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23 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2006 6:16    Onderwerp: 23 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 23. August 1916
DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Neue feindliche Stellungen in den Karpathen erstürmt
Großes Hauptquartier, 23. August.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Zwischen Thiepval und Pozières wurden die englischen Angriffe vergeblich wiederholt, nördlich von Ovillers fanden während der Nacht Nahkämpfe statt. Östlich des Foureauxwaldes. ebenso wie bei Maurepas mißlangen feindliche Handgranatenunternehmungen. Die Artillerien entwickeln fortgesetzt große Tätigkeit.
Südlich der Somme sind bei Estrées kleine Grabenstücke. in denen sich die Franzosen vom 21. August her noch hielten, gesäubert. 3 Offiziere, 143 Mann fielen dabei als Gefangene in unsere Hand.
Rechts der Maas wiesen wir im Fleuryabschnitt feindliche Handgranatenangriffe ab. Im Bergwalde fanden für uns günstige kleinere Infanteriegefechte statt.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Vom Meere bis zu den Karpathen keine besonderen Ereignisse. Im Gebirge erweiterten wir den Besitz der Stara Wiyczyna durch Erstürmung neuer feindlicher Stellungen, machten 200 Gefangene (darunter einen Bataillonsstab), erbeuteten 2 Maschinengewehre und wiesen Gegenangriffe ab. Beiderseits des Czarny-Czeremosz hatten die russischen Wiedereroberungsversuche keinerlei Erfolg.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Säuberung des Höhengeländes westlich des Ostrovosees hat gute Fortschritte gemacht. Wiederholte serbische Vorstöße im Moglenagebiete sind abgewiesen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)





Die englischen Verluste beim letzten Seegefecht in der Nordsee
Ein englisches Schlachtschiff schwer beschädigt

Berlin, 23. August. (Amtlich.)
Die britische Admiralität hat die deutsche amtliche Meldung, daß ein englisches Linienschiff am 19. August durch eines unserer Unterseeboote beschädigt worden sei, als unrichtig bezeichnet. Auf Grund der inzwischen eingegangenen Meldung des betreffenden Unterseebootes wird folgendes bekanntgegeben:
Das Unterseeboot traf am 19. August in der Abenddämmerung einen aus Schlachtschiffen und Panzerkreuzern bestehenden Teil der englischen Flotte, der von einer größeren Zahl von Kleinen Kreuzern und Zerstörern umgeben war. Es gelang, auf die Schlachtschiffe zu Schuß zu kommen. Das U-Boot fuhr hierbei halb überflutet. Auf dem Turm standen drei Offiziere. Nach dem Auftreffen des Torpedos erhob sich am hinteren Schornstein des letzten Linienschiffes eine etwa 20 Meter breite und 40 Meter hohe Feuersäule, in der der hintere Schornstein weiß-glühend erkennbar war und die etwa eine Minute stehen blieb. Gleichzeitig erfolgte ein heftiger Ausbruch von Kesseldampf. Nach Verschwinden der Feuererscheinung war nur noch der Rumpf des Schiffes ohne Schornstein und Masten zu sehen, während von den Nachbarschiffen noch die volle Silhouette erkennbar war. Der Kommandant hatte den Eindruck, daß der Torpedotreffer - abgesehen von einer schweren Verletzung der Kesselanlagen - einen großen Ölbrand verursacht hatte.
Vorstehendes ist übereinstimmend von den Offizieren des Unterseebootes beobachtet worden. Danach ist das englische Schlachtschiff durch den Angriff des U-Bootes zum mindesten schwer beschädigt worden.

London, 22. August. (Amtlich.)
Die Admiralität gibt bekannt:
Das Unterseeboot "E 23", aus der Nordsee zurückgekehrt und berichtet, daß es am 19. August morgens auf ein deutsches Schlachtschiff von der "Nassau"- Klasse einen erfolgreichen Torpedoangriff gemacht hat. Der Kommandant des Unterseebootes berichtet, während das Schiff von 5 Zerstörern in beschädigtem Zustande nach dem Hafen zurückgelegt wurde, habe er es wieder angegriffen und mit einem zweiten Torpedo getroffen. Er glaube, das Schiff sei gesunken. Es erübrigt sich festzustellen, daß die bereits widersprochen und heute wiederholte amtliche Berliner Meldung, wonach am Sonnabend ein britischer Zerstörer versenkt und ein britisches Schlachtschiff beschädigt worden sei, gänzlich unbegründet ist.
Notiz des W. T. B.: Die Meldung der britischen Admiralität über Angriffe des englischen Unterseebootes "E 23" auf ein deutsches Linienschiff der "Nassau"- Klasse am 19. August ist insofern zutreffend, als S. M. S. "Westfalen" von dem Unterseeboot bei seinem ersten Angriff getroffen, aber so leicht beschädigt wurde, daß das Schiff gefechts- und manövrierfähig geblieben ist. "Westfalen" wird in kürzester Zeit wieder voll verwendungsbereit sein. Es ist auch richtig, daß das feindliche Unterseeboot nochmals auf das Schiff zu Schuß kam, der Torpedo ging jedoch fehl. 1)





Glückliche Heimkehr der "Deutschland" aus Amerika
Bremen, 23. August. (Boesmanns Telegraphisches Bureau.)
Die Deutsche Ozean-Reederei G. m. b. H. meldet: "Das erste Handelsunterseeboot "Deutschland" hat heute nachmittag vor der Wesermündung geankert. An Bord alles wohl. 1)





Eine Explosion auf einem russischen Torpedoboot
Berlin, 23. August.
Wie wir aus Memel erfahren, wurde am 22. d. M. an der kurländischen Küste beobachtet, wie etwa sechs Seemeilen nördlich Klein-Irben ein russisches Torpedoboot vom Typ der neuesten großen Boote durch eine Explosion schwer beschädigt wurde. Das Boot wurde von anderen Torpedobooten nach der Küste von Oesel geschleppt. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 23. August.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Westlich von Moldawa erstürmten deutsche Truppen eine weitere Infanteriestellung der Russen, wobei sie 200 Mann und 2 Maschinengewehre einbrachten. Bei Zabie wurden russische Vorstöße abgeschlagen. Im Gebiet des Kukul stehendes Gefecht. Weiter nördlich bei geringerer Kampftätigkeit und völlig unveränderter Lage keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
An der küstenländischen Front unterhielt die feindliche Artillerie gegen einzelne Räume zeitweise ein lebhafteres Feuer. Die italienischen Flieger entfalteten rege Tätigkeit. Bei Wochein-Feistritz fiel ein Doppeldecker in unsere Hände. Die Insassen wurden gefangengenommen. In Tirol brachte uns eine Unternehmung an der Fleimstalfront 80 unverwundete Gefangene und 2 Maschinengewehre ein.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Im Raume von Valona entwickelt der Feind erhöhte Tätigkeit. Eines unserer Kampfflugzeuge - vom Stabsfeldwebel Arigi geführt - schoß im Kampf mit vier Farmandoppeldeckern zwei ab. Einer liegt nächst der Skumbimündung, der zweite stürzte ins Meer und wurde von einem feindlichen Zerstörer geborgen.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2006 6:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 23. August

1914
Feldmarschall v. d. Goltz über die Schlacht in Lothringen
Die siegreichen Schlachten in Lothringen
Erfolg auf der ganzen Linie
Unser Heer in Feindesland
Im deutschen Brüssel
Der Krieg gegen Serbien
Das deutsche Skutari-Detachement im Kampfe
Ein Seegefecht in der Adria
Das Ultimatum Japans und seine Beantwortung
Italien bleibt neutral

1915
Die Festung Ossowiec besetzt
Deutsche U-Boote am Finnischen Meerbusen
Siegreiche Kämpfe der k. u. k. Truppen bei Riasno
Ein Vierteljahr italienischer Krieg
Angriffe bei Anaforta vollständig zurückgeschlagen

1916
Neue feindliche Stellungen in den Karpathen erstürmt
Die englischen Verluste beim letzten Seegefecht in der Nordsee

1917
Sechs englische Angriffe in Flandern abgeschlagen
Erfolge westlich von Riga
Der Luftangriff auf die englische Küste
Verlust eines Marineluftschiffes
Schwere Kämpfe an der Isonzo-Front

1918
Schwere englische Niederlage zwischen Albert und Somme
Erneute englische Angriffe bei Bapaume-Albert und südlich der Somme
Kampf leichter Seestreitkräfte vor Dünkirchen

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/#chronik
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2006 6:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 Battle of Mons

On August 23, 1914, in their first confrontation on European soil since the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, four divisions of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), commanded by Sir John French, struggle with the German 1st Army over the 60-foot-wide Mons Canal in Belgium, near the French frontier.

The Battle of Mons was the last of four “Battles of the Frontiers” that took place over as many days on the Western Front between Allied and German forces in the opening month of World War I. The first three—at Lorraine, Ardennes and Charleroi—involved French forces under the central command of General Joseph Joffre. French’s BEF had been originally slated to assist the French 5th Army, commanded by General Charles Lanrezac, in their attempt to break through the center of the advancing German lines. A delayed start and poor relations between French and Lanrezac, however, meant that the 5th Army and the BEF would fight separate battles against the advancing Germans, at Charleroi and Mons.

At nine o’clock on the morning of August 23, German guns opened fire on the British positions at Mons, focusing on the northernmost point of a salient formed by a loop in the canal. Though Von Kluck and the 1st Army enjoyed two-to-one numerical superiority, they did not make effective use of it, and the British regiments at the salient admirably withstood six hours of shelling and infantry assault. Lanrezac’s decision, late in the day, to order a general retreat of the French 5th Army at Charleroi left the BEF in danger of envelopment by the Germans, and a decision was made to withdraw the troops as soon as possible. By the time the battle ended after nine hours, some 35,000 British soldiers had been involved, with a total of 1,600 casualties.

Thus the first day of British combat in World War I ended in retreat and bitter disappointment, although the steadfastness of the BEF had delayed Von Kluck’s advance by one day. Within weeks of the battle, however, British public imagination elevated Mons to mythic status and those who had died to heroes, until the British defeat came to seem more like a victory in retrospect. The most prevalent legend was that of the “Angel of Mons,” who had appeared on the battlefield carrying a flaming sword and faced the advancing Germans, impeding their progress. In reality, victory in the four Battles of the Frontiers imbued the Germans with a tremendous sense of confidence, as they continued their relentless advance through Belgium into northern France—eventually controlling the industrial power of both nations, including coal, iron ore, factories, railroads and rivers—and the Allies scrambled to ready their defenses.


http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2006 6:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Es geschah am August 23....

Heute haben/hätten folgende Teilnehmer des Ersten Weltkrieges Geburtstag......

Ereignisse am heutigen Tag im Jahr...
1914 Deutschland unterbricht die diplomatische Beziehungen zu Japan
1914 Die erste Schlacht um Krasnik (Polen) beginnt
1914 Die Schlacht um Mons
1914 Die Schlacht um Tannenberg beginnt
1914 General C.M. Dobell wird Oberbefehlshaber der alliierten Truppen in Kamerun
1914 Japan erklärt Deutschland den Krieg
1914 Luftschiff "Z-8" in den Vogesen abgeschossen
1914 Paul von Hindenburg wird Oberbefehlshaber der deutschen 8. Armee

http://www.westfront.de/today/today.pl
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2006 6:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1851 Order of the House of Hohenzollern instituted by Frederick William IV
2 1914 Battle of Mons begins
3 1914 Japan declares war on Germany
4 1916 Jasta 7 formed




Births
1 1893 Arnold Chadwick
2 1896 Arnold Ansell
3 1897 Sidney Cowan




Deaths
1 1918 John Hales
2 1918 James Child
3 1931 John Firth
4 1946 Fulco Ruffo di Calabria
5 1960 Bruno Loerzer
6 1961 Gotthard Sachsenberg
7 1970 Francois de Boigne
8 1976 Paul Gastin




Claims
1 1916 Chester Duffus #2
2 1916 Joseph de Bonnefoy #4
3 1916 René Dorme #6
4 1916 Francesco Baracca #3
5 1916 Fulco Ruffo di Calabria #1 u/c
6 1917 Godwin Brumowski #20
7 1917 Friedrich Hefty #1
8 1917 Frank Linke-Crawford #3
9 1917 George Brooke #4
10 1917 Edward Clarke #1
11 1917 Hans Auer #4
12 1917 Oscar von Boenigk #3
13 1917 Hans Böhning #1
14 1917 Gisbert-Wilhelm Groos #6
15 1917 Hans Hoyer #1
16 1917 Antonio Amantea u/c
17 1917 Ivan Smirnov #4
18 1918 Julius Arigi #32
19 1918 Bela Macourek #4
20 1918 Friedrich Navratil #9
21 1918 Carl Falkenberg #10
22 1918 Ernest Hoy #4 #5
23 1918 Alfred Brown #8
24 1918 Hervey Rhodes #8
25 1918 Benjamin Roxburgh-Smith #13
26 1918 John Warner #4
27 1918 Francois Delzenne #2
28 1918 Gabriel Thomas #4
29 1918 Harald Auffarth #19
30 1918 Rudolf Francke #14
31 1918 Bertram Heinrich #12
32 1918 Carl-August von Schönebeck #5
33 1918 Wilhelm Seitz #10
34 1918 Cesare Magistrini u/c
35 1918 Keith Caldwell #18
36 1918 Charles Ross #11 #12
37 1918 Louis Bennett #10
38 1918 Harold Shoemaker #4
39 1918 Edgar Taylor #3 #4
40 1918 George Vaughn #6 #7
41 1918 Dudley Lloyd-Evans #4




Losses
1 1918 John Haleskilled in action; shot down by anti-aircraft fire
2 1918 Stanley Stangerwounded in action by anti-aircraft fire
3 1918 James Childkilled attempting to rescue airman from crash




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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2009 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

009 Arthur Machen en de pijlen van Agincourt (23 augustus 1914)


Verder te lezen op:

http://veertienachttien.web-log.nl/mijn_weblog/2008/08/009-arthur-mach.html
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Mons

The fight on the canal banks, morning 23 August 1914

At 5.30am, Sir John French met with Haig, Allenby and Smith-Dorrien at his advanced HQ at a chateau in Sars-la-Bruyère, where he ordered the outpost line on the canal to be strengthened and the bridges prepared for demolition. They recognised that the British position was not good, for the canal turn was very exposed on three sides.

