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6 augustus

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2006 12:26    Onderwerp: 6 augustus Reageer met quote

1915 Allies land at Suvla Bay, Gallipoli

On the evening of August 6, 1915, Allied forces commanded by Sir Frederick Stopford land at Suvla Bay, on the Aegean Sea, to launch a fresh attack against Turkish and German forces on the Gallipoli Peninsula during World War I.

The landing at Suvla Bay was part of the larger “August Offensive,” which was an attempt by the Allied forces to break through the Turkish and German lines to take command of the Gallipoli Peninsula. The large-scale Allied land invasion of Gallipoli had begun the previous April 25, after an attempted naval attack on the Dardanelles failed miserably.

On August 6, Hamilton attempted to reinvigorate the Allied campaign with an offensive push from positions of the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) against the Turks at Sari Bair ridge. The simultaneous landing of troops at Suvla Bay, to the north of Sari Bair, was intended as a supporting attack, but when the ANZAC attacks failed, Hamilton presented the Suvla Bay landings as the principal thrust of the offensive.

At Suvla Bay, British troops of the 10th, 11th and 53rd Divisions in Gallipoli were under the command of General Stopford, an officer nearing retirement, whose previous service was limited to a ceremonial post in London. German commander Liman von Sanders had received a warning from Berlin about a possible Allied attack in early August and had previously dispatched some Turkish and German divisions to protect the most likely targets. After the landing, British troops quickly secured the local hills but Stopford’s inexperience and the delay of his orders allowed time for General von Sanders to send reinforcements to recover lost ground, inflicting more than 12,000 Allied casualties in the process.

When Turkish snipers and artillerymen took the high ground in positions above the Allied troops on the peninsula, the British lost any chance to regain the upper hand. An easy scapegoat for the failure of Hamilton’s planned attacks, General Stopford was relieved of his command of the division on August 15, 1914; General Sir Henry de Beauvoir de Lisle succeeded him. In total, the Allies suffered nearly 20,000 casualties during the landings at Suvla Bay.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2006 12:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 6. August

1914
Kaiser Wilhelm II. an Heer und Marine
Der Kaiser an das deutsche Volk
Aufruf der Kaiserin an die deutschen Frauen
Österreichs Kriegserklärung an Rußland
Patriotische Kundgebungen in Österreich
Deutsche Erfolge
Das serbische Parlament
Vom belgischen Kriegsschauplatz
Wechsel im englischen Ministerium

1915
Die Russen beschießen Warschau
Ein italienisches Luftschiff heruntergeschossen
Versenkung eines italienischen Unterseebootes

1916
Neue heftige Kämpfe rechts der Maas
Ein italienisches Luftschiff vor Lissa verbrannt

1917
Neue englische Vorstöße in Flandern abgewiesen
Fliegerangriff auf Dünamünde und die Insel Oesel

1918
Feindliche Angriffe am Vesle-Abschnitt gescheitert

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/#chronik
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jayhellcat



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jun 2009 20:01    Onderwerp: 6 augustus 1914 Reageer met quote

6 augustus 1914:

- Fortengordel rond Luik: de Duitse infanterie begint een stormaanval op het gebied tussen het fort Boncelles en de Ourthe, maar wordt terug geslagen.
- Fortengordel rond Luik: de Duitse veertiende brigade onder leiding van Ludendorff valt het gebied aan tussen het fort Evegnée en het fort Fléron waarbij de ruiterij weet door te dringen tot nabij de stad. Ze worden teruggedrongen door Belgische reserves. Niettemin weet de 14de brigade een doorbraak te forceren als het rond 14u in Queue-du-Bois de hoogte van La Chartreuse weet te bereiken.

bron: www.fortbarchon.be/
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Yvonne
Admin


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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2009 13:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vandaag 95 jaar geleden
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Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 August 1914

War declared Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. Serbia & Montenegro declare war on Germany
http://homepage.eircom.net/~tipperaryfame/wwar1001.htm

Austria - Hungary declares war on Russia. Serbia declares war on Germany
http://computasaur.tripod.com/ww1/id3.html

Serbia declares war on Germany; Austria declares war on Russia. World War I begins.
Denis Patrick Dowd Jr. enlists in the Franch Foregin Legion, becoming the first American to fight in World War I.
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20060806055059AAayX1V
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Aug 2010 17:25, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archive, 6 August 1914: Lord Kitchener to be Secretary for War
Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 6 August 1914


It was officially announced last night that Field Marshal Lord Kitchener has been offered and has accepted the post of Secretary of State for War. The following statement was issued at 10, Downing Street, last night:—

In consequence of the pressure of other duties the Prime Minister has been compelled to give up the office of Secretary of State for War. The King has approved of the appointment of Lord Kitchener as his successor.

Lord Kitchener undertakes the duties of the office for the time being in view of the emergency created by the war and his post in Egypt will be kept open.

A popular appointment

FROM OUR POLITICAL CORRESPONDENT

LONDON, WEDNESDAY NIGHT

The report that Lord Kitchener would become Secretary for War has been current for some time, and it is known that the idea has been favourably entertained in Ministerial quarters.

The circumstances are exceptional, and Lord Kitchener's appointment would only last during the course of the war. Even if this were not desirable from the point of view of the Government's interest in maintaining civil control, it would obviously be to the interests of Lord Kitchener himself, who could hardly wish to be embarrassed with the questions of home politics which will reassert themselves when peace has been obtained.

Meantime his appointment as Secretary of State cannot fail to give the highest gratification to the mass of English people and to our allies on the Continent. It will also free the Prime Minister from an arduous part of the double duty which he has borne now for four months.

Tomorrow afternoon a statement will have to be made on military affairs, because it is the intention of the Government to ask for a supplementary estimate for a quarter of a million additional men. Two hundred thousand of these are represented by the Reserve and Special Reserve; fifty thousand are estimated as the result of the rush for recruiting.

Council of war in Downing Street

Field Marshal Earl Kitchener, Field Marshal Sir John French, General Sir J. Grierson, Sir Alfred Codrington, and several other general officers met at 10, Downing Street at four o'clock yesterday afternoon for a military council. Shortly after the military officers had arrived Mr. Asquith drove over from the House of Commons, and Mr. Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty, with Prince Louis of Battenberg, the First Sea Lord, and other naval officers also attended.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2010/aug/06/archive-lord-kitchener-to-be-secretary-for-war-1914
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kaiser Wilhelm II: Rede in Berlin, 6 August 1914

An das deutsche Volk

Seit der Reichsgründung ist es durch 43 Jahre Mein und Meiner Vorfahren heißes Vernehmen gewesen, der Welt den Frieden zu erhalten und im Frieden unsere kraftvolle Entwickelung zu fördern. Aber die Gegner neiden uns den Erfolg unserer Arbeit.

Alle offenkundige und heimliche Feindschaft von Ost und West, von jenseits der See haben wir bisher ertragen im Bewußtsein unserer Verantwortung und Kraft. Nun aber will man uns demütigen. Man verlangt, daß wir mit verschränkten Armen zusehen, wie unsere Feinde sich zu tückischem Überfall rüsten, man will nicht dulden, daß wir in entschlossener Treue zu unserem Bundesgenossen stehen, der um sein Ansehen als Großmacht kämpft und mit dessen Erniedrigung auch unsere Macht und Ehre verloren ist.

Es muß denn das Schwert entscheiden. Mitten im Frieden überfällt uns der Feind. Darum auf! zu den Waffen! Jedes Schwanken, jedes Zögern wäre Verrat am Vaterlande.

Um Sein oder Nichtsein unseres Reiches handelt es sich, das unsere Väter neu sich gründeten.

Um Sein oder Nichtsein deutscher Macht und deutschen Wesens.

Wir werden uns wehren bis zum letzten Hauch von Mann und Roß. Und wir werden diesen Kampf bestehen auch gegen eine Welt von Feinden. Noch nie ward Deutschland überwunden, wenn es einig war.

Vorwärts mit Gott, der mit uns sein wird, wie er mit den Vätern war.


Beluister de man op http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ientIq9uUI
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Prime Minister's Address to Parliament, 6 August 1914

Reproduced below is the text of the speech given to the British Parliament by Prime Minister Herbert Asquith.

Given on 6 August 1914 - two days after Britain entered the war against Germany in defence of Belgium - Asquith recounted the background to the outbreak of general war in Europe in July/August 1914, placing great emphasis on the efforts of the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, to secure continued peace in the face of German aggression.

Asquith finished his speech by stating that Britain would throw her entire Empire's resources into the struggle against Germany in order to ensure victory.

British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith's Address to Parliament, 6 August 1914

With the utmost reluctance and with infinite regret, His Majesty's Government have been compelled to put this country in a state of war with what for many years and indeed generations past has been a friendly Power.

The Papers which have since been presented to Parliament will, I think, show how strenuous, how unremitting, how persistent, even when the last glimmer of hope seemed to have faded away, were the efforts of my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary (note: Sir Edward Grey) to secure for Europe an honourable and a lasting peace.

Every one knows in the great crisis which occurred last year in the East of Europe, it was largely, if not mainly, by the acknowledgment of all Europe, due to the steps taken by my right hon. Friend that the area of the conflict was limited, and that so far as the great Powers are concerned, peace was maintained.

