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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2006 6:27    Onderwerp: 6 juli Reageer met quote

1918 Czech troops take Russian port of Vladivostok for Allies

On July 6, 1918, troops of the Czech Legion, fighting on behalf of the Allies during World War I and for the cause of their own independent Czecho-Slovak state, declare the Russian port of Vladivostok, on the Pacific Ocean, to be an Allied protectorate, having gained control of the port and overthrown the local Bolshevik administration a week earlier.

When World War I broke out in the summer of 1914, the countries now known as the Czech Republic and Slovakia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now fighting with Germany against the Allies—Russia, France and Great Britain. Czechs who enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian army found themselves fighting against their countrymen—many Czechs had emigrated to Russia near the turn of the century, mostly settling in and around Kiev, the capital of Ukraine—and began to bristle under Austro-Hungarian rule and in many cases to surrender voluntarily to the Russian enemy. In 1917, Thomas Masaryk, a professor of philosophy, pan-Slavist and ardent Czech nationalist, began lobbying the Russian government to let him raise a full Czecho-Slovak army in Russia to fight against the Central Powers. After the abdication of Czar Nicholas II in March, the provisional government allowed Masaryk to go ahead with his plan, and the Czech Legion was formed.

Over the next year, however, the Russian war effort collapsed, amid crushing losses to Germany on the Eastern Front and inner turmoil, culminating in November, when the radical socialist Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized power from the provisional government and almost immediately called for an armistice with the Central Powers. The Czech Legion, finding itself abandoned by its Russian comrades, decided to keep up the fight. Blocked by German forces from joining the other Allies on the Western Front in France, they headed east, coming into conflict with Bolshevik forces along the way.

By the summer of 1918, the Czech Legion had reached the Russian Pacific port of Vladivostok, where they overthrew the local Bolshevik administration on June 29. On July 6, the legion declared the port to be an Allied protectorate. That same day, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson lauded the Czecho-Slovak contribution to the war effort, suggesting that some 12,000 Japanese troops be dispatched to Vladivostok in order to relieve the Czech Legion and allow them to proceed to the battlefields of France, a suggestion the Japanese accepted. On the following day, more Czech troops toppled Red army units and occupied the city of Irkutsk, in Siberia, spreading Allied control of the Russian Far East and Siberia just as Germany was consolidating its holds in southern Russia and the Caucasus.

In a statement issued on July 27, 1918, Masaryk, in his position as chairman of the Czecho-Slovak National Council, pointed to his countrymen currently fighting in Russia as a further argument for Allied recognition of their independence. In Masaryk’s words: “The Czecho-Slovak Army is one of the allied armies, and it is as much under the orders of the Versailles War Council as the French or American Army. No doubt the Czecho-Slovak boys in Russia are anxious to avoid participation in a possible civil war in Russia, but they realize at the same time that by staying where they are they may be able to render far greater services, both to Russia and the Allied cause, than if they were transported to France. They are at the orders of the Supreme War Council of the Allies.”

The following September, with World War I in its last months, U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing declared de facto recognition of the Czecho-Slovak republic as an independent state, with Masaryk as its leader. Based on the fighting in Russia by Czecho-Slovak forces against the Central Powers, Lansing wrote that “The Government of the United States further declares that it is prepared to enter formally into relations with the de facto government thus recognized for the purpose of prosecuting the war against the common enemy, the empires of Germany and Austria-Hungary.” The republic of Czechoslovakia—made up of the former Austro-Hungarian territories of Bohemia, Moravia, part of Silesia, Slovakia and sub-Carpathian Ruthenia—was subsequently proclaimed at Prague in October 1918.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Julicrisis 1914

(...) Op 6 juli 1914 zou keizer Wilhelm II gesproken hebben met de woorden "Het voor ons gunstige moment moeten we benutten!" Naar enkele historici zou echter Wilhelm II niet gerekend hebben met een Europees conflict en er ook niet op aangestuurd hebben, maar slechts vanuit plichtsgetrouwheid aan Wenen alle steun gegeven hebben. Die mening is misschien niet objectief, gezien vele Duitse historici niet vies waren van een vooringenomenheid tegenover het Duitse keizerrijk in de jaren na de oorlog.

http://duits.skynetblogs.be/post/5774696/oorlogsschuldvraag-julicrisis-1914-eerste-dee
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 'Blank Check'

After Sarajevo, Count Leopold von Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister, drew up a letter for the Emperor Francis Joseph to sign and send to Wilhelm II to try and convince both of Serbia's responsibility.
On July 6th, Wilhelm II and his Imperial Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, telegrammed Berchtold that Austria-Hungary could rely that Germany would support whatever action was necessary to deal with Serbia -- in effect offering von Berchtold a 'blank check.'

