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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2006 13:18    Onderwerp: 9 juli Reageer met quote

July 9

1915 Germans surrender Southwest Africa to Union of South Africa

On this day in 1915, with the Central Powers pressing their advantage on the Western Front during World War I, the Allies score a distant victory, when military forces of the Union of South Africa accept a German surrender in the territory of Southwest Africa.

The Union of South Africa, a united self-governing dominion of the British empire, was officially established by an act of the British Parliament in 1910. When World War I broke out in Europe in the summer of 1914, South African Prime Minister Louis Botha immediately pledged full support for Britain. Botha and Minister of Defense Jan Smuts, both generals and former Boer commanders, were looking to extend the Union’s borders further on the continent. Invading German Southwest Africa would not only aid the British—it would also help to accomplish that goal. The plan angered a portion of South Africa’s ruling Afrikaner (or Boer) population, who were still resentful of their defeat, at the hands of the British, in the Boer War of 1899-1902 and were angered by their government’s support of Britain against Germany, which had been pro-Boer in the Boer War.

Several major military leaders resigned over their opposition to the invasion of the German territory and open rebellion broke out in October 1914; it was quashed in December. The conquest of Southwest Africa, carried out by a South African Defense Force of nearly 50,000 men, was completed in only six months, culminating in the German surrender on July 9, 1915. Sixteen days later, South Africa annexed the territory.

At the Versailles peace conference in 1919, Smuts and Botha argued successfully for a formal Union mandate over Southwest Africa, one of the many commissions granted at the conference to member states of the new League of Nations allowing them to establish their own governments in former German territories. In the years to come, South Africa did not easily relinquish its hold on the territory, not even in the wake of the Second World War, when the United Nations took over the mandates in Africa and gave all other territories their independence. Only in 1990 did South Africa finally welcome a new, independent Namibia as its neighbor.

www.historychannel.com
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 - Suffragette tries to blow up Burns Cottage

Votes for Women, Gunpowder for Burns
Despite the fact that women in New Zealand were given the vote in 1893 and that Australia had followed suit in 1902, British women continued to be denied the vote until 1918. In 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst, assisted by her daughters Christabel and Sylvia, founded the Women's Social and Political Union. Seeing that peaceful debate and agitation had got them nowhere, her followers took more militant action. By 1914 Scottish newspapers could be found running columns headed 'Today's Outrages', as the most zealous suffragettes stepped up their campaign to obtain maximum publicity during the visit to Scotland of King George V. One of the most striking of these protests was Janet Parker's attempt to blow up Burns's Cottage, especially as she turned out to be the niece of Lord Kitchener.

Alloway outrage - attempt to blow up Burns's Cottage - suffragist in custody
A dastardly attempt was made in the early hours of yesterday morning by suffragists to fire and blow up Burns's Cottage, Alloway, the birthplace of the national poet, which is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims from all parts of the world. The attempted outrage was fortunately frustrated by the timely appearance on the scene of the night watchman, but the fact that an attempt was made to destroy a shrine that Scotsmen in all parts of the world regard as sacred has roused in the locality the most intense indignation.

The Burns Cottage and Monument Trustees have for about 15 months employed a night watchman to guard against possible damage by suffragists, and it was the watchman, an Ayr man named Robert Wyllie, who surprised the militants in their attack on the building. Wyllie was seated inside the old byre, which forms part of the original building, when, shortly after two o'clock in the morning, his attention was attracted by a noise as of something heavy being laid on the ground outside. On going out of the door on the west side of the cottage, being the rear of the building, he saw two women who had apparently just placed two canisters in the gutter formed by flagstones which surrounds the building.

On seeing the watchman the women made off through the garden, which forms part of the cottage grounds, and the watchman gave chase. He came up with them as they were attempting to get over the garden fence into a field beyond. He succeeded in getting hold of them both, and a violent struggle ensued. One of the women, apparently with the object of distracting the man's attention, shouted to him to run and take the canisters from the building because they would explode. The watchman, however, held on to both women for some time. Eventually one of them struggled free and made good her escape. The watchman's shouts for help and the other woman's screams caused a dog to bark, and this roused Mr A. H. Scott, the tenant of Alloway orchard which adjoins the cottage grounds. Mr William Monaghan, the custodier of the cottage, who lives in a house within the grounds, was also aroused. The local officer of the Ayrshire Constabulary was called, and he got into communication with the headquarters in Ayr. Additional officers soon arrived on the scene, and the woman was taken to Ayr by motor car. An examination of the premises showed that very complete preparations had been made for the blowing up of the building. The two canisters which were wrapped in brown paper, were found to contain 4lb of gunpowder each, and a separate fuse had been attached to each canister. In a subsequent search a new bicycle, bearing the name of a Glasgow maker, was found in Doonholm Road near Alloway Manse. Beside the bicycle was a quantity of brown paper. The bicycle is supposed to belong to the arrested woman, and the likelihood is that the other woman made her escape on another bicycle. Mr T. C. Dunlop, secretary to the Burns Cottage and Monument Trustees, was informed of the affair and at four o'clock in the morning made an assiduous search of the roads in the district for the escaped woman, but could find no trace of her. The arrested woman was found to have in her possession a map of the district, a diary and £10 in money. She gave the name of Janet Arthur.

In the course of the day the prisoner was brought before Sheriff Broun in Ayr Sheriff Court for declaration. The charge preferred against her is that of attempting maliciously to destroy Burns's Cottage. She refused to make a declaration, and was committed to prison pending further proceedings. Before her case was called a woman had been fined £1 with the usual alternative for resetting stolen money. The woman was crying bitterly and the suffragist ordered that the fine be paid from the money that had been found in her (the suffragist) possession. During the proceedings in Court the accused talked volubly and quoted Burns at some length 'Liberty's in every blow, let us do or die.' She said and added 'You Scotsmen used to be proud of Burns; now you have taken to torturing women.' She made a protest against the treatment of suffragists in Perth Prison. At times she was somewhat violent and the police had to use force to restrain her. Thereupon the Sheriff asked them to be as gentle as they could with her. The accused who wore a fawn waterproof coat, brown skirt, and blue toque hat, is of slim build, and apparently about 40 years of age. A considerable crowd of people had assembled at the gates of the County Buildings and witnessed her removal to prison in a cab, into which she had to be forcibly pushed. There was no demonstration. Since being taken into custody the accused has been on hunger strike.

Glasgow Herald, 9 July 1914.

Suffragist outrage - woman's identity - Lord Kitchener's niece
Ayr, Friday. - the woman arrested in connection with the outrage at the Burns Cottage on the morning of July 8 and liberated after ten days' hunger strike from Perth prison is now stated to have been identified. - She gave the name of Janet Arthur, but the police authorities are understood to know from information that her real name is Janet Parker, and that she is a niece of Lord Kitchener, and has a brother inspector of schools in Cairo.

'News 24 July 1914', cutting from Miss Janie Allan's collection, Acc. 4498/2

http://www.nls.uk/scotlandspages/timeline/1914.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 20:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Defeat in Southwest Africa - July 9, 1915
By Matt Church

The July 1915 conquest of German Southwest Africa was a marked triumph for the British campaign in Africa. The Southwest Africa campaign was the only World War I campaign planned, executed, and successfully completed by a British Dominion. German Southwest Africa (now Namibia) was a large territory, which was six times the size of England and was Germany's second largest colony. The origin of the South African campaign against the German territory is rooted in the aftermath of the outbreak of World War I.

Upon the outbreak of the war, South African Prime Minister Louis Botha telegraphed London and told the London authorities that the imperial troops could be released and the South African Defense Force would guard the Dominion.[1] After conveying the crown's thanks, Botha was told that "if his troops could seize such parts of German Southwest Africa as would give them command of Swakopmund, Lüderitzbucht, and the wireless stations there or in the interior, it would be a great and urgent imperial service."[2] The South Africans were able to muster a fifty thousand strong force and landed a force at Lüderitzbucht in September of 1914.

In opposition to the South African force, the Germans were able to put less than three thousand Schutztruppe in the field and call upon roughly seven thousand male settlers to bolster their numbers. German colonial officials were unprepared for war and the German government held to the maxim, the colonies must be defended in the North Sea.[3] The Germans counted on the Boers rising up to aid their efforts and stockpiled weapons in the case of such an uprising. An uprising occurred in October 1914 and the Southwest Africa campaign came to an abrupt halt. After putting down the Boer uprising, Botha telegraphed London that he would resume campaigning on November 28, 1914. Botha assembled his troops, which included South Africans, Rhodesians, and an armored car regiment, at Swakopomund and began to move inward across the Namib Desert. During this campaign, the South Africans encountered German land mines and poisoned wells. In mid April, Botha's northern force marched inland against stiff German resistance and Jan Smuts' southern force began to advance. This was the beginning of the final advance of the South African forces against the remaining German forces. On May 5, 1915, Botha captured the rail centre of Karibib and later captured the colonial capital of Windhoek without a fight. After the capture of Windhoek, Botha met with German officials to discuss terms and stated his terms as unconditional surrender. The South Africans pressed on, liberating prisoner of war camps, and closing in on German forces. The German forces were in a hopeless position, outnumbered in a desolate area, and with no chance of resupply.[4]

On July 9, 1915, the German forces surrendered. The campaign was completed efficiently with minimal loss of life. The South African forces lost one hundred thirteen killed to the Germans 1,331.[5] Botha defeated both the German forces and the Boer uprising, while at the same time securing South Africa's borders and increasing the security of England's ocean line to the east.[6] The campaign provided a great service in securing imperial communications and gained control of one of Germany's larger colonies. The campaign was a quick British victory and resulted in one of the first of many conquests of German colonies by Allied forces.

Notes
1. Byron Farwell, The Great War in Africa 1914-1918 (New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1986), p. 77.
2. Ibid
3. Farwell, 75.
4. John Keegan, The First World War (NY: Viking Press, 1998) 208.
5. Farwell, 103.
6. Ibid.

Works Cited
Farwell, Byron, The Great War in Africa 1914-1918 New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1986.
Keegan, John, The First World War New York: Viking Press, 1998.


http://www.worldwar1.com/tgws/swafrica.htm
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary - Edward P. Cox

Friday 9-7-15 - Usual day with ordinary exchange of compliments. During night Turks opened up a bit but nothing serious occurred.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d10.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Submarine Deutschland's Atlantic Crossing, 9 July 1916

On 9 July 1916 the captain of the German submarine Deutschland, Paul Koenig, docked in the U.S. A merchantmen, and therefore carrying no munitions, the newfound ability of the Germans to despatch submarines across the Atlantic was duly acknowledged by the governments of all belligerent nations as significant.

While the U.S. government allowed merchant vessels from all warring nations to dock at U.S. ports and to freely trade, in practice Britain's dominance of the seas ensured that Germany was effectively excluded from the U.S. market. Thus the arrival of the Deutschland threatened to challenge Britain's naval blockade, at least so far as trade with the U.S. was concerned.

Britain, in a joint statement with the other Allied governments, promptly despatched a note of protest to the U.S. government arguing that submarines should not be regarded as merchant vessels. In support of this argument the Allies suggested that as a submarine could not be stopped and inspected for munitions in the same manner as other vessels, her real intentions could not be verified.

The U.S. government - under constant pressure from the German government on account of suspected favouritism granted to the Allied nations - responded at the close of August 1916 with a rejection of the Allies' arguments; unarmed submarines, from whatever nation, were to be regarded as merchant vessels and accordingly permitted to trade.

Reproduced below is Captain Koenig's initial announcement upon arrival in the U.S. with the Deutschland on 9 July 1916.

German Submarine Deutschland's Atlantic Crossing by Captain Paul Koenig

The submarine Deutschland, which I have the honour to command, is the first of several submarines built to the order of the Deutsche Ozean Rhederei G.M.B.H., Bremen. She will be followed by the Bremen shortly.

The idea of the building of this submarine emanated from Alfred Lohmann, then President of the Bremen Chamber of Commerce. He brought his idea in the fall of last year confidentially before a small circle of friends, and the idea was taken up at once. A company was formed under the name of "Deutsche Ozean Rhederei G. M. B. H.," and the Germaniawerft, Kiel, was entrusted with the building of the submarines.

The Board of Directors is composed of Alfred Lohmann, President of the Board; Philipp Heineken, General Manager of the Nord Lloyd, and Kommerzienrat P. M. Herrman, Manager of the Deutsche Bank. Carl Stapelfeldt, Manager of the Nord Lloyd, has taken over the management of the company.

We have brought a most valuable cargo of dyestuffs to our American friends, dyestuffs which have been so much needed for months in America and which the ruler of the seas has not allowed the great American Republic to import. While England will not allow anybody the same right on the ocean because she rules the waves, we have, by means of the submarine, commenced to break this rule.

Great Britain cannot hinder boats such as ours to go and come as we please. Our trip passing Dover across the ocean was an uneventful one. When danger approached we went below the surface, and here we are, safely in an American port, ready to return in due course.

I am not in a position to give you full details regarding our trip across the ocean, in view of our enemies. Our boat has a displacement of about 2,000 tons and a speed of more than fourteen knots. Needless to say that we are quite unarmed and only a peaceful merchantman.

Our boats will carry across the Atlantic the mails and save them from British interruption. We trust that the old friendly relationship with the United States, going back to the days of Washington, when it was Prussia who was the first to help America in its fight for freedom from British rule, will awake afresh in your beautiful and powerful country.

The house flag of the Deutsche Ozean Rhederei is the old Bremen flag-red and white stripes, with the coat of arms of the town, the key in the corner. This key is the sign that we have opened the gates which Great Britain tried to shut up on us and the trade of the world. The gates which we opened with this key will not be shut again. Open door to the trade of the world and freedom of the oceans and equal rights to all nations on the oceans will be guaranteed by Germany's victory in this struggle for our existence.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/deutschland1.htm
Zie ook hier: http://ncsubvets.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/german_cargo_sub_deutschland.pdf
Zie ook hier: http://www.colorantshistory.org/SubmarineDeutschland.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 09 Jul 2018 8:39, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 July 1917 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange: The Leader reports that Joe Edwards of Bowen Terrace is a prisoner of war in Germany.

