augustus 1917

Met ontzetting aanhoorde kapitein Edwin Campion Vaughan het bevel dat voor hem klonk als zijn doodvonnis. Het kwam van het hoofdkwartier van generaal Fanshawe: “Ruk om 13.45 uur op tot bij de Steenbeek en houd u klaar voor de aanval.”

Op klaarlichte dag!

Een drogende wind, zo werd gezegd, zou het allemaal wat makkelijker maken. The Warwickshires, het regiment waartoe Vaughan behoorde, konden met eigen ogen zien hoe ’t er in werkelijkheid uitzag. De Steenbeek was niet meer te onderscheiden in het landschap. De afwateringskanalen waren vernield en het water van de Steenbeek en van het moeras tussen de beek en de hoogte van Langemark bedekte het terrein met een blubberige brij. Die zag er aan de oppervlakte uit als een dikke pap, maar werd meer in de diepte dikker, zodat mannen die erin gevangen raakten langzaam naar beneden werden gezogen en een trage, verschrikkelijke dood stierven. Het was ternauwernood mogelijk een weg te vinden naar de hoogte door de kleine modderhoopjes te volgen rond en tussen de volgelopen bomtrechters. Je liep voortdurend het risico erin te vallen en te verdrinken. De meesten kwamen aan hun einde doordat ze een weliswaar kleine verwonding door een granaatscherf of kogel opliepen, maar daardoor in de modder belandden en verdronken. Minuten lang vergeefs vechtend tegen de onafwendbare dood.

Vaughan zag op zijn horloge de tijd wegtikken tot 13.45 uur. Hij rukte op naar de Steenbeek. Zijn orders specifieerden dat hij daar gedurende de eerste aanval als reserve moest blijven wachten bij een vooruitgeschoven commandopost, het ‘Kookhuis’, dicht bij de Sint-Juliaanweg. Hij hoorde de fluitjes van de andere aanvoerders. Vaughan keek rond zich.

Het hevige bombardement dat de aanval begeleidde werd onmiddellijk met even zwaar geschut beantwoord door de Duitsers. Het was voor iedereen duidelijk dat de vijand van tevoren op de hoogte was geweest van alle details van de aanval.

Vaughan zag met pijn in het hart hoe de rijen soldaten voor hem openwaaierden, uiteen braken en bijna helemaal werden neergemaaid. Een klein aantal van het 7de Warwickshires bereikte het eerste doelwit, enkele schuttersposten halverwege de hoogte. Er was geen sprake van op dat ogenblik nog verder op te rukken.

“Ruk op tot bij de schuttersposten, Vaughan, en kijk of je iets kunt doen. Veel geluk!”

Vaughan rende naar de andere kant van de weg, waar een ogenblik eerder een man gedood was in het trommelvuur, en wierp zich in de modder aan de andere kant. Hij kroop over de lichamen van zijn kameraden en door de met rottende lijken vermengde modder. Hij dook in een bomtrechter om te ontsnappen aan de rakelings over hem heen scherende kogels van machinegeweren. Hij sloop over de kleine verhogingen in het landschap, terwijl hij zijn vrienden bij de schuttersposten voor hem zag neergemaaid worden.

‘Ik pauseerde even in de bomtrechter. Binnen een paar seconden voelde ik mezelf wegzinken, en hoe harder ik vocht om eruit te komen, hoe meer de modder me naar beneden zoog. Ik was al tot mijn middel weggezonken, toen ik de zijwand van de trechter een been van een lijk zag steken. Wanhopig greep ik het vast maar het brak af. Ik gooide het weg, legde een paar geweren plat op de grond en schreeuwde naar de mannen in een andere put dat ze er nog enkele naar me toe moesten gooien. Het lukte me daarop te kruipen en meer dood dan levend bereikte ik de verwoeste schutterspost.’

De drogende wind was nu gaan liggen en had plaats gemaakt voor stromende regen. Vaughan verzamelde zoveel mogelijk manschappen, keerde terug naar de weg en begaf zich naar Triangle Farm. Van daaruit zou hij moeten proberen een omtrekkende beweging te maken om Springfield Farm aan te vallen vanuit het noorden, waar de hoogte van Langemark lag. Maar de Duitsers hadden Springfield Farm omgebouwd tot een versterkte bunker met een verwoestende machinegeweerpost.

Vaughan slaagde er niet in meer dan een handvol manschappen bij elkaar te krijgen. De rest was dood of weigerde botweg: “Wij zijn niet bang, maar we hebben onze opdracht uitgevoerd.” Hij moest zich kwaad maken en hen dwingen de kapotgebombardeerde weg naar Triangle Farm in te slaan.

