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8 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2006 5:48    Onderwerp: 8 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 8. August 1914


Franctireurs

Berlin, 8 Aug. (W. B.)
Die von den Kämpfen um Lüttich vorliegenden Meldungen lassen erkennen, daß die Landesbewohner sich an dem Kampfe beteiligt haben. Truppen sind aus dem Hinterhalt, Ärzte bei der Ausübung ihrer Tätigkeit beschossen worden. Gegen Verwundete wurden Grausamkeiten von der Bevölkerung verübt. Ebenso liegen Meldungen vor, daß die französische Grenzbevölkerung gegenüber Metz aus dem Hinterhalt deutsche Patrouillen abgeschossen habe. Es kann sein, daß diese Vorfälle durch die Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung jenes Industriebezirkes hervorgerufen worden sind, es kann aber auch sein, daß ein Franctireur-Krieg in Frankreich und Belgien vorbereitet worden ist und gegen unsere Truppen angewendet werden soll. Sollte letzteres zutreffen und durch eine Wiederholung solcher Vorfälle erwiesen werden, so haben unsere Gegner es sich selbst zuzuschreiben, wenn der Krieg mit unerbittlicher Strenge auch gegen die schuldige Bevölkerung geführt wird.
Man wird es den deutschen Truppen, welche gewohnt sind, Disziplin zu halten, und den Krieg nur gegen die bewaffnete Macht des feindlichen Staates zu führen, nicht verdenken können, wenn sie in gerechter Selbstverteidigung keinen Pardon geben. Die Hoffnung, durch Entfesselung der Leidenschaften des Volkes auf den Krieg einzuwirken, wird an der unerschütterlichen Energie unserer Führer und Truppen zu schanden werden. Vor dem neutralen Ausland sei aber schon zu Beginn des Krieges festgestellt, daß es nicht die deutschen Truppen waren, die eine solche Form des Krieges hervorriefen.


General Deimling dankt den Elsaß-Lothringern

Straßburg i. Elsaß, 8. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
General Deimling, der kommandierende General des XV. Armeekorps, erläßt eine angesichts seiner bisherigen Haltung dem Reichsland gegenüber doppelt bemerkenswerte Kundgebung, in der er der Bevölkerung Anerkennung und Dank für ihre ausgezeichnete Haltung und ihre besonnene, tatkräftige Unterstützung der durch die Mobilmachung gebotenen Maßnahmen ausspricht. Die Kundmachung schließt:
Als ein Zeichen patriotischen Opfermutes begrüße ich mit besonderer Freude, daß viele Tausende von jungen Männern, namentlich auch aus den altelsässischen Familien, als Freiwillige zu unseren Fahnen geeilt sind.


Zusammenstoß im Oberelsaß

Berlin, 8. Aug.
Die deutschen Truppen im Oberelsaß wurden von feindlichen Kräften, die aus der Richtung von Belfort vorgingen, angegriffen. Das Vorgehen der französischen Truppen ist zum Stehen gekommen. Bei Altkirch gingen sie bereits wieder in der Richtung auf Belfort zurück.


Vom östlichen Kriegsschauplatz

Berlin, 8. Aug.
Die dritte russische Kavalleriedivision überschritt am 6. August die Grenze bei Romeiken südlich von Eydtkuhnen, ging aber bei dem Erscheinen deutscher Kavallerie wieder auf russisches Gebiet zurück. An der Wiederherstellung der von den Russen in Polen zerstörten Bahnen durch die Deutschen wird gearbeitet, auch die Brücken zwischen Schoppinitz und Sosnowice sind in der Wiederherstellung begriffen. Die Bahn von Alexandrowo nach Wlozlawek ist bereits wieder benutzbar.
Österreichische Kavallerie besetzte Olkusch und Walbrom und nahm Fühlung mit den in Russisch-Polen stehenden Grenzschutzdetachements des 6. Armeekorps.


"Königin Luise" gesunken

Berlin, 8. Aug. (W. B.)
Ziemlich sicheren Gerüchten zufolge ist der von der Kaiserlichen Marine übernommene Bäderdampfer "Königin Luise" beim Legen von Minen vor dem Kriegshafen an der Themse-Mündung von einer Torpedobootsflottille unter Führung des kleinen Kreuzers "Amphion" angegriffen und zum Sinken gebracht worden. "Amphion" ist aber dann auf eine von der "Königin Luise" geworfene Mine aufgelaufen und gesunken. Von der Besatzung des englischen Schiffes sind dem Vernehmen nach 130 Mann ertrunken und 150 Mann gerettet worden; von der 6 Offiziere und 114 Mann zählenden Besatzung der "Königin Luise" ist ebenfalls ein Teil gerettet worden.


Die Haltung Japans

Tokio, 8. Aug.
Mit Rücksicht auf das englisch-japanische Bündnis erließ Japan keine Neutralitätserklärung. Seine Haltung wird von den Ereignissen auf den Meeren des fernen Ostens abhängen.


Ein englischer Gewaltstreich

Konstantinopel, 8. Aug. (W. B.)
Die Regierung gibt amtlich bekannt, daß England die dort im Bau befindlichen, der Türkei gehörigen Großlinienschiffe "Sultan Osman" und "Reschadieh" sowie zwei für Chile im Bau begriffene, von der Türkei angekaufte Zerstörer von 1850 Tonnen in die englische Flotte eingereiht hat. Die neuen Namen der Linienschiffe sind "Azincourt" und "Erin". Die Handlungsweise Englands erregt in der Türkei lebhaftes Erstaunen und Proteste von allen Seiten.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2006 5:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August 8

1918 Battle of Amiens

On this day in 1918, the Allies launch a series of offensive operations against German positions on the Western Front during World War I with a punishing attack at Amiens, on the Somme River in northwestern France.

After heavy casualties incurred during their ambitious spring 1918 offensive, the bulk of the German army was exhausted, and its morale was rapidly disintegrating amid a lack of supplies and the spreading influenza epidemic. Some of its commanders believed that the tide was turning irrevocably in favor of Germany’s enemies; as one of them, Crown Prince Rupprecht, wrote on July 20, “We stand at the turning point of the war: what I expected first for the autumn, the necessity to go over to the defensive, is already on us, and in addition all the gains which we made in the spring—such as they were—have been lost again.” Still, Erich Ludendorff, the German commander in chief, refused to accept this reality and rejected the advice of his senior commanders to pull back or begin negotiations.

Meanwhile, the Allies prepared for the war to stretch into 1919, not realizing victory was possible so soon. Thus, at a conference of national army commanders on July 24, Allied generalissimo Ferdinand Foch rejected the idea of a single decisive blow against the Germans, favoring instead a series of limited attacks in quick succession aimed at liberating the vital railway lines around Paris and diverting the attention and resources of the enemy rapidly from one spot to another. According to Foch: “These movements should be exacted with such rapidity as to inflict upon the enemy a succession of blows….These actions must succeed each other at brief intervals, so as to embarrass the enemy in the utilization of his reserves and not allow him sufficient time to fill up his units.” The national commanders—John J. Pershing of the United States, Philippe Petain of France and Sir Douglas Haig of Britain—willingly went along with this strategy, which effectively allowed each army to act as its own entity, striking smaller individual blows to the Germans instead of joining together in one massive coordinated attack.

Haig’s part of the plan called for a limited offensive at Amiens, on the Somme River, aimed at counteracting a German victory there the previous March and capturing the Amiens railway line stretching between Mericourt and Hangest. The British attack, begun on the morning August 8, 1918, was led by the British 4th Army under the command of Sir Henry Rawlinson. The German defensive positions at Amiens were guarded by 20,000 men; they were outnumbered six to one by advancing Allied forces. The British—well assisted by Australian and Canadian divisions—employed some 400 tanks in the attack, along with over 2,000 artillery pieces and 800 aircraft.

By the end of August 8—dubbed “the black day of the German army” by Ludendorff—the Allies had penetrated German lines around the Somme with a gap some 15 miles long. Of the 27, 000 German casualties on August 8, an unprecedented proportion—12,000—had surrendered to the enemy. Though the Allies at Amiens failed to continue their impressive success in the days following August 8, the damage had been done. “We have reached the limits of our capacity,” Kaiser Wilhelm II told Ludendorff on that “black day”. “The war must be ended.” The kaiser agreed, however, that this end could not come until Germany was again making progress on the battlefield, so that there would be at least some bargaining room. Even faced with the momentum of the Allied summer offensive—later known as the Hundred Days Offensive—the front lines of the German army continued to fight on into the final months of the war, despite being plagued by disorder and desertion within its troops and rebellion on the home front.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/tdih.jsp?month=10272960&day=10272973&cat=worldwari
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2006 7:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914
Franctireurs
General Deimling dankt den Elsaß-Lothringern
Zusammenstoß im Oberelsaß
Vom östlichen Kriegsschauplatz
"Königin Luise" gesunken
Die Haltung Japans
Ein englischer Gewaltstreich

1915
Das östliche Weichselufer bei Warschau besetzt
Österreichisch-ungarischer Sieg bei Lubartow am Wieprz
"Barbaroß Hairedin" versenkt

1916
Erbitterte Nahkämpfe an der Somme
Räumung des Brückenkopfes von Görz
Vormarsch im Kaukasus und in Persien

1917
Heftiger Feuerkampf an der flandrischen Front

1918
Heftige Gegenangriffe nördlich der Somme abgewiesen
Englische Offensive zwischen Ancre und Avre


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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2009 6:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

zaterdag 8 Augustus '14


Er zijn nu altijd soldaten te zien: in lange reeksen, met honderden en honderden, het geweer op den schouder, den ransel op den rug, trekken ze op in de heete zon, naar 't exercitieplein toe. Ze moeten gedrild worden om de leemten voor de kanonnen te vullen. Ze kennen nog niet veel van den dienst. 's Avonds zitten ze op de banken langs de lanen of voor de koffiehuizen; ze koopen dagbladen aan de wachthokjes van de trams. Ze loopen al lezendoorsp.: lezen daarin op de straat, rooken, praten ondereen.

Het zijn allemaal vrijwilligers.
Aan den afgeronden hoek van het café "De Karpel" zitten twee heeren bij een tafeltje.
Een wandelaar, die een wijle aan 't winkelraam draalt daarnaast, op het voetpad, hoort wat de een aan den anderen mededeelt:
"De jonge graaf Steenhert de Groebeke is als vrijwilliger opgetrokken met zooveel andere adellijken."
"Mijn zoon ook," is het antwoord.
"Welhoe, die knappe jongen, die een week geleden bij 't afleggen van zijn eindexamen de hoogste onderscheiding kreeg!"
Sprakeloos bewogen knikt de vader den spreker herhaaldelijk toe.
"Die jongen, waarop gij reden hadt zoo fier te wezen!" klinkt het ontzet en medelijdend.