PRIVATE EDWARDS NOT KILLED
Pte. Joe Edwards, of Bowen Ter-
race, who was reported killed in ac-
tion last week, has now been reported
as being a prisoner in Germany. On
Saturday, his wife received a cable
to that effect, and needless to say was
gratified at the good news. Latest re-
ports from Germany state that the
prisoners are being better treated
now than formerly, and are allowed
to receive presents of food and cloth-
ing from their friends.

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/117828891/13052545 via http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/9-july-1917/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 09 Jul 2018 7:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd South African Infantry at Delville Wood, July 1916
EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF WALTER GIDDY


1916 Jul 9. Shall never forget it, as long as I live. Coming up the trench we were shelled the whole time, and to see a string a wounded making their way to a dressing station, those who can walk or hobble along ; another chap had half of his head taken off, and was sitting in a huddled up position, on the side of the trench, blood streaming on to his boots, and Jock lay not 5 yards further with his stomach all burst open, in the middle of the trench. Those are only a few instances of the gruesome sights we see daily. A I am writing here, a big shell plonked into the soft earth, covering me with dust, one by one they are bursting around us. I am just wondering if the next will catch us (no it was just over). Oh ! I thought one wound get us, it plonked slick in our trench and killed old Fatty Roe, and wounded Keefe, Sammy who was next to me, and Sid Phillips, poor beggar, he is still lying next to me, the stretcher bearers are too busy to fetch him away. The Manchesters had to evacuate the wood below us, and we the one along here. I'm wondering if we will be able to hold this wood, in case of an attack, as our number is so diminished. I've seen so cruel sights today. I was all covered in my little dug out, when old Sammy was wounded, had a miraculous escape.

http://www.cairogang.com/escaped/king/delville-wood/delville-wood.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Loss of HMS Vanguard, 9 July 1917

Just before midnight on Monday, 9 July, 1917, the St Vincent class battleship HMS Vanguard suddenly blew up, taking over 800 of her crew down with her. It was a magazine explosion in one of the two magazines which served the amidships turrets 'P' and 'Q'.

A definitive reason for the cause of the cordite explosion has never been found. The possiblities:
- spontaneous detonation of cordite, which had become unstable
- the cordite having caught fire from heating in an adjacent compartment
- sabotage

Of the three, sabotage is the least likely: no agency or individual has ever claimed responsiblity; there has never been any evidence turn up in support of the theory; and just as important is the fact that when she was lost, Vanguard was one of the least modern ships in the Grand Fleet. The security measures for her were no different than for the more recent arrivals in Scap Flow. It stands to reason that any 'agent' with the ability to destroy a Royal Navy capital ship would choose one of the more powerful ones.

Instead, the most likely cause was the second: a fire in an adjacent compartment (coal bunker or patent fuel space) which smoldered away undetected, long enough for some cordite near the adjoining bulkhead to overheat to dangerous levels.

One eyewitness account, that of Charles William Mynott a signalman in HMS Marlborough would report:

I was on watch on HMS Marlborough between 8pm and midnight [in] 1917 or 1918 and was facing HMS Vanguard and saw her start to explode, 1st aft 2 midships 3 foc'sle and then one huge explosion. I woke the Signal Boatswain who was asleep on the Bridge.

Following is an extract from a notebook maintained by Able Seaman Ernest "Mick" Moroney who witnessed the Vanguard explosion when on watch duty aboard HMAS Melbourne at Scapa Flow, 9th July 1917.

"HMS Vanguard Battleship blown up in Scarpa Flo Hbr all hands lost, spectator 9 July 17. 2 saved.

HMS VANGUARD Scarpa Flow North Scotland at 11.20 pm on the 9 th July a great explosion occurred in the midst of the Grand Fleet, a terrible detonation took place lighting the whole fleet as if it were daylight there was a crash and one of the big boats went sky high with a crew of 900 men all searchlights were switched on immediately but not a thing was to be seen.

A trawler which was close by got smothered in blood and pieces of human flesh, and afterwards picked up half the body of a marine the only body recovered up to date. I happened to be on watch and saw nearly everything no one knows how she went up, but seeing she had a new ships company it is surmised that it was the work of German spies (Later) 2 men saved 1 Marine and 1 AB I Officer died immediately after. 187 men recovered from the sea."


http://www.gwpda.org/naval/vanguard.htm

HMS Vanguard Lost with 843 Men

There is a terrible irony in the fate of HMS Vanguard, one of Britain’s mighty Dreadnought battleships. The craft, launched at Barrow-in-Furness in 1909 when the arms race with Germany was at its height, had survived the Battle of Jutland on May 31 and June 1 1916 without losing a single man. Yet at about 11.20pm on July 9 1917, with not an enemy in sight as the ship lay in Scapa Flow, just off Flotta, the mighty vessel exploded, sinking within minutes. Such was the violence of the explosion that a passing trawler was showered in the blood and flesh of those on Vanguard. The detonation was heard throughout Orkney.

The confusion of war means that casualty figures cannot be exact, but more than 800 were killed, perhaps as many as 843. Only two men survived the disaster, one a marine the other an able seaman. The bodies of 187 men were recovered, the rest sinking with the ship.

What is believed to have happened is that a fire amidships heated a bulkhead, eventually igniting munitions stored against it in a separate compartment. Sabotage was suspected for a time, but is now thought unlikely. The disaster remains the worst loss of life through explosion in UK history.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=1021

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 1917

9 July 1917 - Vanguard, British, St Vincent class Dreadnought Battleship
Exploded whilst at anchor at Scapa Flow with 804 casualties and just 2 survivors. The most likely cause was thought to have been that blocking of magazine ventilation had caused a rise in temperature and then spontaneous combustion of cordite.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk17.htm

Zie ook http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?s=6665b349fb5b792d1c9bb6bf7197fbe0&showtopic=78307
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Jul 2010 21:46, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to General Clayton

Cairo, 10th July, 1917

SECRET

General Clayton,

I left Wejh on May 9th, 1917 with Sherif1 Nasir Ibn Ali Ibn Radhi Beni Hussein of Medina as O.C. Expedition, and Nessib Bey El Bekri as Political Officer to deal with villagers and townspeople. Sherif Feisal's instructions were to open Akaba for use as a base of supply for the Arab forces, and to sound the possibilities of Sherifian action in East and South Syria.

We marched to Abu Raga where we increased our force to 36 men, and thence to the Railway at km. 810.5 which we dynamited on May 19th. Our route then lay by Fejr to Maigua in Wadi Soilan, for Jarf to see Nuri and Nawwaf. We heard however that they were to the North of us, so marched to Nebk (near Kaf) on June 2nd, where we met Auda Abu Tayi, and the Huweitat. Sherif Nasir stayed in Kaf to enrol Rualla, Shererat and Huweitat for the Akaba expedition.

I rode on June 4th with 2 men into Wald Ali2 country, via Burga and Seba Biar to Am El Barida near Tudmor on June 8th. Here I met Sheikh Dhami of the Kawakiba Aneza and heard that Hachim was away N.E. and Ibn Murshid confined in Damascus. I therefore went West with Dhami and his 35 men (whom I enrolled) to Ras Baalbek on June 10th and dynamited a small plate girder bridge there.3 From Ras Baalbek we rode South to El Gabban, in the Ghuta 3 miles from Damascus where on June 13th I met Ali Riza Pasha Rehabi,4 G.O.C. Damascus. Thence I rode to El Rudeine where I met Sheikh Saad Ed Din Ibn Ali of the Leja5 and passed on to Salkhad to see Hussein Bey El Atrash.6 From Salkhad we went to Azrak and saw Nuri and Nawwaf,7 and returned to Nebk on June 18th.

I found the enrolment finished. Nessib Bey El Bekri went to Salkhad with Hussein El Atrash with the instructions attached,8 and with Nasir I marched on June 19th to Bair where we reopened the dynamited wells. From Bair I rode to Ziza and saw Fawaz Ibn Faiz,9 and thence West of Amman to Urn Keis on June 23rd where I looked at railway bridge Z in the Yarmuk valley and saw Shererat and Beni Hassan Sheikhs. From Um Keis I went to Ifdein (Mafrak on the map) the first station below Deraa, and destroyed a stretch of curved rails at km. 173.10 From Ifdein we rode to Zerga, and thence to Atwi, where we failed to take the station, but killed 3 out of the 5 of the garrison, captured a large flock of sheep and destroyed a telegraph party of 4 men repairing the wire. We also dynamited a stretch of line. From Atwi I rode back to Bair, and rejoined Sherif Nasir who had meantime prepared the Western Huweitat. On June 30th we moved to El Jefer, clearing one well, and thence to km. 479 which we destroyed on a large scale, while a column was attacking N. of Maan near Aneyza. We then marched towards Fuweileh, where the gendarmes post had been destroyed by an advance column. They met us with the news of the re-occupation of Fuweileh by the belated relief expedition of 4/174/59 from Maan. We wiped out the battalion on July 2nd (taking the O.C., a mountain gun and 160 prisoners) at Abu El Lissan, and sent a flying column North which defeated the Turkish post at Hisha (railhead 5 miles East of Shobek), occupied Wadi Musa, Shobek, Tafileh, and is now near Kerak to take action there.

From Fuweileh we captured the post of Mreigha and then moved to Guweira where we met Ibn Jad of the Akaba Huweitat, and took 100 men and 5 officers. From Guweira we marched on to El Kethira (wiping out a post of 3 officers and 140 men) and thence to El Khadra in the North of Wadi Ithm, where the Akaba garrison surrendered at discretion. We entered Akaba on July 6th, with 600 prisoners, about 20 officers, and a German unteroffizier well-borer. I rode the same day for Suez with 8 men and arrived at El Shatt on July 9th.

As a result of the journeys and interviews noted above, between June 5th and July 6th, I am of opinion that given the necessary material assistance Arab Forces can be arranged about the end of August as in the sketch map attached. These levies will not (any more than the Hedjaz Beduin) be capable of fighting a pitched battle, but forces 1, 2, 4 and 5 may be able to ensure a cessation of traffic on the railways in their areas, and forces 6 and 7 should suffice for the expulsion of all Turkish posts in their districts, and the occupation of all ways of communication. Force 3 is our striking force (of perhaps 6,ooo not bad men) and may be able to rush Deraat, or at least should cut off the garrison there and hold up the line in the neighbourhood. I would propose to cut the bridge at Hemmah from Um Keis by force 2, if possible, as a preliminary of action, and if Damascus could be taken over by a part of force 3 it would mean a great accession of strength to the Arab cause.

These various operations fortunately need not be accurately concerted. If they took place in numerical order (as in the map) it would be easiest - but there is little hope of things working out just as planned. If they come off the L[ines] of C[ommunication] of the Turkish force in the Jerusalem area would appear threatened - but I do not think the Arabs can be advised to take action unless the E[gyptian] E[xpeditionary] Force can retain the Turks in front of them by a holding attack, to prevent large drafts being sent up to the Hauran. Force 3 is capable of only one effort (lasting perhaps 2 months) and if it is crushed Arab hopes in Syria will depend on the yet untried possibility of action between Horns and Aleppo - on which it is too soon to speak.

Sherif Nasir asked me to discuss with E.E.Force the situation, his needs, and the possibility of joint action by E.E.Force and himself against the Turkish forces in Palestine, as outlined above.

T.E.L.



1. Nasir proved most capable, hard working and straightforward during the expedition. I took a personal liking to him, and think him (after Faisal and Shakir) the best of the Ashraf I have had to work with.

2. My object was to meet the Bishr and compose their feud with the Howeitat with a view to working between Horns and Aleppo. The plan failed, but Dhami is in a position to act as go-between, or to provide men to destroy the Orontes bridges when required. He is now in Akaba - a good man.

3. The effect on the traffic was of course very slight, but the Metowila of Baalbek were most excited, and it was to arouse them that I did it. The noise of dynamite explosions we find everywhere the most effective propagandist measure possible.

4. Ali Riza is the well known Turkish Engineer General, President of the Syrian branch of the Arab Secret Society. He informed me that he had only 500 Turkish gendarmes and three unarmed Labour battalions in Damascus, and was not in a position to demonstrate his real feelings unaided.

5. With Saad Ed Din I discussed a provisional plan of action from the Leja when the need arises.

6. Hussein told me the terms on which the Druses are prepared to rise. They seem to me to offer a basis for negotiation.

7. Their action depends on that of the Druses. I am sure that by himself Nuri would do nothing, but he recognizes the certainty of his being involved in the struggle, and is profoundly pro-Arab and pro-Sherif. He is now collecting his annual corn supply in the Nugra, and is playing double till we require him.

8. Nessib El Bekri is volatile and short-sighted, as are most town-Syrians, and will not carry them out exactly - but no other agent was available.

9. Who was fair spoken, but I am convinced pro-Turk at heart. The Beni Saklhad will mostly follow Trad and Ibn Zebbu, who are our men.