'the selection of positions by the 5th Division was a matter of the greatest difficulty, the ground being a wilderness of deep ditches, straggling buildings, casual roads and tracks, and high slag heaps. Fortunately on the enemy side the conditions were almost identical.' (Official History)

The morning of Sunday, 23rd August broke in mist and rain, which cleared around 10am. There were some early exchanges between German cavalry and British infantry outposts around 6.30am, near Obourg, Nimy and Ville Pommeroeul. But there could be little doubt where the main blow would fall - it would concentrate on the units of II Corps, thinly spread along the canal.

Before 9am, German heavy guns were in a position on high ground north of the canal, and opened fire on the positions of the 4th Middlesex and 4th Royal Fusiliers. German infantry attacks - units of the IX Korps - began from across the canal and increased in strength all round the salient from Obourg to Nimy. It was the 84th Regiment, from Schleswig, who made the first attacks on the Nimy positions. The British infantry shot down the feldgrau in masses as they advanced towards the canal in dense lines.

The first Victoria Crosses of the war

The bridges at Nimy were defended by the 4th Royal Fusiliers, the forward Company under Captain Ashburner. Two machine guns were under Lieutenant Maurice Dease. As the German attacks increased, all men of his sections were killed or wounded and he took over a gun himself. He was wounded five times, and eventually taken to the dressing station, where he succumbed. Private Sidney Godley took over the gun, and kept it firing. He covered the withdrawal despite being wounded, and eventually dismantled and threw the gun into the canal as he was taken prisoner. Both men were awarded the Victoria Cross. Godley died shortly after the Second War; Dease lies in St Symphorien cemetery, along with many men and officers of his battalion.

The battle intensifies and widens, morning 23 August 1914

The troops in the canal salient had orders for 'a stubborn resistance', and they held their original positions, although very hard pressed, until after 11am. A remarkable feat took place at Nimy, where a Private Niemayer jumped into the canal under fire and closed the swing bridge which enabled the first German troops to cross. The brave Niemayer was killed in the act.

The attack spread gradually westwards along the straight canal, as the III Korps came into action at Jemappes, 2 miles west of Mons. The forward post of the Royal Scots Fusiliers north of the canal was withdrawn, and gradually the Germans advanced to within 200 yards of the bridge at Lock 2, where they were brought to a standstill by the accuracy of the British fire. Still further west, the Brandenburg Grenadiers fought forward through Tertre and were only stopped by the maze of wire fences, boggy dikes and the crossfire of the West Kents and Scottish Borderers on the canal bank. Fighting was by noon continuous along the straight canal. Under continuous observed shelling and infantry attacks, the battalions to the west began to fall back in the early afternoon. Near Frameries, two of the three bridges escaped being blown by lack of exploders to fire the charges, and the Germans crossed hard on the heels of the Scots Fusiliers.

In the canal salient, the Germans shortly after noon succeeding in passing the canal west of Obourg, and reached the village railway station. Taught by recent hard experience they abandoned massed formation and deployed in extended order. The situation of the Middlesex and Royal Irish in this sector was now precarious, being under observation from the heights to the north of the canal, and with advanced German patrols pushing through Mons to their rear. By 3.15pm both battalions began to withdraw. A little earlier, the Royal Fusiliers withdrew from Nimy. Their losses did not greatly exceed 100, and after reforming in Mons they moved to Ciply.

Owing to the close proximity of the enemy, only one bridge was blown. An officer of the RE was taken prisoner at the Nimy bridge, and all the work of laying charges was done under fire of snipers. Some small parties, either not receiving orders to withdraw, or ordered to defend to the last man, were engulfed as the Germans swarmed across the salient, through Nimy and along the straight road into the city. In spite of the efforts of the Staff to co-ordinate the withdrawal to the planned defence line, there was no uniformity of movement from the outpost line on the canal, and parties of infantry began to get mixed up; command devolved onto Captains, subalterns, and senior NCOs.

'Altogether, the British commanders were not ill-satisfied with the day's work. The men, too, were in high spirits, for they had met superior numbers of the most highly renowned army in the world and had given a good account of themselves' (Official History)

The Germans did not exploit their success in the canal salient as dusk fell. Instead, their buglers were heard to sound the 'cease fire'. However, information arrived from the French 5th Army HQ during the night that Tournai had fallen, and long columns of the enemy had broken through. And a wide gap had opened up on the right between the BEF and Lanrezac's Army. Sir John French had little option but to order a general withdrawal, in the direction of Cambrai, and to try to re-establish contact with his allies. The men of the Old Contemptibles were mystified by the orders to withdraw - they fervently believed that they had fought the Germans to a standstill at Mons, and simply could not understand why they were marching away. Not one of them could have guessed just how much marching they would do over the next two weeks.

Tactical victory: strategic defeat

British fire-and-movement infantry tactics were essentially those taught in the pre-war years and followed the guidance of the Field Service Regulations. Intensive and accurate rifle fire and the effect of air-bursting shrapnel rounds on a massed and unprotected enemy were impressive. The British force engaged withdrew brilliantly in the face of overwhelming odds and without flank protection. The Germans suffered a serious blow. They now knew where the British were and that they could inflict damage and delay to the advance. However, with overwhelming strength and speed, that advance went on. The French line, extended on its left by the BEF, was in the process of being outflanked by the German First Army and retreat was inevitable.

Casualties

The total British casualties amounted to just over 1,600 of all ranks, killed, wounded and missing. Practically half of these were from just two battalions (400 of the 4th Middlesex and 300 of the 2nd Royal Irish, both of the 8th Brigade in the canal salient). German losses were in excess of 5,000.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat1.htm
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/mons.htm
Zie ook http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_mons.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Aug 2010 19:34, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mons

"Our first battle is a heavy, unheard of heavy, defeat, and against the English - the English we had laughed at."

(Walter Bloem, Reserve Captain, 12th Brandenburg Grenadier Regiment, in his autobiographical work 'Vormarsch')

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir John French's First Despatch

The first Despatch of Field Marshal Sir John French, Commander in Chief of the British Armies in France and Flanders. Printed in the Third Supplement to the London Gazette of 8 September 1914. It covered the movement of the BEF to France, the early clashes at Mons and Le Cateau and the beginning of the great retreat.

GENERAL HEAD QUARTERS, BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE.

My Lord, I have the honour to report the proceedings of the Field Force under my command up to the time of rendering this despatch.

The transport of the troops from England both by sea and by rail was effected in the best order and without a check. Each unit arrived at its destination in this country well within the scheduled time. The concentration was practically complete on the evening of Friday, the 21st ultimo [August], and I was able to make dispositions to move the Force during Saturday, the 22nd, to positions I considered most favourable from which to commence operations which the French Commander-in-Chief, General Joffre, requested me to undertake in pursuance of his plans in prosecution of the campaign. The line taken up extended along the line of the canal from Conde on the west, through Mons and Binche on the east. This line was taken up as follows: - From Conde to Mons inclusive was assigned to the Second Corps, and to the right of the Second Corps from Mons the First Corps was posted. The 5th Cavalry Brigade was placed at Binche. In the absence of my Third Army Corps I desired to keep the Cavalry Division as much as possible as a reserve to act on my outer flank, or move in support of any threatened part of the line. The forward reconnaissance was entrusted to Brigadier-General Sir Philip Chetwode with the 5th Cavalry Brigade, but I directed General Allenby to send forward a few squadrons to assist in this work.

During the 22nd and 23rd these advanced squadrons did some excellent work, some of them penetrating as far as Soignies, and several encounters took place in which our troops showed to great advantage.

At 6 a.m., on August 23rd, I assembled the Commanders of the First and Second Corps and Cavalry Division at a point close to the position, and explained the general situation of the Allies, and what I understood to be General Joffre's plan. I discussed with them at some length the immediate situation in front of us. From information I received from French Headquarters I understood that little more than one, or at most two, of the enemy's Army Corps, with perhaps one Cavalry Division, were in front of my position; and I was aware of no attempted outflanking movement by the enemy. I was confirmed in this opinion by the fact that my patrols encountered no undue opposition in their reconnoitring operations. The observation of my aeroplanes seemed also to bear out this estimate.

About 3 p.m. on Sunday, the 23rd, reports began coming in to the effect that the enemy was commencing an attack on the Mons line, apparently in some strength, but that the right of the position from Mons and Bray was being particularly threatened. The Commander of the First Corps had pushed his flank back to some high ground south of Bray, and the 5th Cavalry Brigade evacuated Binche, moving slightly south: the enemy thereupon occupied Binche. The right of the 3rd Division, under General Hamilton, was at Mons, which formed a somewhat dangerous salient; and I directed the Commander of the Second Corps to be careful not to keep the troops on this salient too long, but, if threatened seriously, to draw back the centre behind Mons. This was done before dark.

In the meantime, about 5 p.m., I received a most unexpected message from General Joffre by telegraph, telling me that at least three German Corps, viz., a reserve corps, the 4th Corps and the 9th Corps, were moving on my position in front, and that the Second Corps was engaged in a turning movement from the direction of Tournay. He also informed me that the two reserve French divisions and the 5th French Army on my right were retiring, the Germans having on the previous day gained possession of the passages of the Sambre between Charleroi and Namur.

In view of the possibility of my being driven from the Mons position, I had previously ordered a position in rear to be reconnoitred. This position rested on the fortress of Maubeuge on the right and extended west to Jenlain, south-east of Valenciennes, on the left. The position was reported difficult to hold, because standing crops and buildings made the siting of trenches very difficult and limited the field of fire in many important localities. It nevertheless afforded a few good artillery positions. When the news of the retirement of the French and the heavy German tnreatehing on my front reached me, I endeavoured to confirm it by aeroplane reconnaissance; and as a result of this I determined to effect a retirement to the Maubeuge position at daybreak on the 24th.

A certain amount of fighting continued along the whole line throughout the night, and at daybreak on the 24th the 2nd Division from the neighbourhood of Harmignies made a powerful demonstration as if to retake Binche. This was supported by the artillery of both the 1st and 2nd Divisions, whilst the 1st Division took up a supporting position in the neighbourhood of Peissant. Under cover of this demonstration the Second Corps retired on the line Dour-Quarouble-Frameries. The 3rd Division on the right of the Corps suffered considerable loss in this operation from the enemy, who had retaken Mons. The Second Corps halted on this line, where they partially entrenched themselves, enabling Sir Douglas Haig with the First Corps gradually to withdraw to the new position; and he effected this without much further loss, reaching the line Bavai-Maubeuge about 7 p.m.

Towards midday the enemy appeared to be directing his principal effort against our left. I had previously ordered General Allenby with the Cavalry to act vigorously in advance of my left front and endeavour to take the pressure off.

About 7.30 a.m. General Allenby received a message from Sir Charles Fergusson, commanding 5th Division, saying that he was very hard pressed and in urgent need of support. On receipt of this message General Allenby drew in the Cavalry and endeavoured to bring direct support to the 5th Division. During the course of this operation General De Lisle, of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, thought he saw a good opportunity to paralyse the further advance of the enemy's infantry by making a mounted attack on his flank. He formed up and advanced for this purpose, but was held up by wire about 500 yards from his objective, and the 9th Lancers and 18th Hussars suffered severely in the retirement of the Brigade.

The 19th Infantry Brigade, which had been guarding the Line of Communications, was brought up by rail to Valenciennes on the 22nd and 23rd. On the morning of the 24th they were moved out to a position south of Quarouble to support the left flank of the Second Corps.

With the assistance of the Cavalry Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien was enabled to effect his retreat to a new position; although, having two corps of the enemy on his front and one threatening his flank, he suffered great losses in doing so. At nightfall the position was occupied by the Second Corps to the west of Bavai, the First Corps to the right. The right was protected by the Fortress of Maubeuge, the left by the 19th Brigade in position between Jenlain, and Bry, and the Cavalry on the outer flank.

The French were still retiring, and I had no support except such as was afforded by the Fortress of Maubeuge; and the determined attempts of the enemy to get round my left flank assured me that it was his intention to hem me against that place and surround me. I felt that not a moment must be lost in retiring to another position. I had every reason to believe that the enemy's forces were somewhat exhausted, and I knew that they had suffered heavy losses. I hoped, therefore, that his pursuit would not be too vigorous to prevent me effecting my object. The operation, however, was full of danger and difficulty, not only owing to the very superior force in my front, but also to the exhaustion of the troops.

The retirement was recommenced in the early morning of the 25th to a position in the neighbourhood of Le Cateau, and rearguards were ordered to be clear of the Maubeuge-Bavai-Eth Road by 5.30 a.m. Two Cavalry Brigades, with the Divisional Cavalry of the Second Corps, covered the movement of the Second Corps. The remainder of the Cavalry Division with the 19th Brigade, the whole under the command of General Allenby, covered the west flank. The 4th Division commenced its detrainment at Le Cateau on Sunday, the 23rd, and by the morning of the 25th eleven battalions and a Brigade of Artillery with Divisional Staff were available for service. I ordered General Snow to move out to take up a position with his right south of Solesmes, his left resting on the Cambrai-Le Cateau Road south of La Chaprie. In this position the Division rendered great help to the effective retirement of the Second and First Corps to the new position.

Although the troops had been ordered to occupy the Cambrai-Le Cateau-Landrecies position, and the ground had, during the 25th, been partially prepared and entrenched, I had grave doubts-owing to the information I received as to the accumulating strength of the enemy against me-as to the wisdom of standing there to fight. Having regard to the continued retirement of the French on my right, my exposed left flank, the tendency of the enemy's western corps (II.) to envelop me, and, more than all, the exhausted condition of the troops, I determined to make a great effort to continue the retreat till I could put some substantial obstacle, such as the Somme or the Oise, between my troops and the enemy, and afford the former some opportunity of rest and reorganisation. Orders were, therefore, sent to the Corps Commanders to continue their retreat as soon as they possibly could towards the general line Vermand-St. Quentin Ribemont. The Cavalry, under General Allenby, were ordered to cover the retirement.