"Nu ben ik dubbel fier op hem," antwoordt de vader. Zijn ontroering is overwonnen. Zich vermannend richt hij de borst op.
Ginder komt een deels ontladen bierwagen de steile Citadellaan afgehold. De paarden schijnen te vliegen over het plaveisel. Twee voerders zitten hoog op den bok. De lange zweep kletst snijdend door de lucht. Het lijkt op een triomftocht, zoudt ge zeggen...

Maar... aan den ommedraai springen drie gendarmen toe, vlak voor het gespan. De paarden verschrikken steigerend achteruit en zijds weg.
Met sterke vuisten worden ze bij den breidel vastgegrepen, losgehaakt van den wagen en met een wit lint elk over den nek geslingerd — het emblema van berechtigde inbezitneming — weggeleid.
Alles is het werk van enkele oogenblikken geweest.
Verslagen staan de van den bok gestegen biervoerders bij hun achtergelaten wagen, hoofdschuddend elkander en de verbaasde menschen om hen heen aan te staren. En hij, die 't heeft mede gehoord en gezien, zet zijn weg voort in de richting van de Kortrijksche straat.


© http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1914-08-08.htm#d_1914-08-08entry1
In oorlogsnood
Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918

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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 8 August 1914

Western Front
Belgium: Main army falls back towards the Dyle.
Alsace: French occupy Altkirch and Mulhausen.

Naval and Overseas Operations
Antivari (Montenegro) bombarded by Austrian fleet.
Togoland entered by combined French and British force.

Political, etc.
Russia: Tsar addresses the Duma.
Switzerland mobilises and proclaims state of siege.
U.S.A. offers its good services.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_08_08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 19:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The East Yorkshire Regiment

1st Battalion
August 1914 : in York. Part of 18th Brigade, 6th Division. Moved on 8 August to Edinburgh then six days later to Cambridge.
Landed at St Nazaire on 10 September 1914.

http://www.1914-1918.net/eastyorks.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The spirit of 1914: militarism, myth and mobilization in Germany
Door Jeffrey Verhey

Customer Review

Interesting, but padded
This review is from: The Spirit of 1914: Militarism, Myth, and Mobilization in Germany (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare) (Hardcover)
This is a book which seeks to challenge a major myth about the first world war, and to describe the consequences of that myth throughout the war. That myth is that the masses of the European countries vigorously and optimistically applauded the declaration of war in August 1914. Uncounted textbooks and middlebrow documentaries have referred to this primordial chauvinism and naivetee. But is it true?

Verhey's book is about Germany, and in what is roughly the first half of his book, he answers no. The demonstrations that occurred in late July 1914 were largely middle class and urban, with university students playing a particularly prominent part. The working classes showed little enthusiasm, the marches were smaller than many previous Socialist demonstrations (as well as Socialist calls against war), and the countryside and smaller centers were largely quiet. Verhey demonstrates these facts by copious sources such as newspapers, the large secondary literature, and whatever archival sources he can find. A problem develops here. When the war began the German government concluded that the war was sufficiently popular enough that it would not bother its agents with reporting popular opinion. So Verhey must look for other sources. One source is underdeveloped in my view. It has long been argued by the supporters of German Social Democracy that they voted for war credits because they feared being abandoned by the working class. Verhey argues that German Social Democrats in fact were rarely influenced by this source, not surprisingly given his thesis of working class unenthusiasm. But I believe there is not sufficient attention paid to the papers of Social Democratic leaders in order to learn how their opinions developed.

As for the second half of the book, about how the myth of 1914 percolated throughout society, it is comparatively bland and rather straightforward. There are some interesting accounts of the failure of pro-war groups to cross class divides, and there is an interesting deflation of the Rightist Fatherland Party, which according to Verhey was not a proto-Nazi populist movement, but another unsuccessful political mobilization by the elites. Otherwise, there is much talk about myth and propaganda and the general failure of the myth of 1914, which gives the second half a somewhat padded feeling.

http://books.google.nl/books?id=rIJQWNVFaucC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The attack on Chunuk Bair, 8th August 1915
Letter from an officer in the 8th Btn Welsh Regiment


Here is the transcript of a letter sent by 2nd Lieutenant Walter Evan Evans of the 8th (Pioneer) Battalion, The Welsh Regiment to his father. The letter is undated and the envelope has not survived.

No. 1. Convalescent Home
Backbay
Alexandria
Egypt

My dear Pater,

Since I arrived here I have had several long talks with the adjutant, who is quite affable down here, and I have gradually been piecing together what happened to us on the 8th of August. Before I saw him I only knew about what had happened around me and had only a rough surmise about what happened in other parts, most of this furnished by Tommies who I discovered later really knew practically nothing about it.

We went up from Mudros on the Wednesday (August 4). Bashford, who was, and I think still is, at the Ordnance depot there, came ashore to see me in the afternoon but I had already gone. We started about 3 in the afternoon and had a very dull voyage till it began to get dark. The boat was very small and nothing to eat was provided by the boat people barring water which came in useful making tea. However when it was dark, it became more interesting. The shelling of Achi Baba was plainly seen and was very interesting to watch. Everynight a destroyer steams in and bombards the place at the same time playing her search lights on it. One could see very well the flashes of the guns and then the flashes of the bursting shells and also the path traversed by the shells through the air. Really taken all round an ordinary night’s bombardment far excels any Crystal Palace firework show. What with the flashes of searchlights, guns, shells and rifles. However these are nothing in firework display when compared with the star shells sent up by both sides in the trenches. These are rather after the style of the good old rocket; for they burst in the air and give out many coloured lights which shine very brightly and taking a long time descending show up the opposite trench and also if there’s anything interesting on. These latter are a great nuisance when you are working between the Turkish and our own trenches and you have to be continually on the lookout for them so that you can go to earth as soon as they go up.

Well we arrived at Anzac about 10 in the evening and as soon as the lighters came off the first half battalion began disembarking. There was a continual crackle of musketry going on all the time but very little shellfire. A few shells landed on the beach between the landings of the two half battalions but whilst the actual landing was taking place all was quiet.

You must not mix our lot up with the people who carried out the new landing at Sulva Bay several days later. After we landed at Hell Spit we marched along Brighton Beach for about 15 minutes when we turned up Canterbury Gully and branched off from there to Shrapnel Gully. About halhway up this we halted and made our bivouac. It was now beginning to get light so we had very little sleep that night. We were about 600 yards from the beach and about the same distance from our firing line. We could easily see our support trenches at the top of the gully and in fact stray bits of shell meant for them kept falling amongst our troops. We had a very scrappy breakfast and then learnt from our neighbours, some Australians; the special points to be noticed and avoided in the gully. It was most essential to keep down in the gully for the Turks always sent over a few shells if they ever saw three or four men wandering about. This is their usual custom and proves that they must have abundance of ammunition.

I with several others crawled up in the late morning and had a look through glasses at the Turkish trenches about 800 yards distant. Shrapnel Gully was so called because of the quantity of shrapnel which was always flying about in it. We, however, being higher up the gully that usual get far less of it than they do lower down. Still there is a very nasty gun called “Beachy Bill”, a 4.7, which fires right across us and into us from the direction of Gaba Tepe. I was pleased to hear that the navy put this gun out a few days after I left for it was this gun that did all the damage on the beach. Another very annoying gun was a 75 mm, which had been captured from the Serbians I think in the last war. This gun did a lot of damage in our gully and it was a fragment of one of its shells which hit me that afternoon.

Between 3 and 4 every afternoon the Turks cease shelling for that is their hour of prayer and eating. We were in Shrapnel Gulley all day Thursday and Friday during which time there were several casualties especially when men went to fetch water. The water tanks were regular death traps for the Turks knew exactly where the water tanks were and at what hour men went to draw water and so shelled accordingly. During Thursday the beach was very heavily bombarded and two naval commanders killed and several men. A water lighter was sunk and a picket boat badly damaged. Owing to this water lighter having being sunk there was a great scarcity of water because there was only one other lighter available and they wouldn’t let that come near the coast because they were afraid that it would be sunk also.

About 10 o’clock Friday morning the C.O. collected us and explained to us the general scheme of what was to happen during the next few days. In the afternoon we received news that the Turks had discovered that there was a large number of troops in our gully and that they were going to shell us out of it. The order went round to lie very low in the dug outs. I had quite a good dug out and we escaped damage although there were several casualties amongst the battalion. The day before our company mess had occupied the dug out of the brigade headquarters but we were turned out in the middle of the night. On Thursday evening, there was a very pretty fight between two aeroplanes but neither was brought down and we were very nearly exterminated by the nose of a shell which fell in our dug out and went through two sandbags.

Friday evening we fell in about 9.30. Every man carried pick and shovel and 300 rounds of ammunition. We left our packs in Shrapnel Gulley under a guard which was nearly exterminated a few days later by an 8 inch shell which exploded amongst and blew one man in half and wounded several others. ….. scattered bits of these men over the packs and so many had to be destroyed.

We started that evening about 10 and marched towards the beach but about half-way down we turned north into Canterbury gulley where we halted for sometime. During this time several shells fell amongst us and the adjutant and Yates were buried and I and several others partly buried by a large ‘football’ which luckily didn’t explode. A ‘football’ is a large round ball, 18 inches in diameter, with a large handle at each end fired from a trench mortar. A large number luckily do not explode.

We pushed on along the beach all night until we came to Fisherman’s Hut. There we turned eastwards away from the sea up the Chailak Dere. The Turks were held in check by the fire of two monitors which were about 5 miles out at sea. During this night the landing at Sulva had taken place. We halted at 4 and had a few hours rest and also a small drink. We were then on ground which had been Turkish the day before. We moved up this gully, the Chailak Dere, in the wake of the New Zealanders to whom we were attached. About midday the C.O. who was in front, going along too fast, came under fire and was shot in the eye. His left eye was taken out but I hear that the sight of his other eye was not affected.

We moved farther up the gully that day and arrived about 5 in the afternoon at the bottom of Rhododendron Ridge. We were troubled a great deal in the evening by snipers of which there is a great number. Down in the gullies notices and sometimes men are placed to warn you of the danger. Sometimes you come to a spot where there is a Tommy who will cheerfully tell you that 17 have been shot there today. So hoping you are not going to be the 18th you dash across; low, you will hear a bang and a bullet strike the earth behind you.

The attack was advertised for 6.15 Saturday evening but was postponed as the troops at Sulva had not advanced as quickly as we had done. When it was dark we went up to the top of the spur and started digging a trench on the forward slope. We could see Turks on the opposite slope but they never troubled us beyond making us a little anxious. Another very annoying thing was every 15 minutes a cruiser out at sea would throw his searchlight onto us and show us up so that everybody was obliged to take cover. We stayed up on top until about 2.30 am Sunday morning when we went back to our bivouac and received the cheering news that we was to stand to at 3.30 and attack at 4.15. No orders came until about 3.45 and when they were being given out it was time to fall in.

The general scheme was for the attack on Chanak Bair.

Front line 7th Gloucesters Wellington Battalion

Reserves 8th Welsh

8th Welsh scheme.