Telegram from the Imperial Chancellor, von Bethmann-Hollweg, to the German Ambassador at Vienna. Tschirschky, July 6, 1914

Berlin, July 6, 1914

Confidential. For Your Excellency's personal information and guidance

The Austro-Hungarian Ambassador yesterday delivered to the Emperor a confidential personal letter from the Emperor Francis Joseph, which depicts the present situation from the Austro-Hungarian point of view, and describes the measures which Vienna has in view. A copy is now being forwarded to Your Excellency.

I replied to Count Szagyeny today on behalf of His Majesty that His Majesty sends his thanks to the Emperor Francis Joseph for his letter and would soon answer it personally. In the meantime His Majesty desires to say that he is not blind to the danger which threatens Austria-Hungary and thus the Triple Alliance as a result of the Russian and Serbian Pan-Slavic agitation. Even though His Majesty is known to feel no unqualified confidence in Bulgaria and her ruler, and naturally inclines more to ward our old ally Rumania and her Hohenzollern prince, yet he quite understands that the Emperor Francis Joseph, in view of the attitude of Rumania and of the danger of a new Balkan alliance aimed directly at the Danube Monarchy, is anxious to bring about an understanding between Bulgaria and the Triple alliance [...]. His Majesty will, further more, make an effort at Bucharest, according to the wishes of the Emperor Francis Joseph, to influence King Carol to the fulfilment of the duties of his alliance, to the renunciation of Serbia, and to the suppression of the Rumanian agitations directed against Austria-Hungary.

Finally, as far as concerns Serbia, His Majesty, of course, cannot interfere in the dispute now going on between Austria-Hungary and that country, as it is a matter not within his competence. The Emperor Francis Joseph may, however, rest assured that His Majesty will faithfully stand by Austria-Hungary, as is required by the obligations of his alliance and of his ancient friendship.

BETHMANN-HOLLWEG

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_'Blank_Check'
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1 Naval Battles

Tuesday 6 July [1915] - Mersey (Cdr R Wilson) and Severn, river monitors, Humber-class, 1,520t, 2-6in/2-4.7in/4-3pdr, 140 crew, after operations off Belgian coast, both ships were due for service in the Dardanelles in March 1915. Sailed 28 April from Malta with fleet messenger Trent, four tugs and a collier, reached Aden 15 May and Mafia Island 3 June, made good defects, fitted with extra protection and exercised with spotting aircraft. German light cruiser Königsberg moored down the Kikunja channel, northernmost tributary of Rufuji delta and 10 miles from the sea. Mersey and Severn entered the channel at 0520 on 6th, immediately came under 3pdr, pom-pom and machine gun fire from shore defences, both hit, but undamaged, whalers Echo, Fly, Childers swept and sounded ahead, light cruisers Weymouth and Pyramus followed in support. By 0630, 6 miles or 11,000yds from Königsberg, anchored, waited for spotting aircraft and opened fire, Königsberg also had spotting station nearby and replied with salvoes. Neither monitor hit for an hour until at 0740, shell struck Mersey's foremost 6in gun shield and put gun out of action, shortly holed near the waterline and pulled back 1,000yds. Severn continued for half an hour, then both ships waited until a second spotting aircraft arrived at 1330, returned to original position and fired until 1530, Königsberg hit around 6 times. Withdrew to prepare for next attempt five days later; Mersey’s casualties were 4 ratings killed, 2 DOW and 2 wounded (Rn/Cn/dk)

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1Battle1507KonigsbergAction.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tuesday 6th July 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘A large enemy shell put one of the No9 Battery guns out of action and killed some of the crew yesterday. Just before sunset the enemy guns in the Olive Grove opened fire with shrapnel on our camp, it kept us all under cover while it lasted. But no damage was done. According to a headquarters report today the explosion we saw on Achi Baba last Sunday was caused by a 6inch enemy shell exploding in a French ammunition pit, it also stated that during the recent operations at Cape Helles, a body of the 10th Ghurkas were driven out of their trenched by an enemy bomb attack, but the position was retaken again in an attack made by the Inniskilin Fusiliers.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NEW ZEALAND NURSES - WORLD WAR ONE - JULY 1915

From - Evening Post (Wellington) - 6 July 1915 Page 8.