Throughout the 25th and far into the evening, the First Corps continued its march on Landrecies, following the road along the eastern border of the Foret De Mormal, and arrived at Landrecies about 10 o'clock. I had intended that the Corps should come further west so as to fill up the gap between Le Cateau and Landrecies, but the men were exhausted and could not get further in without rest. The enemy, however, would not allow them this rest, and about 9.30 p.m. a report was received that the 4th Guards Brigade in Landrecies was heavily attacked by troops of the 9th German Army Corps who were coming through the forest on the north of the town. This brigade fought most gallantly and caused the enemy to suffer tremendous loss in issuing from the forest into the narrow streets of the town. This loss has been estimated from reliable sources at from 700 to 1,000. At the same time information reached me from Sir Douglas Haig that his 1st Division was also heavily engaged south and east of Maroilles. I sent urgent messages to the Commander of the two French Reserve Divisions on my right to come up to the assistance of the First Corps, which they eventually did. Partly owing to this assistance, but mainly to the skilful manner in which Sir Douglas Haig extricated his Corps from an exceptionally difficult position in the darkness of the night, they were able at dawn to resume their march south towards Wassigny on Guise. By about 6 p.m. the Second Corps had got into position with their right on Le Cateau, their left in the neighbourhood of Caudry, and the line of defence was continued thence by the 4th Division towards Seranvillers, the left being thrown back.

During the fighting on the 24th and 25th the Cavalry became a good deal scattered, but by the early morning of the 26th General Allenby had succeeded in concentrating two brigades to the south of Cambrai. The 4th Division was placed under the orders of the General Officer Commanding the Second Army Corps. On the 24th the French Cavalry .Corps, consisting of three divisions, under General Sordet, had been in billets north of Avesnes. On my way back from Bavai, which was my "Poste de Commandement'' during the fighting of the 23rd and 24th, I visited General Sordet, and earnestly requested his co-operation and support. He promised to obtain sanction from his Army Commander to act on my left flank, but said that his horses were too tired to move before the next day. Although he rendered me valuable assistance later on in the course of the retirement, he was unable for the reasons given to afford me any support on the most critical day of all, viz., the 26th.

At daybreak it became apparent that the enemy was throwing the bulk of his strength against the left of the position occupied by the Second Corps and the 4th Division. At this time the guns of four German Army Corps were in position against them, and Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien reported to me that he judged it impossible to continue his retirement at daybreak (as ordered) in face of such an attack. I sent him orders to use his utmost endeavours to break off the .action and retire at the earliest possible moment, as it was impossible for me to send him any support, the First Corps being at the moment incapable of movement. The French Cavalry Corps, under General Sordet, was coming up on our left rear early in the morning, and I sent an urgent message lo him to do his utmost to come up and support the retirement of my left flank; but, owing to the fatigue of his horses he found himself unable to intervene in any way. There had been no time to entrench the position properly, but the troops showed a magnificent front to the terrible fire which confronted them.

The Artillery, although outmatched by at least four to one, made a splendid fight, and inflicted heavy losses on their opponents. At length it became apparent that, if complete annihilation was to be avoided, a retirement must be attempted; and the order was given to commence it about 3.30 p.m. The movement was covered with the most devoted intrepidity and determination by the Artillery, which had itself suffered heavily, and the fine work done by the Cavalry in the further retreat from the position assisted materially in the final completion of this most difficult and dangerous operation. Fortunately the enemy had himself suffered too heavily to engage in an energetic pursuit. I cannot close the brief account of this glorious stand of the British troops without putting on record my deep appreciation of the valuable services rendered by General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien. I say without hesitation that the saving of the left wing of the Army under my command on the morning of the 26th August could never have been accomplished unless a commander of rare and unusual coolness, intrepidity, and determination had been present to personally conduct the operation.

The retreat was continued far into the night of the 26th and through the 27th and 28th, on which date the troops halted on the line Noyon-Chauny-La Fere, having then thrown off the weight of the enemy's pursuit. On the 27th and 28th I was much indebted to General Sordet and the French Cavalry Division which he commands for materially assisting my retirement and successfully driving back some of the enemy on Cambrai. General D'Amade also, with the 61st and 62nd French Reserve Divisions, moved down from the neighbourhood of Arras on the enemy's right flank and took much pressure off the rear of the British Forces. This closes the period covering the heavy fighting which commenced at Mons on Sunday afternoon, 23rd August, and which really constituted a four days' battle. At this point, therefore, I propose to close the present despatch.

I deeply deplore the very serious losses which the British Forces have suffered in this great battle; but they were inevitable in view of the fact that the British Army-only two days after a concentration by rail-was called upon to withstand a vigorous attack of five German Army Corps. It is impossible for me to speak too highly of the skill evinced by the two General Officers commanding Army Corps; the self-sacrificing and devoted exertions of their Staffs; the direction of the troops by Divisional, Brigade and Regimental Leaders; the command of the smaller units by their officers; and the magnificent fighting spirit displayed by non-commissioned officers and men.

I wish particularly to bring to your Lordship's notice the admirable work done by the Royal Flying Corps under Sir David Henderson. Their skill, energy and perseverance have been beyond all praise. They have furnished me with the most complete and accurate information which has been of incalculable value in the conduct of the operations. Fired at constantly both by friend and foe, and not hesitating to fly in every kind of weather, they have remained undaunted throughout. Further, by actually fighting in the air, they have succeeded in destroying five of the enemy's machines.

I wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the incalculable assistance I received from the General and Personal Staffs at Headquarters during this trying period. Lieutenant-General Sir Archibald Murray, Chief of the General Staff; Major-General Wilson, Sub-Chief of the General Staff; and all under them have worked day and night unceasingly with the utmost skill, self-sacrifice, and devotion; and the same acknowledgment is due by me to Brigadier-General Hon. W. Lambton, my Military Secretary, and the Personal Staff. In such operations as I have described the work of the Quartermaster-General is of an extremely onerous nature. Major-General Sir William Robertson has met what appeared to be almost insuperable difficulties with his characteristic energy, skill and determination; and it is largely owing to his exertions that the hardships and sufferings of the troops-inseparable from such operations-were not much greater. Major-General Sir Nevil Macready, the Adjutant-General, has also been confronted with most onerous and difficult tasks in connection with disciplinary arrangements and the preparation of casualty lists. He has been indefatigable in his exertions to meet the difficult situations which arose.

I have not yet been able to complete the list of officers whose names I desire to bring to your Lordship's notice for services rendered during the period under review; and, as I understand it is of importance that this despatch should no longer be delayed, I propose to forward this list, separately, as soon as I can.

http://www.1914-1918.net/french_first_despatch.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 23 August 1914

Western Front
Namur falls.
Battle of Mons begins: general German attack on the French from Charleroi to Dinant.
French begin to fall back from Sambre and Meuse; also in northern Alsace.

Eastern Front
East Prussia: Germans evacuate Insterburg; at the Battle of Frankenau, Germans driven back.
Galicia: Russians take Brody and Tarnopol.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres
Tsing-tau blockaded and bombarded by the Japanese.

Political, etc.
Japan declares war on Germany.
Germany: Hindenburg receives command in East Prussia.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_08_23.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Capture and Punishment of Dinant, 1914

Sited on the Meuse River and some 50km south of the German siege of Namur, the town of Dinant in Belgium fell to the German Third Army (under von Hausen) on 23 August 1914. It was the latest step in the German strategy of overrunning Belgium during the month of August 1914.

Although the town fell to von Hausen's troops on 23 August the occupation was not initially peaceful. German soldiers who were repairing the town bridge were allegedly fired upon by local inhabitants. In retaliation therefore the German authorities rounded up 612 men, women and children and shot them together; the youngest victim was a three-week-old baby.

The town was subsequently pillaged and many of its buildings destroyed by the rampant German force. Although the massacre shocked public opinion around the world - particularly in neutral countries such as the U.S. - it merely formed part of the German army's strategy of intimidating occupied Belgian territories as a means of securing maximum civilian co-operation.

Although a notorious incident in itself the massacre of Dinant was eclipsed by a similar, wider-scale action at Louvain two days later. Both were exploited to the full by Allied propaganda.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/dinant.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mons VC's

Maurice Dease
Maurice James Dease VC (28 September 1889 – 23 August 1914) was a British Army officer during the First World War. He was one of the first British officer battle casualties of the war and the first posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross in that war.

(...) He was 24 years old, and a lieutenant in the 4th Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers, and was awarded the VC for his actions on 23 August 1914, at Mons, Belgium.

Nimy Bridge was being defended by a single company of Royal Fusiliers and a machine-gun section with Dease in command. The gun fire was intense, and the casualties very heavy, but the lieutenant went on firing in spite of his wounds, until he was hit for the fifth time and was carried away.

Though two or three times badly wounded he continued to control the fire of his machine guns at Mons on 23rd Aug., until all his men were shot. He died of his wounds.
—London Gazette, 16 November 1914

Dease won the first Victoria Cross to be awarded in the Great War, 1914-1918, and he also won it on the first day of the first significant British encounter in that war. Dease is buried at St Symphorien military cemetery, Belgium.

He is remembered with a plaque on Nimy Bridge, Mons and in Westminster Cathedral. His name is on the Wayside Cross in Woodchester, Stroud, Gloucestershire. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Fusiliers Museum in the Tower of London.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Dease

Sidney Frank Godley

Sidney Frank Godley VC (14 August 1889 — 29 June 1957) was a British soldier, and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest Commonwealth award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy", during the First World War. He was the first private soldier awarded the VC in World War I

(...) Sidney Godley was 25 years old, and a private in the 4th Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers, British Army during the First World War when he performed an act for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

On 23 August 1914, at Mons, Belgium, Nimy Bridge, Maurice James Dease and Sidney Godley offered to defend the Nimy Bridge while the rest of the British and French armies retreated for a better defence in inland France. When Lieutenant Dease had been mortally wounded and killed, Private Godley held the bridge single-handed for two hours under very heavy fire and was wounded twice. Shrapnel entered his back when an explosion near him went off, and he was shot in the head. Despite the pain, he carried on his duty of defending his countrymen while they escaped. His gallant action covered the retreat of his comrades, but he was eventually taken prisoner. His final act was to dismantle the gun and throw the pieces into the canal. He attempted to crawl to safety, but advancing German soldiers caught him and took him to a prisoner of war camp. His wounds were treated, but he remained in camp until the Armistice. Originally it was thought that he had been killed , but some time later it was found that he was a prisoner of war in a camp called Delotz.

It was in the camp that he was informed that he had been awarded the Victoria Cross. He received the actual medal from the King, at Buckingham Palace, in 1919

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Godley

Zie ook http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/Mons%20to%20Marne.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Aug 2010 19:57, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Angels of Mons

The Angels of Mons is a popular legend about a group of angels who supposedly protected members of the British army in the Battle of Mons at the outset of World War I. The story is fictitious, developed through a combination of a patriotic short story by Arthur Machen, rumours, mass hysteria and urban legend, claimed visions after the battle and also possibly deliberately seeded propaganda.

On 22-23 August 1914, the first major engagement of the British Expeditionary Force in the First World War occurred at the Battle of Mons. Advancing German forces were thrown back by heavily outnumbered British troops, who also suffering casualties and being outflanked were forced into rapid retreat the next day. The retreat and the battle were rapidly perceived by the British public as being a key moment in the war. Despite the censorship going on in Britain at the time, this battle was the first indication the British public had that defeating Germany would not be as easy as some had thought. Considering the numbers of German forces that were involved in the battle, the British ability to hold them off for as long as they did seemed remarkable and recruitment to the army shot up in the weeks that followed.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angels_of_Mons
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Aug 2010 19:56, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 19:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extermination of Greeks in Turkey

The Times, August 23rd 1917, page 5.

http://www.greek-genocide.org/press/23081917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Beginning of Air Warfare, 1914

As the combatants clashed in the opening days of World War I, the newly invented airplane provided each side with a "bird's eye view" of the battlefield. The value of this new reconnaissance tool was proven at the first major engagement of the war – the Battle of Mons on August 23, 1914. It was at Mons, a small industrial town in southern Belgium, where the advancing British Army collided with the Germans as they marched towards France.
From their vantage point above the battleground, a British observation team could see that the Germans were moving their forces to surround the unsuspecting British army. Alerted, the British high command ordered an immediate retreat into France. As embarrassing as the withdrawal was for the British, the move saved the army. A few days later, French aerial observers noted a shift in the movement of the German army that exposed its flanks to attack. The resulting battle of the Marne (September 5 - 12), halted the German drive into France and saved Paris.

The airplane's value as an observation platform had been proven. This revelation led to the next developmental step in air warfare - the effort to blind the enemy by shooting down its eyes in the sky. It would be months before a French pilot would strap a machinegun to the nose of his airplane to create the first true fighter plane. In the interim, warfare in the air was characterized by the occupants of enemy observation planes firing at one another with pistols, rifles or, as the following account describes, throwing an unloaded revolver at an opponent's spinning propeller.

"Have you got a revolver, old boy? My ammunition's all gone."

Lt. W. R. Read was a pilot in the fledgling Royal Flying Corps. In the early days of August 1914 the Corps was ordered to transport its force of 63 planes to France and provide reconnaissance of enemy troop movements. Read kept a diary of his experiences and we join his story as he and his observer - Jackson - fly over the area of Mons, Belgium. Throughout his narrative, Lt. Read refers to his plane as "Henri:"

"One day, after our reconnaissance over Mons and Charleroi, Jackson spotted a German Taube machine. I had also seen him but we had done our job and I did not want a fight. Jackson was always bloodthirsty, however, and the following shouted conversation ensued:

Jackson: 'Look, old boy!'

'Me: 'Yes, I know.’

'Jackson: ‘I think we ought to go for him, old boy.’

Me: 'Better get home with your report.'

Jackson: 'I think we ought to go for him, old boy.'

Me: 'All right.' "

I changed course for him and, as we passed the Taube, Jackson got in two shots with the rifle. We turned and passed each other again with no obvious result. This happened three or four times. Then, ‘Have you got a revolver, old boy? My ammunition's all gone.’ I, feeling rather sick of the proceedings, said ‘Yes. But no ammo.’ ‘Give it to me, old boy, and this time fly past him as close as you can.’ I carried out instructions and, to my amazement, as soon as we got opposite the Taube, Jackson, with my Army issue revolver grasped by the barrel, threw it at the Taube's propeller. Of course it missed and then, honor satisfied, we turned for home.

22 August. Today the French distinguished themselves by bringing down one of their own airships. They also often fire at us and there is quite as much to fear from one's own side as from the Germans as one leaves the ground. Two machines that went out this morning on reconnaissance came back with several bullet holes in them. In one the observer was shot in the stomach. Herbert, Shekleton, Fuller and I are the 4 pilots in our Flight. We do more flying than most other flights probably because Henri is a more reliable machine and is always ready. Shek. came back last night with six shot holes in his planes. One bullet missed the petrol tank only by an inch.