10. The curved rails took 3 days to replace: the repair train then proceeded South, and at km. 174 exploded a very large compound Garland mine, and fell off a 15 foot high culvert into a valley. This caused a further delay of two days while the line was being searched.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170710_clayton.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In Defense of the Russian Revolutionary Soldier, The Kerensky Offensive, July 1917
by Michael Kihntopf

(...) The promised German divisions, only four could be spared from the west, began arriving on 9 July and were massed in front of the Russian Eleventh Army. These divisions were the 1st Guard, 2nd Guard, 5th and 6th Divisions. The two Guard divisions were designated as the lead elements of the counteroffensive. The start date was to be 15 July but the heavy rains that had stopped the Russian advance also caused a postponement to 19 July. (...)

http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwi/articles/kerenskyoffensive.aspx
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Address To The Jury
by Emma Goldman, Anarchist

From U.S. v. Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. This speech was delivered during her Anti-Conscription trial in New York City on July 9, 1917

Gentlemen of the Jury:

As in the case of my co-defendant, Alexander Berkman, this is also the first time in my life I have ever addressed a jury. I once had occasion to speak to three judges. On the day after our arrest it was given out by the U.S. Marshal and the District Attorney's office that the "big fish" of the No?Conscription activities had been caught, and that there would be no more trouble-makers and disturbers to interfere with the highly democratic effort of the Government to conscript its young manhood for the European slaughter. What a pity that the faithful servants of the Government, personified in the U.S. Marshal and the District Attorney, should have used such a weak and flimsy net for their big catch. The moment the anglers pulled their heavily laden net ashore, it broke, and all the labor was so much wasted energy. The methods employed by Marshal McCarthy and his hosts of heroic warriors were sensational enough to satisfy the famous circus men, Barnum & Bailey. A dozen or more heroes dashing up two flights of stairs, prepared to stake their lives for their country, only to discover the two dangerous disturbers and trouble-makers, Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, in their separate offices, quietly at work at their desks, wielding not a sword, nor a gun or a bomb, but merely their pens! Verily, it required courage to catch such big fish. To be sure, two officers equipped with a warrant would have sufficed to carry out the business of arresting the defendants Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman. Even the police know that neither of them is in the habit of running away or hiding under the bed. But the farce-comedy had to be properly staged if the Marshal and the District Attorney were to earn immortality. Hence the sensational arrest; hence also, the raid upon the offices of THE BLAST, MOTHER EARTH, and the No-Conscription League. In their zeal to save the country from the trouble-makers, the Marshal and his helpers did not even consider it necessary to produce a search warrant. After all, what matters a mere scrap of paper when one is called upon to raid the offices of Anarchists? Of what consequence is the sanctity of property, the right of privacy, to officials in their dealings with Anarchists! In our day of military training for battle, an Anarchist office is an appropriate camping ground. Would the gentlemen who came with Marshal McCarthy have dared to go into the offices of Morgan, or Rockefeller, or any of those men without a search warrant? They never showed us the search warrant, although we asked them for it. Nevertheless, they turned our office into a battlefield, so that when they were through with it, it looked like invaded Belgium, with only the difference that the invaders were not Prussian barbarians but good American patriots bent on making New York safe for democracy. The stage having been appropriately set for the three-act comedy, and the first act successfully played by carrying off the villains in a madly dashing automobile--which broke every traffic regulation and barely escaped crushing every one in its way--the second act proved even more ludicrous. Fifty thousand dollars bail was demanded, and real estate refused offered by a man whose property is rated at three hundred thousand dollars, and that after the District Attorney had considered and, in fact, promised to accept the property for one of the defendants, Alexander Berkman, thus breaking every right guaranteed even to the most heinous criminal. Finally the third act, played by the Government in this court during the last week. The pity of it is that the prosecution knows so little of dramatic construction, else it would have equipped itself with better dramatic material to sustain the continuity of the play. As it was, the third act fell flat, utterly, and presents the question, Why such a tempest in a teapot? Gentlemen of the jury, my comrade and co-defendant having carefully and thoroughly gone into the evidence presented by the prosecution, and having demonstrated its entire failure to prove the charge of conspiracy or any overt acts to carry out that conspiracy, I shall not impose upon your patience by going over the same ground, except to emphasize a few points. To charge people with having conspired to do something which they have been engaged in doing most of their lives, namely their campaign against war, militarism and conscription as contrary to the best interests of humanity, is an insult to human intelligence. And how was that charge proven? By the fact that MOTHER EARTH and THE BLAST were printed by the same printer and bound in the same bindery. By the further evidence that the same expressman had delivered the two publications! And by the still more illuminating fact that on June 2nd MOTHER EARTH and THE BLAST were given to a reporter at his request, if you please, and gratis. Gentlemen of the jury, you saw the reporter who testified to this overt act. Did any one of you receive the impression that the man was of conscriptable age, and if not, in what possible way is the giving of MOTHER EARTH to a reporter for news purposes proof demonstrating the overt act? It was brought out by our witnesses that the MOTHER EARTH magazine has been published for twelve years; that it was never held up, and that it has always gone through the U.S. mail as second-class mail matter. It was further proven that the magazine appeared each month about the first or second, and that it was sold or given away at the office to whoever wanted a copy. Where, then, is the overt act? Just as the prosecution has utterly failed to prove the charge of conspiracy, so has it also failed to prove the overt act by the flimsy testimony that MOTHER EARTH was given to a reporter. The same holds good regarding THE BLAST. Gentlemen of the jury, the District Attorney must have learned from the reporters the gist of the numerous interviews which they had with us. Why did he not examine them as to whether or not we had counseled young men not to register? That would have been a more direct way of getting at the facts. In the case of the reporter from the New York Times, there can be no doubt that the man would have been only too happy to accommodate the District Attorney with the required information. A man who disregards every principle of decency and ethics of his profession as a newspaper man, by turning material given him as news over to the District Attorney, would have been glad to oblige a friend. Why did Mr. Content neglect such a golden opportunity? Was it not because the reporter of the Times, like all the other reporters, must have told the District Attorney that the two defendants stated, on each and every occasion, they would not tell people not to register? Perhaps the Times reporter refused to go to the extent of perjuring himself. Patrolmen and detectives are not so timid in such matters. Hence Mr. Randolph and Mr. Cadell, to rescue the situation. Imagine employing tenth-rate stenographers to report the very important speeches of dangerous trouble-makers! What lack of forethought and efficiency on the part of the District Attorney! But even these two members of the police department failed to prove by their notes that we advised people not to register. But since they had to produce something incriminating against Anarchists, they conveniently resorted to the old standby, always credited to us, "We believe in violence and we will use violence." Assuming, gentlemen of the jury, that this sentence was really used at the meeting of May 18th, it would still fail to prove the indictment which charges conspiracy and overt acts to carry out the conspiracy. And that is all we are charged with. Not violence, not Anarchism. I will go further and say, that had the indictment been for the advocacy of violence, you gentlemen of the jury, would still have to render a verdict of "Not Guilty," since the mere belief in a thing or even the announcement that you would carry out that belief, can not possibly constitute a crime. However, I wish to say emphatically that no such expression as "We believe in violence and we will use violence" was uttered at the meeting of May 18th, or at any other meeting. I could not have employed such a phrase, as there was no occasion for it. If for no other reason, it is because I want my lectures and speeches to be coherent and logical. The sentence credited to me is neither. I have read to you my position toward political violence from a lengthy essay called "The Psychology of Political Violence." But to make that position clearer and simpler, I wish to say that I am a social student. It is my mission in life to ascertain the cause of our social evils and of our social difficulties. As a student of social wrongs it is my aim to diagnose a wrong. To simply condemn the man who has committed an act of political violence, in order to save my skin, would be as unpardonable as it would be on the part of the physician, who is called to diagnose a case, to condemn the patient because the patient has tuberculosis, cancer, or some other disease. The honest, earnest, sincere physician does not only prescribe medicine, he tries to find out the cause of the disease. And if the patient is at all capable as to means, the doctor will say to him, "Get out of this putrid air, get out of the factory, get out of the place where your lungs are being infected." He will not merely give him medicine. He will tell him the cause of the disease. And that is precisely my position in regard to acts of violence. That is what I have said on every platform. I have attempted to explain the cause and the reason for acts of political violence. It is organized violence on top which creates individual violence at the bottom. It is the accumulated indignation against organized wrong, organized crime, organized injustice which drives the political offender to his act. To condemn him means to be blind to the causes which make him. I can no more do it, nor have I the right to, than the physician who were to condemn the patient for his disease. You and I and all of us who remain indifferent to the crimes of poverty, of war, of human degradation, are equally responsible for the act committed by the political offender. May I therefore be permitted to say, in the words of a great teacher: "He who is without sin among you, let him cast the first stone." Does that mean advocating violence? You might as well accuse Jesus of advocating prostitution, because He took the part of the prostitute, Mary Magdalene. Gentlemen of the jury, the meeting of the 18th of May was called primarily for the purpose of voicing the position of the conscientious objector and to point out the evils of conscription. Now, who and what is the conscientious objector? Is he really a shirker, a slacker, or a coward? To call him that is to be guilty of dense ignorance of the forces which impel men and women to stand out against the whole world like a glittering lone star upon a dark horizon. The conscientious objector is impelled by what President Wilson in his speech of Feb. 3, 1917, called "the righteous passion for justice upon which all war, all structure of family, State and of mankind must rest as the ultimate base of our existence and our liberty." The righteous passion for justice which can never express itself in human slaughter--that is the force which makes the conscientious objector. Poor indeed is the country which fails to recognize the importance of that new type of humanity as the "ultimate base of our existence and liberty." It will find itself barren of that which makes for character and quality in its people. The meeting of May 18th was held before the Draft Bill had actually gone into effect. The President signed it late in the evening of the 18th. Whatever was said at that meeting, even if I had counseled young men not to register, that meeting cannot serve as proof of an overt act. Why, then, has the Prosecuting Attorney dwelt so much, at such length, and with such pains on that meeting, and so little on the other meetings held on the eve of registration and after? Is it not because the District Attorney knew that we had no stenographic notes of that meeting? He knew it because he was approached by Mr. Weinberger and other friends for a copy of the transcript, which request he refused. Evidently, the District Attorney felt safe to use the notes of a patrolman and a detective, knowing that they would swear to anything their superiors wanted. I never like to accuse anyone--I wouldn't go so far as my co-defendant, Mr. Berkman, in saying that the District Attorney doctored the document; I don't know whether he did or not. But I do know that patrolman Randolph and Detective Cadell doctored the notes, for the simple reason that I didn't say those things. But though we could not produce our own stenographic notes, we have been able to prove by men and women of unimpeachable character and high intelligence that the notes of Randolph are utterly false. We have also proven beyond a reasonable doubt, and Mr. Content did not dare question our proof, that at the Hunts' Point Palace, held on the eve of registration, I expressly stated that I cannot and will not tell people not to register. We have further proven that this was my definite stand, which was explained in my statement sent from Springfield and read at the meeting of May 23rd. When we go through the entire testimony given on behalf of the prosecution, I insist that there is not one single point to sustain the indictment for conspiracy or to prove the overt acts we are supposed to have committed. But we were even compelled to bring a man eighty years of age to the witness stand in order to stop, if possible, any intention to drag in the question of German money. It is true, and I appreciate it, that Mr. Content said he had no knowledge of it. But, gentlemen of the jury, somebody from the District Attorney's office or someone from the Marshal's office must have given out the statement that a bank receipt for $2,400 was found in my office and must have told the newspapers the fake story of German money. As if we would ever touch German money, or Russian money, or American money coming from the ruling class, to advance our ideas! But in order to forestall any suspicion, any insinuation, in order to stand clear before you, we were compelled to bring an old man here to inform you that he has been a radical all his life, that he is interested in our ideas, and that he is the man who contributed the money for radical purposes and for the work of Miss Goldman. Gentlemen of the jury, you will be told by the Court, I am sure, that when you render a verdict you must be convinced beyond a reasonable doubt; that you must not assume that we are guilty before we are proven guilty; and that it is your duty to assume that we are innocent. And yet, as a matter of fact, the burden of proof has been laid upon us. We had to bring witnesses. If we had had time we could have brought fifty more witnesses, each corroborating the others. Some of those people have no relation with us. Some are writers, poets, contributors to the most conventional magazines. Is it likely that they would swear to something in our favor if it were not the truth? Therefore I insist, as did my co-defendant Alexander Berkman, that the prosecution has made a very poor showing in proving the conspiracy or any overt act. Gentlemen of the jury, we have been in public life for twenty-seven years. We have been haled into court, in and out of season--we have never denied our position. Even the police know that Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are not shirkers. You have had occasion during this trial to convince yourselves that we do not deny. We have gladly and proudly claimed responsibility, not only for what we ourselves have said and written, but even for things written by others and with which we did not agree. Is it plausible, then, that we would go through the ordeal, trouble and expense of a lengthy trial to escape responsibility in this instance? A thousand times no! But we refuse to be tried on a trumped-up charge, or to be convicted by perjured testimony, merely because we are Anarchists and hated by the class whom we have openly fought for many years. Gentlemen, during our examination of talesmen, when we asked whether you would be prejudiced against us if it were proven that we propagated ideas and opinions contrary to those held by the majority, you were instructed by the Court to say, "If they are within the law." But what the Court did not tell you is, that no new faith--not even the most humane and peaceable--has ever been considered "within the law" by those who were in power. The history of human growth is at the same time the history of every new idea heralding the approach of a brighter dawn, and the brighter dawn has always been considered illegal, outside of the law. Gentlemen of the jury, most of you, I take it, are believers in the teachings of Jesus. Bear in mind that he was put to death by those who considered his views as being against the law. I also take it that you are proud of your Americanism. Remember that those who fought and bled for your liberties were in their time considered as being against the law, as dangerous disturbers and trouble-makers. They not only preached violence, but they carried out their ideas by throwing tea into the Boston harbor. They said that "Resistance to tyranny is obedience to God." They wrote a dangerous document called the Declaration of Independence. A document which continues to be dangerous to this day, and for the circulation of which a young man was sentenced to ninety days prison in a New York Court, only the other day. They were the Anarchists of their time--they were never within the law. Your Government is allied with the French Republic. Need I call your attention to the historic fact that the great upheaval in France was brought about by extra-legal means? The Dantes, the Robespierres, the Marats, the Herberts, aye even the man who is responsible for the most stirring revolutionary music, the Marseillaise (which unfortunately has deteriorated into a war tune) even Camille Desmoulins, were never within the law. But for those great pioneers and rebels, France would have continued under the yoke of the idle Louis XVI., to whom the sport of shooting jack rabbits was more important than the destiny of the people of France. Ah, gentlemen, on the very day when we were being tried for conspiracy and overt acts, your city officials and representatives welcomed with music and festivities the Russian Commission. Are you aware of the fact that nearly all of the members of that Commission have only recently been released from exile? The ideas they propagated were never within the law. For nearly a hundred years, from 1825 to 1917, the Tree of Liberty in Russia was watered by the blood of her martyrs. No greater heroism, no nobler lives had ever been dedicated to humanity. Not one of them worked within the law. I could continue to enumerate almost endlessly the hosts of men and women in every land and in every period whose ideas and ideals redeemed the world because they were not within the law. Never can a new idea move within the law. It matters not whether that idea pertains to political and social changes or to any other domain of human thought and expression--to science, literature, music; in fact, everything that makes for freedom and joy and beauty must refuse to move within the law. How can it be otherwise? The law is stationary, fixed, mechanical, "a chariot wheel" which grinds all alike without regard to time, place and condition, without ever taking into account cause and effect, without ever going into the complexity of the human soul. Progress knows nothing of fixity. It cannot be pressed into a definite mould. It cannot bow to the dictum, "I have ruled," "I am the regulating finger of God." Progress is ever renewing, ever becoming, ever changing--never is it within the law. If that be crime, we are criminals even like Jesus, Socrates, Galileo, Bruno, John Brown and scores of others. We are in good company, among those whom Havelock Ellis, the greatest living psychologist, describes as the political criminals recognized by the whole civilized world, except America, as men and women who out of deep love for humanity, out of a passionate reverence for liberty and an all-absorbing devotion to an ideal are ready to pay for their faith even with their blood. We cannot do otherwise if we are to be true to ourselves--we know that the political criminal is the precursor of human progress--the political criminal of to-day must needs be the hero, the martyr and the saint of the new age. But, says the Prosecuting Attorney, the press and the unthinking rabble, in high and low station, "that is a dangerous doctrine and unpatriotic at this time." No doubt it is. But are we to be held responsible for something which is as unchangeable and unalienable as the very stars hanging in the heavens unto time and all eternity? Gentlemen of the jury, we respect your patriotism. We would not, if we could, have you change its meaning for yourself. But may there not be different kinds of patriotism as there are different kinds of liberty? I for one cannot believe that love of one's country must needs consist in blindness to its social faults, to deafness to its social discords, of inarticulation to its social wrongs. Neither can I believe that the mere accident of birth in a certain country or the mere scrap of a citizen's paper constitutes the love of country. I know many people--I am one of them--who were not born here, nor have they applied for citizenship, and who yet love America with deeper passion and greater intensity than many natives whose patriotism manifests itself by pulling, kicking, and insulting those who do not rise when the national anthem is played. Our patriotism is that of the man who loves a woman with open eyes. He is enchanted by her beauty, yet he sees her faults. So we, too, who know America, love her beauty, her richness, her great possibilities; we love her mountains, her canyons, her forests, her Niagara, and her deserts--above all do we love the people that have produced her wealth, her artists who have created beauty, her great apostles who dream and work for liberty--but with the same passionate emotion we hate her superficiality, her cant, her corruption, her mad, unscrupulous worship at the altar of the Golden Calf. We say that if America has entered the war to make the world safe for democracy, she must first make democracy safe in America. How else is the world to take America seriously, when democracy at home is daily being outraged, free speech suppressed, peaceable assemblies broken up by overbearing and brutal gangsters in uniform; when free press is curtailed and every independent opinion gagged. Verily, poor as we are in democracy, how can we give of it to the world? We further say that a democracy conceived in the military servitude of the masses, in their economic enslavement, and nurtured in their tears and blood, is not democracy at all. It is despotism--the cumulative result of a chain of abuses which, according to that dangerous document, the Declaration of Independence, the people have the right to overthrow. The District Attorney has dragged in our Manifesto, and he has emphasized the passage, "Resist conscription." Gentlemen of the jury, please remember that that is not the charge against us. But admitting that the Manifesto contains the expression, "Resist conscription," may I ask you, is there only one kind of resistance? Is there only the resistance which means the gun, the bayonet, the bomb or flying machine? Is there not another kind of resistance? May not the people simply fold their hands and declare, "We will not fight when we do not believe in the necessity of war"? May not the people who believe in the repeal of the Conscription Law, because it is unconstitutional, express their opposition in word and by pen, in meetings and in other ways? What right has the District Attorney to interpret that particular passage to suit himself? Moreover, gentlemen of the jury, I insist that the indictment against us does not refer to conscription. We are charged with a conspiracy against registration. And in no way or manner has the prosecution proven that we are guilty of conspiracy or that we have committed an overt act. Gentlemen of the jury, you are not called upon to accept our views, to approve of them or to justify them. You are not even called upon to decide whether our views are within or against the law. You are called upon to decide whether the prosecution has proven that the defendants Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman have conspired to urge people not to register. And whether their speeches and writings represent overt acts. Whatever your verdict, gentlemen, it cannot possibly affect the rising tide of discontent in this country against war which, despite all boasts, is a war for conquest and military power. Neither can it affect the ever increasing opposition to conscription which is a military and industrial yoke placed upon the necks of the American people. Least of all will your verdict affect those to whom human life is sacred, and who will not become a party to the world slaughter. Your verdict can only add to the opinion of the world as to whether or not justice and liberty are a living force in this country or a mere shadow of the past. Your verdict may, of course, affect us temporarily, in a physical sense--it can have no effect whatever upon our spirit. For even if we were convicted and found guilty and the penalty were that we be placed against a wall and shot dead, I should nevertheless cry out with the great Luther: "Here I am and here I stand and I cannot do otherwise." And gentlemen, in conclusion let me tell you that my co-defendant, Mr. Berkman, was right when he said the eyes of America are upon you. They are upon you not because of sympathy for us or agreement with Anarchism. They are upon you because it must be decided sooner or later whether we are justified in telling people that we will give them democracy in Europe, when we have no democracy here? Shall free speech and free assemblage, shall criticism and opinion--which even the espionage bill did not include--be destroyed? Shall it be a shadow of the past, the great historic American past? Shall it be trampled underfoot by any detective, or policeman, anyone who decides upon it? Or shall free speech and free press and free assemblage continue to be the heritage of the American people? Gentlemen of the jury, whatever your verdict will be, as far as we are concerned, nothing will be changed. I have held ideas all my life. I have publicly held my ideas for twenty-seven years. Nothing on earth would ever make me change my ideas except one thing; and that is, if you will prove to me that our position is wrong, untenable, or lacking in historic fact. But never would I change my ideas because I am found guilty. I may remind you of two great Americans, undoubtedly not unknown to you, gentlemen of the jury; Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. When Thoreau was placed in prison for refusing to pay taxes, he was visited by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Emerson said: "David, what are you doing in jail?" and Thoreau replied: "Ralph, what are you doing outside, when honest people are in jail for their ideals?" Gentlemen of the jury, I do not wish to influence you. I do not wish to appeal to your passions. I do not wish to influence you by the fact that I am a woman. I have no such desires and no such designs. I take it that you are sincere enough and honest enough and brave enough to render a verdict according to your convictions, beyond the shadow of a reasonable doubt. Please forget that we are Anarchists. Forget that it is claimed that we propagated violence. Forget that something appeared in MOTHER EARTH when I was thousands of miles away, three years ago. Forget all that, and merely consider the evidence. Have we been engaged in a conspiracy? has that conspiracy been proven? have we committed overt acts? have those overt acts been proven? We for the defense say they have not been proven. And therefore your verdict must be not guilty.