If his efforts upon this occasion have, unhappily, been less successful, I am certain that this House and the country - and I will add posterity and history - will accord to him what is, after all, the best tribute that can be paid to any statesman: that, never derogating for an instant or by an inch from the honour and interests of his own country, he has striven, as few men have striven, to maintain and preserve the greatest interest of all countries - universal peace.

The Papers, which are now in the hands of hon. Members, show something more than that.

They show what were the terms which were offered to us in exchange for our neutrality. I trust that not only the Members of this House, but all our fellow-subjects everywhere will read the communications - will read, learn and mark the communications which passed only a week ago to-day between Berlin and London in this matter.

The terms by which it was sought to buy our neutrality are contained in the communication made by the German Chancellor to Sir Edward Goschen on the 29th July. I think I must refer to them for a moment. After alluding to the state of things as between Austria and Russia, Sir Edward Goschen goes on:

"He [the German Chancellor] then proceeded to make the following strong bid for British neutrality. He said that it was clear, so far as he was able to judge the main principle which governed British policy, that Great Britain would never stand by and allow France to be crushed in any conflict there might be.

That, however, was not the object at which Germany aimed. Provided that neutrality of Great Britain were certain, every assurance would be given to the British Government that the Imperial Government"


Let the Committee observe these words:

"aimed at no territorial acquisition at the expense of France should they prove victorious in any war that might ensue."

Sir Edward Goschen proceeded to put a very pertinent question:- "I questioned His Excellency about the French colonies".

What are the French colonies? They mean every part of the dominions and possessions of France outside the geographical area of Europe - "and he said that he was unable to give a similar undertaking in that respect."

Let me cone to what, in my mind, personally has always been the crucial and almost the governing consideration, namely, the position of the small States:

"As regards Holland, however, His Excellency said that so long as Germany's adversaries respected the integrity and neutrality of the Netherlands, Germany was ready to give His Majesty's Government an assurance that she would do likewise."

Then we come to Belgium:-

"It depended upon the action of France what operations Germany might he forced to enter upon in Belgium, but, when the war was over, Belgian integrity would be respected if she had not sided against Germany."

Let the Committee observe the distinction between those two cases. In regard to Holland it was not only independence and integrity, but also neutrality; but in regard to Belgium, there was no mention of neutrality at all, nothing but an assurance that after the war came to an end the integrity of Belgium would be respected.

Then His Excellency added: "Ever since he had been Chancellor the object of his policy had been to bring about an understanding with England. He trusted that these assurances" - the assurances I have read out to the House - "might form the basis of that understanding which he so much desired."

What does that amount to? Let me just ask the Committee. I do so, not with the object of inflaming passion, certainly not with the object of exciting feeling against Germany, but I do so to vindicate and make clear the position of the British Government in this matter.

What did that proposal amount to? In the first place, it meant this: That behind the back of France - they were not made a party to these communications - we should have given, if we had assented to that, a free license to Germany to annex, in the event of a successful war, the whole of the extra European dominions and possessions of France.

What did it mean as regards Belgium? When she addressed, as she has addressed in these last few days, her moving appeal to us to fulfil our solemn guarantee of her neutrality, what reply should we have given? What reply should we have given to that Belgian appeal?

We should have been obliged to say that, without her knowledge, we had bartered away to the Power threatening her our obligation to keep our plighted word.

The House has read, and the country has read, of course, in the last few hours, the most pathetic appeal addressed by the King of Belgium, and I do not envy the man who can read that appeal with an unmoved heart. Belgians are fighting and losing their lives. What would have been the position of Great Britain to-day, in the face of that spectacle, if we had assented to this infamous proposal?

Yes, and what are we to get in return for the betrayal of our friends and the dishonour of our obligations? What are we to get in return? A promise - nothing more; a promise as to what Germany would do in certain eventualities; a promise, be it observed - I am sorry to have to say it, but it must be put upon record - given by a Power which was at that very moment announcing its intention to violate its own treaty and inviting us to do the same.

I can only say, if we had dallied or temporized, we, as a Government, should have covered ourselves with dishonour, and we should have betrayed the interests of this country, of which we are trustees.

I am glad, and I think the country will be glad, to turn to the reply which my right hon. Friend made, and of which I will read to the Committee two of the more salient passages. This document, No. 101 of the Papers, puts on record a week ago the attitude of the British Government, and, as I believe, of the British people.

My right hon. Friend says:

"His Majesty's Government cannot for a moment entertain the Chancellor's proposal that they should bind themselves to neutrality on such terms. What he asks us in effect is to engage to stand by while French Colonies are taken if France is beaten, so long as Germany does not take French territory as distinct from the Colonies. From the material point of view -"

My right lion. Friend, as he always does, used very temperate language:

"- Such a proposal is unacceptable, for France, without further territory in Europe being taken from her, could be so crushed as to lose her position as a Great Power, and become subordinate to German policy."

That is the material aspect. But he proceeded:-

"Altogether, apart from that, it would be a disgrace for us to make this bargain with Germany at the expense of France, a disgrace from which the good name of this country would never recover. The Chancellor also in effect asks us to bargain away whatever obligation or interest we have as regards the neutrality of Belgium. We could not entertain that bargain either."

He then says:- "We must preserve our full freedom to act, as circumstances may seem to us to require."

And he added, I think in sentences which the Committee must appreciate:-

"You should... add most earnestly that the one way of maintaining the good relations between England and Germany is that they should continue to work together to preserve the peace of Europe... For that object this Government will work in that way with all sincerity and goodwill.

"If the peace of Europe can be preserved and the present crisis safely passed, my own endeavour will be to promote some arrangement to which Germany could be a party, by which she could be assured that no aggressive or hostile policy would be pursued against her or her allies by France, Russia, and ourselves, jointly or separately.

"I have desired this and worked for it" - the statement was never more true - "as far as I could, through the last Balkan crisis, and Germany having a corresponding object, our relations sensibly improved.

"The idea has hitherto been too Utopian to form the subject of definite proposals, but if this present crisis, so much more acute than any that Europe has gone through for generations, be safely passed, I am hopeful that the relief and reaction which will follow may make possible some more definite rapprochement between the Powers than has been possible hitherto."


That document, in my opinion, states clearly, in temperate and convincing language, the attitude of this Government.

Can any one who reads it fail to appreciate the tone of obvious sincerity and earnestness which underlies it; can any one honestly doubt that the Government of this country in spite of great provocation - and I regard the proposals made to us as proposals which we might have thrown aside without consideration and almost without answer can any one doubt that in spite of great provocation the right hon. Gentleman, who had already earned the title and no one ever more deserved it - of "Peace Maker of Europe," persisted to the very last moment of the last hour in that beneficent but unhappily frustrated purpose?

I am entitled to say, and I do so on behalf of this country - I speak not for a party, I speak for the country as a whole - that we made every effort any Government could possibly make for peace.

But this war has been forced upon us. What is it we are fighting for? Every one knows, and no one knows better than the Government, the terrible, incalculable suffering, economic, social, personal and political, which war, and especially a war between the Great Powers of the world, must entail.

There is no man amongst us sitting upon this bench in these trying days - more trying perhaps than any body of statesmen for a hundred years have had to pass through - there is not a man amongst us who has not, during the whole of that time, had clearly before his vision the almost unequalled suffering which war, even in a just cause, must bring about, not only to the people who are for the moment living in this country and in the other countries of the world, but to posterity and to the whole prospects of European civilization.

Every step we took we took with that vision before our eyes, and with a sense of responsibility which it is impossible to describe.

Unhappily, if in spite of all our efforts to keep the peace, and with that full and overpowering consciousness of the result, if the issue be decided in favour of war, we have, nevertheless, thought it to be the duty as well as the interest of this country to go to war, the House may be well assured it was because we believe, and I am certain the country will believe, that we are unsheathing our sword in a just cause.

If I am asked what we are fighting for I reply in two sentences: In the first place, to fulfil a solemn international obligation, an obligation which, if it had been entered into between private persons in the ordinary concerns of life, would have been regarded as an obligation not only of law but of honour, which no self-respecting man could possibly have repudiated.

I say, secondly, we are fighting to vindicate the principle which, in these days when force, material force, sometimes seems to be the dominant influence and factor in the development of mankind, we are fighting to vindicate the principle that small nationalities are not to be crushed, in defiance of international good faith, by the arbitrary will of a strong and overmastering Power.

I do not believe any nation ever entered into a great controversy - and this is one of the greatest history will ever know - with a clearer conscience and a stronger conviction that it is fighting, not for aggression, not for the maintenance even of its own selfish interest, but that it is fighting in defence of principles the maintenance of which is vital to the civilization of the world.

With a full conviction, not only of the wisdom and justice, but of the obligations which lay upon us to challenge this great issue, we are entering into the struggle. Let us now make sure that all the resources, not only of this United Kingdom, but of the vast Empire of which it is the centre, shall be thrown into the scale.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. I, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/asquithspeechtoparliament.htm
Zie ook http://www.gwpda.org/1914/Asquith_1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia

6 August 1914 - Between 5 August and the end of October the first units of the AIF — infantry, engineers, artillery, field ambulances, casualty clearing stations, general hospitals and light horse AIF — were raised throughout Australia. These units were allocated to either the 1st Australian Infantry Division or the 1st and 2nd Light Horse Brigades.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-december-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914 - 6 August

On 6 August, Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia.