A coy B coy Each coy in line.
I I
200 yds 200 yds
I I
C coy D coy

When we arrived on top of Rhododendron Spur and passed over our own trenches there was about 500 yards of open country before one reached the foot of Chunuk Bair. The Wellingtons went over this in the dark and lost very few in the attack itself. The Gloucesters hung back and lost heavily through this. We going up in the light lost very heavily before we even reached the top of the hill. When we got on to the top of the ridge we found many of the Gloucesters lying down there. We pressed on through them and so became disorganised as some men got through faster than others and some stayed behind. When we were through, Captain Gwyer and myself, we went to the right and got down into the Sari Bair. I then had with me about 20 men of my platoon and about 30 others belonging to different companies and some of the Gloucesters. We advanced up the Sari Beit and then wheeled to the right. You can see my track on the sketch map. Captain Gwyer was killed by a shell when quite close to me. I went on and we lay down at the top and covered the right flank as well as we could. I had been hit in the leg going up and some time after was hit in the shoulder. I crawled down the Sari Beit about 10 in the morning to look for a dressing station but was unable to find one and was obliged to stay there till it was dark. The summit of Chunuk Bair was taken but they were driven off and we held the captured Turkish trench. When this was taken no dead Turk was found in it thereby showing us that during our bombardment the Turks kept out of their forward trenches and only came into them again when the assault was delivered.

New Zealanders and Welsh hung onto this trench all day inspite of heavy bombardment and bombing. The Auckland Mountain Rifles (sic) went up as reinforcements in the afternoon and found about 100 men there. These were relieved in the night by the 5 Wilts who lost the place on Tuesday morning and were driven back to the Western end of Rhodedendron Spur where we started from Sunday morning and where they still are. They were obliged to abandon all their wounded and that is why there are so many missing. The wounded in the gully remained there all day, many dying, and in the evening when it was dark all who were able ran back over the hill to where our bivouac was Saturday night. I tripped over a telephone wire going up and fell down the hill again so was obliged to start over again. Many were shot going over by stray bullets and shells. I got to the dressing station and left my kit there because there being very few stretchers I should have to make my way to the beaches as best as I could. I arrived on the beach and managed to get off about 3 in the morning on the last boat to the hospital ship. There were quite a number killed on the beach whilst I was there. Some of the wounded who could not walk were brought in that night but it was a difficult job and there were few men so many were not discovered either that night or Monday night and it was impossible after Monday night because all that ground was lost.

There was a lack of generalship and orders and it was foolish to attack Chunuk Bair and leave Battleship Hill alone; it was a miracle that anybody came out of it alive.

Still we can't tell what was in Hamilton's mind so we will not criticise, but the whole thing was a box up and the men never really had a chance.

Hope this will catch the mail.

Good luck

Evan.

P.S. That paragraph about Comley and Yates was all rot; the man who wrote it must have a vivid imagination.

Interessante draad op http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=124375
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Messages
From Commanding Officer 4th Light Horse (Lt Col Leonard Long)
To Headquarters 2nd Light Horse Brigade


7th August 1915 0600
After the engagement on our left yesterday the enemy kept up an irregular fire on our trenches up till 0935. The remainder of the 24 hours was quiet. The ruses practiced last night failed to draw very little fire from the trenches in front.
Trench Mortar fired several bombs into position pointed out by our observers where enemy’s machine gun was located. Enemy during the night used considerable number of star shells mostly white.
Casualties Wounded 6

8th August 1915
With the exception of one heavy brush with fire from the enemy’s trench on our front has been light. Otherwise a quiet 24 hours.
Casualties 1 killed and 6 wounded.

9th August 1915
Enemy’s bomb proofs have not been added to since yesterday. Whenever a burst of fire occurred from our left enemy threw up star shells. Trenches and recesses deepened.
Casualties one wounded (slight)

http://percysmith.blogspot.com/2007/04/chapter-8-gallipoli-5-17-august-1915.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 August 1915: Wellington Battalion captures Chunuk Bair

Regarded as one of the highpoints of the New Zealand effort at Gallipoli, the attack on Chunuk Bair highlighted the leadership of Lieutenant-Colonel William Malone. But a massive Turkish counter-attack on 10 August recaptured the position from British troops who had relieved the New Zealanders.

The attack, which began on 6 August, was to be carried out by two assaulting columns of the New Zealand Infantry Brigade. They were to meet at Rhododendron Spur and then proceed to the summit. It was an ambitious plan and dependent on speed.

The operation started well – the men of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and Maori Contingent successfully cleared the way for the assault columns. But delays meant that the attack on the summit was ordered before all the infantrymen had reached the Spur.
The Auckland Battalion tried first and failed. The commander of the Wellington Battalion, Malone, refused to sacrifice his men in a daylight attack and insisted on waiting for night-time. Malone was a tough but respected commander from Taranaki who regularly put himself on the line for the welfare of his men. He allegedly told his superior, Brigadier-General Johnston: 'No, we are not taking orders from you people … My men are not going to commit suicide.'

The Wellington Battalion made it to the summit before dawn on 8 August. But with the sunrise came a barrage of fire from the Turks who held higher ground to the north. A desperate struggle to hold Chunuk Bair ensued. It was not until after dark that reinforcements, the Otago Battalion and the Wellington Mounted Rifles, arrived. By then only 70 Wellington Battalion men remained out of some 760. This was to be Malone’s last battle; he was killed by a shell at about 5 p.m. The New Zealanders managed to hold on for two days. The British battalions that relieved them quickly succumbed to a counter-attack led by Turkish commander Mustafa Kemal, who later became the founding President of Turkey.

A New Zealand memorial stands on the summit of Chunuk Bair. It has a narrow slit through which the rising sun shines on 8 August.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline&new_date=08/08
Zie ook http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-gallipoli-campaign/the-august-offensive op dezelfde site.
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

8 August 1915

-=- On 8 August 1915, the New Zealanders, backed up by British units — 7th Battalion, Gloucester Regiment and 8th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers — captured Chunuk Bair. Fierce Turkish counter-attacks throughout 8 August failed to drive them off.

-=- British forces made little progress at Suvla.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.html

1915 BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI - TIMELINE

8 August 1915
- Battle of Chunuk Bair. New Zealand & British forces gain a foothold on Chunuk Bair.
- British submarine E11 torpedoes the Turkish battleship Hayreddin Barbarossa.
-Mustafa Kemal is appointed overall commander of northern area. Appointed to command of Sixteenth Army Corps. Checks second Allied advance.

http://www.ataturktoday.com/1915GallipoliCanakkale.htm
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The United States and the Mexican Revolution: “A Danger for All Latin American Countries,”
Letters from Venustiano Carranza


In 1911, Mexicans overthrew a long-standing dictator and brought Francisco I. Madero to power. Two years later, a new repressive dictator, General Victoriano Huerta, deposed and murdered Madero. The Constitutionalists, led in part by liberal reformer VenustianoCarranza, undertook an armed revolt against Huerta’s rule. When President Woodrow Wilson took office in 1913, he refused to recognize Huerta’s counterrevolutionary government. Moreover, using the slim pretext of a minor insult to the U.S. Navy, Wilson sent troops into Vera Cruz, Mexico, in April 1914. Wilson’s strategy—to force Huerta out and gain the support of Venustiano Carranza—backfired, however, and anti-U.S. sentiment erupted throughout Mexico. Carranza wrote the following letters, printed in major Mexican newspapers, to the presidents of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile congratulating them for their solidarity with Mexico and warning of the dangers of U.S. intervention.

To the President of Brazil

General Headquarters, Veracruz, August 8, 1915. His Excellency Sr.—Wenceslao J. Baceta, President of the Republic of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro.

It has come to my attention that [Robert] Lansing, Secretary of State of the United States of North America, met the day before yesterday with representatives of A. B. C., [Argentina, Brazil, and Chile] with the aim of pacifying the Republic of Mexico, in this way attempting to interfere in its internal affairs and violate its sovereignty. The Mexican people have learned, to their satisfaction, that your representative in Washington appropriately refused to be a party to the illegal enterprise, setting an example that can become a precedent for the positive harmony and fraternity that should exist among Latin American nations, whose destinies are intimately linked. In the name of the Mexican people and as Commander in Chief of the Constitutionalist Army in Charge of the Executive Power of the nation, I thank you for this just and amicable act, but I also lamentably have to inform you that Mr. Cardoso Oliveira has been among those that have caused the greatest harm to the Republic of Mexico and that in a certain manner he is responsible for the current state of relations with our neighboring Republic to the North.

I take advantage of this opportunity, Mr. President, to express to you the deep sentiments of cordiality and affection the Mexican People hold towards the Brazilian people and to assure you of my highest respect for you.—V. Carranza.

****

To the President of Argentina

His Excellency Sr. Victoriano de la Plaza. President of the Republic of Argentina. Buenos Aires.

[Robert] Lansing, Secretary of State of the North American Government, and [the] Representative of A. B. C. met the day before yesterday in Washington to reach an understanding with respect to the pacification of Mexico, in an attempt to interfere in matters solely pertaining to its sovereignty. Compelled by the purest patriotism and desirous of assuring the rule of liberty and democracy in America, in the name of the Mexican people and as Commander in Chief of the Constitutionalist Army, in Charge of the Executive Power of the Union, I take the liberty of calling to your attention the potential dangers of a new policy of interference on the part of one or several nations of this continent in [others'] internal affairs, [affairs] that lie exclusively within the domain of their sovereignty. In view of the fact that in the aforementioned meetings, the government of the nation over which you honorably preside has a Representative, I hope that your acts will be inspired by the ideas and sentiments that I have just expressed, for it would be an unpardonable error and a criminal act against our [Latin American] race, if that Government contributed to the provocation of war between two [Latin] American nations, because a powerful government attempted to impose its will upon a free, independent, and sovereign People, violating their rights and nullifying the victory they have just won by force of arms, in order to establish once and for all the reign of liberty and justice. . . .—V. Carranza

****

To the President of Chile

His Excellency, Sr. Ramon Barroso Luco. President of the Republic of Chile. Santiago de Chile.

[Robert] Lansing, Secretary of State of the North American Government, and [the] Representative of A. B. C. met the day before yesterday in Washington, to resolve the pacification of Mexico, in an attempt to interfere in matters solely pertaining to its sovereignty. Compelled by the purest patriotism and desirous of assuring the rule of liberty and democracy in America, in the name of the Mexican people and as Commander in Chief of the Constitutionalist Army, in Charge of the Executive Power of the Union, I take the liberty of calling to your attention the potential dangers of a new policy of interference on the part of one or several nations of this Continent in [others] internal affairs, [affairs] that lie exclusively within the domain of their sovereignty. In view of the fact that in such meetings the government of the Nation over which you honorably preside has a Representative, I hope that your acts will be inspired by the ideas and sentiments that I have just expressed, for it would be an unpardonable error and that Government would become an accomplice to a crime against our [Latin American] race, if it contributed to the provocation of war between two [Latin] American nations, because a powerful government attempted to impose its will upon a free, independent, and sovereign people, violating its rights and nullifying the total victory it has just won by force of arms, in order to establish once and for all the reign of liberty and justice. [Before] an act so unjustified and bearing such disastrous and far-reaching consequences for all Latin American nations, none of them should tolerate or contribute to its shameful execution. . . .—V. Carranza.