But whatever your decision, the struggle must go on. We are but the atoms in the incessant human struggle towards the light that shines in the darkness--the Ideal of economic, political and spiritual liberation of mankind!

Source: A copy of this speech is located at <http://sunsite3.berkeley.edu/Goldman/Writings/Speeches/170709.html>.
Copyright Information: Gifts of Speech is not aware of any copyright in the speech reprinted above. Any use of this speech should, however, show proper attribution to its author
.

http://gos.sbc.edu/g/goldman5.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Great Train Wreck of 1918

The Great Train Wreck of 1918 occurred on July 9, 1918, in Nashville, Tennessee. Two passenger trains, operated by the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway ("NC&StL"), collided head-on, killing 101 people and injuring an additional 171. It is considered the deadliest rail accident in United States history.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_train_wreck_of_1918
Zie ook http://www.nashvillepost.com/news/1997/7/9/because_somebody_blundered_news_of_the_dutchmans_curve_disaster
Zie ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BB-_wEiy2wI
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Jul 2010 22:10, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 Australians in France: Peaceful Penetration

The months of April - July 1918 were a hiatus for Australian troops from any major battles. Fresh troops from the United States arrived in France and joined British and French forces in launching a counter-offensive in response to the Germans' March offensive. However, this did not stop Australian troops from remaining active! They engaged in tactics known as "peaceful penetrations" along lines where they had held the Germans' attack.

Peaceful penetration involved aggressive patrolling and capturing pockets of German prisoners and small positions on the front lines at Amiens, Hbuterne and Hazebrouck, slowly and steadily advancing the Allied front line. Such penetrations were spontaneous and independent. Although these were small scale operations, by 8 July, almost 3 miles had been added to the front, and 1,000 German prisoners had been captured, as well as weapons and supplies. Working in small groups and on their own initiative, Australian soldiers demonstrated their strength and skill in this type of attack. It would seem that Australian soldiers believed all they needed was a cocky attitude, and Germans would readily surrender to them!

In mid-July 1918, Gunner J.R. Armitage wrote:

Stories were coming in of German dawn patrols going out to relieve their night outposts and finding them deserted. There seems to have been quite a bit of this most mysterious and demoralising things happening and it appeared that blackened Australian infantry parties would sneak out, surprise these outposts and, at the point of cold steel, bring them back without firing a shot!

In an example of "peaceful penetration" on 9 July 1918, Captain John Herbert Farrell MM, 6th Battalion, single-handedly captured a German gun crew of eight men and their machine gun near Merris.

Just before going into the line at Merris, Captain Carne said to Blue (Farrell) - "I am going to send you to a N.C.O. School when we come out of the line." Bluey dropped his bundle and said - "Cripes, don't do that Captain." Captain Carne humourously replied- "Well Farrell, if you bring me in a little Fritz for identification purposes, I won't send you."

That night Captain Carne was sitting in his dugout, when to his surprise there arrived five Fritzes and Bluey with a Fritz Machine Gun on his shoulder. He grinned, saluted and just said "No School."

From Ce Ne Fait Rien [No Worries], Magazine of the 6th Battalion.

Tragically, Farrell was later killed in action on 28 September 1918.

http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/1918/battles/peacepen.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Forgotten Battlefields – Canadians in Siberia 1918-1919
by Ian C.D. Moffat

(...) On 9 July 1918, the DMO wrote to W. Newton Rowell, the President of the Canadian Privy Council in Borden’s Government, who was then in England after touring the Western Front. Radcliffe asked Rowell to approach the Canadian Prime Minister with a request for troops. Major-General Bridges, the British military representative in Washington, had discussed the possibility of Canada supplying troops for a Siberian expedition with Canadian government ministers and the Canadian General Staff during the previous week in Ottawa. (...)

http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no3/moffat-eng.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jul 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ARMY WARRANT OFFICER HISTORY

The official birthday of the Army Warrant Officer Corps is July 9, 1918.

http://penfed.org/usawoa/woheritage/Hist_of_Army_WO.htm
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U.S. Army Individual Decorations

Distinguished Service Cross

a. The Distinguished Service Cross, section 3742, title 10, United States Code (10 USC 3742), was established by Act of Congress 9 July 1918 (amended by act of 25 July 1963).

b. The Distinguished Service Cross is awarded to a person who while serving in any capacity with the Army, distinguished himself or herself by extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of a Medal of Honor; while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing or foreign force; or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing Armed Force in which the United States is not a belligerent party. The act or acts of heroism must have been so notable and have involved risk of life so extraordinary as to set the individual apart from his or her comrades.

Distinguished Service Medal

a. The Distinguished Service Medal, section 3743, title 10, United States Code (10 USC 3743), was established by Act of Congress 9 July 1918.

b. The Distinguished Service Medal is awarded to any person who while serving in any capacity with the U.S. Army, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. The performance must be such as to merit recognition for service which is clearly exceptional. Exceptional performance of normal duty will not alone justify an award of this decoration.

c. For service not related to actual war, the term "duty of great responsibility" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war and requires evidence of conspicuously significant achievement. However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of high positions of great importance.

d. Awards may be made to persons other than members of the Armed Forces of the United States for wartime services only, and then only under exceptional circumstances with the express approval of the President in each case.

Silver Star

a. The Silver Star, section 3746, title 10, United States Code (10 USC 3746), was established by Act of Congress 9 July 1918 (amended by act of 25 July 1963).

b. The Silver Star is awarded to a person who, while serving in any capacity with the U.S. Army, is cited for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party. The required gallantry, while of a lesser degree than that required for the Distinguished Service Cross, must nevertheless have been performed with marked distinction.

c. It is awarded upon letter application to Commander, PERSCOM, ATTN: TAPC-PDA, Alexandria, VA 22332-0471, to those individuals who, while serving in any capacity with the U.S. Army, received a citation for gallantry in action in World War I published in orders issued by a headquarters commanded by a general officer.

http://www.americal.org/awards/achv-svc.htm
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Treaty of Versailles

Germans of all political shades denounced the treaty—particularly the provision that blamed Germany for starting the war—as an insult to the nation's honour. They referred to the treaty as "the Diktat" since its terms were presented to Germany on a take-it-or-leave-it basis. Germany's first democratically elected Chancellor, Philipp Scheidemann, refused to sign the treaty and resigned. In a passionate speech before the National Assembly on 12 March 1919, he called the treaty a "murderous plan" and exclaimed,

Which hand, trying to put us in chains like these, would not wither? The treaty is unacceptable.

After Scheidemann's resignation, a new coalition government was formed under Gustav Bauer. After being informed that the army was not capable of any meaningful resistance, the new government recommended signing the treaty. The National Assembly voted in favour of signing the treaty by 237 to 138, with 5 abstentions. The foreign minister Hermann Müller and Johannes Bell travelled to Versailles to sign the treaty on behalf of Germany. The treaty was signed on 28 June 1919 and ratified by the National Assembly on 9 July 1919 by a vote of 209 to 116.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles
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The Westralian Worker - 9 July 1920 - Editorial

The Prince and Last Monday's Accident

This paper has never made any profession of belief in monarchy; neither has it taken much space in discussing the virtues of republicanism. Our position towards the throne is that so long as it exists by consent, it is not only to that extent safe, but, irrespective of theories, will not be savagely assailed in practice. Eight weeks ago we presented that point of view as the proper one for Labor to take towards the whole question of the British monarchy. It was a generalisation, courteously worded and sincerely put.

And as last Monday's railway accident exposed the Prince of Wales — and we speak of him here as the heir-apparent to the British throne — and a number of others to serious danger involving nothing short of life itself, we feel it demanded of us to publicly attest our deep satisfaction that the derailment of the Prince's carriage was unattended by physical injury of any kind to either himself or his companions on the train. We are opposed to assassination, be it either designed or accidental. The next era of the world may see the British Empire a republic, but we prefer that should it come it will not come along a pathway strewn with death or disaster for any — for kings or those who believe in the necessity for kings. That is another generalisation.

Last Monday's incident gives these reflections particular point. Good, bad, or indifferently the railways of this State are subject to the control of all the citizens. It is true that this control is attenuated by a long series of delegations until it is difficult to perceive the existence of any citizenship authority whatever. Nonetheless, the railways being the people's those who travelled to and from Big Brook last Monday were the guests of the State and that the Prince should make the journey was entirely approved by the community in so far as the community could indicate its approval. In all the circumstances, for the trip to have been attended by anything worse than actually occurred would have been deplorable in every sense — for long years we would all have felt the tragedy and the sorrow of it.