German 8th Army troops engaged in skirmishes with the Russians in northern Poland near Thorn, Soldau and Lyck. Russian troops occupied towns in East Prussia. The German 8th Army was supported by Feldfliegerabteilung (flying sections) 14, 15, 16 and 17.

The Union for the Liberation of the Ukraine was founded in Lemberg (Lvov) (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.) The Union had been funded by the Austrians who hoped to foment anti-Russian feelings. It was formed by a group of Ukrainian political émigrés from Russia, in close co-operation with Austrian Ukrainian leaders from Galicia. In late August they moved their headquarters to Vienna.

On 6 August, Serbia declared war on Germany. Turkey closed the Dardanelles Straits to the Allies. The Turkish move stopped any possible Allied supply effort to Russia by way of the Black Sea.

http://warchron.com/eastPrussia.htm + http://warchron.com/russianWarCommand.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 August 1914 → Commons Sitting

VOTE OF CREDIT, £100,000,000.


HC Deb 06 August 1914 vol 65 cc2073-100

[Mr. WHITLEY in the Chair.]

Motion made, and Question proposed, "That a sum, not exceeding £100,000,000, be granted to His Majesty, beyond the ordinary grants of Parliament, towards defraying expenses that may be incurred during the year ending March 31st, 1915, for all measures which may be taken for the security of the country, for the conduct of Naval and Military operations, for assisting the food supply, for promoting the continuance of trade, industry, and business communications, whether by means of insurance or indemnity against risk, or otherwise for the relief of distress, and generally for all expenses arising out of the existence of a state of war."

The PRIME MINISTER (Mr. Asquith) In asking the Committee to agree to the Resolution which Mr. Whitley has just read from the Chair, I do not propose, because I do not think it is in any way necessary, to traverse again the ground which was covered by my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary two or three nights ago. He stated—and I do not think any of the statements he made are capable of answer and certainly have not yet been answered—the grounds upon which, with the utmost reluctance and with infinite regret, His Majesty's Government have been compelled to put this country in a state of war with what for many years and indeed generations past has been a friendly Power. But, Sir, the Papers which have since been presented to Parliament, and which are now in the hands of hon. Members will, I think, show how strenuous, how unremitting, how persistent, even when the last glimmer of hope seemed to have faded away, were the efforts of my right hon. Friend to secure for Europe an honourable and a lasting peace.

Lees zeker verder op http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/aug/06/vote-of-credit-lb100000000
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships

LZ-21

Tactical*: Z VI
Usage: military
First Flight: 8 July 1913

LZ-21 was used by the German army in World War I mainly in Belgium as a bomber. She was damaged beyond repair during a bombing of Liège on 6 August 1914.

* Tactical refers to the airship's tactical designation(s). The Z designation indicates an airship operated by the German army, whereas the L designation indicates an airship operated by the German navy.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abbott, Jane, Diary, 6 August 1914
in An American in Vienna on the Outbreak of the First World War: Jane Abbott’s Diary

August 6th - Don and I started out last Thursday after dinner looking for war sights. We went to the Westbahn and met a company of artillery and some infantry. Later while walking in the Prater we came upon them in camp. It was very interesting to see them get the big loaves of something for the horses, to see the cook carts, small stores on wheels spouting smoke through long stove pipes …, cooking the men’s supper. The horses gathered from everywhere, are untrained. A group of six horses were harnessed to a machine gun with one rider for every two horses, three officers mounted the seat on the carriage and they dashed up and down. At first the forward horse kicked that set the one behind him going. But they were soon lashed into obedience and were dashed about … to draw a machine gun. A few men were training their horses to saddle also. When Don and I decided to leave the people who were watching the interesting maneouvers, Don pulled out my old map of Vienna to see where to leave the Prater to get a car. Instantly a soldier was beside him. “Who are you – what are you doing with a map? What is your business, identify yourself please. In vain Don showed his bank book his receipts for … from doctors etc while I pulled out a visiting card. This last was considered very interesting! And we were told to wait and wait we did for half hour or more, while that old map and my visiting card went to those in authority! An Austrian near us was amused at our attempts to express our feelings in German! It did no good to sputter, and we grinned and bore it until the soldier returned with my bethumbed card and the map. He apologized. He shook hands with Don.

http://hpcanpub.mcmaster.ca/abbott-jane-diary-6-august-1914
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Lone Pine, 1915

The Battle of Lone Pine, along with the Battle of Sari Bair, was planned by Allied regional Commander-in-Chief Sir Ian Hamilton as a diversionary operation intended to shift focus away from the planned Allied landings at Suvla Bay on 6 August 1915.

The attack, launched by Sir William Birdwood's 1st Australian Division of 4,600 men (from 1st, 2nd and 3rd Brigades), was chiefly intended to draw attention away from the key diversionary attack at Sari Bair. It was directed against the so-called 'Lone Pine' position in Turkish hands some 100 metres above Anzac Cove - thus a key target on 6 August 1915 given the planned mass landings intended for Anzac Cove the same day.

Opening on the evening of 6 August at 5.30pm the attack developed into a ferocious hand-to-hand assault ultimately spanning five days. Attacking with the sun at their back (and thus with the sun in the Turkish defenders' eyes) the Australians were astonished to find the Turkish trenches covered with logs and earth.

Effectively brought to a halt while they searched for a means of entering the Turkish trenches, the Turk defenders were presented with point-blank targets; the Australians suffered significant initial casualties, a pattern that continued on both sides.

Having finally gained entrance to the Turk lines via communication trenches, and with the log covers heaved off the front trench by persistent Australian troops, a fierce hand-to-hand battle was conducted, often in virtual darkness. Such was the nature of the fighting that there was often insufficient room to use either bayonet or grenades: instead fighting was conducted using fists and bayonet swords.

Within half an hour - 6pm - the trench line was in Australian hands and the Lone Pine position secured two days later. Wave after wave of diminishing Turkish counter-attacks were subsequently launched, lasting some five days in total.

Casualties were heavy, 10,000 in total (7,000 Turkish, 3,000 Australian). Of these some 9,000 comprised fatalities. The Lone Pine action remains notorious to the present day. Seven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the Australian force as a consequence of fighting at Lone Pine.

Unfortunately for the Allies the attack upon Line Pine proved far less diversionary than intended, for the Turkish reserves drafted in to defend Lone Pine were subsequently better placed to rush to the Sari Bair range once its importance became clearer.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/lonepine.htm
Zie ook http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/vc/lonepine.html
Zie ook http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lone_Pine_trench_6_August_1915.jpg
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Aug 2010 17:50, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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The Battle of Sari Bair, 1915

The Battle of Sari Bair (also known as the Battle of the Nek), launched on 6 August 1915, was timed to coincide with a further major Allied landing of troop reinforcements at Suvla Bay on the Aegean coastline north of Anzac Cove. The battle formed part of Allied Mediterranean Commander-in-Chief Sir Ian Hamilton's three-plank Suvla Offensive.

Aside from the landings at Suvla Bay intended with the aim of securing the Anafarta Hills, a secondary although critical attack from Anzac Cove was planned northwards to seize control of the Sari Bair ridge.

Dual Attack Importance

Success at both Suvla Bay and against Sari Bair was crucial if the Allies were to gain complete control of the central heights of the peninsular. From there the southern peninsular could be cut off and command of the Dardanelles Straits ensured, the Allies principal aim in the region.

The third plank of Hamilton's offensive anticipated a holding attack from Helles intended to pin Turkish forces in the southern peninsular, preventing them from rushing northwards to assist in repelling the Suvla landings.

British Anzac commander William Birdwood had contemplated a move north to the commanding Sari Bair ridge north-east of Anzac Cove since May but had been prevented from doing so by Hamilton's (reasonable) insistence that insufficient Allied resources were available to support the move, particularly given the arrival of Turkish reinforcements to the sector.

However with the promise of three fresh divisions (later expanded to five) courtesy of the British war minister Lord Kitchener, Hamilton resuscitated Birdwood's plan as part of the wider Suvla Offensive.

Sari Bair Plan

Thus the new plan required the movement of two Anzac brigades northwards along the Aegean coast from Anzac Cove, which would then swing east towards the west flank and rear of Sari Bair. Quite aside from the inherent benefits in controlling the ridge - it offered a panoramic view of the surrounding area - its falling into Allied hands would prevent its use by the Turks in preventing the landings at Suvla Bay.

Consequently some 25,000 troops were added to Birdwood's Australian and New Zealand Corps, more than doubling its total to approximately 45,000. An advance from Anzac along the Aegean coast was initiated during the early hours of 6 August by General Godfrey and 22,000 troops, although advance reconnaissance was made difficult through highly effective Turkish sniping.

Allied Setbacks

In spite of the crucial requirement for speedy progress, the advance northwards hit immediate delays amid the maze of ridges, gullies and stiff heat accompanying the operation. The effects of ongoing dysentery also exacted its toll upon Godfrey's men. Consequently his force (which included future Anzac corps commander Sir John Monash) found themselves disastrously short of their first day's objectives - Chunuk Bair ridge and Hill Q - by close of daylight.

Meanwhile a heavy diversionary attack launched from Anzac Cove south towards Lone Pine the same evening resulted in heavy fighting which continued throughout the following day, 7 August, with a number of Turkish trenches falling into Allied hands on 8 August. Seven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the Anzac force as a consequence of hand-to-hand fighting at Lone Pine.