SERVICE ABROAD
New Zealand Nurses
Leaving by Hospital Ship
Names of those selected

Sixty-nine New Zealand nurses for service in the military hospitals in England are leaving on Saturday in the Hospital Ship. This completes the quota of 100 which the Dominion was asked to raise, and of which number 31 left on 21st May for service in Egypt and the Dardenelles.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/nznursesJuly1915.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Jul 2018 13:51, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dick's Diary - The 1916 war diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard T C Willis Fleming

6 July 1916 - Very clear morning, dismissed at four thirty.
A Boche plane came over during breakfast this morning, flying at about 5000 ft. He played about over us for about half an hour despite a very heavy fire from all the machine guns round about, but didn't drop any bombs. The mountain battery fired one gun at him but the shell burst about a thousand feet below him. Two of our own machines arrived from Kantara about half an hour too late.
Bathed this morning. Small mail in this evening; heard from the Jacker. Pease left this evening. Good news in the official telegram from Flanders tonight, also from the Russian front.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/entries/1916/07/thursday-6-july-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Allsup's Diary

July 6th [1917] - Parade 8.30AM. Belts & Bayonets. Marched 6 Kilos to see His Majesty pass on his tour round the 1st Army Area.

http://www.pals.org.uk/allsup_diary06.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Belgian Air Force during WW1

To better understand the situation on the front, King Albert did not hesitate to fly in a Sopwith Strutter as observer on 6 July 1917. He was surely the only chief of state to have flow over the front during WW1.

http://www.wwiaviation.com/ww1_belgium1916-17.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2010 9:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

July 6, 1920: Pilots Navigate Using AM Radio

During the post–World War I boom in aviation, pilots navigated primarily the same way drivers did at the time: They followed roads. Using maps, pilots could follow roads — or perhaps rivers or other prominent features — from place to place.

Unfortunately, unless a pilot knew the way, there was no way to directly navigate between two locations. For the Navy, the problem was a bit more difficult. The distance an aircraft could fly was increasing rapidly, and for flying boats in particular, there was now the possibility to fly airplanes to ships far out at sea. But there were no roads for the airplane to follow.

Radio direction finders had been around since the early part of the 20th century. By comparing the signal strength received by a directional antenna as it points in different directions, you can determine the compass bearing of the transmitting source.

To test the viability of using radio navigation in an airplane, the Navy installed a radio laboratory of sorts on board the U.S.S. Ohio which was cruising off the mid-Atlantic coast July 6, 1920. A Curtiss built, Felixstowe F-5-L twin-engine flying boat (similar to F-5-L pictured above) took off from the Naval Air Station in Hampton Roads, Virginia, with no knowledge of the location of the Ohio other than the fact it was within a 100-mile radius of Norfolk.

After only five minutes in the air, the crew was able to use the on-board receiver with a simple pointer to establish an accurate bearing to the ship. After 90 minutes, the airplane had flown the nearly 100 miles to the Ohio and circled the ship before returning to land.

To find the way back, the crew used a technique that would become standard for decades to come. They simply tuned in a radio station in Norfolk and established a heading using the simple receiver and pointer which was now directing them back to land.

This type of radio direction-finding is still in use today. Many airplanes still carry an Automatic Direction Finder, or ADF, that can establish a bearing to a non-directional beacon, or simply any AM radio station. In less-developed parts of the world, the radio compass or ADF is still widely used.

Eventually, using radio signals for air navigation was refined, and the more-accurate system of directional radio beacons became the preferred navigation system during the second half of the 20th century. These devices can guide an airplane over long distances with much greater precision.

An instrument landing system, or ILS, can also provide very precise guidance over the final few miles of a flight, allowing a pilot to land on the center line of a runway without even seeing the ground.