23 August. Went up for reconnaissance at 11.30 with Major Moss as passenger [observer]. I could not get Henri to climb at first so came down and lightened the load, then we soon got away at 3,800 feet. We found the enemy very thick to the south-east of Thuin and a battle was in progress below us. The artillery on both sides were very busy. It was very interesting to watch. In one field a French battery opened fire; it had not fired more than two rounds per gun when shell after shell from a German battery burst over them. It must have been perfect hell for the French battery and silenced them at once. On the way back some German howitzer battery opened fire on us from north-west of Thuin. One shell splinter passed through my left plane but did no damage. Some infantry in Thuin also wasted a thousand rounds or so trying to bring us down.

'24 August. All yesterday heavy firing to the east and northeast, and it was apparent that the enemy was pushing us back. I was sent off on to some high ground to look out for zeppelins!! NO.3 Squadron-ours-left at 2.30 pm, landed at Berlmont at 6.45 pm, then ordered to retire further back to Le Cateau. A great rush to get off as it was getting dusk. I and some others landed in a wrong field but went on to the right one afterwards. Birch in his Bleriot hit the telegraph wires in getting off and broke his machine, escaping with a shaking himself.

'25 August. Yesterday the Germans had a victory at Mons. Today parts of Charleroi are in flames and the enemy are turning our left flank. I went off at 11 am with Jackson as passenger. All our troops were in retreat, using every road available and making for Le Cateau. The whole of the French cavalry were retiring on Cambrai. Returned from reconnaissance at 1 pm and at 3.30 orders came to move to St Quentin. As soon as we landed a heavy rain-storm came on and swamped everything. I feel so sorry for poor Henri. It is doing him a great deal of harm, this rain and hot sun.

'26 August. Off on reconnaisance at 7 am with Jackson to report on engagements in the Le Cateau and Espignol area. The whole sight was wonderful - a fierce artillery engagement for the most part, we getting the worst of it. We had all the German army corps against our little force. We could see nothing of the French. I watched one of our batteries put out of action, shell after shell burst on it and then there was silence until more men were sent up and it opened up again.

'Le Cateau was in flames. We were shelled by anti-aircraft guns so I kept at 4,500 feet. We are also giving the Germans a bad time-their cavalry and infantry nearly always advanced in masses, offering as they did so a splendid target and getting mown down by the score. There was not a suitable place to land at headquarters at Bertry. In landing we skidded and as soon as we touched ground the landing chassis gave way and Henri pitched on his nose. Jackson was pitched out about ten yards ahead and I was left in the machine. Neither of us was hurt only shaken. Good old Henri, he did me well and even at the last he did not do me in. There was no time to repair the damage as shells were already falling over the town so I hurriedly removed all the instruments, guns, maps etc. and cut off the Union Jack and so left Henri in his last resting place."

References: This eyewitness account appears in: Moynihan, Michael, People at War 1914-1918 (1973); Boyne, Walter J., The Smithsonian Book of Flight (1987); Reynolds, Quentin, They Fought for the Sky (1957); Simkins, Peter, World War I: the western front (1991).

"The Beginning of Air Warfare, 1914," EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2008).
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of the Frontiers, Aug.20-24.1914

AUGUST 23

The Belgian Front.
==German troops completely destroy the occupied town of Visé, near Liège, executing, deporting, or expelling the entire population - ~the Germans begin a policy of mass deportations

The BEF Front.
==The Battle of Mons: the outnumbered BEF temporarily checks the advance of Kluck’s 1st Army, inflicting heavy casualities [900.AM-500.PM] - the BEF starts to fall back [evening]; British GHQ learns of the French 5th Army’s retreat, which has left the BEF’s flank wide open [1100.PM] - the start of the long British retreat

The Northwestern Front.
==The German 3rd Army receives orders to drive westward over the Meuse south of Givet to cut off the French 5th Army [825.AM]; Hausen plans to attack Aug.24
==Belgian forces complete the evacuation of the Namur forts [noon]
==The French 5th Army is driven further south of the Sambre by the German 2nd Army [afternoon]; French III Corps is badly mauled
==The German 3rd Army begins breaking out from its bridgehead over the Meuse at Onhaye, threatening to cut off Lanrezac’s French 5th Army [late afternoon]
==The Germans occupy Namur [evening]
==Lanrezac orders 5th Army to retreat from the Sambre area [1100.PM]: the final collapse of the aggressive French Plan 17
==In reprisal for alleged civilian interference with bridge-building, the German 3rd Army executes 612 hostages in the central square of Dinant, including a three week old infant, before sacking the town; the “profoundly moved” General Hausen blames the Belgians for being massacred
==The Germans execute 25 Belgian civilians in Namur to Aug.25

The Central Front.
==Joffre sends an optimistic report to the War Minister on the Ardennes offensive [700.AM], but by evening the French 3rd and 4th Armies are retreating
==The German 5th Army bypasses the Longwy forts and advances on Verdun

Lorraine.
==The French 1st Army counterattacks in Lorraine

Alsace.
==The French are retreating in northern Alsace

French Headquarters (GQG).
==GQG is still unaware of the strength of the German offensives, and is baffled by reports of French reverses

http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne03.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg, 26. - 30. August 1914

Lage am 23. August

Die 2. russische Armee (Narew - Armee)
Nach bisherigen Erkenntnissen gehörten zu dieser Armee, unter Führung des Generals der Kavallerie Alexander Samsonow, das I., VI., XIII., XV. und XXIII. Korps und die 4., 5., 6. und 15. Kavalleriedivision.
Die Armee hatte am Abend des 22. August die Straße Soldau - Neidenburg - Ortelsburg erreicht und war in nordwestlicher Richtung wieder angetreten. Auf dem Westflügel mußte auf deutscher Seite bis nach Rypin mit starker Kavallerie gerechnet werden. Bei Soldau wurden Teile des I. Korps festgestellt. Die Mitte der Narew-Armee, XIII., XV. und ½ XXIII. Korps, war von Neidenburg her schon sehr nahe an das deutsche XX. Korps herangekommen, dass schon heute, oder spätestens morgen, am 24. August, mit einem Aufeinandertreffen gerechnet werden musste. Der Ostflügel, der vom VI. Korps gebildet wurde, schien noch etwas zurückzuhängen. Hier hatte der Gegner mit Kavallerie Johannisburg erreicht und von Osten gegen die Seesperren vorgefühlt. Durch aufgefangene Funksprüche wurde der Anmarsch des russischen II.Korps festgestellt. Das Korps bewegte sich von Lyck in nordwestlicher Richtung. Da es sich östlich der Masurischen Seenkette befand, ging von ihm zunächst keine Gefahr aus.

Die 1. russische Armee (Njemen - Armee)
unter General der Kavallerie Pavel von Rennenkampf war durch Luftaufklärung am 22. August morgens mit ihrem Gros noch auf dem Schlachtfeld vom 20. festgestellt worden. Nur Vortruppen, zumeist Kavallerie, waren bis zur Angerapp und Inster gefolgt und hatten diese bei Darkehmen und Nemmersdorf überschritten.
Durch die vorausgegangenen Kämpfe waren Einblicke in die Zusammensetzung und Stärke der Njemen - Armee teilweise möglich geworden. Sie bestand aus mindestens drei Korps, einer Schützenbrigade und 5½ Kavallerie - Divisionen. Dahinter waren Verstärkungen angekommen. Man rechnete mit dem Gardekorps, von dessen Abfahrt nach Wilna man wußte, und das man jetzt bei Pillkallen, hinter dem Nordflügel der Armee annahm. Nördlich der Inster war bisher kein Feind festgestellt worden.
Die Absicht der russischen Führung zeichnete sich ab und wurde durch einen erbeuteten Befehli bestätigt. Demnach sollte die Njemen - Armee die hinter der Angerapp vermuteten Deutschen angreifen, während die Narew - Armee vom Süden her ihnen in den Rücken geht. Das abwartende Verhalten Rennenkampfs entsprach jedoch nicht diesem Befehl. Es bestätigte die Friedensansicht des deutschen Generalstabs, wonach das russische Heer in seinen Bewegungen langsam und schwerfällig sei und dass die Führung es nicht versteht, eine sich bietende günstige operative Lage schnell auszunutzen.

Das XX.AK
unter General von Scholtz war durch die 20. und 70. Landwehrbrigade und Festungstruppen aus Thorn und Graudenz, (General von Unger) verstärkt worden. Die Absicht, gegen den linken Flügel der Narew-Armee vorzustoßen, musste wieder aufgegeben werden. Die Breite des russischen Vormarsches machte es unmöglich, die aktiven Truppen, die eben noch bei Ortelsburg standen, rechtzeitig vor den russischen Westflügel zu bringen.
Das Korps stand nun in einer vorbereiteten Stellung, die sich von 9 km südwestlich Gilgenburg bis 10 km nördlich Neidenburg erstreckte.
Die 3.Reservedivision unter General von Morgen war inzwischen dem XX.AK unterstellt worden. Sie wurde per Bahn nach Allenstein verlegt und hatte die Ausladungen fast beendet.

Das I.AK
unter General von François Der Abtransport des I.AK hatte nach den ersten Anordnungen des Oberkommandos am 24. August von Wehlau und Königsberg aus beginnen sollen. Um den Transport zu beschleunigen und den Truppen lange Fußmärsche zu ersparen, hatte die Führung des Korps die Abbeförderung unter dem Schutz der Hauptreserve Königsberg bereits am 22. vormittags in Insterburg und westlich davon beginnen lassen. Durch verschiedene Schwierigkeiten im Bahnverkehr konnte jedoch der Transport des Korps nach Deutsch-Eylau und Bischofswerder nicht vor dem 25. abgeschlossen werden.
Südlich davon, bei Strasburg, sammelte sich von der Festung Thorn kommend eine gemischte Brigade unter dem Kommandeur der 5. Landwehrbrigade, Generalleutnant Mülmann.

Die Sperranlagen
Die Sperrbefestigungen in der Johannisburger Heide mussten aufgegeben werden. Die dort und bis zum Spirding - See stehenden Truppen unter General Bacmeister bestanden aus Landsturm - Einheiten. Ältere Jahrgänge über 40 Jahre.
Sie waren angewiesen, nach Norden, auf Lötzen auszuweichen und die 6.Landwehr - Brigade abzulösen. Diese war bereits damit beschäftigt, die Landengen zwischen den Seen auch in Richtung Westen zu sichern. Die Stadt Lötzen sollte besetzt bleiben, um die Landbrücken zu schließen und feindliche Truppen zu binden.

Die Ostgruppe der 8. Armee
Das I. Reservekorps unter Gen.Lt. Otto von Below
und das
XVII. Armeekorps unter General der Kavallerie August von Mackensen
waren vom Gegner auf ihrem Rückmarsch nicht gestört worden. Sie lagen westlich der Linie Nordenburg - Insterburg.
Die 1. Kavallerie - Division (KD) unter Gen.Lt. Brecht
befand sich nördlich dieser beiden Korps. Sie war einen Tag zuvor durch das Jäger-Bataillon 2 verstärkt worden. In Folge der Anstrengungen im Grenzschutz und der letzten Gefechte war die 1.KD völlig erschöpft. "In 3 Wochen keinen Ruhetag, zum Schluss Attacke und dreitägigen Ritt, zu wenig Wasser, ohne Verplegung, Beschlag(Hufeisen) verbraucht, Pferde übermüdet, nur halbe Gefechtskraft, Transport notwendig um Ruhetag zu gewinnen." lautete die Meldung.
Die Hauptreserve Königsberg deckte die Verladungen des I.AK bei Norkitten und Wehlau, während
Die 2. Landwehrbrigade und andere Truppen der Festung Königsberg die Deime - Stellung besetzt hielten.
Im äußersten Nordzipfel Ostpreußens, bei Heidekrug und Memel, hielt Landsturm einsame Wacht.