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4940/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New Zealand Medical Service in the Great War 1914-1918

The Second Attack on Chunuk Bair. August 8th, 1915
4.50 a.m. The second attack of the New Zealanders on Chunuk Bair on the 8th, headed by Lt.-Col. W. G. Malone, commanding the Wellington Regiment reached the south western slopes of the crest without heavy casualties, the distance they covered was about a quarter of a mile from their assembly point at the Apex. In the centre Cox's Indian battalions were pushing up to Hill "Q" to the N.E. of the farm at the head of the Aghyl Dere. The 4th Australian Brigade, under Monash, had heavy going in desperately confused country, and in attempting to reach Abd el Rhamen Bair, was almost surrounded by a large body of Turks advancing against their left flank. They had posted a stout rear guard, however, and under cover of this detachment, the brigade extricated itself, regaining its point of departure with 1000 casualties.

5 a.m. Prior to this hour the A.D.M.S. proceeded up to the dressing station of the 4th Australian Field Ambulance in the Aghyl Dere where he found that the 3rd Light Horse Ambulance had moved into "Australia" Gully, a north running branch of the Aghyl Dere, and had formed an advanced dressing station, and were evacuating wounded from Monash's Brigade to the dressing station of the 4th Australian Field Ambulance at the junction of the Aghyl Dere and Australia Gully. At 7.30, while Col. Manders was still away, the Acting D.A.D.M.S., Major M. Holmes, had the following message from the New Zealand Infantry Brigade Headquarters established just below the apex. "Evacuation of wounded still very difficult. There are no bearer subdivisions. Wounded have to be carried by regimental stretcher bearers to the dressing station over a mile and a half distant [means down to No. 3 outpost]. Prompt despatch of bearer subdivisions to connect with regimental aid post is most pressing necessity." Major Holmes instructs the O.C. New Zealand Mounted Field Ambulance to send four stretcher squads of four men with an officer to assist the New Zealand Brigade. Major Newton had by this time moved his dressing station to "Chalk Hills" a bluff at the western extremity of Beauchop's Hill immediately north of the opening of the Chailak Dere; he promptly complied with the order given. Further the D.A.D.M.S. notified the A.D.M.S. of the 13th Division that the New Zealand Infantry Brigade was urgently in need of stretcher bearers and asked that 20 bearers might be despatched to the A.D.S. at Major Helsham's post.

Very few casualties had passed through the M.D.S. at Walker's Ridge during the night; by 9 a.m. on the 8th some 50 cases were awaiting evacuation; a few bearers from the 41st Field Ambulance —13th Division—were assisting. "C" section was still in Sazli Beit Dere about half a mile from the mouth, "B" section still complete at Monash's Gully A.D.S.

Very heavy fighting was going on all along our front, the Wellingtons and the 8th Worcesters, with other troops assisting, were digging in as best they might to secure a precarious footing on Chunuk Bair crest under a wicked fire from all quarters; all forward movement had ceased—Malone of Quinn's the hefty leader, was dead, and with him most of the Worcester officers besides many others, the wounded lying thick about the the Apex and in No Man's Land between it and the forward trench line. A further message from Major Helsham gives a clear impression of the medical situation. "9.30 a.m. There are at present no relays of bearers to take over wounded from this station at the head of the Chailak Dere. My men have been working continuously for two days and late into the night. The station is overflowing and fresh cases are coming in all the time. We cannot possibly carry the wounded all the way. Please arrange for more bearers to bring two stretchers per squad to keep things going. The O.C. of the 41st Field Ambulance cannot assist us any longer." No doubt he was fully occupied with the wounded of his own Division, 8th Worcesters and the Welsh Pioneers. In answer to this message 50 bearers were despatched at once by the D.A.D.M.S.

The 40th Field Ambulance of the 13th Division which had relieved Major O'Neil at No. 3 outpost at dark on the previous evening, collected, fed, and dressed some 350 cases during the first twelve hours they were evacuating to the pier. There was now an increasing congestion of wounded about No. 3 and No. 2 outposts. Affairs were not going well at the Red Cross Pier; there was serious congestion at the mouth of the Dere, the enemy fire was holding up evacuation. The N.T.O., Mr. Greenshields was killed before noon. Capt. Finn, N.Z.M.C, remained on and took his place.

Col. Manders was nearly the whole forenoon in the Aghyl Dere sector where exceedingly heavy casualties were occurring and where no less than five ambulances were working. There were the 3rd Australian Light Horse Field Ambulance, the 4th Australian Field Ambulance, the Indian Field Ambulance, the 39th Field Ambulance of the 13th Division and part of the 41st Field Ambulance. The D.A.D.M.S. of the 13th Division was at Waldren's point, where the 39th Field Ambulance had their M.D.S. More serious losses were being met with in this area than in the Chailak Dere, at least three brigades and part of a fourth were heavily engaged. The ambulance bearers were suffering considerable casualties; the Dere at its upper end completely open to fire and observation. Major Holmes now though it wise to bring the New Zealand Field Ambulance into action in the Chailak Dere—where as yet only the 1st Australian Light Horse, part of the New Zealand Mounted, and a party of 41st Field Ambulances were working. Lt.-Col. Begg reported at 10.45 a.m. that he could spare about 12 men with six stretchers, that "C" section are not very busy having dealt with only 58 cases since they opened on the night of the 6/7th, and that he thinks "B" section could be used also, as affairs, are not pressing at Monash's Gully.

The Medical position at noon was this:—A.D.M.S., Col. Manders, had now about 600 casualties mostly stretcher cases for evacuation. No. 3 pier was working fitfully under great difficulties; the mouth of the Chailak Dere, No. 3 and 2 outposts, were choked with stretcher cases. Anzac wired to say they were full up and to send down no more stretchers at present; the C.C.S. promised had not arrived. At No. 2 outpost 300 wounded were being tended, to some extent, by the 40th Field Ambulance bearers less two officers and 30 men despatched to the Aghyl Dere during the forenoon. The C.C.S. is urgently wanted. Col. Manders wires the D.M.S. to that effect. To those who knew the western front with its clockwork methods of evacuation all this may appear very confused, very inept, but having in mind the limited means available for the evacuation from the beaches and the usual difficulties of amphibious warfare, and the fact that a landing at Suvla was in progress and the absence of any form of wheeled transport and the very limited communications—through one narrow sap—it would appear that the block was inevitable.

By midday the battle is easing down. On Chunuk Bair the remnants of the assaulting column, who by now have lost nearly every officer, are still hanging on. At Lone Pine on our right fierce fighting is still in progress since the afternooon of the 6th. The Turks seem to be shaping up for a counter attack at the head of Monash's Gully, the loss of which would have disastrous results. The A.D.M.S. cannot afford to take any bearers from the A.D.S. at Pope's Hill, Murray and his section are ordered to stand fast; the main thing is to get the C.C.S. ashore. But by 5 p.m. affairs appear to be very bad both in the Aghyl and Chailak Dere. Lt.-Col. Beeston, A.M.C. has succeeded in pushing "C" section of the 4th Australian Field Ambulance further up the Aghyl Dere; the A.D.M.S. of the 13th Division has sent up some more bearers to the assistance of the 4th Australian Brigade whose losses are pitiable. Major Helsham is again asking for assistance—a few bearers from the 40th Field Ambulance proceed to the dressing station of the 41st; the A.D.M.S. now determines to utilise "C" section of the New Zealand Field Ambulance, he accordingly sends orders to Major O'Neil:—"Proceed with your section to the head of the gully, get into touch with General Johnson [commanding New Zealand Brigade], and advise in the morning how many stretchers you require to evacuate to the beach." "A" section bearers had fortunately just cleared O'Neil's A.D.S., he did what he was ordered to do and proceeded to the head of the gully he was in, namely the Sazli Beit Dere. The intention of the A.D.M.S. was not clearly shown in his order. Nor is there any means, now, for determining what his intentions were. But it would seem that the better disposition of the party would have been in the Chailak Dere.

We will now follow the adventures of Capt. Baigent, on the 8th. "I shifted my R.A.P. up to the Apex, my battalion was in reserve. Padre Luxford was with me"; [we remember him at Helles], "we took cover in the scrub which was very tall. It afforded concelment from "W" hills. During the day I had many wounded through, and Padre Luxford was wounded." He lost his leg by this wound; and later at No. 2 N.Z.G.H. was chaplain, held in much awe by those who had not been to Gallipoli. He died in New Zealand after a long and very painful illness, much honoured, his memory ever green to those who saw his tireless devotion to the wounded at Anzac and Helles. Capt. Baigent continues: "The wounded were carried down by the regimental stretcher bearers as far as the A.D.S. of the 1st Australian Light Horse Ambulance, at the old Turkish bivouac, where I had my first R.A.P. Home, Pearless and Craig were up at the Apex too. No rations, no water had reached the battalion when they moved up at dark to dig in."

The military situation of the New Zealanders on the evening of the 8th is, in tabloid form:—The New Zealand Brigade with the Auckland Mounted Rifles, and the Maori Contingent, are holding Rhododendron Spur and the reverse slopes of the south western end of Chunuk Bair. There is great difficulty in supplying the firing line, 400 yards ahead of the Apex, with guns, ammunition, water and communications. Adequate consolidation of this line is impossible, the trenches in some places are only a few inches deep. The main avenue of approach, a very narrow track through the Chailak Dere, is under direct observation of the enemy, and impossible for large bodies by daylight and by nightfall congested by stretcher parties, mule transport of the Indian S. & T. carrying water in fantassahs, ammunition boxes, and supplies; wounded side tracked everywhere, making progression impossible at times. Heavy cross fire by artillery and rifle fire on the upper slopes still further delay the arrival of water, ammunition, tools and reinforcements. On our left Cox's Brigade, the 4th Australian and the 39th Infantry Brigade of the 13th Division are as badly off. The Aghyl Dere is so open as to be unsafe to move in by daylight. They are holding on there with heavy losses. The force at Suvla which was ordered to seize Ismail Oglu Tepe—the "W" hills from which our advance on the heights is enfiladed by the Turkish artillery—has not been able to be of any assistance and have not as yet joined hands with Monash. Fresh plans for a final assault are drafted. A new brigade—Baldwin's—of five battalions, all of the 13th Division, drawn from the corps reserve is to pass through our firing line at Chunuk Bair. Cox is to assault "Hill Q," joining hands with page 93Baldwin's columns who have the same objective midway between Koja Chemen Tepe and Chunuk Bair. The attack is timed for 5.15 a.m. on the 9th.