Today, GPS is taking over much of the navigation duties around the world, but the simple radio direction-finder is still a trusted tool for many pilots as a backup system. You can also use ADF to get news or sports updates on long flights.

http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2010/07/0706aircraft-radio-compass/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jul 2011 5:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the Frontline: Somme 1916


War Diary Entry: July 6th 1916

The Inniskilling patrol which went out to capture the machine gun last night found that it had been removed and came back empty-handed. The parties out digging the trench last night had a fairly rotten time, I gather, the trench is nearer the German line than our own by a good deal. They made a lot of noise getting out and brought on gun and rifle fire. I was up in the trenches early this morning and saw pools of blood in places, they also don’t appear to have got down very deep, judging from a distance. You cant get out to it by day.


It was quite quiet everywhere while I was going round. The men looked very tucked up; going round the trenches this morning I spoke to one man in the SWB who was partly insane, and later on I passed a man in the Borders throwing a fit. This is not to be wondered at as on the 1st the Bde had about 2150 casualties and most of the men have been under heavy shellfire for 13 days.


There has been the usual noise going on round here all day. Monkhouse turned in to lunch, they are going to make him a brigadier. Raikes and Perse went round the reserve trenches this morning to see if they could find some place to put the SWB. A draft of 200 has arrived for the brigade, so that the SWB can now be withdrawn from the firing line. They found some RA quarters which have just been evacuated N of Mesnil which will easily accommodate their 250 men.

==> Somme.blogspot.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2012 6:33    Onderwerp: On This Day - 6 July 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 6 July 1916

Western Front

British win ground on slopes of Thiepval; two successful raids on Loos salient.

French again repel attacks at Belloy; lose a small wood north of Hem.

Artillery active at Verdun.

Eastern Front

Between the Styr and Stokhod Germans fall back in disorder from Chartorysk salient.

Southern Front

Italian pressure on the Trentino and Isonzo fronts continued.

Political, etc.


Ministerial changes: Mr. Lloyd George becomes Secretary of State for War. Lord Derby, Under Secretary for War. Sir Edward Grey raised to Peerage as Viscount Grey of Falldon.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_07_06.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2012 6:37    Onderwerp: 6.07.1916 Reageer met quote

William Brown becomes the first South African officer killed during World War I

The 1st South African Infantry Brigade was recruited at Potchefstroom in August and September 1915 for service overseas. It was comprised of four battalions (or regiments) of infantry.

The Brigade, numbering 160 officers and 5 648 other ranks, embarked for England from Cape Town. During December 1915, it was decided to send the South African brigade to Egypt. Their brief campaign there was successful and they were sent to France to train in trench warfare.

On 31 May 1916, the brigade left its training area and marched 72 km to the Somme area. The ill-fated Somme offensive opened on 1 July 1916. Second-Lieutenant William Nimmo Brown of the 1st South African Infantry was killed on 6 July 1916 in the Battle of the Somme. He was the first South African officer killed in France during World War I.

The scale of the British failure at the Battle of the Somme proved to be one of the major factors in propelling the South Africans into the notorious offensive of Delville Wood a fortnight later.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/william-brown-becomes-first-south-african-officer-killed-during-world-war-i
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2018 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Left SR uprising

The Left SR uprising or Left SR revolt was an uprising against the Bolsheviks by the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party in July 1918. The uprising started on 6 July 1918 and was claimed to be intended to restart the war with Germany. It was one of a number of left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks that took place during the Russian Civil War. (...)

Lees verder op https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Left_SR_uprising
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2018 13:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poole to Lansing on assasination of Count Mirbach

File No. 701.6261/11 [Telegram]

Moscow, July 6, 1918, 7 p.m.
Received July 9, 4:10 p.m.

Urgent for Secretary's attention. Smith of the Associated Press has just learned from an authoritative source that the German Ambassador, Count Mirbach, was assassinated between 2 and 3 this afternoon at his Embassy. Two person arriving in machine [automobile] threw bomb through window. Ambassador and Captain Konig wounded. Ambassador died in few minutes. Two arrests so far. Smith asks that Associated Press be informed.

Poole

https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/government/foreign-relations/1918/july/6a.htm
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