This paper applies its principles to princes no less than to peasants. We have our opinions on politics, constitutional problems, social economics and the government of men by men. These we stand to. And not one of them but urges us be thankful no lives were lost on Monday. We would that the Prince should live to a ripe old age filled with pleasure to himself and good works for civilisation; we wish it for him even as we wish it for men and women generally.

http://john.curtin.edu.au/railway/primeminister/editorial.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 7:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 9 July 1918 → Written Answers (Commons): PRISONERS OF WAR (HOLLAND).

Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) whether he can make any further statement as to the food of our interned prisoners in Holland; and whether food parcels are now forbidden to them?

Mr. J. HOPE This matter is being vigorously pressed by our Minister in Holland, in conjunction with the British delegates to The Hague Conference; but for the moment I can make no statement on the subject.

Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) 186W if his attention has been called to the June number of the "Groningen Camp. Magazine," in which there are large spaces which had contained censored matter; and who is the officer who censors such magazine, and under what authority?

Mr. HOPE The censorship, if any, of this magazine is, of course, exercised in Holland, but whether by a Dutch or British authority I have not been able to ascertain. I am inquiring further into the matter.

https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/written-answers/1918/jul/09/prisoners-of-war-holland
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09 July 1917: German Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, responds to his critics in the Reichstag (German parliament):

My position does not matter…I myself am convinced of my own limitations…I am considered weak because I seek to end the war. A leading statesman can receive support neither from the Left nor the Right in Germany

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/9-july-1917/
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Today in Irish History, 9 July 1917: The Death of Muriel MacDonagh

Muriel MacDonagh, wife of executed 1916 leader Thomas MacDonagh, outlived him by just one year. By Gerard Shannon

On 9th July 1917, just over a year following the execution of Thomas MacDonagh for his part in the Easter Rising, the MacDonagh family would be rocked by another tragedy with the sudden death of Thomas’ widow, Muriel that would leave both their children suddenly orphaned.

Muriel was an activist in her own right, with strong family ties with the radical politics and cultural revival of the period, and had herself been active in Maud Gonne’s radical nationalist women’s organisation, Inghinidhe na hÉireann (‘Daughters of Ireland)’.

Muriel’s sister Grace was the widow of rebel leader Joseph Plunkett whose ill-fated marriage became a powerful symbol of the loss in the aftermath of the executions, her sister Nellie fought with the Irish Citizen Army in St. Stephen’s Green, while her sister Sydney would become a prominent journalist and activist for the movement in Irish-America under the pen-name ‘John Brennan’.

Who was Muriel?

In 1885, Muriel Enid Gifford was born to parents Frederick and Isabella Gifford. Muriel was the eight child of the couple’s twelve children.[1]

Frederick and Isabella Gifford were both of upper middle-class origin and of unionist-leaning politics. The family home by the time of Muriel’s birth was a house built to the couple’s specifications known as ‘Temple Villas’ located on the Palmerstown Road, Rathmines.

The Giffords were a-typical of families of a similar class residing in the southside of Dublin city in the early twentieth century. Theirs was a mixed marriage, Frederick being Catholic and Isabella being Protestant. Though the custom known ‘Palatine Pact’ determined all children of a mixed marriage be raised Catholic, it is clear from family accounts that all the Gifford children were raised Protestant.[2]

The favourite parent of the Gifford children was Frederick, as Isabella was recalled as a stern matriarch, and much of the raising of the children was left to their nannies. Though remembered as a serious and humourless woman in written accounts, there is little doubt that Isabella took a keen interest in the happiness and well-being of her children.

One of the trips would involved summer visits to the beach in Greystones, where each of the children became adept at swimming. While Frederick took to teaching the boys, Isabella appointed a woman called Ellen, who ensured the girls, Muriel included, would all become strong swimmers. [3] This was in spite of the fact that Muriel had survived girlhood rheumatic fever with a weakened heart. It would be later, in 1915, when she became hospitalised with the dangerous blood clotting condition, phlebitis.[4]

Growing into adulthood, Muriel was described as a tall, striking woman with long red hair. It was generally felt she was the quietest individual amongst a family who were considered quite sociable and out-going. [5].

Thomas MacDonagh

A London-born journalist, called Mrs. Nora F. Dryhurst, would befriend the Gifford girls and bring them into a wider social circle ensuring that, as a result, the six Gifford sisters: Katie, Nellie, Ada, Grace, Sydney and of course Muriel became noted figures in the social and artistic life of the capital in the midst of the cultural revival.

Through functions, events and parties, Muriel and her sisters would come to meet John Butler Yeats, and his son Willie and Jack, Arthur Griffith, Countess Constance Markievicz, the journalist James Stephens, and many others.

A running joke with their father Frederick was the frequent comment when he would see them at home was: “What is the matter? I hope you are not ill.” [6]

Mrs. Dryhurst was keen to take them to a new school that had opened in 1908, and was first located on Oakley Road, Ranelagh – and later moved to Rathfarnham. This was ‘St. Enda’s’, a bilingual private school for boys, founded by the journalist and cultural nationalist Patrick Pearse. On the day it opened, the Gifford girls would meet Pearse, and also another one of the teachers, Pearse’s assistant and friend, Thomas MacDonagh.

Thomas McDonagh was born in 1878, originally from Cloughjordan, Co. Tipperary and had studied to become a priest, before eventually opting to become a teacher, a profession shared his parents. After teaching at several schools, in 1908, he was to join his friend Patrick Pearse at St. Enda’s. Through this period, right up the 1916 Rising, Thomas McDonagh would write plays and poetry of a nationalist theme, and many essays on Irish writing.

Described as short, but sturdy, with grey eyes and brown curly hair, Thomas McDonagh was known for his engaging personality and good humour; something that was certainly on display when he first met the Gifford sisters that included Muriel.

In a well-recalled anecdote on this first meeting, Mrs. Dryhurst advised Thomas that he ‘should fall in love with one of these girls and marry her!’

Displaying a quick wit, Thomas responded with: ‘That would be easy – but the only difficulty would be to decide which one!’[7] There is an alleged exchange with Patrick Pearse at this meeting, in which Pearse remarked to Thomas, “you should marry one of these girls”, to which Thomas replied, “I’ll have the beautiful one!”[8]

However, it was not until 1911 after an array of a social meetings that a romantic relationship between Thomas and Muriel would finally develop. Thomas for some time, was reeling from an earlier romantic rejection from a nationalist activist called Mary Maguire, who would later marry his friend, Padraic Colum. Muriel herself would also break off an engagement with another suitor to begin a relationship with Thomas.[9]

Their wedding took place on 3rd January 1912, at a temporary chapel later replaced by ‘Church of the No Name’ on Beechwood Avenue in Dublin. The ceremony was deliberately low-key, due to the ‘mixed’ nature of the marriage (i.e. Muriel being Protestant, Thomas being Catholic).
Muriel and Thomas’ son, Donagh MacDonagh, was the couple’s first child, born on the 12th November, 1912. Their second, Barabra, was born nearly three years later on the 24th March, 1915. The family would reside at their home on Oakley Road, in Raneleigh.

However, as much as these were happy times for the family, Thomas was being drawn into events that would forever change the political and social direction of the country. Unbeknownst to many who knew him – including his wife – over the two years priors to 1916, he had become drawn into a conspiracy involved the Irish Republican Brotherhood that sought to overthrow the British administration in Ireland with the use of the nationalist milita, the Irish Volunteers.

The Rising and Execution

Muriel left behind an account of the last time she saw Thomas before the outbreak of the Rising:

“For about a fortnight before the Rising my husband did not sleep in our house, No. 29 Oakley Road. There had been some detectives watching the house for some time previously. For the last week he would run in in the morning and say that he would not be able to stop for breakfast. I saw him for some time every day.… On Saturday my husband took a whole suit-case of things with him, including his uniform and emergency rations.

I saw my husband on the following day (Easter Sunday) about 4 o’clock. He came to the house at that hour. Five minutes after he came the two Pearses arrived and remained with him for about twenty minutes. After that my husband got a taxi and went to John (Eoin) MacNeill’s. He came back about 8 o’clock. I only saw him the presence of friends who were with us. He left the house about 10 o’clock. He had the taxi waiting for him at the door. He said: ‘I may or may not see you tomorrow – if possible, I will come in the morning.’ He did not say anything about the Revolution. I never saw him afterwards.

… A friend of ours saw him in Jacob’s, and said that the Volunteers they were in great form – that the only complaint they had to make was that they need not have needles for their gramophone, and that the soldiers did come out to fight.”[10]

Under Thomas’s command was the Jacob’s biscuit factory, which he and a group of 150 men seized on April 24th. Jacobs was a huge building, much larger than the Dublin City University and the National Archives Office buildings which occupy the site today. It is clear that its central location was why it was chosen by the insurgent, but after it’s seizure by the Volunteers by the end of Easter Monday, the garrison under Thomas saw little action in the week ahead.

After the surrender of the rebels, in the early hours of 3rd May, from his cell in Kilmainham Gaol, Thomas composed a final statement. Towards the end of this document, he addresses Muriel directly:
“My dearest love, Muriel, thank you a million times for all you have been for me. I have only one trouble in leaving life – leaving you so. Be brave, darling, God will assist and bless you. Goodbye, kiss my darlings for me. I have sent you the few things I have saved out of this war. Goodbye, my love, till we meet again in Heaven. I have a sure faith of our union there. I kiss this paper that goes to you. I have just heard that I have not been able to reach you. Perhaps it is better so…. God help and sustain you, my love. But for your suffering this would be all joy and glory. Goodbye. Your loving husband, Thomas MacDonagh.”[11]

In her account of the period, Geraldine Plunket Dillion, Joseph Plunkett’s sister, relates a story about Muriel on that fateful Tuesday of May 2nd. Having being brought a message by a private soldier that Thomas was to be shot, Muriel was not given a pass and was stopped at the cordons each time on the way to Kilmainham Gaol to see her husband.

She then attempted to get a message to administration in Dublin Castle. A sympathetic doctor named Hennessy helped Muriel find a phone located at a residence on Oakley Road, but the occupants refused to let her use it. [12]Another account suggests Muriel was unable to be collected to visit Thomas because there was still intense sniping by the Volunteers going on throughout the city on May 2nd.[13]

Perhaps due to a combination of all these obstructions, Muriel’s sister, Sydney would later suggest that because it would have taken Muriel three hours from the Oakley Road residence to reach the Gaol, the military authorities were simply unwilling to wait. In any case, Muriel learned of her husband’s execution in one of the stop-press editions of the daily newspapers.[14]

In a press interview in the aftermath of the executions, Muriel is recorded to have remarked to a reporter: “Someone told my little son… that the soldiers had killed his father – that was very unwise. Now the child screams at the sight of a soldier, and hides his face. He worshipped his daddy. I shall tell him the true story when he grows up.”[15]

Widowed

One of Thomas’ pressing concerns was how Muriel would be provided for after his death. Immediately after the Rising, financial support came pouring in (particularly from organizations in the United States), to make sure the co-dependents and children of the Rising leadership were not left broke and destitute.

This soon led to the creation of an organization to co-ordinate the stream of these donations, known as the ‘Irish National Aid Association’ and the ‘Volunteer Dependents’ Fund’ (INAAVDF), also referred to as the National Aid Association.

This organization did much to shape the popular memory of the 1916 Rising, transforming it from outright hostility to the rebels to a more sympathetic stance. It also ensured a steady stream of funds to families of the executed leaders, Muriel included.

Despite this assistance, Muriel had to move the family from Oakley Road to a flat at Marlborough Road, Donnybrook. Her mother, Isabella, once visited to give her £5.00. Isabella commented on how Thomas had left the family destitute. Muriel then handed the money back and told her mother she was not going to accept her money if she bad-mouthed her husband.[16]

In early 1917, there was a dramatic development involving her son, Donagh. Muriel had taken her two children to sit for photographs at Switzer’s department store in the city centre. These photographs were to be used by the National Aid Association as part of a pamphlet to raise money for the dependents of the Rising leaders and those imprisoned. Muriel and her two children were photographed together, and as Muriel and Barbara were being subsequently photographed, Donagh wandered off. As he did so, he fell down several flights of stairs and injured his back in several places.[17]

On May 3 1917, a year to the day since Thomas was executed, Muriel had an important development in her life, converting to Catholicism, the religion of her late husband and receiving Holy communion. She had grown close to Thomas’ sister, Sister Francesca, and had requested her attendance at the ceremony. On 3rd May, 1917 Muriel was received into the Catholic Church and received First Holy Communion.[18]

In July 1917, the National Aid Association had rented a house in the town of Skerries for the use of relatives of the Rising leaders for a short holiday. Muriel was reluctant to place Donagh in hospital, recalling her brief time as a nurse and the potential to catch infections. However, it was her sister Grace, the widow of Joseph Plunkett, who persuaded her to go to Skerries, saying she would not go unless Muriel did too. Muriel reluctantly agreed, and had Donagh put in hospital. She requested that the Capuchin priests, Father Albert and Father Aloysius, check on him from time to time.

At the time, dramatic events were unfolding in the electoral constituency of East Clare. The sole surviving commandant of the 1916 Rising, Eamon DeValera, was running as a Sinn Féin candidate in an important by-election that would determine if the republican ideals of Easter Week held sway over the Irish electorate.

He was also running on an anti-conscription platform, as it was feared that conscription would be enforced on the Irish populace as Britain was still engaged in the Great War. Joseph Plunkett’s father, George Noble Plunkett, had already won Sinn Féin’s first electoral victory in a by-election in Roscommon-North earlier that year, so DeValera’s prospects were seen as promising.

Skerries

On the trip to Skerries that July, the group included Muriel, her daughter, Barbara, Muriel’s sister (and Joseph Plunkett’s widow) Grace, Lillie Connolly (James Connolly’s widow) and their children Roddy, Fiona and Ina, Aine Ceannt (Eamon Ceannt’s widow) and her son, Ronan. Agnes Malin (Michael Malin’s widow) and her five children: Seamus, Sean, Una, Joseph and baby Maura. (In a latter recollection, Joseph Mallin would recall one of Pearse’s sisters also present, who was “wheeling me in a chair” around Skerries during the trip).[19]

Miramar have been a large holiday home based on Strand Street in the town centre, the structure later being demolished for what was a time the local Ulster Bank, and today the Rockabilly Restaurant stands at 41 Stand Street.