By 8 p.m. Baldwin's battalions were entering the mouth of the Clailak Dere. The A.D.M.S. was instructed that the Dere must be kept free of stretcher parties during this phase in order to give Baldwin's column a clear passage to the Apex. General Godley in his report on the August fighting says "with this object" [giving Baldwin. a clear passage] "arrangements were made for the narrow track to be kept clear of all obstruction such as wounded coming down, rations going up, etc" With the tramp and dust of Baldwin's men assailing his jaded senses, Colonel Manders sits at his dug-out door powerless to help. His last reserves of stretcher bearers are in, his hands all tied by the necessities of the military needs. About him is a dust-grey welter of wounded, half naked, hungry, thirsty and forlorn, the tiny handful of the 40th Field Ambulance quite inadequate to help even a moiety of these sufferers of all races—water even is scarce. Blankets, there were practically none; most of the Anzacs, lying out on stretchers without shelter had fought all day in their shirts; the night was chilly; many had been lying there for over 24 hours. With a sad heart the A.D.M.S. turned to his own diary written for his family alone. "The lines of communication have been broken down," he writes, and a little further on, "completed 31 years of service—only one more"!

Now hear the story of the missing C.C.S.: it arrived off Anzac at 2 a.m. on the 7th August on the Ikalis, which also had the 16th C.C.S. aboard. They waited and signalled, but no lighters came off—they went to Suvla—there were no orders for them there. Lieut.-Col. McNaught, R.A.M.C, O.C. 13th C.C.S. was permitted to wire his whereabouts to the A.D.M.S. of the 13th Division, and on the 8th had orders to disembark on "A" beach at Suvla, where from is not clear. Both commanding officers duly disembarked at Suvla to be told by the beach master that they were both wanted at Anzac. On arrival at Anzac, Colonel Keeble, A.M.S., now acting as D.D.M.S. ashore, ordered Lieut.-Col. McNaught to proceed to No. 2 post. On arrival he found the 40th Field Ambulance bearer parties there, and noticed a small and flimsy pier with a red cross flag flying, being shelled; he also noticed one of our batteries just in front of it. He did not see Colonel Manders. His equipment was over a mile away at Anzac, no transport could be got that night; the beach road could not be used by daylight—that night it was choked with Baldwin's mulecarts—but transport was promised for the following night. Accordingly he brought up 3 officers with 20 men and what equipment they could carry to assist the ambulance bearers that very night.

Out in No Man's Land between the fire trench and the Apex, the R.M.O.'s and their stretcher bearers spent most of the night clearing the slopes of the wounded of four brigades.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Medi-t1-g1-t1-body-d5-d5.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MAORI BATTALION in GALLIPOLI 1915 - the Roll of Honour

Ferris, Donald - Private 16/519
B Company, 1st Maori Contingent
Killed in action - 8th August 1915 Gallipoli, Turkey
Buried - Embarkation Pier Cemetery Special Memorial B. 16.
Son of Mr C. W. Ferris, Gisborne, Poverty Bay, NZ
ENLISTMENT ADDRESS: Gisborne, Poverty Bay, New Zealand
MEDALS:
* 1914-1915 Star
* British War Medal
* Victory Medal
* Gallipoli Medallion

Geary, John - Lance Corporal 16/36A (& listed as 9/36)
Otago Mounted Rifles, Main Body (drafted as NZ Maori Contingent)
Killed in action 8th August 1915 Gallipoli, Turkey
Memorial - Chunuk Bair New Zealand Memorial 24
Son of Mr W. Geary, Portobello, Dunedin, Otago, NZ
ENLISTMENT ADDRESS: Portobello Camp, (old Mental Hospital), Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand
MEDALS:
* 1914-1915 Star
* British War Medal
* Victory Medal
* Gallipoli Medallion

http://www.familytreecircles.com/maori-battalion-in-gallipoli-1915-the-roll-of-honour-17229.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pembroke County War Memorial - Nevern War Memorial

Alan Bowen, Lieutenant, Manchester Regiment. Alan served with the 8th Battalion, Manchester Regiment, which was formed at Ardwick in August 1914, becoming part of Manchester Brigade, East Lancashire Division. The division was sent to the Mediterranean to counter the threat from the Turkish forces in the Middle East, and landed at Alexandria on 25 September 1915. On 6 May 1915 the 8th Manchesters landed on Gallipoli, and became part of 127 Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division. The battalion remained here over the coming months, and it was on Gallipoli that Alan was killed in action on 7 August 1915. He was listed in the London Gazette as promoted Temporary Captain on 8 August 1915, just a day after his death. Alan has no known grave, and is commemorated on the Helles Memorial, Gallipoli.

http://www.pembrokeshire-war-memorial.co.uk/page47.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS LYNX

Built 1912 London & Glasgow Shipbuilding Co
950 tons Acasta-class Destroyer
266.0 ft x 27.0 ft x 9.0 ft
2 shaft Parsons Turbines, 4 Yarrow boilers, 24,500 shp giving 29 knots.
8th August 1915 Sunk after striking a mine, 24 miles SE of Wick.

HMS LYNX was one of the Grand Fleet destroyers on patrol in the Moray Firth on the night of 8-9 August 1915. An enemy minefield was known to exist, but its exact extent was not accurately known.

Three destroyers normally patrolled together, but HMS MIDGE was the only other destroyer on the patrol line with LYNX at the time. The torpedo boat destroyer, HMS OSPREY had been sent to deliver orders to the minesweeping trawlers, and she arrived later.

At 10.40 pm on 8 August, LYNX received a message that was sent to all of the destroyers on outer patrol in the Moray Firth, ordering them to keep at least five miles to the eastward of the N-R line (Noss Head to Rosehearty), and well clear of the minefield.

She struck a mine and sank at 06.10hrs on 9 August. Her Captain, Cdr.J.Cole was lost with 73 of his crew. There were only 26 survivors.

At the time LYNX was blown up there was no information that the minefield extended north of latitude 58°, but LYNX had been warned by HMS FAULKNOR that it was feared the minefield extended across the Firth.

A signal made at 12.30pm on 8 August only directed LYNX to pass north of latitude 58°. She was sunk in latitude 5808N.

There was no evidence to show the exact position at the time of striking the mine, but survivors were picked up by the SS VULCANO about 8.30am in 580700N, 023830W.

The MIDGE had correctly interpreted the order to keep well outside the N-R line, but the Court took the view that it would be wrong to censure the late commanding officer of LYNX for not having taken the same view, and that recent sweeping had shown mines were laid eight miles outside the N-R line.

The explosion apparently occurred in front of No.1 boiler room, wrecking and severing the fore part of the ship, as far aft as No.1 boiler room.

A second violent explosion also occurred in the vicinity of No.1 boiler room, between 5 and 10 minutes after the first explosion. The Court of Enquiry was of the opinion that this was caused by the after part of the ship drifting against a second mine.

http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~treevecwll/lynxd.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mouquet Farm, 8 augustus – 3 september 1916

De naam ‘Mouquet Farm’ werd aan een reeks Australische aanvallen gegeven die noordwaarts langs de heuvelrug van Pozières plaatsvonden tussen 8 augustus en 3 september 1916. Deze volgden op de inbeslagneming van Pozières en de Duitse linies bij de windmolen ten oosten van het dorp, eind juli en begin augustus. Al deze acties maakten deel uit van het Britse offensief ten oosten van Albert dat op 1 juli 1916 begon en tot begin november van dat jaar duurde. Collectief worden deze de Slag aan de Somme genoemd.

Mouquet Farm zelf was een zwaar verdedigde Duitse stelling halverwege tussen Pozières en de Duitse bolwerken rond Thiepval. De Britten hadden verwacht dat de stellingen rond Thiepval op de eerste dag van het Somme offensief (1 juli) zouden vallen, maar dat deden ze niet. Het doel van die mislukte aanval op de eerste dag was Bapaume. Midden augustus dachten de Britten nog steeds dat het noodzakelijk was de Duitse stellingen rond Thiepval te neutraliseren zodat ze naar het oosten, richting Bapaume konden oprukken. Om Thiepval aan te vallen dacht men dat Mouquet Farm eerst ingenomen moest worden.

Tijdens de nacht van 6 op 7 augustus 1916 nam de Vierde Divisie stellingen in op de heuvelrug van Pozières. Bij het vallen van de avond op 8 augustus rukten de Australiërs, achter een kruipend spervuur, noordwaarts op naar Thiepval. Ze maakten weinig vordering. De volgende avond namen ze hun eerste doel in beslag en op 11 augustus werden twee sterke Duitse tegenaanvallen afgeweerd.

Tijdens deze aanvallen vonden er zware Duitse artilleriebeschietingen plaats. Erger nog, terwijl de Australiërs in een steeds nauwer wordende uitstulping of ‘salient’ in de vijandelijke linie oprukten, konden de Duitsers hen van drie kanten beschieten. Elke beweging naar het front werd door de vijand gezien en het hele gebied was een zee van granaattrechters die bij regen in modder veranderde. De beschietingen maakten het moeilijk om oriëntatiepunten te herkennen. Wat Charles Bean, de officiële historicus van Australië, in juli 1916 had geschreven over Pozières, gold evengoed voor het landschap rond Mouquet farm – ‘Er is hier geen ongeschonden grond’.

Op 13 augustus 1916 bevonden de Australiërs zich nabij Mouquet Farm en vielen die nacht aan. Een afgraving nabij de boerderij werd ingenomen en een compagnie onder kapitein Harry Murray van het 13de Bataljon (New South wales) nam een deel van de Duitse ‘Fabeck loopgraaf’ in ten noordoosten van de boerderij. Murray en zijn manschappen werden echter door de Duitsers omsingeld en moesten zich een veilige weg terug vechten.

De Vierde Divisie was nu uitgeput. Tijdens de voortdurende strijd van tien dagen had de divisie 4649 slachtoffers geleden, velen door Duitse beschietingen. Ze werd nu afgelost door de Vijfde Divisie. Deze divisie, die met relatief lichte kracht aanviel, behaalde slechts kleine overwinningen en had tegen 22 augustus 2650 slachtoffers geleden. Er werden nu grote aanvallen gedaan om kleine secties loopgraven in te nemen die door de Duitsers met dezelfde overgave verdedigd werden. De Tweede Divisie nam nu de taak over en bereikte Mouquet Farm op 26 augustus. Ze ontdekten dat deze in handen was van het elite Duitse Wacht Reserve Korps, in diepe schuilkelders. De Tweede Divisie kon de overwonnen gebieden niet in handen houden.

De Vierde Divisie werd weer in de strijd geworpen en viel tijdens de nachten van 27 augustus, 29 augustus en 3 september aan en rukte op naar Mouquet Farm. De boerderij weerstond de inname echter en was nog steeds in handen van de vijand toen de Australiërs op 5 september werden afgelost. Tien dagen later, op 15 september, waren de Britten met een groot offensief aan een wijd front, terwijl voor de eerste keer tanks werden gebruikt, tamelijk succesvol bij het oprukken ten oosten van Pozières. Mouquet Farm hield echter nog stand en viel pas op 26 september 1916.