Der Angriffsplan
Für den neuen Oberbefehlshaber der 8. Armee und seinen Chef des Stabes stand von Anfang an der Entschluss fest, die durch geographische Gegebenheiten bedingte Trennung der beiden russischen Armeen zu einem entscheidenden Schlag gegen die Narew-Armee (General Samsonow) auszunutzen. Dieser Schlag konnte nur gelingen, solange die Armee Rennenkampf im Norden noch weit genug von der Armee Samsonow im Süden getrennt war. Die Zeit drängte, zumal auch für den Kampf selbst mehrere Tage in Ansatz gebracht werden mussten. Daher war es nötig, die Narew-Armee schon nahe der Grenze aufzuhalten. Mit jedem Schritt, mit dem sie nach Norden Boden gewann, näherte sie sich der Njemen-Armee und beschränkte die Bewegungsfreiheit der deutschen Armee zwischen den beiden russischen. So mussten die Truppen des XX.AK unter General von Scholtz trotz der feindlichen Überlegenheit in ihrer Stellung ausharren, bis das I.AK unter General von François und die Verstärkungen aus den Festungen heran waren. Bei diesen aber musste alles getan werden um das Eintreffen zur Schlacht aufs äußerste zu beschleunigen. Daher erhielt das I.AK Befehl, die ausgeladenen Truppen gleich bis in die Linie Neumark - südlich Löbau vorzuschieben und dorthin aufzuschließen. Der Vormarsch sollte sofort nach beendeter Ausladung der fechtenden Truppen erfolgen.
Ging General Samsonow in den nächten Tagen zum Angriff gegen General von Scholtz vor, dann war das I.AK zum Stoß in seine Westflanke und vielleicht auch in seinen Rücken bestimmt. In diesem Sinne wurde General von François unterrichtet, der sich auf der Durchfahrt in Marienburg beim Oberbefehlshaber meldete. Dabei wurde festgestellt, dass das I.AK erst am 26. August mittags in den Kampf eingreifen könne. Das XX. Korps wurde angewiesen, dem entsprechend seine Kräfte zu schonen, insbesondere die 3. Reserve-Division (Gen.Lt. von Morgen) bei Allenstein zunächst zurückzuhalten.
Da die russische Narew-Armee mit 5 aktiven Korps und 4 Kavallerie - Divisionen allein schon den gesamten deutschen Kräften in Ostpreußen überlegen war, musste auf deutscher Seite der letzte Mann und das letzte Geschütz zur Schlacht herangeholt werden. Was von den Besatzungen der Weichselfestungen noch irgendwie im Felde verwendbar war, vor allem die bespannte Artillerie dieser Festungen, sollte mitwirken. Dazu musste die Südgrenze westlich Soldau, trotz des dort drohenden russischen Kavallerie - Einfalls, entblößt werden. Die heranrückenden Festungstruppen (5. Landwehrbrigade unter Gen.Lt. von Mülmann) hatten den Angriff des I.AK in der Südflanke zu begleiten.
Schwierig war die Frage, wie die Ostgruppe (XVII.AK und I.Res.K) weiter zu werwenden sei. Ein Abmarsch unmittelbar westlich der Seen, wie er seinerzeit dem Generalobersten von Moltke für die ganze 8. Armee vorgeschwebt hatte, kam bei der jetzigen Lage überhaupt nicht mehr in Betracht. Man wollte aber doch möglichst starke Teile zum Kampf gegen die Narew-Armee heranziehen. Wie stark sie sein würden, hing vom Vormarsch der Njemen-Armee ab. Diese galt es durch schwache Kräfte abzuwehren.
Südlich dieser Ostgruppe sollte die Festung Lötzen, auch Boyen genannt, die Sperrung des Seengebiets übernehmen. Sie selbst sollte durch Ausbau von Stellungen auch gegen einen Angriff von Westen gesichert werden. Der Kommandant der Festung, Oberst Busse, musste mit seinen eigenen Kräften und dem Landsturm aus der Johannisburger Heide (Bacmeister) auskommen. Ihm standen damit im ganzen nur 4½ Bataillone (davon mehr als die Hälfte Landsturm) 1 Schwadron und eine Anzahl älterer Geschütze zur Verfügung.
Im Norden engten die Pregel- und Deime-Linie, als vorgeschobene Stellung der Festung Königsberg, den Vormarsch der russischen Njemen-Armee ein. Diese Stellungen waren noch im Ausbau. Die zu ihrer Besetzung bestimmte Hauptreserve der Festung hatte zunächst noch die Verladung des I.AK zu decken. Im übrigen war sie für ihre neue Aufgabe verfügbar und wurde dazu dem Gouverneur der Festung, Gen.Lt. von Pappritz, wieder unterstellt.
Zwischen dem Seengebiet und dem Pregel blieb dann ein immer noch 60 km breiter Raum frei. Hier mussten wahrscheinlich Teile der Ostgruppe, vor allem die 1. Kavallerie - Division, zur Deckung gegen die russische Njemen- Armee stehenbleiben. Das XVII. AK sollte daher am 24. August zunächst hinter die Alle zurückgehen. Von dort konnte man es unter dem Schutz einer Nachhut je nach der Lage weiter leiten, wenn möglich gegen den rechten Flügel der Narew-Armee. Das I.RK (Reserve-Korps), unter Gen.Lt. von Below, wurde schon jetzt in dieser Richtung angesetzt. Die 6. Landwehr - Brigade (Gen.Mj. Krahmer) sollte aus Lötzen zu ihm heranrücken. Als aber die Abendmeldungen von der Front ergaben, dass die Njemen-Armee (Rennenkampf) wieder nur einen ganz kurzen Marsch nach Westen gemacht und die Linie Darkehmen - Ischdaggen (auf halbem Weg Gumbinnen - Insterburg) nur mit kleineren Abteilungen Kavallerie überschritten hatte, da entschloss sich das Armee - Oberkommando, beiden Korps der Ostgruppe jetzt schon eine mehr südliche Richtung, auf Allenstein, zu geben. Der Abstand vom Feind, der nur einen starken Tagesmarsch betrug, musste durch größere Marschleistung erweitert, an der Alle voraussichtlich ein Teil des XVII. AK zurückgelassen werden, um mit der 1.Kav.Div. zusammen das Abbiegen nach Südwesten zu verschleiern und die nachdrängenden Russen aufzuhalten. Dem entsprechend erhielt das I.RK Befehl, schon am 24. August über Schippenbeil hinaus möglichst weit Gelände zu gewinnen, um am 25. über Seeburg hinauszukommen. Dem XVII.AK wurde für den 25. der Weitermarsch nach Friedland über Bartenstein in Aussicht gestellt. Im weiteren Verlauf der Bewegungen mussten die beiden Korps damit die rechte Flanke der Narew-Armee treffen.
Diese Anordnungen des Generals von Hindenburg am Nachmittag und Abend am Tag seines Eintreffens in Marienburg setzten fast die gesamten östlich der Weichsel verfügbaren Truppen zum Angriff auf die Narew-Armee in Bewegung. Zum 26. August sollten sie, wie am Abend des 23. der Obersten Heeresleitung gemeldet, "beim XX. Armeekorps zum umfassenden Angriff " vereinigt werden.
11½ Dvisionen Infanterie sollten zur Entscheidungsschlacht heranrücken, nur 1½ Dvisionen (Hauptreserve Königsberg mit 2. Landwehr - Brigade) und die 1. Kavallerie - Division die Njemen-Armee abwehren.
Und doch ließ das neue Oberkommando auch bei größter Kühnheit des Angriffsplanes die nötige Vorsicht nicht außer Acht. So wurde gleichzeitig die Frage erwogen, was geschehen solle, wenn der Schlag gegen die Narew-Armee mißlang. Auch dann wollte man versuchen, sich östlich der Weichsel zu behaupten. Die Flussübergänge sollten für das Eingreifen der später von Westen erwarteten Kräfte offen gehalten werden. Dazu bekam der General der Pioniere, Gen.Mj. Kersten, den Auftrag, schon jetzt eine Stellung in der allgemeinen Linie Graudenz - Deutsch-Eylau - Elbing zu erkunden.
Der Tagesbefehl, durch den General von Hindenburg den Truppen die Übernahme des Oberbefehls bekannt gab, enthielt, getreu den Grundanschauungen des alten deutschen Heeres, nur die schlichten Worte: "Wir wollen zueinander Vertrauen fassen und gemeinsam unsere Schuldigkeit tun."

http://www.tannenberg1914.de/3_tannb/2308.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of the Frontiers: Ardennes 1914
Written by Steve Donoghue on April 11, 2010

Our book today is The Battle of the Frontiers: Ardennes 1914 by Terence Zuber (The History Press, 2009 – first published in 2007), and as Zuber points out on his first page, “From 20 to 24 August 1914 the French and German armies, each some seventy divisions strong, met head-on in Belgium and Lorraine in the Battle of the Frontiers, one of the most hard-fought, most important and most interesting battles in military history.”

The popular conception of that battle is simple and heartbreaking: the folly of antiquated military tactics crashing rudely and ruthlessly into modern military hardware – gallant French troops, bayonets fixed, marching en masse into lethal German machine gun emplacements only to get mowed down in horrifying numbers. The French, under the mistaken impression that their advance armies in Belgium would be facing minimal German forces, made no preparations for what actually ended up happening – massive German counter-attacks – and so, over the course of three days, the French lost dozens of thousands of men and great heaps of equipment and were forced to surrender all the ground their advances had so quickly gained.

Zuber’s publishers bill his book as the first fully realized history of both the Battle of the Ardennes and the larger Battle of the Frontiers of which it was a critical part, and maybe this is so: certainly Zuber’s book is incredibly, dauntingly detailed. The battle maps require a stint at West Point to readily decipher, and the action descriptions are often an alphabet soup of troop designations:

At 1030 on 23 August 4th Army sent a sobering report to GQG. In II CA the 3 DI was in good shape at Meix devant Virton, but the 4 DI had been thrown out of Bellefontaine and had been ‘sorely tried’. The 3 DIC and 5h Colonial Brigade had also been ‘sorely tried’. XII CA was in good shape and had not even engaged its corps artillery, but was falling back. XVII CA was in poor condition, 33 DI had lost its artillery, 34 DI had been thrown back. XI CA had pulled back to the Semois.

This book’s 300 pages of eye-strainingly tiny type contain innumerable passages like that one – this is no lazily derivative account – which is great news to all future historians, who must of necessity not only include this Zuber’s book in their researches but begin with it, but perhaps a bit more ominous news for general readers, since the author clearly isn’t interested in presenting a narrative account of the events he’s researching.

This isn’t to say he doesn’t have lots of opinions – far from it. One of the persistent myths of World War I’s beginnings is that the German command, forged in the recent exhilarations of the Franco-Prussian War only 40 years earlier, had an institutional aptitude for the military calling, and that this aptitude accounted for a great deal of the successes the Germans enjoyed in the last week of August 1914. Zuber doesn’t believe a word of it:

In the Battle of the Frontiers the argument that the German General Staff had a ‘genius for war’ falls flat on its face. German operational planning in the Ardennes came far closer to military malpractice than to genius. Moltke demonstrated his inability to reach a decision and impose it on his subordinates. The 5th Army attack had no possible operational justification; in fact, the attack was premature and an operational liability.

Still, regardless of the paucity of German planning, the French are the ones who’ve always been excoriated for their idiocy during those pivotal two days, for the foolishness of thinking elan and bravery would win out against rapid-fire artillery. Later generations – indeed, later fighters in that same conflict – would look at illustrations of such 20th century cavalry charges and laugh in contempt. Zuber never allows himself to express anything so clouding as contempt, but his evaluations are remorseless.

And they turn up little details that surprise – as when he’s discussing the key French advance into the woods outside the town of Ethe:

This may be the first time in modern warfare that a major manoeuvre unit would be cut off and destroyed solely by firepower, without an infantry assault. Ethe demonstrated that the German army had drawn the appropriate conclusions from the technological progress – smokeless gunpowder, the magazine-fed rifle, the machine gun and quick-firing artillery – that had led to an exponential increase in the effectiveness of firepower and expanded the depth of the battlefield, while the French were still essentially thinking in terms of the smaller Napoleonic battlefield.

(Other little details, equally fascinating, are far more disruptive to the standard misremembering of the Great War, such as the fully-documented fact that many French soldiers would ‘play dead’ among the fallen in order to get the chance to shoot the advancing Germans in the back – and that they often shot down German ambulance workers coming to tend to the wounded from both sides)

Zuber knows better than anybody the gamut of popular simplifications of his subject (he at one point makes a withering aside about armchair generals studying “little maps with big arrows”), but in his account, the truth is simpler and less dramatic:

The fascination, common to almost all French soldiers and historians, with German trenches and French bayonet charges has nothing to do with actual combat. It was a means of explaining French defeat that emphasized French heroism and avoided confronting German tactical superiority. For modern historians, German trenches and French bayonet charges provide exactly the correct explanation for French defeat, one that corresponds with the popular ‘heroes led by donkeys’ thesis, as well as the experience of the next four years of trench warfare.

“That the French plan did not succeed, while the German plan did,” he tells us, summarizing the Ardennes disaster dispassionately and with no dramatic satisfaction at all, “had nothing to do with strategy, but was solely the product of German superiority at the tactical level.”

That tactical superiority – ground-troop coordination, better utilization of improved communication technology to forge increasingly larger units into coherent fighting forces, and if not the mythical German aptitude for warmaking then certainly the noted German willingness toward comprehensive situational thinking – dealt the French an undreamt-of bloody nose right at the opening of the First World War and changed the nature of the whole struggle, or rather, revealed the true face of that struggle. After those tumultuous, doomed bayonet charges, the war would largely settle into different shapes altogether – trenches and bombardments that Napoleon would scarcely have recognized as warfare at all, interspersed with slaughter on scale perhaps only a Napoleon could want to dream. Killing-technology was the thing that brought such warfare into being, and in 1914 the Germans were the first to embrace that fact.

On both the customary levels, Zuber’s book makes for some unpleasant reading: its dispatch-terse and annalistic approach won’t make any reader forget John Keegan or A. J. P. Taylor, and the events he has to relate – the violence, the stupid waste of life – will perhaps prompt the reader to reach for the night’s scotch a bit earlier than usual. But this is a necessary book, an indispensable one, and in its own grim and steadfast way, a perfect one. Certainly no World War I library can respectably be without a copy.

http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/stevereads/2010/04/the-battle-of-the-frontiers-ardennes-1914/
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Japan & Germany

August 23, 1914 - Japan declares war on Germany in World War I

http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1914/august_23_1914_76566.html

Ever on the lookout for allies, Churchill warmly welcomed Japan's entry into the war. Biographer Martin Gilbert was later told that when asked what inducement Japan might need to get them into the war, Churchill replied: "They can have China."

http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/timelines/the-challenge-of-war-august-1914-1916

On August 23, Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Allies_of_World_War_I
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Aug 2010 20:33, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - AUGUST 1915

23 August 1915 Monday

Called out at 10.30 p.m. to carry wounded.

At daybreak this morning we were all called back to quell a disturbance among the Egyptians. They were refusing to work on account of one of their members sentenced to a flogging, (not true as I found out later). They were very threatening and commenced to come at us with sticks and stones.
Five men were picked and placed in front. Several received cracks from the stick.

First a volley of 2 rounds were fired overhead, then 2 rounds at their feet.
Then the Officers gave the order to let them have it. Five were killed and 9 or 10 wounded. This settled them. Most scuttled up among the reeds wailing and praying and pulling their hair. I never heard such a frightful row in all my life. Some of the Ghurkhas who witnessed it went into estaties, "Good boy Johsinie".

In my opinion the order to fire into them should have been given while the Gypos were using their sticks not after they have seemed to have cooled down. Of course all the palavering was going on in their own language and with principally their own officer. So it is hard to form an opinion. It was an awful sight, and the effect of the sight of blood on the Egyptians was instantaneous. Even our officers turned their heads.

The R.N.A.S. have formed a camp a little up from ours and are hauling aeroplanes up from the pier all day. New ones too and by the number of them a raid on Constantinople of some dimensions must be contemplated

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/aug1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grenzhochspannungshindernis: de elektrische grensdraad tussen Nederland en België in de Eerste Wereldoorlog

Das erste 18 km lange Stück in Vaalserquartier beginnend, wurde höchstwahrscheinlich am 23. August 1915 unter Strom gesetzt, ab dem 29. August war die Anlage bis zur Maas in Betrieb. Die Stromstärke, die zwischen 500 und 2000 Volt variieren konnte, wurde in Schalthäusern geregelt, die etwa alle 2 km angelegt waren.