Unfortunately for the Allies the attack upon Line Pine proved far less diversionary than intended, for the Turkish reserves drafted in to defend Lone Pine were subsequently better placed to rush to the Sari Bair range once its importance became clearer.

At the same a further supporting operation southwest of Chunuk Bair (the Nek) ended in failure faced with heavy artillery and smalls arms fire against heavily fortified trenches.

Hamilton had meanwhile made it clear that if necessary the fresh divisions newly-arrived at Suvla Bay were to come to Birdwood's aid in capturing Sari Bair as necessary. However Suvla commander Sir Frederick Stopford's ongoing policy of agonised procrastination left Birdwood waiting in vain for supporting troops. He therefore determined to push onwards towards Sari Bair on 8 August without Stopford's aid.

One of Birdwood's New Zealand brigades consequently managed to seize possession of the crest of Chunuk Bair as its Turkish defenders withdrew, but were subsequently obliged to abandon the position two days later under Turkish artillery bombardment.

Also faring badly was the single Gurkha battalion who attempted to capture Hill Q from the west without the aid of reinforcements. Having forced the Turks off the crest of the Hill they were themselves forced to withdraw following a mistaken Allied naval artillery bombardment.

Meanwhile local Turkish commander Mustafa Kemal (later known as Ataturk - 'Father of the Turks') poured in reinforcements, with the result that two heavy counter-attacks were launched from the commanding height of Chunuk Bair on 10 August.

As a consequence the Allied Gurkha positioned was effectively demolished near Hill Q at 'The Farm' while the New Zealanders managed to hold out - barely.

Allied Failure

The Allied operation at Sari Bair had depended most crucially upon a rapid advance to the Sari Bair ridge in order that Allied troops could consolidate their position upon the ridge's summits. In the event they were denied the opportunity following a series of confused delays, an overall lack of command co-ordination together with the absence of assistance from Stopford's IX Corps at Suvla Bay.

The End of Fighting

Fighting petered out at the close of 10 August with both sides suffering from exhaustion. The undisputed victors however were Kemal's Turkish force. While his troops suffered a heavier burden of casualties - somewhere between 9,000-20,000 as opposed to Birdwood's 12,000 - the latter had not achieved any of his stated aims. Furthermore the failure of the operation brought to an effective end Allied plans to break out of Anzac Cove.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/saribair.htm
Zie ook http://www.nla.gov.au/gallipolidespatches/1-11-sari_bair.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Aug 2010 17:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Attack of the dead, Osovets August 6, 1915

Why say that Russian do not surrender? In 1915, the world looked on with admiration defense Osovtsov, a small Russian fort at 23,5 km from the then East Prussia. The main objective of the fortress was, wrote Party of Defense Osovtsov S. tipsy, "to block the enemy closest and most convenient way to Bialystok ... make your opponent waste time or to conduct a long siege, or to find a detour." Bialystok - the transport unit, taking that paves the way to Vilna (Vilnius), Grodno, Minsk and Brest. So for the Germans through Osovets lay the shortest way to Russia.

Fooling fortress was impossible: it was situated on the banks of the river otters, controlling the whole district, in the vicinity - swamps. "In this area there are almost no roads and little villages, individual households communicate with each other along the rivers, canals and narrow paths - described the terrain edition of People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR already in 1939. - The enemy will not find here no roads, no shelter, no closure, no positions for the artillery. "

The first onslaught of the Germans launched in September 1914: by moving from Konigsberg large caliber guns, they bombarded the fort for six days. A Osovtsov siege began in January 1915 and lasted 190 days.

The Germans used against the fortress of all their latest achievements. Delivered the famous "Big Bertha" - Siege weapons 420-mm caliber, 800-kilogram bombs which cracked the two-meter steel and concrete floors. Funnel of such an explosion was five meters deep and fifteen in diameter.

The Germans had calculated that to force the surrender of the fortress with a garrison of a thousand men only two of these guns, and 24 hours of methodical bombing: 360 rounds every four minutes - a volley. Under Osovets brought four "Big Bertha" and 64 other powerful siege guns, with 17 batteries.

The most terrible bombardment was in the beginning of the siege. "The enemy on Feb. 25 opened fire on the fortress, has brought him 27 and 28 February before the hurricane, and so continued to batter the fortress before March 3," - recalls P. Khmelkov. According to his calculations, this week the horrific bombardment of the fortress was released only 200-250 thousand of heavy shells. And all during the siege - to 400 thousand. "The brick buildings crumbled, wood burning, weak given the huge concrete spalling in the vaults and walls, wire communications were interrupted, damaged road craters, trenches and all the improvements on the shafts, such as - canopies, machine-gun nests, bunkers lungs - have been razed" . Above the fortress hovering clouds of smoke and dust. Together with artillery fort was bombed by German airplanes.

"Terrible was the sight of the fortress, the whole castle was shrouded in smoke, through which it in one or the other place escaped huge tongues of flame from the explosion of shells, pillars of the earth, water and whole trees were flying upwards, the earth trembled, and it seemed that nothing could withstand such a hurricane of fire. The impression was that no one will come out of this whole hurricane of fire and iron "- so wrote the foreign correspondents.

Command, believing that require almost impossible, asked the defenders to hold out at least 48 hours. The fortress was still half a year. But our artillery during the terrible bombing even managed to incite the two "Big Bertha", a thinly veiled opponent. Along the way, and blew up an ammunition dump.

August 6, 1915 the first was for the defenders Osovtsov black day: for the destruction of the garrison the Germans used poison gas. Gas attack they prepared carefully, patiently waiting for the desired wind. Launched 30 gas cells, several thousand bottles. August 6 at 4 am on Russian positions flowed dark-green mist mixture of chlorine and bromine, reached them for 5-10 minutes. Gas Wave 12-15 meters in height and width of 8 km has penetrated to a depth of 20 km. Masks for the defenders was not.

"All living things in the open air at the bridgehead of the fortress was poisoned to death - recalled the party defense. - All the greens in the castle and in the immediate area on the way gas has been destroyed, the leaves on the trees turned yellow, curled up and gone and the grass turned black and fell to the ground, flower petals flew over. All brass items in the bridgehead of the fortress - part of the guns and shells, wash basins, water tanks and so on - were covered with thick green layer of chlorine monoxide, food items stored without hermetic sealing - meat, butter, lard, vegetables were poisonous and unfit for consumption. " "Poisoned trudged back - this is another author - and thirsty, bending to water, but then at the low field gases were delayed, and secondary poisoning led to the death.

Germany re-opened a massive artillery fire, after the barrage and gas clouds to storm the Russian front line moved 14 battalions Landwehr - and it is not less than seven thousand infantry. At best, after the gas attack in the living remained hardly more than a hundred defenders. Doomed Fortress, it seemed, was already in German hands. But when the Germans approached the chain of trenches, from deep-green fog of chlorine on them ... counter-attacked the Russian infantry. The spectacle was appalling: the men went to the bayonet with people wrapped in rags, shaking with a terrible cough, literally spitting out chunks of light on the bloody shirt. These were the remnants of the 13th Company 226 Infantry Regiment Zemlyansky, little more than 60 people. But they plunged the enemy in such terror that Germanic infantry, not taking the battle, rushed back, trampling each other and hanging on our own wire entanglements. And through it with chlorine clouds shrouded Russian batteries began to beat, it seemed, already deceased artillery. Several dozen half-dead Russian soldiers put to flight three Germanic infantry regiment! Nothing like the world the art of war is not known. This battle will go down in history as "attack of the dead.

Osovets Russian troops still left, but later on the orders of command when his defense lost its meaning. The evacuation of the fortress - another example of heroism. Because remove all of the fortress had at night, daytime highway to Grodno was impassable: it constantly bombed by German airplanes. But the enemy did not leave the cartridge or projectile, or even tins of food. Each gun pulled on the straps 30-50 gunners or militias. On the night of August 24, 1915 Russian sappers blew up all that remained of the German fire, and only a few days later, the Germans decided to occupy the ruins.

http://blogs.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.view&friendId=506906978&blogId=523510324
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Bean's despatch dated 24 August on the landing at Suvla Bay

ON GALLIPOLI.
________
HEAVY FIGHTING.
______
THE LANDING AT SUVLA BAY .
______
[From Captain C.E.W. BEAN, Official Reporter with the Australian Expeditionary Force.]

GABA TEPE, Aug. 9.—Since Friday night the battle which started on the Australian right at Anzac with the magnificent capture of the Lonesome Pine trenches by our First Infantry Brigade, has rolled away far to the north.

The battle actually started with the bombardment of Achi Baba and an attack at Cape Helles about 4 o’clock on August 6. Then came the magnificent assault of the 1 st Infantry Brigade on the Lonesome Pine positions at half-past 5 o’clock . This was practically finished two hours later. By half-past 9 o’clock our blow first began to be felt to the north, the New Zealand mounted troops and the Maoris moving out from the extreme north of our line against the strongly entrenched spurs opposite them. Some of these trenches were stubbornly held, but by 11 o’clock the troops had cleared most of them with the bayonet alone. The Maoris are said to have fought excellently.