In minder dan zeven weken leden in de gevechten bij Pozières en Mouquet Farm drie Australische divisies 23.000 slachtoffers. Daarvan werden 6800 mannen gedood of stierven aan hun verwondingen. Dit verlies was vergelijkbaar met de slachtoffers die de Australiërs leden tijdens de acht maanden bij Gallipoli in 1915. Over deze periode in de oorlog had de Australische historicus weinig positiefs te zeggen:

Haig [de Britse opperbevelhebber] vermoeide inderdaad zijn vijand; maar hij realiseerde zich niet dat hij nog veel sneller de leden … van zijn eigen leger vermoeide …de poging om een wig verder achter Thiepval te drijven was een grote fout … het gaf geen zinvol resultaat en verbitterde de troepen.
(Charles Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Canberra, 1948, blz.265)

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/mouquet-farm-1916.html
Zie ook http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_mouquet.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 August 1916 → Commons Sitting

PEACE TERMS.


HC Deb 08 August 1916 vol 85 c864 864

Major HUNT asked whether, in view of the fact that under the conditions of the War the Germans will have had far fewer ships destroyed during the War than will be the case as to this country and that of the Allies, he can give the House the assurance that, for every ship sunk or destroyed by Germany and her allies, the Government will insist in the peace terms that at least an equal amount of shipping shall be taken from Germany by this country and the Allies to make up for the amount destroyed by enemy countries during the War?

The PRIME MINISTER The question referred to is not being overlooked, but it would be premature and inexpedient to make any announcement at present as to the terms of peace.

Major HUNT Is the hon. Member not aware that people are anxious to get perfectly straightforward answers on this question?

The PRIME MINISTER I do not like to discuss that question on the floor of the House.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/aug/08/peace-terms
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Baker Board and Pershing's Staff Organizational Study

Using the General Organization Project, the War College Division prepared tables of organization, which the War Department published on 8 August 1917 (Chart 4). The tables for what became known as the "square division" included a few changes in the division's combat arms. For example, the five-company divisional machine gun battalion was reduced to four companies by eliminating the armored car machine gun unit. Pershing had decided to submit a separate tank program because he considered tanks to be assets of either army corps or field army. In the infantry regiment, the planners made the 3-inch mortars optional weapons and added three one-pounder (37-mm.) guns as antitank and anti-machine gun weapons. The supply train was motorized, and the ammunition and ambulance trains were equipped with both motor- and horse-drawn transport. The additional motorized equipment in the trains stemmed from the quartermaster general's attempt to ease an expected shipping shortage, not to enhance mobility. Crated motor vehicles occupied less space in an ocean transport than animals and fodder.

The War College Division also provided a larger divisional staff than Pershing had recommended because the unit most likely would have both tactical and administrative roles. The staff comprised a chief of staff, an adjutant general, an inspector general, a judge advocate, and quartermaster, medical, ordnance, and signal officers. In addition, interpreters were attached to overcome any language barriers, particularly between the Americans and the French. As an additional duty, the commanders of the field artillery brigade and the engineer regiment held staff positions. A division headquarters troop with 109 officers and enlisted men would furnish the necessary services for efficient operations. The infantry brigade headquarters included the commander, his three aides, a brigade adjutant, and eighteen enlisted men who furnished mess, transportation, and communications services. The field artillery brigade headquarters was larger, with nine officers and forty-nine enlisted men, but had similar functions. Planners did not authorize headquarters detachments for either the infantry or field artillery brigade.

http://www.history.army.mil/books/Lineage/M-F/chapter3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second battle of Oituz (August 1917)

After the battle of Marasti ended, the 2nd Army occupied the following positions: the 4th Corps had the 7th Infantry Division between the Dofteana and Oituz Rivers, the 6th Infantry Division between the Oituz River and the Casin Hill and the line was continued to the north to the Zboina Neagra by the 8th Infantry Division. The 2nd Corps had between the Zboina Neagra and Sarii Valley the 12th, 1st and 3rd Infantry Divisions. Four battalions made up the reserve. There hadn't been enough time to strengthen the weak fortifications existing in the area.

On the other side, teh Austro-Hungarian 1st Army planned to attack with its left wing, the Gerock Group, along the Oituz Valley. The main strike element was the Austro-Hungarian 8th Corps, deployed between the Dofteana Valley and the Casin Hill, in front of the Romanian 7th and 6th Infantry Divisions. It was made up of the Austro-Hungarian 70th and 71st Infantry Divisions and the German 117th Infantry Division. In reserve it had the Austro-Hungarian 7th and 8th Cavalry Divisions, which were ready to exploit the eventual break through of the infantry.

The attack was supposed to start on 8 August 1917. The German 117th Infantry Division had to advance north of the Oituz Valley, towards the Ungureanu and Cosna Peaks and the Austro-Hungarian 71st Infantry Division had to advance south of the valley. The 70th Division was going to attack towards Targul Ocna over the Ciresoaia and Pravila Peaks. The front was 7 km wide and the Central Powers had a 4 to 1 numerical superiority.

Lees verder op http://worldwar2.ro/primulrazboi/?article=118
Zie ook http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=117786
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harry Garnet Bedford Miner

Harry Garnet Bedford Miner, VC ( b 24 June 1891, d 8 August 1918) (VC, Croix de Guerre (France)) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. (...)

He was a 27 year old corporal, and in action on 8 August 1918 at Demuin, France, on the opening day of the Battle of Amiens, the first day of the Hundred Days Offensive.

Victoria Cross citation: For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in attack, when despite severe wounds he refused to withdraw. He rushed an enemy machine-gun post single-handed, killed the entire crew and turned the gun on the enemy. Later, with two others, he attacked another enemy machine-gun post, and succeeded in putting the gun out of action. Cpl. Miner then rushed single-handed an enemy bombing post, bayoneting two of the garrison and putting the remainder to flight. He was mortally wounded in the performance of this gallant deed. (The London Gazette, 26 October 1918)

He was mortally wounded by a German stick grenade during this action, but refused to withdraw. He died later in the day and lies buried in the Crouy Military Cemetery just oustide of the village Crouy-Saint-Pierre, about 15 km northwest of Amiens and about 25 km northwest of the battlefield on which he fell. His burial place would seem to indicate that despite his protests he was eventually evacuated from the battlefield to a casualty clearing station at Crouy-Saint-Pierre but died en route, or at the station.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Garnet_Bedford_Miner
Zie ook http://www.legionmagazine.com/en/index.php/2005/09/on-the-offensive-in-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships

LZ-26

Tactical*: Z XII
Class: Type N
Usage: military
First Flight: 14 December 1914

LZ-26 was one of the more successful zeppelins of the war. She participated in eleven attacks in northern France and on the eastern front, dropping some 20,000 kg of bombs. She was decommissioned on 8 August 1917.

* Tactical refers to the airship's tactical designation(s). The Z designation indicates an airship operated by the German army, whereas the L designation indicates an airship operated by the German navy.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag om Amiens - 8 augustus 1918

Tussen eind maart en eind juli 1918 was het de strategie van het Duitse leger aan het Westelijk Front om eerst een wig te drijven tussen de Britse en Franse legers en daarna de Britten te verslaan alvorens de Fransen te overmeesteren. De Duitse bevelhebbers pleitten voor deze strategie, want de terugtrekking van Rusland uit de oorlog bood hen de gelegenheid om Duitse divisies uit het oosten te verplaatsen en deze in het westen te gebruiken. De strategie moest snel uitgevoerd worden, voordat de snelle opbouw van de Amerikaanse strijdkrachten de Geallieerden te sterk maakten voor de Duitsers om ooit te winnen.

Het Duitse offensief tegen de Britten begon op 21 maart en van toen tot eind juli namen de Duitsers overal het initiatief en probeerden de Fransen en Britten voor de strijd uit te dagen.

Op 14 juli 1918 lanceerde het Duitse leger zijn laatste grote aanval op de Fransen in het gebied van de Marne, ten oosten van Parijs en aan beide kanten van de grote stad Reims. De Fransen hadden deze aanval verwacht en hadden hun frontlinie licht bezet gehouden. Terwijl de Duitsers oprukten, liepen ze vervolgens een sterke troep Franse reservisten tegen het lijf en werden teruggedreven. Op 18 juli deden de Fransen, samen met verse Amerikaanse divisies, een tegenaanval. Deze Frans-Amerikaanse opmars dreef de vijand naar zijn voornaamste voorraad-spoorweghoofd terug. De Duitsers waren overrompeld en begonnen zich terug te trekken. Een groot offensief tegen de Britten in Vlaanderen werd afgelast, terwijl versterkingen naar het zuiden werden gezonden. Het was een keerpunt aan het Westelijk Front. Het grote Duitse offensief was tot wankelen gebracht en werd niet opnieuw begonnen. Het initiatief was nu aan de Geallieerden en er werd besloten om een grote Britse aanval te lanceren ten oosten van Villers-Bretonneux. Men dacht dat door de voortdurende Australische bestokingen daar het moreel van de Duitsers laag zou zijn en hun versterkingen zwak.

De Slag om Amiens die tussen 8 en 11 augustus 1918 gestreden werd, markeerde het begin van de Britse opmars die uitliep op de wapenstilstand van 11 november 1918. De voorbereidingen voor de slag hielden ongekende veiligheidsmaatregelen in om een maximaal verrassingseffect te bewerkstelligen. Het Canadese Korps werd in het geheim overgeplaatst naar het gebied van de Somme en nam de zuidelijke helft over van de Australische frontlinie. Het Australische Korps werd tussen de Canadezen en de Somme verzameld, terwijl de Britten de linie ten noorden van de rivier bezet hielden. De infanterie organiseerde in de vroege uren van 8 augustus hun verzamelstellingen. Er kwam een dichte mist opzetten en daarboven dreunden onzichtbare vliegtuigen waardoor het lawaai van de tanks die de infanterie zouden ondersteunen niet te horen was. De mist was om 4u.20 nog steeds dicht toen het spervuur van de artillerie geopend werd en de opmars begon.