Auf vielfältige Weise gelang es Menschen den Draht zu überwinden, doch für viele Personen, deren genaue Zahl sich heute wohl nicht mehr ermitteln lässt, brachte er den Tod.

http://www.theelen.eu/~paultheelen/%5B19150606%5D%20'Grenzhochspannungshindernis'.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great Retreat, Eastern Front 1915
by Michael Kihntopf

By 23 August 1915 the Russian positions on their fronts with the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary and Germany were crumbling like mud walls in a rainstorm. Since April, the combined armies had slowly and methodically destroyed one Russian corps after another as they marched across the Polish salient and through the Carpathian Mountains. The strong fortresses of the Vistula River had succumbed. Voices from the trenches to the desks of the Russian General Staff or Stavka whispered innuendos of betrayal and incompetence and called for something to be done before the German hordes gobbled up any more of holy mother Russia. Tsar Nicholas II, encouraged by his wife, finally gave in to the allegations and sacked the commander in chief, his uncle, Nicholas Nikolovich, and took up the reigns of command himself. This assumption of command on Nicholas's part was one of the contributing factors toward the Russian Revolution which followed a year and a half later. Was the relief of Nicholas Nikolovich a prudent measure or had he been the most competent leader of the time?

Lees verder op http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwi/articles/thegreatretreat.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pit Accident At Uddingston

Yesterday afternoon while a number of miners were at work in Messrs Addie & Sons' Viewpark colliery, Uddingston , a fall took place from the roof and on being cleared away it was found that William Donnelly and James Harris , both residing in Alpine Terrace, Uddingston, were seriously injured. Donnelly was afterwards removed to Glasgow Royal Infirmary and Harris to his home. [Scotsman 24 August 1915]

http://scottishmining.co.uk/356.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian soldiers in the trenches at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, August 1915

http://www.flickr.com/photos/statelibraryqueensland/3467065875/
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Albert Charles Jennings (1879-1917)

Albert Charles Jennings sailed from Nelson on 6 January 1915 to join the 2nd Company, 2nd Battalion Canterbury Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade New Zealand forces to fight in The Great War. His regimental number was 6/1887 in C Company 4th Rifles. January, February and March were spent training at Trentham and he embarked for Europe via Australia on 17th April 1915.

Bert was not involved in the most famous military actions to involve New Zealanders - Gallipoli - as he was still in Australia on 29 April 1915. However, he was involved in the Sari Bair Offensive in August 1915. Bert's military history sheet records him wounded on the 8th June 1915 in the Dardanelles and again on 7 - 9 August 1915 in the left arm and right leg. On 23 August he was located in Alexandria, Egypt.

Lees verder op http://www.theprow.org.nz/albert-charles-jennings-1879-191/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"ATHLETIC ANZACS"

Grey River Argus, 23 August 1916, Page 4

Interessant krantenartikel... http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19160823.2.32
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 August 1916 → Written Answers (Commons)

SONS OF ENEMY ALIENS.


HC Deb 23 August 1916 vol 85 c2684W 2684W

Mr. SNOWDEN asked the Secretary of State for War if the British-born sons of alien enemies who have been taken into the British Army under the Military Service Acts are employed only in labour units?

Mr. FORSTER Yes, Sir; unless in individual cases the War Office decides otherwise.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1916/aug/23/sons-of-enemy-aliens
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Verdun 1916 - the greatest battle ever

The Relief of Von Knobelsdorf and Von Falkenhayn
On 23 August the message was received in the Stenay headquarters that general Von Knobelsdorf had been relieved of his duties. The criticism on Von Falkenhayn increased as well. The German Kaiser decided that Ludendorff and Von Hindenburg should be the new commanders-in-chief, as they had proven to be worthy of this position at the eastern front. Von Falkenhayn was posted to Rumania. The first action of general Ludendorff was a cease fire at Verdun, but the French army command had set their mind on striking back.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/battleverdun/kortverdun/index.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HOUSTON RIOT OF 1917.

In the spring of 1917, shortly after the United States declared war on Germany, the War Department, taking advantage of the temperate climate and newly opened Houston Ship Channel, ordered two military installations built in Harris County—Camp Logan and Ellington Field.qqv The Illinois National Guard was to train at Camp Logan, located on the northwest outskirts of the city. To guard the construction site, on July 27, 1917, the army ordered the Third Battalion of the black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry to travel by train with seven white officers from the regimental encampment at Columbus, New Mexico, to Houston. From the outset, the black contingent faced racial discrimination when they received passes to go into the city. A majority of the men had been raised in the South and were familiar with segregation, but as army servicemen they expected equal treatment. Those individuals responsible for keeping order, especially the police, streetcar conductors, and public officials, viewed the presence of black soldiers as a threat to racial harmony. Many Houstonians thought that if the black soldiers were shown the same respect as white soldiers, black residents of the city might come to expect similar treatment. Black soldiers were willing to abide by the legal restrictions imposed by segregated practices, but they resented the manner in which the laws were enforced. They disliked having to stand in the rear of streetcars when vacant seats were available in the "white" section and resented the racial slurs hurled at them by white laborers at Camp Logan. Some police officers regularly harassed African Americans, both soldiers and civilians. Most black Houstonians concealed their hostility and endured the abuse, but a number of black soldiers openly expressed their resentment. The police recognized the plight of the enlisted men, but did little to alert civil authorities to the growing tensions. When they sought ways to keep the enlisted men at the camp, the blacks disliked this exchange of their freedom for racial peace.

On August 23, 1917, a riot erupted in Houston. Near noon, two policemen arrested a black soldier for interfering with their arrest of a black woman in the Fourth Ward. Early in the afternoon, when Cpl. Charles Baltimore, one of the twelve black military policemen with the battalion, inquired about the soldier's arrest, words were exchanged and the policeman hit Baltimore over the head. The MPs fled. The police fired at Baltimore three times, chased him into an unoccupied house, and took him to police headquarters. Though he was soon released, a rumor quickly reached Camp Logan that he had been shot and killed. A group of soldiers decided to march on the police station in the Fourth Ward and secure his release. If the police could assault a model soldier like Baltimore, they reasoned, none of them was safe from abuse. Maj. Kneeland S. Snow, battalion commander, initially discounted the news of impending trouble. Around 8 P.M. Sgt. Vida Henry of I Company confirmed the rumors, and Kneeland ordered the first sergeants to collect all rifles and search the camp for loose ammunition. During this process, a soldier suddenly screamed that a white mob was approaching the camp. Black soldiers rushed into the supply tents, grabbed rifles, and began firing wildly in the direction of supposed mob. The white officers found it impossible to restore order. Sergeant Henry led over 100 armed soldiers toward downtown Houston by way of Brunner Avenue and San Felipe Street and into the Fourth Ward. In their two-hour march on the city, the mutinous blacks killed fifteen whites, including four policemen, and seriously wounded twelve others, one of whom, a policeman, subsequently died. Four black soldiers also died. Two were accidentally shot by their own men, one in camp and the other on San Felipe Street. After they had killed Capt. Joseph Mattes of the Illinois National Guard, obviously mistaking him for a policeman, the blacks began quarreling over a course of action. After two hours, Henry advised the men to slip back into camp in the darkness—and shot himself in the head.

Early next morning, August 24, civil authorities imposed a curfew in Houston. On the twenty-fifth, the army hustled the Third Battalion aboard a train to Columbus, New Mexico. There, seven black mutineers agreed to testify against the others in exchange for clemency. Between November 1, 1917, and March 26, 1918, the army held three separate courts-martial in the chapel at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio. The military tribunals indicted 118 enlisted men of I Company for participating in the mutiny and riot, and found 110 guilty. It was wartime, and the sentences were harsh. Nineteen mutinous soldiers were hanged and sixty-three received life sentences in federal prison. One was judged incompetent to stand trial. Two white officers faced courts-martial, but they were released. No white civilians were brought to trial. The Houston Riot of 1917 was one of the saddest chapters in the history of American race relations. It vividly illustrated the problems that the nation struggled with on the home front during wartime.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Austin American-Statesman, March 20, 1989. Houston Chronicle, July 15, 25, 1917. Houston Press, August 24, 25, 1917. Robert V. Haynes, A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976). Edgar A. Schuler, "The Houston Race Riot, 1917," Journal of Negro History 29 (July 1944).

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/HH/jch4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Memorandum of Edwin Montagu on the Anti-Semitism of the Present (British) Government
Submitted to the British Cabinet, August, 1917


I have chosen the above title for this memorandum, not in any hostile sense, not by any means as quarrelling with an anti-Semitic view which may be held by my colleagues, not with a desire to deny that anti-Semitism can be held by rational men, not even with a view to suggesting that the Government is deliberately anti-Semitic; but I wish to place on record my view that the policy of His Majesty's Government is anti-Semitic in result will prove a rallying ground for Anti-Semites in every country in the world.

This view is prompted by the receipt yesterday of a correspondence between Lord Rothschild and Mr. Balfour.

Lord Rothschild's letter is dated the 18th July and Mr. Balfour's answer is to be dated August 1917. I fear that my protest comes too late, and it may well be that the Government were practically committed when Lord Rothschild wrote and before I became a member of the Government, for there has obviously been some correspondence or conversation before this letter. But I do feel that as the one Jewish Minister in the Government I may be allowed by my colleagues an opportunity of expressing views which may be peculiar to myself, but which I hold very strongly and which I must ask permission to express when opportunity affords.

I believe most firmly that this war has been a death-blow to Internationalism, and that it has proved an opportunity for a renewal of the slackening sense of Nationality, for it is has not only been tacitly agreed by most statesmen in most countries that the redistribution of territory resulting from the war should be more or less on national grounds, but we have learned to realise that our country stands for principles, for aims, for civilisation which no other country stands for in the same degree, and that in the future, whatever may have been the case in the past, we must live and fight in peace and in war for those aims and aspirations, and so equip and regulate our lives and industries as to be ready whenever and if ever we are challenged. To take one instance, the science of Political Economy, which in its purity knows no Nationalism, will hereafter be tempered and viewed in the light of this national need of defence and security. The war has indeed justified patriotism as the prime motive of political thought.

It is in this atmosphere that the Government proposes to endorse the formation of a new nation with a new home in Palestine. This nation will presumably be formed of Jewish Russians, Jewish Englishmen, Jewish Roumanians, Jewish Bulgarians, and Jewish citizens of all nations - survivors or relations of those who have fought or laid down their lives for the different countries which I have mentioned, at a time when the three years that they have lived through have united their outlook and thought more closely than ever with the countries of which they are citizens.

Zionism has always seemed to me to be a mischievous political creed, untenable by any patriotic citizen of the United Kingdom. If a Jewish Englishman sets his eyes on the Mount of Olives and longs for the day when he will shake British soil from his shoes and go back to agricultural pursuits in Palestine, he has always seemed to me to have acknowledged aims inconsistent with British citizenship and to have admitted that he is unfit for a share in public life in Great Britain, or to be treated as an Englishman. I have always understood that those who indulged in this creed were largely animated by the restrictions upon and refusal of liberty to Jews in Russia. But at the very time when these Jews have been acknowledged as Jewish Russians and given all liberties, it seems to be inconceivable that Zionism should be officially recognised by the British Government, and that Mr. Balfour should be authorized to say that Palestine was to be reconstituted as the "national home of the Jewish people". I do not know what this involves, but I assume that it means that Mahommedans and Christians are to make way for the Jews and that the Jews should be put in all positions of preference and should be peculiarly associated with Palestine in the same way that England is with the English or France with the French, that Turks and other Mahommedans in Palestine will be regarded as foreigners, just in the same way as Jews will hereafter be treated as foreigners in every country but Palestine. Perhaps also citizenship must be granted only as a result of a religious test.

I lay down with emphasis four principles:

1. I assert that there is not a Jewish nation. The members of my family, for instance, who have been in this country for generations, have no sort or kind of community of view or of desire with any Jewish family in any other country beyond the fact that they profess to a greater or less degree the same religion. It is no more true to say that a Jewish Englishman and a Jewish Moor are of the same nation than it is to say that a Christian Englishman and a Christian Frenchman are of the same nation: of the same race, perhaps, traced back through the centuries - through centuries of the history of a peculiarly adaptable race. The Prime Minister and M. Briand are, I suppose, related through the ages, one as a Welshman and the other as a Breton, but they certainly do not belong to the same nation.

2. When the Jews are told that Palestine is their national home, every country will immediately desire to get rid of its Jewish citizens, and you will find a population in Palestine driving out its present inhabitants, taking all the best in the country, drawn from all quarters of the globe, speaking every language on the face of the earth, and incapable of communicating with one another except by means of an interpreter. I have always understood that this was the consequence of the building of the Tower of Babel, if ever it was built, and I certainly do not dissent from the view, commonly held, as I have always understood, by the Jews before Zionism was invented, that to bring the Jews back to form a nation in the country from which they were dispersed would require Divine leadership. I have never heard it suggested, even by their most fervent admirers, that either Mr. Balfour or Lord Rothschild would prove to be the Messiah.

I claim that the lives that British Jews have led, that the aims that they have had before them, that the part that they have played in our public life and our public institutions, have entitled them to be regarded, not as British Jews, but as Jewish Britons. I would willingly disfranchise every Zionist. I would be almost tempted to proscribe the Zionist organisation as illegal and against the national interest. But I would ask of a British Government sufficient tolerance to refuse a conclusion which makes aliens and foreigners by implication, if not at once by law, of all their Jewish fellow-citizens.

3. I deny that Palestine is to-day associated with the Jews or properly to be regarded as a fit place for them to live in. The Ten Commandments were delivered to the Jews on Sinai. It is quite true that Palestine plays a large part in Jewish history, but so it does in modern Mahommendan history, and, after the time of the Jews, surely it plays a larger part than any other country in Christian history. The Temple may have been in Palestine, but so was the Sermon on the Mount and the Crucifixion. I would not deny to Jews in Palestine equal rights to colonisation with those who profess other religions, but a religious test of citizenship seems to me to be the only admitted by those who take a bigoted and narrow view of one particular epoch of the history of Palestine, and claim for the Jews a position to which they are not entitled.

If my memory serves me right, there are three times as many Jews in the world as could possible get into Palestine if you drove out all the population that remains there now. So that only one-third will get back at the most, and what will happen to the remainder?