Other troops were already moving out along the seashore to extend the battle farther north. As these reached certain points they turned inland and plunged into dark, deep, and narrow foothills and gullies. Each column had scouts working a little ahead of it. Every now and then these scouts came across small bodies of the enemy, often fleeing from the attack of the mounted men earlier in the night, or else occupying small outpost trenches or old gun positions from which the Turks have annoyed us during recent months. Shots constantly rang out through the gullies ahead. These were nearly all fired by the enemy, as we used the bayonet almost exclusively during the night. The most northern of these columns, except the British flanking outpost, was the 4 th Australian Infantry Brigade. Next to the south, some Indian troops, and in to the extreme south New Zealand infantry, which last turned not very far north of our position.

The narrowness of the valleys, where sometimes only one could walk at a time, and the contorted shapes of the hills made our progress slow. When the moon rose in the small hours the heads of columns were in the hills and the tails just clearing the flats. Just at dawn, after one of the most concentrated bombardments ever seen here from both ships’ and land guns, the 1 st and 3 rd Light Horse Brigades made a most gallant and desperate attack from the angle of our position against the Turks immediately north of our position, in order to help the New Zealand infantry to get a footing farther north. Daybreak found our troops, the 4 th Australian Infantry Brigade, digging themselves in, with deep gullies between them and the Indians south of them, who were also digging themselves in. Across the fields of a solitary farm, which is a conspicuous landmark on the scrub-covered slopes, were the New Zealanders, farther south again.

The Turks had managed to bring shrapnel to bear on our troops as they worked up the valleys. That was the position practically all Saturday. In the meantime the battle had extended much farther north still in the early hours of Saturday morning.

Eight hours after the battle first began to spread from the south, the British force made a fresh landing at Suvla Bay , about four miles north of Anzac. About 3 o’clock on Saturday morning the sound of their rifles could be heard from the north of our lines. All that day troops could be seen landing, with Turkish shrapnel bursting over the beach and the low hills near it. By the next morning, however, we noticed that the Turkish shell was bursting over a hill, on a plain to the northward from which a battery of Turkish guns had for nearly four months played on Anzac.

That was the position yesterday. Early this morning, after another bombardment lasting about an hour, all directed to the northwards, another fierce battle began, which, to judge by firing, has continued fiercely ever since. Our warships are firing constantly, and the rattle of musketry is absolutely continuous.

(Copyright Reserved by the Crown.)

http://www.nla.gov.au/gallipolidespatches/transcripts/aus-vn1564333-24x.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 17:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - AUGUST 1915

6th August 1915 Friday
Shifted camp today. - No. 15 Stationary Hospital, 200 Enteric cases here. Sick men coming in tonight tell us that the Australians have taken some trenches and that the Turks counter attacked in mass at dawn this morning.
2,000 Tommies have landed at Anzac and are going to make an attack on 971 tomorrow.
Heavy bombing going on day.
Splitting sick headache today and when we got up to No.15, found we were put on a milk diet, bread and milk.

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/aug1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 18:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friday 6th August 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

(Battle of Lone Pine)-‘The noise of very heavy rifle fire and machine gun fire disturbed us about 5.30am followed but the sharp reports of our field guns, we soon realized that the enemy was attacking in force the system of trenches captured from them last Sunday morning in front of Tasmania Post, their attack failed altogether in the first instance, and they never made any very determined effort afterwards. Our own casualties were very light but the enemy seems to have suffered rather heavily. Thousands of fresh troops are camped in all the gullies that offer any shelter, they have been lading during the dark hours of the night for the past week and the small area in our possession seems unduly crowded at present. At midday B section had orders to be prepared to move at 3.30pm, that involved each man sewing a white band 4 inches deep on each arm above the elbow and a patch 6 inches square on the back of the tunic. These are intended as identification marks for our artillery observers and a precaution against our own troops being fired upon by our artillery when the advance is in progress. At 3.30pm with 48 hours iron rations and a full water bottle each we proceeded to a point in Shrapnel Gully at the old 4th Btn aid post where we had orders to wait for further instructions. A little after 4.30pm the7th Btn who has been in support passed us and went on into the trenches. At 5pm various warships that had suddenly come on the scene along with every gun of our field artillery commenced to bombard the enemy positions. The enemy artillery immediately retaliated, the incessant crackle of rifle and machine gun fire commences and the whole atmosphere in a few minutes seemed to be in a regular mad uproar, shells were screaming and whining through the air, exploding everywhere with a tearing crash only exceeded by the deafening report of the big guns on the warships. Shrapnel shells began to explode in large numbers lower down the gully over the hundreds of troops sheltering there in reserve and casualties were fairly numerous. We expected to receive orders any minute to proceed to some part of the line where our services were required, but hours passed and none came, we began to get anxious, particularly over the inactivity of the situation, there was little shelter and every minute large howitzer shells were exploding in our vicinity showering masses of earth over us as they crashed and exploded in the ground at times only a few yards away, one actually crashed among a dozen or more of us, the explosion tossing us in all directions, but fate was kinds and only one chap was slightly wounded but the concussion gave everyone a thorough shaking up. Anything in the way of activity would have been a relief, it was impossible to believe we were not required somewhere, taking risks in performing a dangerous duty is passed by without further notice, but inaction under these circumstances is terribly trying on the nerves. It was a welcome relief when we received orders at about 7pm for 7 squads to report back to our camp and two to remain at the post, it fell to my lot to remain at the post, but for what purpose none of us knew, as there was nothing for us to do, it was evident that the communications above us were blocked and the casualties we were expected to handle were being diverted into other communications. What casualties we did handle had occurred on the communication in our immediate vicinity and none were from the trenches themselves. This state of affairs lasted through the day and we welcomed the opportunity of taking an occasional casualty down to the C.C.Sation just to relieve the effect of this forced inactivity a little. After about 8pm the noise of the continual artillery action abated considerably but it went on spasmodically throughout the night.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/08/06/friday-6th-august-1915-battle-of-lone-pine-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 18:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Flight Timeline

August 6, 1916 - René Fonck gains his first victory; he will become the leading French ace of the war.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/classic/world-war-i-flight-timeline1.htm

René Fonck

René Fonck (27 maart 1894 – 18 juni 1953) was een Franse gevechtspiloot in de Eerste Wereldoorlog, waarin hij de status van Vliegende aas behaalde. De koele en methodische Fonck behaalde 75 officiële zeges zonder ooit zelf geraakt te worden.

In 1918 schoot hij tijdens twee vluchten zes vijandelijke vliegtuigen uit de lucht, een buitengewone prestatie in de geschiedenis van het luchtgevecht.

Op 9 mei 1918, tijdens een patrouille boven de Duitse linies, haalde hij de eerste twee verkenningsvliegtuigen neer. Enkele minuten later boorde hij een derde de grond in. Hij keerde terug naar zijn basis terug voor munitie en brandstof, waarna hij een nog andere Duits vliegtuig neerhaalde boven Montdidier. Toen hij op dat moment werd aangevallen door negen vijandelijke jagers, ging hij recht op hen af en nam er twee voor zijn rekening.

De tweede zesvoudige overwinning had plaats in de Champagnestreek. Daar hadden de Fransen op 26 september 1918 een groots offensief opgezet. Fonck stuitte onverwachts op een patrouille van vijf Fokkers. Hij haalde uiteindelijk twee naar beneden. Daarna onderschepte hij een derde vijandelijk vliegtuig. Tijdens het treffen met dertien Duitse toestellen zegevierde hij nog drie keer, waarna de mitrailleurs van zijn Spad XIII blokkeerden.

Na de Eerste Wereldoorlog was Fonck actief als inspecteur van de Franse luchtmacht. Hij overleed op 59-jarige leeftijd in Parijs.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Fonck
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Marasesti (August-September 1917)

The Romanian 2nd Army's success at Marasti forced the Central Powers to revise their plans. The offensive planned in the Namoloasa area was abandoned and the bulk of the forces were moved in the Focsani area. The new offensive was going to be launched west of the Siret River, on the Focsani – Marasesti – Adjud direction, with the German 9th Army (general Johannes von Eben) and on the Oituz Valley with the Austro-Hungarian 1st Army (Archduke Joseph). The objective was to encircle and destroy the 2nd Army.

On the other side, the Romanian General Headquarters decided to cancel its attack in the Namoloasa area. The Russian 4th Army had to be pulled out from the front in southern Moldavia and moved north, where it could threaten the flank of the Austro-German forces advancing in Galicia. The Romanian 1st Army was going to replace the Russian troops departing the area.

For the offensive, the German 9th Army was strengthened with units brought from the French (the Alpine Corps, which arrived on 6 August) or Italian fronts. General von Eben decided to deliver the main blow with the German 1st Corps (6 divisions), while to its left the German 18th Reserve Corps (3 divisions) had to pin down the Entente troops opposite it. The right wing of the 9th Army was manned by the Ramnic Group (2 divisions). The reserve was made up of one German and one Austro-Hungarian divisions and the Alpine Corps, which arrived in the area during the first day of the battle. The German forces in the attack sector were 102 infantry battalions, 10 cavalry squadrons, 24 pioneer companies, 2 armored cars, 1,135 machine-guns, 356 mortars, 223 field guns and 122 heavy guns and howitzers.