Deze vroege aanvallen werden in een dichte mist uitgevoerd met infanterie en tanks die zich naar men hoopte in de goede richting voortbewogen. Het eerste doelwit werd tegen 7u.30 ingenomen en enkele Duitse stellingen werden gepasseerd en daarna van achteren aangevallen. De meeste Duitse veldartillerie werd onder de voet gelopen en snel overwonnen. Tegen 8u.20 begon de mist op te trekken en namen verse troepen de opmars over. Charles Bean, de officiële Australische historicus, schreef:

Wat later trok de mist volledig op en voor een moment namen alle ogen op het slagveld het verbazingwekkende strijdtoneel op: infanterie in rijen van honderden kleine afdelingscolonnes die allemaal oprukten – met tanks, geweren, batterij na batterij, de teams waren klaar voor de aanval.
Charles Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Canberra, 1948, blz.471

Toen de mist optrok openden Duitse geweren het vuur op de tanks en schakelden er veel van uit, maar de Australische infanterie ging door en liep spoedig de meeste kanonnen onder de voet. Het grootste deel van het uiteindelijke doelwit voor die dag, de oude buitenste linie van de verdedigingswerken van Amiens, werd veroverd. De Canadese en Franse aanvallen waren goed verlopen, net als die van de Australiërs en 25 kilometers van het Duitse front ten zuiden van de Somme werden weggevaagd in een overwinning die alle voorgaande successen van het Britse leger aan het Westelijk Front verreweg overtrof. Er werden meer dan 13.000 Duitsers gevangen genomen en meer dan 200 kanonnen veroverd. De Fransen hadden 3500 soldaten gevangen genomen. Generaal Eric von Ludendorff, de Duitse bevelhebber, schreef later over 8 augustus 1918:

[Het] was de zwarte dag van het Duitse leger in deze oorlog. … Op 8 augustus begon de aftakeling van die vastberaden [Duitse] vechtkracht … Er moet een eind komen aan de oorlog.
Ludendorff, geciteerd door Charles Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Canberra, 1948, blz.473

De opmars werd de volgende dagen voortgezet waarbij de Australiërs Etinehem, Lihons en Proyart innamen. Tijdens het offensief, voornamelijk van 9 tot 12 augustus vielen er 6.000 Australische slachtoffers, gedood en gewond.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/amiens-8-august-1918.html
Zie ook http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/heath-cemetery/index.html
Zie ook "CHAPTER XIII - AMIENS, 8-11 AUGUST 1918", http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/Nicholson/Transcription/Chapter13.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 07 Aug 2010 21:28, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 8th August, 1918

In the early hours of the morning of the 8th of August 1918 a blanket of fog around the river Somme concealed a massive military force which was about to be unleashed. As aircraft flew overhead tens of thousands of troops were on the march and four hundred tanks rumbled forward to the start line with engines throttled low to minimise noise. Two thousand British, Australian, Canadian and French cannon were deployed in a line stretching south-west from Hamel and north to and beyond the Somme.

To the north of the river were two divisions of the British Third Corps to the south four Australian Divisions, two Canadian and on the far right two French Corps. There task was to drive the German army back from Amiens and to inflict a defeat which would further undermine Germany's flagging will to continue the war.

In the line of artillery not far from Hamel were the twelve 18 pounders of the 38th and 39th batteries of the 10th Field Artillery Brigade of the Australian Imperial Force.

Amongst the crews of the 38th was my great-uncle George William Jessop who was then 21 years old. From Launceston Tasmania, George was a talented watercolour painter and sketcher who had been apprentice to a professional artist for four years.Away from home for nearly three years by August 1918, he had followed his older brother Alf into the Australian artillery having served as a cadet before the war. And it had been nearly a year since Alf had died of wounds received in fighting around Ypres. George had, no doubt often thought of him and of his family on the other side of the world. But as the seconds ticked down to Zero hour everyone's mind must have been on the job that had to be done.

Lees verder op http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/eaglesaugust.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The German Army’s Black Day: August 8, 1918

In Military History, there are two key components in effecting a victory. Those elements include: surprise and subtlety. Here, in this historical piece regarding the great World War, the British Victory of August 8, 1918 is explored wherein it is found as far as strategic success, history repeats itself.

The date, August 8, 1918, proved a most victorious day for the British forces in the World War. Although the victory did not serve to cut off the enemy’s communications, or stop the opposing troops, it did disarm the German High Command.

The Kaiser was reported as saying: “I see that we must strike a balance. We are at the end of our resources. The war must be ended.”

Ludendorff demonstrated a similar despondency. His view was stated as follows: “The war would have to be ended.”

In order to understand this loss of German morale as of August 8, 1918, termed by Ludendorff, later, as “the black day of the German army,” it may be best to “reach back” in the archives and review the letter from Foch dated July 12, 1918 regarding his proposal to Haig as to “returning to the offensive.” The correspondence follows:

The first offensive to be launched on the British front should be one starting from the front Festubert-Rebecq, with a view to freeing the Bruay mines and forbidding the communication center of Estaires.

Five days later, Haig responded that he did not see the “advantage in advancing over the flat and marshy region located between Rebecq and Festubert,” and, thus, made the following suggestion (in his correspondence):

The operation in my opinion, which is of the highest importance and which I proposed to you as before, should be executed as soon as possible, is to push forward the Allied front to the east and southeast of Amiens so as to free that town and railway. The best way to carry out this object is to make a combined Franco-British operation, the French attacking south of Moreuil and the British north of the Luce.

To realize this project, I am preparing plans secretly for an offensive north of the Luce, direction east… In liaison with this project the French forces should, in my opinion, carry out an operation between Moreuil and Montdidier…

(As you can see), the letter brought forth from the archives provides insight on several areas of post-war controversy.

The first insight is that the origin of the offensive was conceptually British. Additionally, the focus was narrow; meaning the offensive “narrowly” entailed securing for Amiens and the railway a higher margin of safety.

Historically, it is debated whether the “true” idea originated with the Commander-in-Chief, Haig, or from Fourth Army Commander Rawlinson.

http://socyberty.com/history/the-german-armys-black-day-august-8-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8th August, 1918 by Will Longstaff, Australian official war artist.

Depicts a scene during the Battle of Amiens. The view is towards the west, looking back towards Amiens. A column of German prisoners of war being led into captivity. Meanwhile horse-drawn artillery are advancing to the east.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:8th_August_1918_(Will_Longstaff).jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

5th Battalion Gordon Highlanders

Diary for 8th August [1918] - "The Bn detrained at Tincques and then marched up to Izel-Le-Hameau arriving at 8 a.m. After a wash and a brush up the Bn lined the streets pending the arrival of H.M. The King who was motoring through. 44th Highland Brigade were all present and cheered him heartily as he passed."

http://gordonhighlanders.carolynmorrisey.com/CasualtiesAug1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bernard Sidney GORDON

Military Medal

'On the 8th August, 1918, during the attack east of HAMEL, Private GORDON single handed attacked a machine gun crew which was holding up his section. He killed the crew and captured the gun. Later on in the day he stalked and killed an enemy sniper. Throughout the operation he displayed much bravery and devotion to duty.'

Source: 'Commonwealth Gazette' No. 61, 23 May 1919

http://www.aif.adfa.edu.au:8080/showPerson?key=GORDON/BS/23
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Amiens, 18 Aout [August] 1918

Train of the Amiens gun, near Amiens, France, 1918. Haig (front left) and other Allied leaders looking at some piece of machinery taken from the train from which the famous Amiens gun had been used by the Germans to fire on the city of Amiens from a distance of about 16 miles (25 kilometres). The gun, originally a naval gun, had been mounted on a railway carriage.

The Amiens gun had been put out of action by the Royal Air Force on 8 August 1918 and then captured by the Australian infantry. The barrel of the gun is still displayed in Canberra, Australia, at the Australian War Memorial.

[Original reads: 'Train de la piece allemande de 280 sur voie ferre prise par les Australians. Amiens, 18 Aout 1918.']

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nlscotland/4687895629/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NSDAP

1920 August 8 - Hitler receives permission to rename the German Workers Party (DAP) -- it now becomes the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). It seems more than coincidential that it is so similar to Dr. Walter Riehl's German National Socialist Workers Party (DNSAP) in Austria.

http://www.humanitas-international.org/showcase/chronography/timebase/1920tbse.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In oorlogsnood - Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918

zaterdag 8 Augustus '14
Er zijn nu altijd soldaten te zien: in lange reeksen, met honderden en honderden, het geweer op den schouder, den ransel op den rug, trekken ze op in de heete zon, naar 't exercitieplein toe. Ze moeten gedrild worden om de leemten voor de kanonnen te vullen. Ze kennen nog niet veel van den dienst. 's Avonds zitten ze op de banken langs de lanen of voor de koffiehuizen; ze koopen dagbladen aan de wachthokjes van de trams. Ze loopen al lezendoorsp.: lezen daarin op de straat, rooken, praten ondereen.
Het zijn allemaal vrijwilligers.
Aan den afgeronden hoek van het café "De Karpel" zitten twee heeren bij een tafeltje.
Een wandelaar, die een wijle aan 't winkelraam draalt daarnaast, op het voetpad, hoort wat de een aan den anderen mededeelt:
"De jonge graaf Steenhert de Groebeke is als vrijwilliger opgetrokken met zooveel andere adellijken."
"Mijn zoon ook," is het antwoord.
"Welhoe, die knappe jongen, die een week geleden bij 't afleggen van zijn eindexamen de hoogste onderscheiding kreeg!"
Sprakeloos bewogen knikt de vader den spreker herhaaldelijk toe.
"Die jongen, waarop gij reden hadt zoo fier te wezen!" klinkt het ontzet en medelijdend.
"Nu ben ik dubbel fier op hem," antwoordt de vader. Zijn ontroering is overwonnen. Zich vermannend richt hij de borst op.
Ginder komt een deels ontladen bierwagen de steile Citadellaan afgehold. De paarden schijnen te vliegen over het plaveisel. Twee voerders zitten hoog op den bok. De lange zweep kletst snijdend door de lucht. Het lijkt op een triomftocht, zoudt ge zeggen...
Maar... aan den ommedraai springen drie gendarmen toe, vlak voor het gespan. De paarden verschrikken steigerend achteruit en zijds weg.
Met sterke vuisten worden ze bij den breidel vastgegrepen, losgehaakt van den wagen en met een wit lint elk over den nek geslingerd — het emblema van berechtigde inbezitneming — weggeleid.
Alles is het werk van enkele oogenblikken geweest.
Verslagen staan de van den bok gestegen biervoerders bij hun achtergelaten wagen, hoofdschuddend elkander en de verbaasde menschen om hen heen aan te staren. En hij, die 't heeft mede gehoord en gezien, zet zijn weg voort in de richting van de Kortrijksche straat.

http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1914-08-08.htm#d_1914-08-08entry1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Strijd om Luik van 5 augustus tot 16 augustus 1914

De Houwitsers Moeten Komen - Zaterdag 8 augustus 1914

Toen Ludendorff rapport uitbracht bleek dat nog geen enkel fort van Luik was gevallen. De Duitsers konden niet verder als de forten niet waren veroverd. Verschillende aanvallen op de forten werden uitgevoerd maar niets leek te helpen. Ook het gebruikte geschut worp geen vruchten af tegen het beton van de forten. Door dit alles raakte de Duitsers in tijdnood. Zij hadden nog een week om de forten te veroveren want dan zou de sterke rechtervleugel van het Schlieffenplan zijn opmars uiterlijk moeten beginnen. Ludendorffs advies was de forten te vernietigen met het zwaarste Duitse geschut. Na op acht augustus toch fort Barchon te hebben veroverd werd een pauze van enkele dagen ingelast om het zware geschut naar Luik te krijgen.

Voor de derde mogelijkheid voor de verovering van Luik werd nu opdracht gegeven.
Hiervoor hadden de Duitsers de Oostenrijkse Skoda 305 mm en de Dikke Bertha 420mm van Krupp klaar staan. Dit zeer zware geschut werd hier voor de eerste keer ingezet en was bij de geallieerden toen nog onbekend.
Generaal Leman schijnt er wel van op de hoogte zijn geweest dat zijn forten niet bestand zouden zijn tegen deze zware Duitse kanonnen. Hij hoopte echter dat de Duitsers dit geschut naar Frankrijk zouden dirigeren.