4. I can easily understand the editors of the Morning Post and of the New Witness being Zionists, and I am not in the least surprised that the non-Jews of England may welcome this policy. I have always recognised the unpopularity, much greater than some people think, of my community. We have obtained a far greater share of this country's goods and opportunities than we are numerically entitled to. We reach on the whole maturity earlier, and therefore with people of our own age we compete unfairly. Many of us have been exclusive in our friendships and intolerant in our attitude, and I can easily understand that many a non-Jew in England wants to get rid of us. But just as there is no community of thought and mode of life among Christian Englishmen, so there is not among Jewish Englishmen. More and more we are educated in public schools and at the Universities, and take our part in the politics, in the Army, in the Civil Service, of our country. And I am glad to think that the prejudices against inter-marriage are breaking down. But when the Jew has a national home, surely it follows that the impetus to deprive us of the rights of British citizenship must be enormously increased. Palestine will become the world's Ghetto. Why should the Russian give the Jew equal rights? His national home is Palestine. Why does Lord Rothschild attach so much importance to the difference between British and foreign Jews? All Jews will be foreign Jews, inhabitants of the great country of Palestine.

I do not know how the fortunate third will be chosen, but the Jew will have the choice, whatever country he belongs to, whatever country he loves, whatever country he regards himself as an integral part of, between going to live with people who are foreigners to him, but to whom his Christian fellow-countrymen have told him he shall belong, and of remaining as an unwelcome guest in the country that he thought he belonged to.

I am not surprised that the Government should take this step after the formation of a Jewish Regiment, and I am waiting to learn that my brother, who has been wounded in the Naval Division, or my nephew, who is in the Grenadier Guards, will be forced by public opinion or by Army regulations to become an officer in a regiment which will mainly be composed of people who will not understand the only language which he speaks - English. I can well understand that when it was decided, and quite rightly, to force foreign Jews in this country to serve in the Army, it was difficult to put them in British regiments because of the language difficulty, but that was because they were foreigners, and not because they were Jews, and a Foreign Legion would seem to me to have been the right thing to establish. A Jewish Legion makes the position of Jews in other regiments more difficult and forces a nationality upon people who have nothing in common.

I feel that the Government are asked to be the instrument for carrying out the wishes of a Zionist organisation largely run, as my information goes, at any rate in the past, by men of enemy descent or birth, and by this means have dealt a severe blow to the liberties, position and opportunities of service of their Jewish fellow-countrymen.

I would say to Lord Rothschild that the Government will be prepared to do everything in their power to obtain for Jews in Palestine complete liberty of settlement and life on an equality with the inhabitants of that country who profess other religious beliefs. I would ask that the Government should go no further.

E.S.M.

23 August 1917

Source: Great Britain, Public Record Office, Cab. 24/24, Aug. 23, 1917. Lord Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924), Anglo-Jewish statesman, was British Minister of Munitions, 1916, and Secretary of State for India, 1917-22.

http://www.zionism-israel.com/hdoc/Montagu_balfour.htm
Ook hier: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Montagumemo.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Amiens

(...) Despite the achievements made in this campaign, in the following days it proved a struggle to consolidate this success. From 9 - 11 August, although the Allies continued to advance with Australians maintaining the lead, there were heavier losses for fewer gains in ground, there were fewer tanks to use as protection, and German forces regrouped and began to advance into other areas. Even then, it was expected by many of the Allied commanders that war would push on into 1919. On 23 August, Private Albert Golding wrote:

The French are pushing Jerry back down south, and we tell each other that the war is just about over, but each one knows that it won't end for three or four years yet.

http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/1918/battles/amiens.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 21:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pearl Corkhill

Pearl Elizabeth Corkhill MM (11 March 1887 – 4 December 1985) was an Australian military nurse of the First World War. Trained as a nurse in Sydney, Corkhill enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 4 June 1915. After serving in France at the 1st and 3rd Australian General Hospitals, Corkhill was assigned to the 38th British Casualty Clearing Station near Abbeville on 21 August 1918. On 23 August, while the camp was being heavily bombed by enemy aircraft, Corkhill remained calm and continued to tend to her patients, despite the danger. For her bravery, she was awarded the Military Medal, one of only seven Australian nurses to be so decorated in the First World War. (...)

Casualty Clearing Stations were deliberately sited as close to the front line as possible, since many injuries caused during battle required more urgent attention than the time to travel to a field hospital allowed. Often within seven miles of the front line, they were considered extremely dangerous, and the appropriateness of having nurses attend such stations was hotly debated within the military. As a result of its proximity to the front, the station would often come under enemy attack, as was the case of the 38th British Casualty Station on 23 August. The Casualty Station suffered a heavy air raid by German forces, with the sterilisation room being destroyed and the camp being hit by numerous bombs. Despite the heavy attack, Corkhill, who was attending to the wounded at the time, remained calm and continued to aid the patients. For her actions, she was recommended for and later awarded the Military Medal.

War Office, 23rd August, 1918
His Majesty the KING has been pleased to approve of the award of the Military Medal to the undermentioned Lady for distinguished service in the Field, as recorded: —
Staff Nurse Pearl Elizabeth Corkhill, Aust. A.N.S.
For courage and devotion on the occasion of an enemy air-raid. She continued to attend to the wounded without any regard to her own safety, though enemy aircraft were overhead. Her example was of the greatest value in allaying the alarm of the patients.


Corkhill was initially unconvinced that she deserved the award, being more concerned about having to purchase a new dress to wear while meeting the King. The award was more heavily celebrated by the men than by Corkhill herself, as she described in a letter to her mother:

Today word came that I had been awarded the MM. Well the C.O. sent over a bottle of champagne and they all drank my health and now the medical officers are giving me a dinner in honour of the event. I can't see what I've done to deserve it but the part I don't like is having to face old George and Mary to get the medal. It will cost me a new mess dress, but I suppose I should not grumble at that—I'm still wearing the one I left Australia in.
—Pearl Corkhill

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_Corkhill
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Joynt
William Donovan Joynt VC (19 March 1889 - 6 June 1986), an office worker, farm labourer, soldier, farmer, printer, publisher and author, was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Commonwealth forces.

On 23 August 1918 at Herleville, near Chuignes, Peronne, France, he performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

On 23 August 1918, he was 29 years old, and a lieutenant in the 8th (Victorian) Battalion, Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, when the following events occurred.

Lieutenant Joynt took charge when his company commander had been killed. When the leading battalion had been demoralized by heavy casualties, he rushed forward and reorganized the remnants of the battalion. Having discovered that heavy fire on the flanks was causing delay and casualties, he led a frontal bayonet attack on the wood, capturing it and over eighty prisoners, thus saving a critical situation. Later, at Plateau Wood, after severe hand-to-hand fighting, he turned a stubborn defence into an abject surrender.

He was subsequently badly wounded by a shell on 26 August and evacuated to England. He was promoted to captain in October 1918, and posted to AIF Headquarters in London in March 1919. He returned to Melbourne in February 1920, and was discharged on 11 June.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Joynt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marcus Garvey Timeline

August 1-31: The Universal Negro Improvement Association holds its first International Convention of the Negro Peoples of the World at Madison Square Garden and schedules a massive parade in Harlem. During this convention, the UNIA adopts and signs a Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World, adopts a "nation" flag with the colors of the Red, Black, and Green, and elects officials for its provisional government. Garvey himself is elected Provisional President of Africa. James W. H. Eason, a Philadelphia minister, is named Leader of the American Negroes.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/timeline/timeline2.html

Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World

Drafted and adopted at Convention held in New York, 1920, over which Marcus Garvey presided as Chairman, and at which he was elected Provisional President of Africa.

Preamble
Be it Resolved, That the Negro people of the world, through their chosen representatives in convention assembled in Liberty Hall, in the City of New York and United States of America, from August 1 to August 31, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred and twenty, protest against the wrongs and injustices they are suffering at the hands of their white brethren, and state what they deem their fair and just rights, as well as the treatment they propose to demand of all men in the future.

We complain:
I. That nowhere in the world, with few exceptions, are black men accorded equal treatment with white men, although in the same situation and circumstances, but, on the contrary, are discriminated against and denied the common rights due to human beings for no other reason than their race and color.

We are not willingly accepted as guests in the public hotels and inns of the world for no other reason than our race and color.

II. In certain parts of the United States of America our race is denied the right of public trial accorded to other races when accused of crime, but are lynched and burned by mobs, and such brutal and inhuman treatment is even practiced upon our women.

III. That European nations have parcelled out among themselves and taken possession of nearly all of the continent of Africa, and the natives are compelled to surrender their lands to aliens and are treated in most instances like slaves.

IV. In the southern portion of the United States of America, although citizens under the Federal Constitution, and in some states almost equal to the whites in population and are qualified land owners and taxpayers, we are, nevertheless, denied all voice in the making and administration of the laws and are taxed without representation by the state governments, and at the same time compelled to do military service in defense of the country.

V. On the public conveyances and common carriers in the Southern portion of the United States we are jim-crowed and compelled to accept separate and inferior accommodations and made to pay the same fare charged for first-class accommodations, and our families are often humiliated and insulted by drunken white men who habitually pass through the jim-crow cars going to the smoking car.

VI. The physicians of our race are denied the right to attend their patients while in the public hospitals of the cities and states where they reside in certain parts of the United States. Our children are forced to attend inferior separate schools for shorter terms than white children, and the public school funds are unequally divided between the white and colored schools.

VII. We are discriminated against and denied an equal chance to earn wages for the support of our families, and in many instances are refused admission into labor unions, and nearly everywhere are paid smaller wages than white men.

VIII. In Civil Service and departmental offices we are everywhere discriminated against and made to feel that to be a black man in Europe, America and the West Indies is equivalent to being an outcast and a leper among the races of men, no matter what the character and attainments of the black man may be.

IX. In the British and other West Indian Islands and colonies, Negroes are secretly and cunningly discriminated against, and denied those fuller rights in government to which white citizens are appointed, nominated and elected.

X. That our people in those parts are forced to work for lower wages than the average standard of white men and are kept in conditions repugnant to good civilized tastes and customs.

XI. That the many acts of injustice against members of our race before the courts of law in the respective islands and colonies are of such nature as to create disgust and disrespect for the white manís sense of justice.

XII. Against all such inhuman, unchristian and uncivilized treatment we here and now emphatically protest, and invoke the condemnation of all mankind. In order to encourage our race all over the world and to stimulate it to a higher and grander destiny, we demand and insist on the following Declaration of Rights:

1. Be it known to all men that whereas, all men are created equal and entitled to the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and because of this we, the duly elected representatives of the Negro peoples of the world, invoking the aid of the just and Almighty God do declare all men women and children of our blood throughout the world free citizens, and do claim them as free citizens of Africa, the Motherland of all Negroes.
2. That we believe in the supreme authority of our race in all things racial; that all things are created and given to man as a common possession; that their should be an equitable distribution and apportionment of all such things, and in consideration of the fact that as a race we are now deprived of those things that are morally and legally ours, we believe it right that all such things should be acquired and held by whatsoever means possible.
3. That we believe the Negro, like any other race, should be governed by the ethics of civilization, and, therefore, should not be deprived of any of those rights or privileges common to other human beings.
4. We declare that Negroes, wheresoever they form a community among themselves, should be given the right to elect their own representatives to represent them in legislatures, courts of law, or such institutions as may exercise control over that particular community.
5. We assert that the Negro is entitled to even-handed justice before all courts of law and equity in whatever country he may be found, and when this is denied him on account of his race or color such denial is an insult to the race as a while and should be resented by the entire boy of Negroes.
6. We declared it unfair and prejudicial to the rights of Negroes in communities where they exist in considerable numbers to be tried by a judge and jury composed entirely of an alien race, but in all such cases members of our race are entitled to representation on the jury.
7. We believe that any law or practice that tends to deprive any African of his land or the privileges of free citizenship within his country is unjust and immoral, and no native should respect any such law or practice.
8. We declare taxation without representation unjust and tyrannous, and their should be no obligation on the part of the Negro to obey the levy of a tax by an law-making body from which he is excluded and denied representation on account of his race and color.
9. We believe that any law especially directed against the Negro to his detriment and singling him out because of his race or color is unfair and immoral, and should not be respected.
10. We believe all men entitled to common human respect, and that our race should in no way tolerate any insults that may be interpreted to mean disrespect to our color.
11. We deprecate the use of the term "nigger" as applied to Negroes, and demand that the word "Negro" be written with a capital "N."
12. We believe that the Negro should adopt every means to protect himself against barbarous practices inflicted upon him because of color.
13. We believe in the freedom of Africa for the Negro people of the world, and by the principle of Europe for the Europeans and Asia for the Asiatics; we also demand Africa for the Africans at home and abroad.
14. We believe in the inherent right of the Negro to possess himself of Africa, and that his possession of same shall not be regarded as an infringement on any claim or purchase made by any race or nation.
15. We strongly condemn the cupidity of those nations of the world who, by open aggression or secret schemes, have seized the territories and inexhaustible natural wealth of Africa, and we place on record our most solemn determination to reclaim the treasures and possession of the vast continent of our forefathers.
16. We believe all men should live in peace one with the other, but when races and nations provoke the ire of other races and nations by attempting to infringe upon their rights, war becomes inevitable, and the attempt in any way to free oneís self or protect oneís rights or heritage becomes justifiable.
17. Whereas, the lynching, by burning, hanging or any other means, of human beings is a barbarous practice, and a shame and disgrace to civilization, we therefore declared any country guilty of such atrocities outside the pale of civilization.
18. We protest against the atrocious crime of whipping, flogging and overworking of the native tribes of Africa and Negroes everywhere. These are methods that should be abolished, and all means should be taken to prevent a continuance of such brutal practices.
19. We protest against the atrocious practice of shaving the heads of Africans, especially of African women or individual of Negro blood, when placed in prison as a punishment for crime by an alien race.
20. We protest against segregated districts, separate public conveyances, industrial discrimination, lynchings and limitations of political privileges of any Negro citizen in any part of the world on account of race, color, or creed, and will exert our full influence and power against all such.
21. We protest against any punishment inflicted upon a Negro with severity, as against lighter punishment inflicted upon another of an alien race for like offense, as an act of prejudice injustice, and should be resented by the entire race.
22. We protest against the system of education in any country where Negroes are denied the same privileges and advantages as other races.
23. We declare it inhuman and unfair to boycott Negroes from industries and labor in any part of the world.
24. We believe in the doctrine of the freedom of the press, and we therefore emphatically protest against the suppression Negro newspapers and periodicals in various parts of the world, and call upon Negroes everywhere to employ all available means to prevent such suppression.
25. We further demand free speech universally for all men.
26. We hereby protest against the publication of scandalous and inflammatory articles by an alien press tending to create racial strife and the exhibition of picture films showing the Negro as a cannibal.
27. We believe in the self-determination of all peoples.
28. We declare for the freedom religious worship.
29. With the help of Almighty God, we declare ourselves the protectors of the honor and virtue of our women and children, and pledge our lives for their protection and defense everywhere, and under all circumstances from wrongs and outrages.
30. We demand the right of unlimited and unprejudiced education for ourselves and our posterity forever.
31. We declare that the teaching in any school by alien teachers to our boys and girls, that the alien race is superior to the Negro race, is an insult to the Negro people of the world.
32. Where Negroes form a part of the citizenry of any country, and pass the civil service examination of such country, we declare them entitled to the same consideration as other citizens as to appointments in such civil service.
33. We vigorously protest against the increasingly unfair and unjust treatment accorded Negro travelers on land and sea by the agents and employees of railroad and steamship companies and insist that for equal fare we receive equal privileges with travelers of other races.
34. We declare it unjust for any country, State or nation to enact laws tending to hinder and obstruct the free immigration of Negroes on account of their race and color.
35. That the right of the Negro to travel unmolested throughout the world be not abridged by any person or persons, and all Negroes are called upon to give aid to a fellow Negro when thus molested.
36. We declare that all Negroes are entitled to the same right to travel over the world as other men.
37. We hereby demand that the governments of the world recognize our leader and his representatives chosen by the race to look after the welfare of our people under such governments.
38. We demand complete control of our social institutions without interference by any alien race or races.
39. That the colors, Red, Black and Green, be the colors of the Negro race.
40. Resolved, That the anthem "Ethiopia, Thou Land of Our Fathers," etc., shall be the anthem of the Negro race.
41. We believe that any limited liberty which deprives one of the complete rights and prerogatives of full citizenship is but a modified form of slavery.
42. We declare it an injustice to our people and a serious impediment to the health of the race to deny to competent licensed Negro physicians the right to practice in the public hospitals of the communities in which they reside, for no other reason than their race and color.
43. We call upon the various governments of the world to accept and acknowledge Negro representatives who shall be sent to the said governments to represent the general welfare of the Negro peoples of the world.
44. We deplore and protest against the practice of confining juvenile prisoners in prisons with adults, and we recommend that such youthful prisoners be taught gainful trades under humane supervision.
45. Be it further resolved, that we as a race of people declare the League of Nations null and void as far as the Negro is concerned, in that it seeks to deprive Negroes of their liberty.
46. We demand of all men to do unto us as we would do unto them, in the name of justice; and we cheerfully accord to all men all the rights we claim herein for ourselves.
47. We declare that no Negro shall engage himself in battle for an alien race without first obtaining the consent of the leader of the Negro people of the world, except in a matter of national self-defense.
48. We protest against the practice of drafting Negroes and sending them to war with alien forces without proper training, and demand in all cases that Negro soldiers be given the same training as the aliens.
49. We demand that instructions given Negro children in schools include the subject of "Negro History," to their benefit.
50. We demand a free and unfettered commercial intercourse with all the Negro people of the world.
51. We declare for the absolute freedom of the seas for all peoples.
52. We demand that our duly accredited representatives be given proper recognition in all leagues, conferences, conventions or courts of international arbitration wherever human rights are discussed.
53. We proclaim the 31st day of August of each year to be an international holiday to be observed by all Negroes.
54. We want all men to know we shall maintain and contend for the freedom and equality of every man, woman and child of our race, with our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.