Though she enjoyed the surroundings and good weather, Muriel’s thoughts were very much directed towards her recovering son. She kept up a flurry of postcards to the recovering Donagh: “Dearest Don, this is a lovely place…” “Babbily came to meet me at the station with Aunt Grace”… “Babbily was in the sea today”… “Babbily is getting quite brown”… “I have a lovely surprise for you when I come home. Babbily is having a lovely time getting dipped in the sea.” Intriguingly, one postmarked on 8th July states: “Dearest Don, I had a lovely big swim today, and nearly got over to the island. [author emphasis] I’ll have some lovely seaweed and sea shells when we go back.”[20]

Several days into the holiday, on Monday, July 9th, 1917, the party of women and children assembled on the South Strand beach in the glorious weather. Just directly across from them was Shenick Island with it’s Martello Tower. Muriel and Grace took Barbara around the beach to collect shells, which Muriel placed in a cosmetic box for the daughter.

Shenick Island lies to the east of Skerries, and largest of the islands off the coast of the town. The Martello Tower on the island dates from the 19th century, when the British built defensive forts throughout the Empire. It’s name Shenick comes from the Irish for ‘sionnach’ meaning fox.

It was around 4.30pm that Muriel left the beach for her swim.[21]

Muriel’s reasoning to set out that far has been the result of much rumour and conjecture. One account that is noted by a biographer of Muriel sister’s Sydney is that it was a suicide, as she had been known to be a strong swimmer.[22] However, looking at contemporary accounts and the subsequent inquest suggest a somewhat less dramatic, but no less tragic, series of events.

Another well-known account that has held strong in the near-century since suggests Muriel wanted to raise the tricolour flag over the Martello Tower on Shenick Island. [23] Decades later, Grace later told a family member that the idea had come about when there had been a lot of Union Jacks flying along the beach, and the nationalist families had put a tricolour flag along the tent they were using. Two men of the Royal Irish Constabulary had arrived on the scene had told them to take it down, and when they left, Muriel told the group, “I’ll put that flag where they can’t get it.”[24]

While not discounting Grace as an important eyewitness, it should also be noted the story of raising the flag was never reported at the later inquest nor in contemporary newspaper accounts. A tricolour flag was never mentioned to have been found near Muriel’s body. One suggestion she had a bathing cap in the colours of a tricolour, however likely, this is only conjecture.[25] It is also possible that while the idea was talked about, it was not Muriel’s intention as she set out on her initial swim.

Indeed, one recorded exchange between Muriel and Ina Connolly, as the former told her to look after Barbara was Ina joking with Muriel: “I will not [look after Barbara] unless you promise not to swim to the island.” Muriel smiled and promised she would not.[26]

In any case, as Muriel swam out, she was pulled out by the strong tidal current in front of Shenick Island. Ina Connolly would recall at the inquest that the crowd on the beach, herself included, called out for Muriel to return.[27] While Muriel waved back to indicate she as fine, it soon became clear she was in some sort of distress. Her sister Grace would recall saying to the group, “My goodness! She’s an awful distance out!” Moments later, Muriel disappeared beneath the water.[28]

Pandemonium immediately set in amongst the group on the beach. A screaming Barbara, having witnessed her mother disappear, was removed from the scene into a house nearby.[29] Grace, and several men, went to another nearby house to commander a boat to head out towards the Island. At the house in question, they were refused the use of oars by a servant.

At the later inquest, an RIC Constable John Burke, said the homeowner (one Sir John Griffith) and his family were not in the house at the time and the servant said that she had not understood what the lady wanted the use of the oars for. The servant also informed the constable that a lady wearing a soldier’s badge – likely Cumann na mBan – asked for the oars but was again refused. Grace said at the inquest she did not feel the oars were refused due to ignorance.[30]

A rowing boat eventually set out for the direction of Shenick Island eventually commandeered by Noel Lemass, a young Volunteer recovering from his wounds suffered during Easter Week in Skerries, as well as an off-duty British officer who accompanied him.[31]

After other boats and search parties set out, Muriel’s body found was found at around 7.30am the following morning about a quarter of a mile away from where she was last seen. It would be an old friend of her husband’s, Commandant Rory O’Connor of the Irish Volunteers, who later arrive in Skerries and identify her body. [32]

The later inquest would say “When the body was found, it was lying face downward with the hands crossed.” A Dr. Healy would state at this inquest, that because of the position of the hands and no water in the lungs, he concluded that heart failure due to exhaustion was the cause of death.[33] When she died, Muriel was 31 years old.

As Barbara later told her family, in the confusion and panic over her mother, she had gone missing. Though later located, a peculiar aspect of this tale tells that the young Barbara somehow found her way to house and was later found banging on the door of the locked room where her mother’s body was located, screaming over and over for her ‘Mammily’.[34]

An inquest was held by the Deputy Coroner, Mr. Thomas Early, on the afternoon on locating the body in Skerries. Ina Connolly and Muriel’s sister, Grace, were among the witnesses called. Before the jury retired at the inquest, Grace made the suggestion that there should be lifebuoys or boats placed on the strand. On returning, this inquest would go on to determine that the deceased had died of heart failure, due to shock or exhaustion.

The inquest ended with an expression of deepest sympathy with Muriel’s family and friends.[35]

Funeral

The radical newspaper The Irish Citizen, recalling Muriel’s activism in nationalist politics, would remark that “this intensely tragic death… has removed another ardent suffragist from our ranks.” Many years later, the feminist activist (and Rising widow herself) Maude Gonne would recall in a letter that Muriel “was such a lovely girl.”[36]
The arrangements for the funeral fell to Rory O’Connor, Fathers Albert and Mr. Fred Allen, Secretary of the National Aid Association.[37]

In a letter found in the MacDonagh papers, Mr. Allen outlines the plans for the burial site. The National Aid Association had looked to a site in Glasnevin cemetery near the burial place of the Fenian O’Donovan Rossa, in what would become known as the Republican Plot.

Much of the desired burial site for Murial and Thomas was owned by the O’Rahilly family, as the Volunteer organizer, Michael O’Rahilly or ‘The Rahilly’, killed during the 1916 Rising was buried there. Mr. Allen then states ownership of the part of the plot designated for Muriel and her husband was now in the ownership of Thomas’ brother, Joseph.[38] The funeral was set for the 12th July, 1917.

A contemporary news report described the scene as Muriel’s coffin departed Skerries: ‘The chapel bell tolled the moment the remains left Miramar until it reached the station. Behind the hearse walked Father Albert, followed by the Volunteers of North Dublin, then came the children from Miramar carrying wreaths and near relatives and friends… the coffin covered with the tricolour was placed on the train and as it steamed out you could hear the sobs and lamentations of the vast crowd that thronged the little seaside station.’[39]

A larger contingent of Volunteers met Muriel’s coffin at Amiens’ Street Station from Skerries on the 11th July, and from there to the MacDonagh family home at Marelborough Road, Donnybrook. The next evening, around 9.30pm the coffin was removed. Draped ina tri-colour flag, Muriel’s coffin was then carried by a group of Volunteers to the horse-drawn hearse, the hearse then made it’s way to the Pro-Cathedral. Crowds thronged the streets for the funeral, while a large group of Muriel’s family and friends followed the hearse carrying wreaths.[40]

A contemporary article described what was perhaps the most striking sight of all, a contingent of up to 4,000 of the Irish Volunteers marching behind the hearse in perfect formation, about four deep.[41]

Many members of the Republican Movement were expected to attend, despite it being the aftermath of the famous by-election for Sinn Féin in East-Clare, which saw Easter Rising veteran Eamon DeValera elected. An article covering the election victory made note that Countess Markiveicz was leaving the celebrations early to return to Dublin for the funeral.[42]

As the funeral mass was conducted, the Volunteers assisted in keeping the roads and thoroughfares clear for the coffin’s final journey to Glasnevin. A family account says that as the mile-long funeral passed by the children’s hospital in the thousands, a nurse brought the still-recovering Donagh to the window and said, “That’s your mammy going by.”[43]

Now orphaned, Barbara and Donagh would find their custody being fought over by the MacDonagh and Gifford families in the years that follow. The Giffords would help raise the children until the death of Muriel’s father, Frederick, and then the MacDonaghs took the children. Thomas’ sister, Sister Francesca, was anxious that the children should receive a Catholic upbringing felt it would be best they would be raised by a family in foster care. The surviving Gifford sisters would try to take the MacDonaghs to Court over custody, however they would lose the case. In any event, Grace herself would remain close to Barbara and Donagh until her death in 1955.[44]

Donagh MacDonagh himself would become a famous playwright and poet, as well as a distinguished judge.

While attending UCD, Barbara would study to be a librarian, and while at the college, met her husband, Liam Redmond. They would marry, and Barbara from then on, was devoted to raising her family.[45]

For the rest of Barbara’s life, she kept the little eau-de-cologne cardboard box containing the seashells she collected with her mother in Skerries in 1917. This was later provided on loan to Kilmainham Gaol Museum by Barbara’s daughter, where it can be seen as part of the ‘Last Words’ exhibition specifically in the display related to Thomas MacDonagh; a poignant symbol of what became a devastating double-tragedy for the young MacDonagh children.

References
[1] See Clare, Anne, Unlikely Rebels: The Gifford Girls and the Fight for Irish Freedom, Mercier Press, Cork (2011), page 30
[2] See O’Neill, Marie, Grace Gifford Plunkett and Irish Freedom: Tragic Bride of 1916, Irish Academic Press, Dublin (2000), page 4; author conversation with Muriel McAuley, granddaughter of Muriel MacDonagh, January 2013
[3] Clare, page 45
[4] Redmond, Lucille, article entitled ‘The Lady Vanishes’, Skerries News Vol. 19, No. 8, Dublin (October 2008)
[5] Parks, Edd W. and Aileen Wells, Thomas MacDonagh: the man, the patriot, the writer, University Georgia Press, Athens (1967), page 27
[6] Clare, page 67; Czira, Sidney Gifford, (edited, Hayes, Alan), The Years Flew By: Recollections of Madame Sidney Gifford Czira, Arlen House, Galway (2000), page 30
[7] O’Neill, page 10
[8] Short biography of Muriel MacDonagh, written by Muriel McAuley and kindly given to author, early 2013.
[9] For a detailed account of the courtship and marriage between Thomas and Muriel see McCoole, Sinead, Easter Widows, Doubleday Ireland, UK and Ireland (2014), pages 191 – 225
[10] Newspaper cutting of Muriel’s account of last seeing Thomas, National Library of Ireland Manuscript 20,646/2
[11] Mac Lochlainn, Piaras F., Last Words: Letters and Statements of the Leaders Executed After the Rising at Easter 1916, Office of Public Works, Dublin (2001), pages 61 – 63
[12] Geraldine Plunkett Dillion, All in the Blood: A memoir of the Plunkett family, the 1916 Rising and the War of Independence, A. & A. Farmar Ltd, Dublin (2006), pages 230 – 231
[13] Bateson, Ray, They Died By Pearse’s Side, Irish Graves Publications, Dublin (2014), page 145
[14] Czira, page 22
[15] McCoole, page 263
[16] Short biography of Muriel MacDonagh, by Muriel McAuley, donated to author.
[17] In conversation with Muriel McAuley, January 2013.
[18] Short biography of Muriel MacDonagh, by Muriel McAuley, donated to author.
[19] Video interview with Father Joseph Mallin, written and directed by Marcus Howard, see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hzaET7zxZy8
[20] Postcards from Muriel to Donagh MacDonagh, the MacDonagh Papers, MS 44,321/5
[21] Redmond, Lucille, ‘The Lady Vanishes’, Skerries News, Vol. 19 No. 8
[22] Hayes, The Years Flew By, page xx
[23] Clare, page 200
[24] Short biography of Muriel MacDonagh, by Muriel McAuley, donated to author.
[25] In conversation with Lucille Redmond, June 2013.
[26] McCoole, page 286
[27] Nenagh News. (See previous)
[28] Redmond, Lucille, ‘The Lady Vanishes’, Skerries News, Vol. 19 No. 8
[29] Same as previous.
[30] Nenagh News. (See previous).
[31] McCoole, page 287
[32] Nenagh News. (See previous).
[33] Nenagh News. (See previous).
[34] Redmond, Lucille, ‘The Lady Vanishes’, Skerries News, Vol. 19 No. 8
[35] Nenagh News. (See previous)
[36] Both referred to in Hayes, As The Years Flew By, page xx.
[37] Nenagh News. (See previous)
[38] National Aid Association plan for MacDonagh family plot, NLI MS 24,376
[39] From an Irish Times newspaper report, partially transcribed at McCoole, page 288
[40] Article from unknown newspaper published on Saturday, July 14th, 1917 donated to author by Muriel McAuley.
[41] Newspaper clipping (with photograph) from unknown newspaper published Saturday, 14th July 1917 donated to author by Muriel McAuley.
[42] ‘The East Clare Result’, Nenagh Guardian, July 14th 1917, page 3
[43] Redmond, Lucille, ‘The Lady Vanishes’, Skerries News, Vol. 19 No. 8
[44] In conversation with Muriel McAuley, January 2013
[45] In conversation with Muriel McAuley, June 2013


http://www.theirishstory.com/2016/07/09/today-in-irish-history-9-july-1917-the-death-of-muriel-macdonagh/#.W0MHdtIzbIU
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 8:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kollock, Cornelius, to mother from Chattanooga, TN, 9 July 1917

Briefje... https://digital.scetv.org/teachingAmerhistory/pdfs/1917July9KollocktoMother.pdf
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9 July 1916; Sunday | The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot

Lay down on stretcher to sleep as Germans were putting Jack Johnsons[1] into the wood a few hundred yards away and we were in easy range. They were trying for the batteries behind us. Hurt knee on barbed wire on the night before and it was very painful. Marched down to Albert. Germans commenced to shell the town again. Were all done up, and were taken back to Laviéville by our motors. Got decent billet in a barn. Scraped clothing and cleaned up generally. Had a bathe and shave. First wash for 3 days. Plenty of tea. Bully again. Bread ration served out and I used some fresh butter received from home. Turned in early and slept well. Notes on front. Most horrible sight – men dying on top of dead. Coolness of some soldiers. Two soldiers trembling with fear †who were† to go over the top last Sunday morning. Our aeroplanes complete mastery of the air. German artillery not to be compared with ours.