Opposite the German 1st Corps was the Russian 4th Army, which had in contact with the enemy only two corps: on the right the 8th (3 divisions) and on the left the 7th (2 divisions). The reserve was made up of one infantry and one cavalry divisions. These totaled 84 infantry battalions, 52 cavalry squadrons, 280 field guns and 36 heavy guns. The bulk of the Romanian 1st Army was at Tecuci and was getting to cross the Siret River and replace the Russians.

The German 9th Army's offensive was preceded by a powerful artillery preparation, which began at 0430 hours on 6 August 1917. At 0730 hours the 1st Corps (general Kurt von Morgen) started the attack, with the 12th Bavarian, 76th and 89th Infantry Divisions in the first line and with another two divisions in the second echelon. The front defended by the Russian 13th and 34th Infantry Divisions was broken and 10 km breach was created. The Russians started a disorderly retreat east of the Siret River. At the request of the Russian command, general Constantin Christescu, CO of the 1st Army, ordered maj. general Eremia Grigorescu, CO of the Romanian 6th Corps, to intervene west of the Siret with the 5th Infantry Division and with the 9th Infantry Division to defend the river's eastern bank. The 32nd Dorobanti Regiment Mircea and the 8th Dorobanti Regiment Buzau counterattacked and stopped the Central Powers offensive on the line Moara Alba – Doaga – Furceni.

Seeing that the chances to force the crossing over the river are minimal, in the morning of 7 August, the German command redirected the offensive to the north, with four divisions. The effort was concentrated against the Romanian 5th Infantry Division, but the assault was repulsed. However, a bulge was created at the junction with the Russian troops, but the situation was saved by the counterattack of two battalions from the division's reserve. At noon, after a short artillery preparation, the enemy renewed the attack enjoying a 3 to 1 numerical superiority. The 3rd Vanatori Regiment held out in the Doaga village against an entire German division. The same thing happened in the sector of the 32nd Dorobanti Regiment Mircea. The soldiers in this unit made several bayonet charges only in their shirts, because of the suffocating heat, managing to push back the Germans to their positions. In the evening, the 1st Corps attacked and broke through the front of the Russian division on the right flank of the Romanian 5th Division. Threatened with the encirclement, the 32nd Regiment retreated to the Cosmesti Bridge. To fill the gap created, the Romanian 9th Infantry Division was introduced west of the Siret River. It was continuously attacked. In the evening of 7 August, under the cover of darkness, a German group approached and assaulted the 9th Division's flank, engaging into hand-to-hand fights. The Romanians abandoned Doaga and retreated to the outskirts of the Prisaca Forest, where a new defensive line was established. That day the 5th Division lost 44 officers and 1,770 soldiers (dead, wounded and missing). The front moved back 2-3 km.

On 8 August, general von Eben changed the attack sector to the west, on the front held by Russian units. In the evening, during the second assault, they were forced to retreat. A Russian regiment was almost completely destroyed. The Romanian front was bombarded and the attack on the 5th and 9th Infantry Divisions resumed the following day. On 9 August 1917, the German effort was increased. The assault started at 1900 hours, after a powerful artillery preparation, which caused many casualties to the 9th Division. Its troops were only able to dig foxholes, because the ground was very dry and hard to dig. The Germans again took heavy casualties because of the Romanian and Russian artillery situated on the eastern bank of the Siret River, which was firing directing into the attackers' flank. However, the first line of the Romanian defense was pierced in several spots, but reserves intervened and repulsed them after some very violent fighting. The 34th Regiment, which faced the 12th Bavarian Division, held out against three consecutive assaults. Only the 2nd Battalion, under the command of Major Gheorghe Mihail, the future Chief of the General Staff in 1940 and 1944, remained in the first line. It counterattacked and captured 62 prisoners and two machine-guns. The unit's battle flag was decorated later with Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class. The same award was bestowed upon the regiment's CO, colonel Virgiliu Dumbrava, as well the 2nd Battalion's CO. But the casualties were heavy: 35 officers and 1,551 soldiers. The 36th Regiment lost 36 officers and 954 soldiers. Also, the 7th and 32nd Dorobanti Regiments suffered many casualties. During the night, at 0200 hours, another assault took place and the Germans managed to push back for several hundred meters the 9th Division and the right wing of the 5th Division. The neighboring Russian division was also forced to retreat, but the Russian 4th Army counterattacked and captured 2,500 prisoners and recovered the lost ground.

The last failures had weakened the German 9th Army. Thus, general von Eben strengthened the 1st Corps with a new division and the 18th Reserve Corps with the Alpine Corps.

On 10 August, it was the Entente's turn to attack. General Christescu and general Ragoza, the CO of the Russian 4th Army, decided to strike each with a corps of two divisions the bulge in the German line. During the morning, the 9th Army attacked the Russian sector, but gained little ground. At 1700 hours, the allied infantry started the assault, after a long artillery preparation. The 9th Infantry Division took the first German trenches, but because of the losses it had to abandon them. Reinforced with a regiment form the Romanian 13th Infantry Division, it resumed the attack, but again without success. The 5th Infantry Division and a regiment of the 14th Infantry Division managed to get inside the German positions, but could keep them. The 8th Dorobanti and 3rd Vanatori Regiments managed to enter the Doaga village, but were repulsed. The situation was similar in the sector of the Russian 4th Army. However the offensive had reduced the combat potential of the German 76th, 89th and 115th Infantry Divisions, which had suffered the brunt of the assault. These were already exhausted after several days of failed attacks. The report of general von Eben to the Army Group CO, marshal von Mackensen, mentions the fact that the 216th Infantry Division had suffered many casualties because of the flank bombardment of the Romanian artillery yon the eastern bank of the Siret.

For the following day, general Christescu imposed a limited objective to the 6th Corps: the Doaga – Susita Valley. The Russian 4th Army had decided to remain on the defensive. The Germans attacked in its sector at 1600 hours, after a three hour artillery preparation, and again forced the Russian troops to retreat. At 1630 hours, the Romanian 9th Infantry Division began the assault without knowing the situation in the neighboring sector. After the Russian retreat the flank was exposed. The division's CO sent a battalion to extend the line. The Germans were advancing on Marasesti and the situation became extremely dangerous for the Entente. The 9th Vanatori Regiment, which was in the division's reserve, was quickly brought in and set up positions in the factory north of the town. It managed to stop the German troops that were threatening to encircle the 9th Infantry Division. For this action, lt. col. Gheorghe Rasoviceanu, the regiment's CO, was awarded the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class. A regiment of the 13th Infantry Division, from the 6th Crops' reserve, established the link with the Russians. The 5th Infantry Division attacked in the Doaga area, but the 7th and 8th Dorobanti Regiments failed to enter the village. The same day, maj. general Eremia Grigorescu was named at the command of the 1st Army.

Noticing that the troops of the German 1st Corps were exhausted, general von Eben decided to assign the main strike to the 18th Reserve Corps of maj. gen. Kurt von Wenniger, which had suffered fewer losses and was less tired. Thus, on 12 August, the 9th German Army attacked with small forces the 5th Infantry Division, in order to pin it down, and concentrated its forces against the Russian 4th Army, taking Panciu. Following this failure, general Ragoza wanted to retreat the Russian-Romanian front north of Marasesti., but abandoned the idea at maj. gen. Eremia Grigorescu's pleas. Lt. gen. Constantin Prezan, the Chief of the General Staff, decided to replace the Russian 7th Corps with the Romanian 5th Corps (10th and 13th Infantry Divisions) and to put the Russian 8th Corps under the command of the Romanian 1st Army. The staff of the Russian 4th Army was retreated to Bacau from where it was reassigned to another front.

On 13 August, the 18th Reserve Corps attacked the Russian troops north of Panciu, but failed to make any breakthrough. The following day, general von Eben ordered the 1st Corps to eliminate the Romanian bulge in the area of the Prisaca Forest and take the bridge over the Siret River at Cozmesti. In the same time, the 18th Reserve Corps had to attack on the Zabraut Valley. After powerful artillery preparation commenced the assault on the Russian 8th Corps' positions. Brig. gen. Henri Cihoski, CO of the 10th Infantry Division, sent the 10th Vanatori Regiment as help. It surprised the Alpine Corps and caused it important casualties, some in vicious hand-to-hand combat. The vanatori managed to take Hill 334, but were forced to retreat following a powerful artillery bombardment. The 38th Infantry Regiment Neagoe Basarab also intervened and its CO, col. Gheorghe Cornescu, received the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class for the counterattack that stopped the German offensive, which threatened to penetrate in the Susita Valley, behind the Romanian 2nd Army. The Russian 8th Corps was forced to pull back north of Iresti and Straoani.

The 5th Infantry Division, at the other end of the front, had been reduced to one third of its initial size during the last days of fighting. The positions in the Prisaca Forest were heavily bombarded by German artillery. At 1700 hours the assault began with two divisions and forced the Romanian troops to retreat. The division's reserves, as well as a regiment form the 14th Infantry Division, in the army's reserve, intervened and stopped the German advance north of the Prisaca Forest. The bridge at Cozmesti was blown up, as the Romanian engineers had built another two to the north. The exhausted 5th Infantry Division was pulled out of the first line.