These rights we believe to be justly ours and proper for the protection of the Negro race at large, and because of this belief we, on behalf of the four hundred million Negroes of the world, do pledge herein the sacred blood of the race in defense, and we hereby subscribe our names as a guarantee of the truthfulness and faithfulness hereof in the presence of Almighty God, on the 13th day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and twenty.

Marcus Garvey, James D. Brooks, James W. H. Eason, Henrietta Vinton Davis, Lionel Winston Greenidge, Adrion Fitzroy Johnson, Rudolph Ethelbert Brissaac Smith, Charles Augustus Petioni, Thomas H. N. Simon, Richard Hilton Tobitt, George Alexander McGuire, Peter Edward Baston, Reynold R. Felix, Harry Walters Kirby, Sarah Branch, Marie Barrier Houston, George L. O'Brien, F.O. Ogilvie, Arden A. Bryan, Benjamin Dyett, Marie Duchaterlier, John Phillip Hodge, Theophilus H. Saunders, Wilford H. Smith, Gabriel E. Stewart, Arnold Josiah Ford, Lee Crawford, William McCartney, Adina Clem. James, William Musgrave La Motte, John Sydney de Bourg, Arnold S. Cunning, Vernal J. Williams, Frances Wilcome Ellegor, J. Frederick Selkridge, Innis Abel Horsford, Cyril A. Crichlow, Samuel McIntyre, John Thomas Wilkins, Mary Thurston, John G. Befue, William Ware, J. A. Lewis, O. C. Thurston, Venture R. Hamilton, R. H. Hodge, Edward Alfred Taylor, Ellen Wilson, G.W. Wilson, Richard Edward Riley, Nellie Grant Whiting, G. W. Washington, Maldena Miller, Gertrude Davis, James D. Williams, Emily Christmas Kinch, D. D. Lewis, Nettie Clayton, Partheria Hills, Janie Jenkins, John C. Simons, Alphonso A. Jones, Allen Hobbs, Reynold Fitzgerald Austin, James Benjamin Yearwood, Frank O. Raines, Shedrick Williams, John Edward Ivey, Frederick August Toote, Philip Hemmings, F. F. Smith, E. J. Jones, Joseph Josiah Cranston, Frederick Samuel Ricketts, Dugald Augustus Wade, E. E. Nelom, Florida Jenkins, Napoleon J. Francis, Joseph D. Gibson, J. P. Jasper, J. W. Montgomery, David Benjamin, J. Gordon, Harry E. Ford, Carrie M. Ashford, Andrew N. Willis, Lucy Sands, Louise Woodson, George D. Creese, W. A. Wallace, Thomas E. Bagley, James Young, Prince Alfred McConney, John E. Hudson, William Ines, Harry R. Watkins, C.L. Halton, J. T. Bailey, Ira Joseph Touissant Wright, T. H. Golden, Abraham Benjamin Thomas, Richard C. Noble, Walter Green, C. S. Bourne, G. F. Bennett, B. D. Levy, Mary E. Johnson, Lionel Antonio Francis, Carl Roper, E. R. Donawa, Philip Van Putten, I. Brathwaite, Jesse W. Luck, Oliver Kaye, J. W. Hudspeth, C. B. Lovell, William C. Matthews, A. Williams, Ratford E. M. Jack, H. Vinton Plummer, Randolph Phillips, A. I. Bailey, duly elected representatives of the Negro people of the world.

Sworn before me this 15th day of August, 1920.

[Legal Seal] JOHN G. BAYNE.

Notary Public, New York County.
New York County Clerk's No. 378; New York County Register's No. 12102. Commission expires March 30, 1922.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/filmmore/ps_rights.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Retreat from Mons, August 23rd-September 5th, 1914

August 23rd

We had been marching since 2.30 a.m. and about 11.15 a.m. an order was passed down for "A" Company (my company) to deploy to the right and dig in on the south bank of a railway cutting. We deployed and started digging in, but as the soil was mostly chalk, we were able to make only shallow holes.

While we were digging the German artillery opened fire. The range was perfect, about six shells at a time bursting in line directly over our heads.

All of us except the company commander fell flat on our faces, frightened, and surprised; but after a while we got up, and looked over the rough parapet we had thrown up; and could not see much. One or two men had been wounded, and one was killed.

There was a town about one mile away on our left front, and a lot of movement was going on round about it; and there was a small village called Binche on our right, where there was a lot of heavy firing going on - rifle and artillery.

We saw the Germans attack on our left in great masses, but they were beaten back by the Coldstream Guards. A squadron of German cavalry crossed our front about 800 yards distant, and we opened fire on them. We hit a few and the fact that we were doing something definite improved our moral immensely, and took away a lot of our nervousness.

The artillery fire from the Germans was very heavy, but was dropping behind us on a British battery. The company officer, who had stayed in the open all the time, had taken a couple of men to help get the wounded away from the battery behind us. He returned about 6.30 p.m., when the firing had died down a bit, and told us the battery had been blown to bits.

I was then sent with four men on outpost to a signal box at a level crossing, and found it was being used as a clearing station for wounded.

After dark more wounded were brought in from the 9th Battery R.F.A. (the battery that was cut up).

One man was in a very bad way, and kept shrieking out for somebody to bring a razor and cut his throat, and two others died almost immediately. I was going to move a bundle of hay when someone called out, "Look out, chum. There's a bloke in there." I saw a leg completely severed from its body, and suddenly felt very sick and tired.

The German rifle-fire started again and an artillery-man to whom I was talking was shot dead. I was sick then. Nothing much happened during the night, except that one man spent the time kissing a string of rosary beads, and another swore practically the whole night.

Corporal Bernard John Denore, 1st Royal Berks Regt., 6th Brigade, 2nd Division, I Army Corps. In Action at Battle of and Retreat from Mons; Battle of the Marne; the Aisne (about two months); First Battle of Ypres; in the Salient four weeks. Wounded at Zonnebeke (in seven places); in hospital at Boulogne, London, and Reading. First published in Everyman at War (1930), edited by C. B. Purdom.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/retreatfrommons.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2010 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abbaye Notre-Dame de Leffe

De gemeenschap in ballingschap leed onder de harde gevolgen van de Duitse invasie in België. Op 15 augustus 1914 begon de strijd in Dinant. Na eerst te zijn teruggedrongen door het Franse leger, bezetten de Duitsers de stad op 21 augustus. Tussen 22 en 24 augustus werden 674 burgers gedood en 950 huizen gingen in vlammen op als vergelding voor de moord op Duitse soldaten vermoedelijk door partizanen.

Twee geestelijken die wilden vluchten via de Leffe onder de abdij van Leffe werden door de Duitsers neergeschoten. Daaren boven waren onder de bewoners van Leffe die door de Duitsers werden aangehouden op deze rampzalige ochtend 43 mannen, onder wie de portier van de abdij, die naar buiten moesten komen en werden doodgeschoten op het plein van de abdij, tezamen met 31 anderen. Leffe, met een totaal van 227 burgerslachtoffers vestigde het trieste record van de slachtoffers in Dinant en voorsteden.

Pater Adrien Borelly, die toen prior van de abdij was, vertelt breedvoerig over de tragische gebeurtenissen:

Op 23 augustus 1914 rond zeven uur’s morgens kwamen Duitse soldaten aan op het plein van de abdij. Ze trapten de deuren in en kwamen met geweld de huizen binnen. Ze verjoegen de bewoners die ze in groepen meenamen onder bedreiging en verplichtten hun armen omhoog te houden. Rond negen uur herbergde het klooster al meer dan 300 angstige mensen. Enige tijd later kwam een officier die bevel gaf alle mannen te verzamelen. De geestelijken, overtuigd dat het om een appèl ging, zochten alle over het huis verspreide mannen. Alle mannen, het waren er 43, trokken aan hem voorbij. Een minuut ging voorbij... Toen klonk er een kreet van angst uit 43 kelen... ze werden allemaal gedood op het plein van de abdij tegenover de witte muur van het huis Servais. Op diezelfde 23e augustus bood een officier van het 178e Saks zich rond de middag bij de eerwaarde pater en zei hem: “U moet 60.000 frank betalen omdat u op onze troepen heeft geschoten. Als dit bedrag niet binnen de twee uur is betaald, zullen we het vuur openen op uw huis”. De abt protesteerde tevergeefs, de officier hield vast aan zijn eis. De eerwaarde smeekte en vroeg op zijn minst een vermindering van het bedrag dat hij onmogelijk zou kunnen vinden in huis of daarbuiten. De officier stemde uiteindelijk erin toe met de chef, die hem gestuurd had, te overleggen. Na een tijdje kwam hij weer terug en deelde mee dat men zich tevreden zou stellen met 15.000 frank. Hij zou terugkomen om drie uur precies en het klooster in brand steken als de betaling uitbleef. Men moest dus berusten in de bedreiging. De gevangengenomen vrouwen werden op de hoogte gebracht van de kritieke situatie. Ze droegen bij om het bedrag dat de abdij niet in kas had bijeen te brengen. Zo slaagde men er met moeite in het bedrag van 15.000 frank te verzamelen. Op het afgesproken uur presenteerde de officier zich. Hij was ditmaal vergezeld door soldaten met bajonet op het geweer, en andere commandanten. Zelf richtte hij zijn revolver op de eerwaarde pater, legde het daarna op het bureau binnen zijn bereik, deed zijn handschoenen uit en telde één voor één de 15.000 frank die op tafel lagen. Hij stopte alles in zijn zakken terwijl hij verklaarde dat hij eigenlijk geen kerkelijk geld wilde accepteren. Hij gaf een op voorhand in het Duits geschreven ontvangstbewijs af en vertrok weer met zijn revolver in de hand.

http://www.abbaye-de-leffe.be/De-oorlog-1914-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2010 6:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dozinghem Military Cemetery

Ook private Stephen Henshaw van het ‘1st/1st Bucks Battallion’ van de ‘Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry’ ligt hier begraven. Hij overleed op 30-jarige leeftijd op 23 augustus 1917, nadat hij de dag ervóór, na 6 dagen op het slagveld te hebben gelegen, naar C.C.S. 61 overgebracht werd. Op de plaats waar hij gewond raakte, in Sint-Juliaan, werd een privaat gedenkteken voor hem opgericht.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/1071
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2010 6:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

23 augustus 1916 - De mare1 loopt: dat de mensen die hun bakte2 in de molen te Tiegem hadden, voorzichtig, met valse sleutels of door een of ander venstergat, naar binnen gedrongen zijn en hun bakte2 eruit gehaald hebben?

En nu staat hij daar de reus, in zijn eenzaamheid op de heuvelkop, onttakeld, de zeilen stakestijf3 als een overwonnene die in starheid het verloop van de gebeurtenissen afwacht. En de molenaar?...

1de mare: het bericht
2bakte: hoeveelheid graan om één oven brood te bakken
3stakestijf: zonder te bewegen


http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0024.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2014 8:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wat gebeurde er op 23 augustus 1914?

In Buggenhoutbos en de Drongengoedse bossen krioelt het van de panikerende mannen. Ze zoeken een schuilplaats tussen de bomen. Welke feiten halen nog het nieuws?


zie: http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140819_01223652
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Aug 2014 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 augustus 1914 Mons



Kismet.
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Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

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