[1] Jack Johnsons: German 150 mm heavy artillery shells, which burst with characteristic black smoke. After the boxer Jack Johnson (1878-1946), the first black American world heavyweight champion (1908-1915).

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2016/07/09/9-july-1916-sunday/
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WALTER DRAYCOTT’S GREAT WAR CHRONICLE
North Vancouver Museum & Archives

Sunday 9 July 1916 – fine
Tom Draycot calls & we saunter out for an hour. I give him a waterproof cape. Enemy dropping bombs around our camp.

http://greatwarchronicle.ca/2016/07/09/sunday-9-july-1916-fine/
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The Battle of the Somme film

Shot and screened in 1916, The Battle of the Somme was the first feature length documentary about war. In the first three months of its release the film was seen by around 20 million people in Britain and Ireland, informing and challenging the public with its images of warfare, and changing the way both cinema and film was perceived.

The film was shot by just two cameramen; Geoffrey Malins and J B McDowell. Filming took place between 25 June and 9 July 1916, covering the build-up and opening stages of the Battle of the Somme. The film is definitely a propaganda film, though it is filmed and presented in the style of a documentary, and was made in response to a real desire from the British public for news of and images from the battlefront. It was created to rally civilian support, particularly for the production of munitions, and British soldiers are portrayed as well-fed, respectful to prisoners and well-looked after.

The structure of the film is simple; the first two reels cover the preparations for the infantry attack, the third reel covers the attack on the 1 July 1916 and the next two, the aftermath of the battle. Anticipating the desire of the audience to spot their loved ones, the cameramen captured as many faces as possible, often encouraging the men to turn and acknowledge the camera. The inter-titles, written by the War Office, are a crucial element of the film. They provide commentary, point out important details, guide the audience to an appropriate response, reinforce propaganda messages, and reassure the viewer. Some scenes such as the ‘over the top’ sequence are now understood to have been staged. However, historians estimate that overall only 90 seconds of the film was staged. An estimated 13% of the film depicts images of wounded or dead soldiers including some distressing images of communal graves. The depiction of British dead is unique to this film in the history of British non-fiction cinema. Despite the depiction of death and injury throughout the film, the overall feeling remains that the Battle of the Somme was a military success.

The film was first privately shown to David Lloyd George on the 2 August 1916 and the first major screening took place on 10 August at the Scala Theatre, Soho, London. The Battle of the Somme continued to be distributed for at least five months afterwards. By October 1916, the film had received around 20 million admissions – the UK population at the time was 43 million.

The Battle of the Somme was filmed on the front line at great personal danger to the cameramen, and offered audiences a unique, almost tangible link to their family members on the battlefront. Contemporary reactions to the film varied greatly; some members of the public thought the scenes of the dead were disrespectful or voyeuristic. There was debate in the newspapers and at least one cinema manager refused to show it. But most people believed it was their duty to see the film and experience the ‘reality’ of warfare. The popularity of the film helped raise the status of film from a trashy form of mass-entertainment to a more serious and poignant form of communication.

The Imperial War Museum took ownership of the film in 1920, and in 2002 undertook digital restoration of the surviving elements. A new orchestral score was commissioned from Laura Rossi in 2006 and in 2005 the film was listed on UNESCO’s ‘Memory of the World’ register – one of the first films, and the first British document of any kind, to be listed. The Battle of the Somme film remains the source of many of the conflict’s most iconic images, from the ‘over the top’ sequence to the piggy-back rescue in the trenches, and continues to have great importance not only as a record of war but as a piece of cinema.

Dr Toby Haggith, Senior Curator, IWM, http://www.1914.org/the-battle-of-the-somme-film/
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9 July (1916): D. H. Lawrence to Catherine Carswell

Due to his poor health, D. H. Lawrence was declared unfit for service in World War I. Here, Lawrence writes to his friend and future biographer Catherine Carswell, condemning the practice of military conscription and questioning the Christian doctrine of loving one’s neighbor as oneself.

Higher Tregerthen, Zennor,
St. Ives, Cornwall.
9th July, 1916.

My dear Catherine,—

I never wrote to tell you that they gave me a complete exemption from all military service, thanks be to God. That was a week ago last Thursday. I had to join the Colours in Penzance, be conveyed to Bodmin (60 miles), spend a night in barracks with all the other men, and then be examined. It was experience enough for me, of soldiering. I am sure I should die in a week, if they kept me. It is the annulling of all one stands for, this militarism, the nipping of the very germ of one’s being. I was very much upset. The sense of spiritual disaster everywhere was quite terrifying. One was not sure whether one survived or not. Things are very bad.

Yet I liked the men. They all seemed so decent. And yet they all seemed as if they had chosen wrong. It was the underlying sense of disaster that overwhelmed me. They are all so brave, to suffer, but none of them brave enough, to reject suffering. They are all so noble, to accept sorrow and hurt, but they can none of them demand happiness. Their manliness all lies in accepting calmly this death, this loss of their integrity. They must stand by their fellow man: that is the motto.

This is what Christ’s weeping over Jerusalem has brought us to, a whole Jerusalem offering itself to the Cross. To me, this is infinitely more terrifying than Pharisees and Publicans and Sinners, taking their way to death. This is what the love of our neighbour has brought us to, that, because one man dies, we all die.

This is the most terrible madness. And the worst of it all is that it is a madness of righteousness. These Cornish are most, most unwarlike, soft, peaceable, ancient. No men could suffer more than they, at being conscripted—at any rate, those that were with me. Yet they accepted it all: they accepted it, as one of them said to me, with one wonderful purity of spirit—I could howl my eyes out over him—because “they believed first of all in their duty to their fellow man.” There is no falsity about it: they believe in their duty to their fellow man. And what duty is this, which makes us forfeit everything, because Germany invaded Belgium? Is there nothing beyond my fellow man? If not, then there is nothing beyond myself, beyond my own throat, which may be cut, and my own purse, which may be slit: because I am the fellow-man of all the world, my neighbour is but myself in a mirror. So we toil in a circle of pure egoism…

If they had compelled me to go in, I should have died, I am sure. One is too raw, one fights too hard already, for the real integrity of one’s being. That last straw of compulsion would have been too much, I think.

Christianity is based on the love of self, the love of property, one degree removed. Why should I care for my neighbour’s property, or my neighbour’s life, if I do not care for my own? If the truth of my spirit is all that matters to me, in the last issue, then on behalf of my neighbour, all I care for is the truth of his spirit. And if his truth is his love of property, I refuse to stand by him, whether he be a poor man robbed of his wife and children, or a rich man robbed of his merchandise. I have nothing to do with him, in that wise, and I don’t care whether he keep or lose his throat, on behalf of his property. Property, and power—which is the same—is not the criterion. The criterion is the truth of my own intrinsic desire, clear of ulterior contamination.

I hope you aren’t bored. Something makes me state my position, when I write to you…

I have finished my novel, and am going to try to type it. It will be a labour—but we have got no money. But I am asking Pinker for some. And if it bores me to type the novel, I shan’t do it. There is a last chapter to write, some time, when one’s heart is not so contracted…

Greiffenhagen seems to be slipping back and back. I suppose it has to be. Let the dead bury their dead. Let the past smoulder out. One shouldn’t look back, like Lot’s wife: though why salt, I could never understand.

Have you got a copy of Twilight in Italy? If not, I have got one to give you. So just send me word, a p.c.

Frieda sends many greetings.

Yours,

D. H. Lawrence

http://theamericanreader.com/9-july-1916-d-h-lawrence-to-catherine-carswell/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 8:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to F. E. Smith about Roger Casement (9 july 1916)

This letter was written by Arthur Conan Doyle on 9 july 1916 from Windlesham, Crowborough, to F. E. Smith about the Roger Casement case.

Dear Smith

Many thanks for your kind note. I loathe Casement's crime, and in the form I drew up I begin it by the statement that his guilt was great and his punishment just. I add however some reflections to show that it is not in Imperial interests that he should be made a martyr, as some fools will consider him. That is what he very earnestly desires. We will see what response we get. It's a good rule never to do what the enemy desires — five years hence we shall be glad.
Yours very truly
A Conan Doyle.
July 9.

https://www.arthur-conan-doyle.com/index.php?title=Letter_to_F._E._Smith_about_Roger_Casement_(9_july_1916)
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Second Lieutenant Kenneth Macardle

Kenneth Macardle fought on the Battle of the Somme's opening day, but was killed a week later while attempting to continue his battalion's advance.
Kenneth Callan Macardle was born in Dundalk, Louth, Ireland in 1890. When the First World War broke out he was working on his ranch in California, but he returned home to enlist and was commissioned as an officer in the Manchester Regiment. In February 1916 he was sent to France with a reinforcement draft. He was posted to the 17th Battalion, the Manchester Regiment, known as the 2nd Manchester Pals, part of the 30th Division.

Throughout the first half of 1916, the 17th Manchesters held the line around Maricourt and on 1 July their objective was the nearby village of Montauban. Despite having missed much of the intensive training for the battle, Macardle was chosen by his company commander for the assault.

After the first wave of the 30th Division advanced at 7.30am, the 17th Manchesters followed an hour later, moving through the captured German first line. Macardle described B Company's advance in his journal:

'A' Coy was in front of us, advancing in sections with about 20 paces between blobs in perfect order at a slow walk; a carrying party of Scots came next and then our Coy. Montauban was a mile and a quarter away and in between us and that heavily wooded village every inch of the ground was churned up and pitted with shell holes. It was impossible even to locate the German front line, his second was a great irregular ditch full of craters and fresh earth. We advanced in artillery formation at a slow walk. We led our sections in and out of the stricken men who were beyond help or whom we could not stop to help; it seemed callous but it was splendid war. Men crawling back smiled ruefully or tried to keep back blood with leaky fingers. We would call a cheery word or fix our eyes on Montauban – some were not good to see'.

Macardle and B Company entered Montauban at around 10am. His men took up a position on the east of the village and remained there, despite intensive shelling and heavy casualties, for 48 hours. Writing in his journal, Macardle noted that he had had no sleep for 60 hours and only 'two biscuits and a handful of prunes' to eat.

The battalion was relieved early on 3 July. Five days later it went forward again and around midnight on 8-9 July it was ordered to attack Trônes Wood. Now in command of A Company, Macardle led his men to the top of the wood, where he was killed in the confused fighting towards late afternoon.

His body was never recovered and today he is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.

https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/second-lieutenant-kenneth-macardle

JOURNAL OF LIEUTENANT K C MACARDLE

Journal kept by Second Lieutenant Kenneth Macardle from February 1916 until his death on 10 July, during the Battle of the Somme.

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/1030012135
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Letter, 9 July 1916 - Gertrude Bell to her stepmother, Dame Florence Bell

[9 July 1916] G.H.Q. Basrah [Basrah, Al (Basra)]. July 9 Dearest Mother. A letter of yours dated May 25 and one from Father of I think the 30th - I haven't it by me - also a cover said to enclose Printed Matter only, but not alas! enclosing even that, for the enclosure had slipped out. You both tell me of Maurice's new command and Father of his attempts to get him out to the front, which I devoutly hope will prove fruitless. The news of the great fighting in France is pure satisfaction, knowing that he is not there. I have no papers, by the way - not a single paper has reached me since I have been here. On the other hand I've had two parcels returned from Amarah ['Amarah, Al], they having taken a trip up the Tigris for fun I suppose. The only thing which hasn't reached me is the stockings I asked for and I confidently hope that they too will walk down from Amarah some day. My work at the Political Office continues to be delightful and I think it will prove valuable. I had a touch of fever this week and was off for a day but am now perfectly recovered - it was no more than the attack which I was nursed through by the old man in the mosque, you remember, and I may congratulate myself on having got through half the hot weather with quite exceptional immunity from all ills. George has just come back from Amarah - it seems to be the fashion to go there - with remarkable tales about the wild confusion which still reigns in the transport arrangements. It's difficult, I daresay it will even be impossible to assign the blame correctly, but human skill in organization and human foresight have seldom had a less satisfactory advertisement than in this campaign. Oh but it's a great game we're playing here, or we will play, please God and some day I shall have so much to say about the general principles of it. They are so simple and so obvious - and so apt to be neglected.
We've had some rather better days this last week, temp. something over 100 instead of something over 110 which makes a great difference. The first part of the night is always breathless and stuffy and it's clear that the annual north wind is a frost - we've had practically none this year and it's now too late to expect much. It's Ramadhan and the Mohammadans are abstaining from food and water all through the daylight hours. It must be awful in this weather - it's profoundly silly at any time and remarkably inconvenient now, for scarcely any work can be got through. How can you unload ships and tow boats upstream when you are starving and athirst? Ever your very affectionate daughter Gertrude

http://gertrudebell.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?letter_id=184
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 8:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 July 1915 - Sgt. Jean Antoine Magnin - Western Front Association

1309 Sgt. Jean Antoine Magnin, 133e Régiment d’Infanterie

Jean Antoine Magnin was born at La Ville, Rhône on 20th May 1891. In October 1912 he was living at 121, rue de Paris, Roanne, Loire when he was called into compulsory military service.

Enlisting into the 133e R.I. at Roanne, M. Magnin was serving at Pierre-Châtel at the time of the outbreak of war and was almost immediately in action at Cernay on 8th August 1914 during the opening moves of the Battle of Alsace (during which his regiment lost heavily… suffering some 1200 casualties in just 10 days of action).

After remaining in Alsace and the Vosges for the remainder of the year and into 1915, Magnin – by now promoted to Sergent – was killed in action at La Fontenelle, Vosges on 9th July 1915.

He is buried in the Nécropole nationale of ‘La Fontenelle’, Ban de Sapt, Vosges.

http://westfrontassoc.mtcdevserver.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/4883-9-july-1915-sgt-jean-antoine-magnin.html#sthash.4NIqOy5u.dpbs
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Letter to Kittie Calderon from Sir Ronald Ross, probably received 9 July 1915

Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) was an expert in tropical medicine who had been awarded a Nobel Prize in 1902 for establishing the life cycle of the malarial parasite in mosquitoes, which led to the successful combating of the disease. ‘Next Thursday’ is 15 July 1915. Ross was being sent to Alexandria for four months to investigate the epidemic of dysenteric diarrhoea in the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force at the Dardanelles.