On 15 August, the 18th Reserve Corps continued the offensive and managed to create a breach at the junction between the 10th Infantry Division and the Russian division to its right. The 10th Vanatori Regiment, supported by 10 Romanian and 3 Russian batteries, counterattacked and reestablished the situation. However, with its left wing, the 18th Corps took Muncel, forcing theRussians to pull back. Thus the link between the two Romanian armies was threatened. The 2ndArmy attacked with the "Colonel Alexiu" Detachment made up of 2 vanatori battalions, 2 infantry battalions and 3 artillery batteries, which, together with a Russian cavalry division, retook control of the village. The following day, the Germans occupiued half of Muncel, but were again forced to retreat after the assault of col. Alexandru Alexiu's men.

The days of 17 and 18 August were calm. The losses suffered by both sides, forced the commanders to reorganize their units. Maj. gen. Eremia Grigorescu replaced the 14th Infantry Division, which was deployed east of the Siret River, with the 1st and 6th Rosiori Brigades and the hard pressed 5th Infantry Division with the 2nd Cavalry Division. The latter and the two brigades formed the Cavalry Corps. The 14th Infantry Division was moved on the northern bank of the Siret River in the Cozmestii de Vale area. Also, the army's heavy artillery was redeployed so that it could better cover the sector of the 5th Corps (10th, 13th and 9th Infantry Divisions). The 1st Army's reserve was made up of the 15th Infantry Division and of the 5th Infantry Division, under reorganization. On the other side, at the intervention of marshal von Mackensen, general von Eben grouped 7 infantry divisions under the command of the German 1st Corps and subordinated almost all the heavy artillery of the 9th Army to it. These forces totalized 55 battalions and 95 batteries.

On 19 August, the Germans resumed the offensive, attacking with the 1st Corps towards Marasesti and with 18th Reserve Corps on the Panciu-Muncel direction. The main effort was concentrated in the sector between Marasesti and the Razoare Forest, defended by the Romanian 9th and 13th Infantry Divisions, the latter being assaulted by three enemy divisions. The artillery preparation started at 0630 hours in the area of the trenches of the 47/72nd, 51/52nd and 50/64th Infantry Regiments, from the first line of the 13th Infantry Division, and at the western outskirts of Marasesti, where the 9th Vanatori Regiment of the 9th Infantry Division was located. It lasted for two hours and was the most violent artillery bombardment of the entire battle. At 0900 hours the first assaults small scale began and were easily repulsed. After 1100 hours a very powerful attack started. The main blow was delivered north of the Razoare Forest, at the junction of the 13th and 10th Infantry Divisions. The 10th Infantry Division was attacked by the 13th Austro-Hungarian Division, which failed to breakthrough the Romanian lines.

The 13th Infantry Division, commanded by brig. gen. Ioan Popescu, was the Romanian unit that saw the most action that day. It occupied a front 6 km wide, with the 47/72nd Infantry Regiment at the south-western edge of the Razoare Forest, the 50/64th Infantry Regiment in the Negroponte Vineyards and the 51/52nd Infantry Regiment in the middle. The reserve was made up of one battalion of the 50/64th Regiment and the 48/49th Regiment. 15 Romanian and 15 Russian batteries provided artillery support.

The attack started at 0900 hours. In the sector of the 47/72nd Infantry Regiment, the German assaults failed one after another. The 1st Battalion was situated on the left wing, south of the Razoare Forest. It was attacked by the 28th Bavarian Infantry Regiment (from the 12th Bavarian Division) and by units of the German 89th and 115th Divisions. The 2nd Battalion, on the right wing, was assaulted by the Austro-Hungarian 13th Infantry Division. The 3rd Battalion was kept in reserve. The regiment's CO, lt. col. Radu Rosetti, the former chief of the Operations Bureau of the General Staff in 1916, was wounded at a leg during the fighting. At the center, the 51/52nd Regiment was situated in an open position ands was also powerfully attacked. It had to pull back. The Germans tried to use the momentum and infiltrate behind the positions of the two regiments on the flanks of the Romanian 13th Infantry Division. The 3rd Battalion/47/72nd Infantry Regiment, under the command of maj. Draganescu counterattacked and stopped their advance. The reserves of the 51/52nd Regiment joined the fight directed by the unit's CO, lt. col. Ioan Cristofor, buying time for the reinforcements sent by the division to arrive. The 1st Machine-gun Company commanded by cpt. Grigore Ignat, stubbornly held its position, being almost totally destroyed. Its CO was posthumously awarded the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class. However, the Germans advanced towards Hill 100, behind which the allied artillery was situated. The 50/64th Regiment had to pull back its right wing, because of the enemy advance in the sector of the 51/52nd Regiment. Lt. col. Diamandi Genuneanu, the 50/64th Regiment's CO, organized the defense south of Hill 100 and managed to hold out against two Bavarian regiments for two hours.

General Popescu organized the counterattack against the German forces closing in on Hill 100. The 2 battalions in reserve, together with the 3rd Battalion/47/72nd Regiment and other units attacked from several different directions the German 115th Infantry Division, which had infiltrated between the Razoare Forest and the Negroponte Vineyards. The artillery of the 10th Infantry Division also intervened in the fighting at that moment, at the orders of the army's CO. The 1st Battalion/50/64th Regiment, commanded by cpt. Nicolae Miclescu, emerged from the Negroponte Vineyards and surprised the German infantry in the area and pushed it back to towards the Razoare Forest. Cpt. Miclescu was wounded during the action. He was later awarded the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class. The 3rd Battalion/47/72nd Infantry Regiment and the 2nd Battalion/48/49th Infantry Regiment joined the battle. The resistance at the edge of the Razoare Forest was broken following a violent bayonet charge. The Germans started a disorderly retreat. The entire 47/72nd Infantry Regiment started a counterattack, followed soon by the 39th Infantry Regiment (from 10th Infantry Division). The German troops retreated towards the Susita Valley, dragging along the units of the Austro-Hungarian 13th Division. The Romanians captured the first line of the enemy positions, but the advanced was stopped by maj. general Eremia Grigorescu, because von Eben had already started to deploy his reserves.

The 10th Division and, especially, the 13th Division had achieved a great victory. The commanders of the two divisions, as well as the commanders of the 47/72nd, 50/64th and 51/52nd Regiments were awarded the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class. Another 7 officers received this high distinction for the fighting on 19 August. The 39th Infantry Regiment Petru Rares captured 376 POWs and 7 machine-guns and advanced 500 m on a 4 km wide front. The 47/72nd Infantry Regiment took 209 POWs and 4 machine-guns. But the losses were high. The same regiment lost 880 men (99 killed, 300 wounded and 481 missing). The regiment's flag, as well as those of the other hard pressed units on 19 August were also decorated with the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class.

The same day, the Germans attacked the sector of the 9th Infantry Division, situated south of the 13th Division. It had been reduced to 4,500 men in the previous days of hard fighting. In the first line were the 9th Vanatori Regiment on the right wing and the 40th Infantry Regiment Calugareni on the left wing. After a powerful artillery preparation, two German infantry divisions started their attack. Following some heavy fighting in the ruins of the factory north of Marasesti, the 9th Vanatori Regiment was forced to fall back towards the city. The 40th Infantry Regiment also abandoned its first positions. The 9th Division reformed the front on the line south Negroponte Vineyards – Marasesti Railroad Station – south Marasesti, which it held against the enemy assaults, with the help of the artillery of the 14th Infantry Division from the eastern bank of the Siret River, firing directly in the German flank.

Because of the failure of its army to take the objectives on 19 August, general von Eben decided that the continuation of the offensive was no longer possible. A week of pause followed, which both sides used for reorganizing. The 9th Army again changed the attack sector. The 18th Reserve Corps was strengthened with 3 divisions and the entire heavy artillery at the army's disposal. The Romanian 1st Army received the 11th Infantry Divison. Maj. general Eremia Grigorescu redeployed his forces. Thus, the Russian 8th Corps formed the army's right wing in the Muncelul area. It had two divisions in the first line and another two reforming in the back. The Romanian 5th Corps (10th and 15th Infantry Divisions) held the front all the way to Marasesti Railroad Station, where it linked up with the 3rd Corps (14th Infantry Division), situated between Marasesti and the Siret River. East of the river was the Cavalry Corps (1st and 6th Rosiori Brigades, 2nd Cavalry Division and one brigade of the 5th Infantry Division). The army's reserve was made up of the 9th, 11th and 13th Infantry Divisions and the other brigade of the 5th Division.

The offensive of the 18th Corps started in the sector of the Russian 8th Corps on 28 August. At 0900 hours the German troops infiltrated between the two Russian divisions and forced them to retreat. Two regiments of the Romanian 3rd Infantry Division from the 2nd Army intervened and managed to stop the German advance together with the Russian reserves. The following day, general Grigorescu prepared an attack in the Muncelul area, aimed at eliminating the bulge created by the Germans. He put at the disposal of the Russian 8th Corps another Russian division, as well as the Romanian 9th Infantry Division, a regiment from the 13th and another from the 15th Division. The two regiments from the 2nd Army were also supposed to participate in this action.