Lees verder op http://www.ssew.nl/strijd-om-luik-5-augustus-tot-16-augustus-1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

8 augustus 1914 - “Uw kaart deed ons groot genoegen. Nu weten we weer dat ge toch nog altijd gezond zijt. Onze gedachten zijn gedurig bij u en onze Karel. Wij bidden maar veel voor u beiden opdat ge weer gezond moogt terugkeren, meer kunnen we niet doen. Hier helpen we elkander zo goed we kunnen.” (Adriaan en Trees Huybrechts van het Lipseinde in Zondereigen aan hun broer Cornelis Huybrechts, soldaat 6de linieregiment fortresse, 2de Divisie 4de bataljon, 1ste compagnie, Kapellen)

8 augustus 1914 - “De Tilburgse Kermis is dit jaar wegens oorlogsgevaar afgelast.” (Tilburgse Courant)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=187:05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hugh Gibson: "A Journal from Our Legation in Belgium."

Brussels, August 8, 1914.---To-day our new organisation is working like clockwork. In Cruger's formerly calm chancery there are five typewriters pounding away, and at the committee rooms there are swarms of people working to take care of odds and ends. Monsieur de Leval has a table at one side of my room, and the committee relieves us of the people who want information and those who want to talk.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/Legation/Gibson2.htm
Inhoudsopgave: http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/Legation/GibsonTC.htm#TC
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 07 Aug 2010 22:13, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Barchon, een herbewapend fort

In 1888 gebouwd, naar de plannen van Brialmont was het fort van Barchon, samen met Pontisse, het meest noordelijke gelegen. Op 8 augustus 1914 zou het zich als eerste overgeven, naar aanleiding van problemen van de bevelvoering en het dreigende verstikkingsgevaar van het garnizoen na slechts enkele uren vechten.

http://fortbarchon.community.officelive.com/default.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sari Bair: The 7th Gloucestershires at Chunuk Bair, 8th August 1915
Professor Peter Simkins

http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/2/gallipoli/pdf_files/gloster.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

8 augustus 1916 - Voor heel wat opschudding zorgde de tragische dood van een student aan het Klein-Seminarie van Hoogstraten, de 17-jarige Jan Jozef Van Der Kelen uit St.-Kwintens-Lennik. Hij wou tijdens het schoolverlof naar Enge­land vluchten om zich bij zijn ouders te vervoegen. Hij was er omstreeks 15.00 u. (zoals het Wortelse overlijdensregister stipuleert) al in geslaagd om ter hoogte van de boerderij van Louis Meyvis aan het kapelletje van Minderhout, via een slootje, onder de versperringen door te geraken. Toch werd hij, toen hij zich al bijna 100 meter op het grondge­bied van Castelré bevond, in het hoofd geschoten door een Duitse soldaat. Hij overleed ter plaatse. Zijn stof­felijk overschot werd te Wortel begraven, waar zijn graf tot de Duitsers dit verboden gere­geld van vers geplukte bloemen werd voorzien door dorpsbe­woners. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI. Vol. 153, August 8, 1917.

Charlie Chaplin, says a message from Chicago, has not joined the U.S. Army. He excuses himself on the ground that Mr. Pemberton-Billing, who is much funnier, is not in khaki.

A woman told the Lambeth magistrate that her husband had not spoken to her for six weeks. It is a great tribute to the humanity of our magistrates that the poorer people should go to them with their joys as well as their sorrows.

A man who was seen carrying a grandfather clock through the streets of Willesden has been arrested. It seems to be safer, as well as more convenient, to carry a wrist-watch.

"I should like to give you a good licking, but the law won't allow me," said Mr. Bankes, K.C., the new magistrate for West London, in fining a lad for cruelty to a horse. The discovery that even magistrates have to forgo their simple pleasures in these times made a profound impression upon the boy.

A German shell which passed through a Church Army Hut was found to have been stamped with the initials "C.A." in its passage through the building. The clerk, whose duty it is to attend to matters of this kind, has been reprimanded for not adding the date.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11910/11910-h/11910-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender
Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?


8 augustus 1914 - Vertrek vanuit Rotterdam van het nieuwe ss. 'Nieuw Amsterdam' van de Holland-Amerika Lijn, onder kapitein J. Baron voor de eerste reis naar New York, direct na het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Aan boord bevinden zich 1662 passagiers.

8 augustus 1917 - Bij Koninklijk Besluit vindt de instelling van het korps vliegtuigmakers plaats ten behoeve van de oprichting van de Marine Luchtvaartdienst, tien dagen later op 18 augustus 1917.

8 augustus 1917 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Thalia' van de KNSM, op weg van Bissao naar Rotterdam met een lading grondnoten, strandt tijdens dichte mist op Gran Canaria (Canarische Eilanden). Het schip weet op eigen kracht weer los te komen en met beperkte schade IJmuiden te bereiken.

http://www.scheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=8&d=8
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Shane Leslie to Lady Randolph Churchill, August 8, 1917

David Lloyd George became Prime Minister in 1916. He had worked with Churchill since 1904. In July 1917 Churchill was brought out of the "political wilderness" and made Minister for Munitions. This clearly pleased Churchill's cousin, Shane Leslie, who wrote to Lady Randolph from Vermont expressing his pleasure and remarking that Americans looked "on Winston as 7/8 Yankee and 1/8 Blenheim."

August 8, 1917 St. Johnsbury, Vermont

My dear Aunt Jane

We are equally glad and surprised at Winston's return to office. It shows that he was built for success that he should have declined to withdraw and sulk over a superficial failure. In America the conviction is that his big strategy over Antwerp and Gallipoli was right but that he was ill served. If either expeditions had succeeded the war would now be over.

The reappointment to office has pleased Americans who look on Winston as 7/8 Yankee and 1/8 Blenheim! It is a pledge that senility has not the last say in everything.

Meantime a good deal is happening here. Wilson is playing a strong silent game in which he is not to be bothered by peripatetic journalist or arbitrary ministers. Everything he says is weighed and weighted with due care of the very difficult circumstances of the United States. For instance when he says he is making war on the German Government and not on the German people, he means it, because a very considerable body of the German people live in America and propose to fight that Government. Bourke in his great speech last week welcoming the Belgian mission to Boston worked out the President's meaning with care. I enclose a copy of his speech which will interest Winston and I should like to be able to pass on Winston's comment. There is nobody in this whole country now, except the mute and inglorious Bryan, who can rouse the American crowd to a frenzy of tears and emotion like Bourke. He is the only orator in America who can pick up a mob of 10,000 people in the open air and sway them to and fro. He has been consistent too in his championship of small nations. His three great orations have been for the Americans, the Irish and the Belgians.

I enclose the draft list of New York marking the Irish and German names. It looks as though an Irish-German contingent will come to the rescue of England. I should like Winston to see a article of mine in the Dublin Review for July on the American question--

Ever yours affec

Shane Leslie

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/interactive/_html/wc0073.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U-Boten, Q-Schepen, obussen en torpedo's: het verhaal van UC-71
Tomas TERMOTE

Op slechts een halve mijl van de zuid-ingang tot Helgoland, een klein eiland 50 km ten noorden van de Jade rivier, rust een onderzeeboot uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Onderzoekers van het U-Boot Archief Cuxhaven kregen de unieke gelegenheid om dit stukje geschiedenis te beduiken en te identificeren. Het betrof een UC-II klasse mijnenlegger die in de laatste oorlogsjaren van Wereldoorlog I bekendheid zou verwerven bij de Flandernflottille. Het zou om de voorlaatste boot van Kapitänleutnant Reinhold Satzwedel gaan, namelijk UC-71.

In de vroege uren van 8 augustus 1917 kwam kapitein Gordon Campbell op de brug van zijn gewapend vrachtschip Dunraven om de wacht van de eerste officier af te lossen. De Dunraven was één van de vele nieuwe experimenten van de Britse marine. Het ging hier namelijk om een gevreesd Q-schip. Vanaf 1916 bestreden vermomde en zwaar bewapende Q-schepen de U-boten. Alle mogelijke scheepsvormen werden aangewend, gaande van vissersschepen en houten klippers tot logge vrachtschepen. Hun belangrijkste troef was het onschuldig uitzicht van het schip. Er werd een valse naam en thuishaven op de boeg en het hek aangebracht. Achter dekladingen, valse opbouw en sloepen stond geschut van alle mogelijke kalibers, bemand met kanonniers van de Royal Navy.

Lees verder op http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/u-boot.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Texelsche Courant, 08-08-1917

http://www.beeldbanktexel.nl/index.php?option=com_pdpkranten&Itemid=99999999&task=result&o=428
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles White Whittlesey

(...) Op 8 augustus 1917, de Verenigde Staten namen al officieel deel aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog, werd Whittlesey opgeroepen. Hij diende zich te melden in Camp Upton, Long Island. In Camp Upton werd hij drie maanden getraind en ontving hij zijn commissie van de OCS (Officers’ Candidate School), alvorens zijn eenheid werd verscheept naar Europa. (...)

Lees verder op http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=21714
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Aug 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The morning of Aug.8th 1918. German prisoners just taken, returning in charge of a single Australian past their own burning dug-outs

Photo caption from AWM: "German prisoners, just captured, hurrying past Susan Wood, in fear of the fire of their own artillery north of the Somme, which could see them from an observation balloon as they topped the hill. The smoke is from Howitzer ammunition set on fire by the German gunners before retiring."

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationalmediamuseum/3007145371/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2011 6:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUGUST 8, 1914

The Belgian Front.
==The first of the Liège forts falls: Fort Barchon to the northeast capitulates after intense shelling [400.PM]
==Germany prematurely announces that the entire fortified Liège complex has been taken
==King Albert warns French Foreign Minister Berthelot that the main German blow is apparently coming through Flanders and that the Belgian Army may have to withdraw to Antwerp - the preoccupied French pay no attention

The Northwestern Front.
==French 5th Army Chief of Staff d’Oissel visits GQG to voice his concerns of a German offensive through Belgium - Joffre ignores the threat

Alsace.
==The French occupy Mulhouse in Alsace without resistance [afternoon]

French Headquarters (GQG).
==Joffre issues Order #1, instructing his right wing to attack into Lorraine, followed by his center and left driving toward Thionville


===> http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2014 6:20    Onderwerp: Wat gebeurde er op 8 augustus 1914? Reageer met quote

Wat gebeurde er op 8 augustus 1914?

De Luikse forten kreunen onder het Duitse geschut. Dikke Bertha's worden aangevoerd. Welke feiten halen nog het nieuws?

http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140730_01197656
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Aug 2014 6:20    Onderwerp: Wat gebeurde er op 8 augustus 1914? Reageer met quote

Wat gebeurde er op 8 augustus 1914?

De Luikse forten kreunen onder het Duitse geschut. Dikke Bertha's worden aangevoerd. Welke feiten halen nog het nieuws?

http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140730_01197656
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