Ross had a reputation for egocentricity and acerbity, so the tone and sensitivity of his letter to Kittie come as something of a surprise. It is possible that he was related to George’s great friend from St Petersburg times, the naval engineer Archibald Ross (1867-1931), and that Kittie had approached him through that connection, having been tipped off about Ross’s mission to Alexandria by Gertrude Bell.

It would be interesting to know what the ‘Encl.’ was that came with Ross’s letter. Clearly, Kittie had written to him presuming that George was now ‘missing’ and possibly a prisoner. The only other communication from Ross in Kittie’s archive is a handwritten letter from Alexandria dated 22 August 1915. In this, Ross relates that at Alexandria he could discover only that George was ‘missing’, but wrote to the CO of the 1st KOSB, Major G.B. Stoney, who replied that, in Ross’s words, ‘there is very little hope of your husband being alive’. With his August letter to Kittie, Ross enclosed Stoney’s letter and one from Captain Hogan (see my post of 5 July), neither of which has survived.

Ross’s son Ronald Campbell, described by him as ‘missing since last August’, had in fact been killed at Le Cateau in the retreat from Mons on 26 August 1914.

Lees de brief op https://georgecalderon.wordpress.com/2015/07/09/9-july-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 8:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WRIGHT Richard E (Sapper) - sick admitted to hospital 9 July 1915

Formulier... https://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/178609
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 8:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aanloop naar de Eerste Wereldoorlog: 9 juli 1914

Het is dit jaar 100 jaar geleden dat de Eerste Wereldoorlog begon. Erlend van Ark houdt vanaf 28 juni op Historiën een dagboek bij over de belangrijke gebeurtenissen in de aanloop naar de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Vandaag 9 juli 1914.

Donderdag 9 juli 1914

Londen. De regering in Groot-Brittannië houdt zich met andere zaken bezig dan de crisis op het continent. Zij voelen zich weinig betrokken, hoewel de Engelsen natuurlijk wel vriendschapsverdragen hebben met Frankrijk en Rusland. De minister van buitenlandse zaken, Grey is bang ruzie met een van beide landen ruzie te krijgen omdat dat de kwetsbare positie van het koloniale imperium zou kunnen aantasten.

De Duitse ambassadeur in Londen Karl Lichnowsky spreekt tegenover Grey zijn hoop uit dat Duitsland Oostenrijk-Hongarije zal afhouden van drastische maatregelen tegen Servië. (Lichnowsky wordt blijkbaar niet op de hoogte gehouden van wat er werkelijk speelt in Berlijn en Wenen). Grey wil dat graag geloven en verwijst derhalve alle berichten dat Oostenrijk-Hongarije bezig is een ultimatum op te stellen voor Servië naar het rijk der fabelen. Ook belooft hij aan Lichnowsky te proberen een drastische Russische reactie te voorkomen. De Engelsen stellen zich graag op als onpartijdige bemiddelaar.

http://www.historien.nl/aanloop-naar-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-9-juli-1914/
Bekijk ook het volledige overzicht van de aanloop naar de Eerste Wereldoorlog: http://www.historien.nl/aanloop-eerste-wereldoorlog-overzicht-van-dag-tot-dag/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 8:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chaplin: Film by Film - A Journey Through Charlie Chaplin's Movies from 1914 to 1967: Laughing Gas (9 July 1914)

Released: 9 July 1914, Keystone
Director: Charles Chaplin
Writer: Charles Chaplin
Duration: approx. 12 mins
With: Fritz Schade, Alice Howell, Joseph Sutherland, Mack Swain, Gene Marsh
Story: A visit to the dentist is more fun if Charlie Chaplin is the dentist’s assistant.

Production: A comical trip to the dentist became almost ubiquitous in the early days of silent film comedy and drew heavily on many vaudeville and music hall sketches, and the idea has been maintained through such talkie classics as Laurel and Hardy’s Leave ‘Em Laughing (1928) and the bit in their prison picture Pardon Us (1931), W.C. Fields’s The Dentist (1932, also produced by Keystone’s Mack Sennett) and Steve Martin and Bill Murray’s film stealing scenes in the remake of Little Shop of Horrors (1986, Murray replacing Jack Nicholson in the 1960 Roger Corman original).

For Charlie Chaplin the horrors of a trip to the dentist were all-too-real, with members of his family remembering how difficult it was to get him to visit one, his resistance resulting in very few experiences like that depicted in Laughing Gas. All the more remarkable, then, that Chaplin was able to put aside his own feelings and exploit the idea for all its comic worth, although as late as King in New York (1957), Chaplin still used film to complain about dentists. As well as drawing upon the wide range of real life topics film comedies were beginning to exploit, Chaplin was also recalling a well toured Fred Karno sketch that he’d seen on many occasions although never featured in himself.

In adapting that source material to film, Chaplin opened things up beyond the stage set, adding a trip to the drug store to get the film out of the dentist’s surgery itself. Despite this, and despite the advances Chaplin was showing in his filmmaking, Laughing Gas is a rather typical, straight forward Keystone slapstick comedy in which Chaplin takes the leading role, but he does little that is truly innovative. Perhaps time was against him, given the speed with which these films were produced? Or perhaps his increasing problems with Mack Sennett and Keystone (he’d soon jump ship to set up shop at Essanay, where he’d be offered much more creative freedom) were restricting his willingness to be inventive while still under the Keystone banner?

Chaplin is the assistant to Dr Pain, the dentist, (some sources claim Chaplin’s merely a janitor), who takes the first chance he gets to have a go at the patients himself. Dispatched to the drug store, he manages to create some new patients (one of them is Chaplin/Keystone regular Mack Swain) by hitting people in the face with bricks—this is clearly the crueller, more self-absorbed version of the Tramp. There’s a lot of running and falling about and plenty of slapstick business which probably kept contemporary audiences amused, but there is precious little in the way of character development or unique comedy situations, the kind of things Chaplin had begun exploring in film.

From today’s more sophisticated viewpoint, the tooth pulling shenanigans on display in Laughing Gas appear particularly primitive; it’s all pliers and heavy tugging to solve any dental problems. Despite its nickname, nitrous oxide—the ‘laughing gas’ of the title—doesn’t actually lead to outbreaks of hysterics as depicted here.

The street scenes give us a more traditional setting for the Tramp character, and his encounter with Mack Swain, who is blocking the way in to the drug store, is one of this short’s highlights. Chaplin gets to do his typical walk and roll his hat along his arm, while wielding his cane as an impromptu weapon. A pretty girl—later revealed to be the dentist’s wife (Alice Howell)—causes Chaplin to go skidding off in pursuit, leading to her losing her skirt (a bizarre subplot that also involves a visiting vicar!) and the brick tossing that sees Swain become a dental patient.

With the dentist away dealing with his wife’s wardrobe malfunction, Chaplin returns to the dentist’s office and takes the opportunity of his absence to take on the role of dentist himself. This leads to the funniest section of the short, with Chaplin beginning his treatment of a young female patient (the appealing Gene Marsh, later seen as a cavewoman in His Prehistoric Past) by shining her shoes. His contortions as he tries to pretend to be examining her teeth while (literally) getting his leg over get to the heart of the developing character of the more compassionate Tramp than anything else in the film.

Inevitably, in the Keystone way the climax is chaos as Swain and the other man hit by a brick recognise their assailant when they eventually arrive at the dentist’s office for treatment. Laughing Gas is formulaic comedy-by-rote, a by-the-numbers Keystone short only lacking a climax in the park. Chaplin doesn’t particularly do anything interesting from a scenario that was far from new. Perhaps the only really interesting thing to note is the way that in casting certain roles Chaplin went for significant contrasts in height, from the extremely tall patient who falls victim to his brick throwing to the tiny man (who looks like a young boy dressed up) who plays the other dental assistant and is tossed around by the larger characters. It’s just a shame that these odd choices have no relation to the theme or setting of the film.

Slapstick: Within a minute, Charlie’s flat on his back after an encounter with another dental worker. The climax features much pushing, shoving, and slapping around the dentist’s chair and waiting room.

Verdict: Better than a trip to the dentist, but only just…, 2/5

Even kijken mág... https://chaplinfilmbyfilm.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/laughing-gas-9-july-1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 14:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LOST HOSPITALS OF LONDON: Queen Alexandra Hospital Home
for Discharged Soldiers


Gifford House, Putney Park Lane, Roehampton, SW15

Medical character: 1915 - 1933

Chronic long-stay: In 1915 Gifford House was lent by Mr and Mrs John Douglas Charrington (of the brewery family) for use as an auxiliary hospital for convalescent servicemen. The house, located in 'Millionaire's Row', stood in its own grounds with a bowling green at the back - all surrounded by cypress trees.

Gifford House Auxiliary Hospital opened on 21st June 1915 and was affiliated to the King George Hospital in Stamford Street. It was a Grade A hospital, accepting cot cases (i.e. the bed ridden) and initially had 80 beds, which were soon increased to 140. It was staffed by members of the London/96 Voluntary Aid Detachment (V.A.D.) of the Order of St John.

In September 1915 the King and Queen visited the Hospital, as well as its neighbour, Queen Mary's Convalescent Auxiliary Hospital at Dover House.

By January 1916 the Hospital had 190 beds and, by August 1916, 210 beds.

After the war, by March 1919, the Hospital had 230 beds.

It was decided that the house should temporarily become a hospital-home for disabled ex-servicemen. Lady Ripon, the President of the Compassionate Fund and Gift Stores at the King George Hospital, had been determined to establish such an institution. However, she died in October 1917 before suitable premises could be found. Her friends, though, were determined to carry the project through in her memory.

The Charringtons offered the house for further use until the end of 1920, by which time it was hoped that a permanent site for the hospital-home would have been found.

On 9th July 1919 Queen Alexandra formally opened the Queen Alexandra Hospital Home for Discharged Soldiers (in memory of Lady Ripon).

The patients were discharged servicemen who needed continuing care. They had been referred by the Ministry of Pensions, who also gave a capitation grant to the Home.

In July 1919 the Hospital Home had over 100 beds, but only 51 patients - 41 of whom were paralysed. Most had been transferred from the King George Hospital. (In July 1919 one of the revolving shelters from the roof garden of the King George Hospital was also transferred to the Hospital Home).

The ground floor of Gifford House contained a ballroom, which had been converted into a ward for ambulant or wheelchair-bound patients. The first floor rooms were used for paraplegic patients. Female members of the V.A.D. undertook nursing care of the patients, dealing with their dressings, while male orderlies did the cooking and any manual work.

The house's concert room was converted into a Day Room for the patients; a slope was built to provide wheelchair access. A small billiard table was installed.

Despite being discharged from the Army, the patients lived under military rules and wore 'hospital blues' - the uniform of the convalescent soldier, which consisted of a saxe blue suit (the jacket lapels had to be clay-piped every day), a grey shirt, a red tie and a regimental hat and badge.

Breakfast was usually a hard-boiled egg with a hunk of bread, while the other meals were stew and dumplings or boiled beef. Each patient provided his own cutlery, as this was part of his kit as a serving soldier.

From time to time Mr Charrington would visit and give each patient one cigarette.

In December 1919 the first edition of The Gifford Journal was published, containing material provided by the patients and their visitors, and the staff.

In 1920 the Hospital Home became affiliated with the Tooting Neurological Hospital, also run by the Ministry of Pensions.

In July 1920 the workshops at the neighbouring Queen Mary Convalescent Auxiliary Hospital in Roehampton House closed. The Ministry of Pensions purchased their plant and two electric lathes, and installed them in the Massage Rooms of the Hospital Home. The Ministry provided all materials used during the instruction courses and, afterwards, patients could make items to sell using their own material. As well as carpentry as a therapeutic occupation, basket-making was introduced and, in 1922, mat- and rug-making.

For leisure and amusement, the Hospital Home had an orchestra and various clubs - the Camera Club, the Canary Club and the Pigeon Club (for which Mr Charrington loaned the lofts - these were in the grounds and therefore accessible to wheelchair users. Some 50 birds were kept). Outings and concerts were arranged, as well as charabanc trips (some patients went in ambulances) and river trips.

At the end of 1920 Mr Charrington agreed to offer the house for another 15 months, as a permanent site for the Hospital Home had not yet been identified.

The problems of impermanence at the site and financial insecurity continued to plague the management committee but, when Mr Charrington offered to sell the house and 14 acres of grounds to the committee for £30,000, the funds proved impossible to find. The Red Cross Society believed the patients should be transferred to its permanent home in Richmond - the Star and Garter Home, which was being built (it opened in 1924).

The Joint War Committee announced that it would cease to provide funding on 1st September 1924, although it did not.

In 1926 the Queen became Patron of the Hospital Home.

Finally, in 1932, a house in Boundary Road, Worthing, was identified as suitable premises for the Hospital Home. The patients were transferred there in August 1933, when it was renamed Gifford House in memory of its Roehampton origins.

The Roehampton site closed in September 1933.

https://ezitis.myzen.co.uk/giffordhouse.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 14:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

July 1919 | Weimarer Republik

9 July

The fifty-first session of the National Assembly, from 10:47am to 12:00pm and 12:25 to 1:10pm Statement by Foreign Minister Hermann Müller (SPD) on the “Bill concerning the peace agreement between Germany and the Allied and Associated Powers”; after emotional statements and protests, the act is ratified with 209 votes in favor and 116 votes against. [DNV, Vol. 4, pp. 191-212]

The fifty-second session of the National Assembly, from 3:25 to 8:13pm Deliberations on the tax laws continues in the form of a debate between Finance Minister Erzberger and the DNVP on a financial reform that has been needed for decades and the National Assembly’s competence in tax issues. The draft bills are relegated to three committees. The bills for the “German Reich Settlement Act” and the “Small Garden and Small-Rent Land Law” are relegated to the budget committee. [DNV, Vol. 4, pp. 213-249]

https://www.weimarer-republik.net/724-1-July-1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2018 14:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Elks Flag Day Resolution 1919

Description: Signed resolution of the 1919 Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks convention declaring itself to be patriotic and barring the membership of anarchists, socialists and members of the Industrial Workers of the World.
Date: 9 July 1919

Mooie oorkonde-achtig-iets... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Elks_Flag_Day_Resolution_1919.jpg
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