The assault started at 0800 hours, from the north and west, but found the Germans ready for an attack of their own and it was repulsed. The second one, around 1700 hours, was also repulsed. The Germans forced the right wing of the Russian 124th Division to pull back. Two battalions from the 2nd Army intervened and managed to stop the enemy advance during the night. The 11th and 13th Infantry Divisions were brought behind the threatened areas. The 5th Division crossed to on the western bank of the Siret River. On 30 August, the German 18th Reserve Corps resumed the attack and its troops managed to get between the 18th Dorobanti Regiment Gorj and the 2nd Vanatori Regiment of the 2nd Army. The 34th Infantry Regiment Constanta, belonging to the 9th Division from the 1st Army, counterattacked and plucked in the breach.

The Russian 8th Corps was strengthened with the 13th Infantry Division on 31 August, when, because of the weather, there was no fighting. General Eremia Grigorescu subordinated the 9th Infantry Division and a Russian division to the CO of the 13th Division, brig. general Ioan Popescu. This group attacked on 1 September. The artillery preparation started at 0600 hours, with all the artillery available to the group, as well as with the artillery of the other two Russian divisions and the army's heavy artillery. After one hour, the 9th and 13th Divisions attacked from the west and the 3rd Infantry Division (belonging to the 2nd Army), commanded by brig. general Alexandru Margineanu, from the north. After some heavy fighting, the 13th Division advanced up t o200 m of Muncelul. The 18th Corps counterattacked in the sector of the 3rd Infantry Division, but was repulsed. The following day, the same 3rd Division suffered the brunt of the 9th Army's strike. The main objective was the Porcului Hill, defended by the 30th Dorobanti Regiment Muscel. It lost the positions, but they were retaken following the counterattack of the division's reserves and of a Russian regiment. It was the last major operation of the German 9th Army in the Marasesti sector.

The offensive of the 1st Army in the Muncelul area was resumed on 3 September. The 11th Infantry Division was subordinated to the General Popescu Group, entering the first line beside the 9th and 13th Divisions. The Russian division and the regiments of the 2nd Army formed the reserve. The plan was to attack frontally with the 9th Division and a brigade of the 11th, while the 13th Division and the other brigade of the 11th Division were going to attack the Muncelul village, threatening the enemy flank. The artillery preparation started at 0630 hours and at 0800 hours the 13th Infantry Division started the assault, but could not make any progress. The same happened in the sector of the 9th Division. A second artillery preparation, which lasted for an hour and a half, and some violent hand-to-hand fighting were necessary for the 13th Infantry Division to occupy the eastern edge of the Muncelul village. But the Romanian losses that day were heavy: about 2,700 men.

This was the last day of the battle of Marasesti, both sides deciding to adopt a defensive attitude on the entire front. The Romanian 1st Army had lost 610 officers and 26,800 NCOs and soldiers, while the German 9th Army had lost about 47,000. Forty Mihai Viteazul Orders 3rd class were awarded for deeds accomplished during the fighting around Marasesti. Maj. general Eremia Grigorescu received the Mihai Viteazul 2nd class. Also, the flags of no less than 9 regiments were decorated with the Mihai Viteazul 3rd class.

The fighting continued with little intensity the following days, with local attacks and counterattacks. In one of these clashes, on the Secuiului Hill on 5 September, the volunteer Ecaterina Teodoroiu was killed by machine-gun fire, while leading her platoon. On the other side, on 8 September, maj. general Kurt von Wenniger, CO of the German 18th Reserve Corps, was killed by an artillery shell in the Muncelul area.

http://worldwar2.ro/primulrazboi/?article=117
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 18:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 August 1918 Cpl William Otis Louden, Co F 58th Infantry.

Born 31 January 1890 at Otto, Clark County, William was a farmer who enlisted on 14 March 1918 at Indianapolis. After training at Camp Greene and Camp Mills, he was promoted to Corporal before being sent overseas in May 1918. He was killed in action on August 6th 1918.

William was originally buried in the American military cemetery at Fismes (North section, plot 4, grave 185) but his body was repatriated post-war.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1393-6-august-1918-cpl-william-otis-louden.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dunsterforce and the affair at Karawaran - Persia, 6-7 August 1918

Karawaran, a village in northern Persia (now Iran) about 50 kilometres south of Lake Urmia, was the scene of a desperate rearguard action against Turkish troops and marauding Kurds and Persians fought on 67 August 1918 by members of a special British group known as 'Dunsterforce'. The unit-named after its commander, Major General Lionel Dunsterville - included some 47 officers and non-commissioned officers recruited from the AIF in France and Palestine in its eventual strength of 450, and had been raised for the task of guarding against German penetration of Asia by mobilising and organising resistance by the peoples of the Caucasus region.

Attempts to render support to Christian Assyrians and Armenians who were fighting the Turkish 5th and 6th divisions at Urmia, a city on the western side of the lake, were forestalled when the Turks gained entry to that place on 30 July and put 80,000 of its population to flight. A twenty-strong party of Dunsterforce (half of whom were Australians or New Zealanders) and a squadron of British cavalry, which had been detached to escort a convoy carrying money, machine-guns and ammunition from Bijar, met the mass of refugees on the road on 4 August. The commander of the Dunsterforce party, Captain Stanley Savige (an Australian), rode forward the next day to the rear of the column, which he found under attack from local tribesmen but protected by a small rearguard organised by an American missionary, Dr W.A. Shedd. Obtaining permission from his superiors in the British mission, Savige again rode out on 6 August with a party of eight (two of whom were also Australian) to give what assistance was possible against the raiders.

Finding Shedd with 24 armed refugees at the tail of the withdrawing column, Savige relieved him (but took over his men) before riding further on to find better ground on which to fight. At a village apparently named Karawaran, lying south of the town of Miandoab, the rearguard discovered a force of Turkish cavalry engaged in looting. These they drove out, and were also forced to fight off about 100 tribesmen who were riding about the valley in search of plunder, before falling back ten kilometres to spend the night in another village.

The fight began again the next morning, this time against a party of 150 mounted Kurds who approached directly while others rode around hilly country on both flanks. Savige's men, with no more than twelve of Shedd's original party, mounted a hasty defence from a hill behind the village which checked the enemy horsemen. Then followed a sustained withdrawal which barely succeeded in keeping the pressing enemy away from the rear of the refugee column. The strength of the defence was slowly reduced by the death of one of the Dunsterforce men, and the desertion of all but two of the volunteers, and after seven hours of relentless fighting the remainder were close to exhaustion.

The rearguard was saved from being overrun by the timely arrival of a dozen British cavalrymen who had been policing the road when they intercepted a message from Savige appealing for reinforcement. A short time later a party of 70 Christian tribesmen also arrived to lend support, at which the Turks and others made off. Although the pursuit of the fleeing refugees was continued until the column's tail-end reached Bijar on 17 August, at no stage did the task of defence again result in such fierce combat. The loss of some 30,000 people in the retreat from Urmia made it perhaps one of the most dreadful episodes of the war.

Extracted from the book produced by Chris Coulthard-Clark, Where Australians Fought - The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1998, pp. 149-150., http://desert-column.phpbb3now.com/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=205
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2010 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 August 1919 → Commons Sitting → LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

EX-GERMAN AND EX-OTTOMAN TERRITORIES.


HC Deb 06 August 1919 vol 119 cc352-3 352

Captain ORMSBY-GORE asked the Prime Minister what arrangements are being made to recruit the permanent Civil Service for ex-German and ex-Ottoman territories for which this country is to- become responsible as mandatory of the League of Nations?

Mr. BONAR LAW (Leader of the House) Until the final decision is taken with regard to the mandates of the League of Nations, temporary administration is being carried on by officers of the Colonial Services concerned. I am informed that the Foreign Office is collecting the names and particulars of candidates "who are likely to prove suitable when a decision has been come to.

Colonel YATE Will the right hon. Gentleman accept as candidates disabled officers from the Indian Army who are specially qualified for these posts?

Mr. BONAR LAW I do not think that is necessary, but I shall call the attention of the Foreign Office to that matter. I am sure, however, they will attend to it on their own initiative.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/aug/06/ex-german-and-ex-ottoman-territories
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2011 6:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUGUST 6, 1914

The Belgian Front.
==Ludendorff leads a German brigade in penetrating the ring of forts at Liège [pre-dawn] - fierce fighting at Herstal - the Germans reach Liège city [morning]
==After surviving an attack by a German assassination detachment, commandant Leman withdraws the Belgian 3rd Division from the town
==In the war’s first aerial attack on a city, Liège is bombed by a zeppelin (which is damaged and crashes near Bonn), and then shelled by German artillery through the night
==King Albert vetoes a proposed counter-offensive and rejects Joffre’s advice to retreat to Namur and link with French forces
==Three French cavalry divisions under the command of Sordet enter Belgium

The BEF.
==After an invasion scare in the British press, the War Council reduces the BEF from six to four divisions, and finally orders it to France, to begin on Aug.09

The Central Front.
==(to Aug.28) The Germans besiege Longwy fortress near the Luxembourg frontier

Alsace.
==French VII Corps commander Bonneau expresses concern that the impending offensive into Alsace is a trap [evening] - he is ignored

Germany.
==550 German troop trains are crossing the Rhine daily


===> http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2014 6:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Op 6 augustus 1914 worden een pak treinverbindingen afgeschaft, generaal Leman geeft in Luik bevel tot de terugtocht van zijn derde divisie. Welke feiten halen nog het nieuws?

http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140729_01196396
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Aug 2014 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Yvonne @ 06 Aug 2009 13:34 schreef:
Vandaag 95 jaar geleden

100 jaar geleden
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