‘Vlak voor me stopte een man plotseling. Woedend snauwde ik hem toe en stootte hem met mijn knie aan. Heel beleefd antwoordde hij me: “Ik ben blind, Sir.” Hij draaide zich om: zijn ogen en neus waren weggeslagen door een granaatscherf. “Oh God…”’

Door de hevige regen was het moeilijk in een voortdurend trommelvuur de juiste weg van Triangle Farm naar Springfield Farm te vinden. Vaughan en zijn mannen passeerden langs een massa lijken en gewonden, die wanhopig vochten tegen de zuigende modder, proberend niet te verdrinken nu het waterpeil begon te stijgen. Hun krijsen en schreeuwen om brancardiers ging door merg en been.

Doordat het bleef regenen en steeds meer gewonden verdronken in het stijgende vuile water, verloren zowel de Engelsen als de Duitsers de controle over de gevechtshandelingen. Puur toevallig lanceerden Vaughan en zijn mannen vanuit het noorden een aanval op Springfield op hetzelfde ogenblik dat een andere kleine groep Warwichshires vanuit het zuiden aanvielen. Ze waren erin geslaagd zich een weg te banen vanuit hun positie bij de schietposten. Zestien Duitsers gaven zich zonder slag of stoot over; maar ze werden neergemaaid door de machinegeweren van hun eigen kant toen ze naar de Britse linies werden geleid.

Het vechten hield op toen de duisternis inviel. Steeds meer Duitsers gaven zich over en deelden met de Britten in de ellende. Britse en Duitse officieren en soldaten kropen samen rond de Springfield bunker, wachtend op de dood of op het einde van de verschrikkingen. Stilaan stierf het schreeuwen en kreunen van de gewonden uit. De modder en het water namen hen langzaam in zich op.

In Springfield zelf stond het water tot kniehoogte. Er lagen een paar lijken in en daartussen zat een Duits officier wiens linkerbeen door een granaat was afgerukt. Er hing een afschuwelijke stank. De Duitser zocht in zijn zak naar een kleinigheid, als een teken van waardering voor Vaughan die de resten van zijn been ondersteunde en hem water te drinken gaf. Uiteindelijk vond hij het: drie suikerklontjes. Vaughan deed alleen maar of hij ervan at: ze waren verkruimeld en doordrenkt met bloed.

Vaughan wist dat Springfield de volgende dag niet te verdedigen zou zijn tegen een Duitse aanval. Ze zouden allemaal dood blijven. Maar van Triangle Farm zag hij enkele mannen naderen, Britten, de Berkshires.

‘Sturen ze jullie als versterking?’

‘Nee, we komen jullie aflossen.’

In de strijd van de afgelopen dag om de hoogte van Langemark had alleen al Vaughan’s compagnie 75 van de 90 manschappen verloren.

vertaald uit ‘Fields of Death - Battle Scenes of the First World War’, P. Slowe & R. Woods, 1986

http://www.pssvoeren.be/projectweek4/wo_06.htm#relaas
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2018 13:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Years Ago | 27 Aug 1918: On this day a century ago, these were some of the news items The Statesman readers got to read about India and the world.

ADRIATIC TOWNS BOMBED - There has been considerable reciprocal naval air raiding during the past few days on military works and Adriatic towns. American airmen have now joined the British and Italians and have assisted in the bombing of Pola.

The Italians twice bombed Durazzo on the same day. The British continue vigorously to attack Cattaro. There are signs that great damage has been caused everywhere.

The Austrian raids included one on Venice on August 21st, when thirty bombs were dropped. One person was killed and seven injured. The Austrians paid an ineffective revisit on August 23rd.

https://www.thestatesman.com/100-years-ago/100-years-ago-27-aug-1918-1502678012.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2018 13:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jodendom Online - 27 augustus 1919

Pogroms in resp. Tsiboer en Zamechov kostte 6 joden het leven, 3 joodse meisjes warden verkracht en een groot aantal werd door zweepslagen verwond.

https://www.jodendom-online.nl/
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2018 13:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HET 307TH ENGINEER BATTALION

Het 307th Engineer Battalion werd op 5 augustus 1917 opgericht binnen het Nationale Leger als de
307th Engineers en werd op 27 augustus 1917 gelegerd in Camp Gordon, in de staat Georgia, als een
eenheid van de 82nd Infantry Division. Ze hebben deelgenomen aan drie veldtochten in de Eerste
Wereld Oorlog: Meuse-Argone, St. Mihiel en Lorraine. De eenheid werd op 17 mei 1919
gedemobiliseerd op Kamp Dix, in de staat New Jersey.

https://www.willemsmithistorie.nl/images/stories/Johanna/PDF%20Fort%20Bragg.pdf
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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