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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 9:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archive of The Guardian, 2 July 1915: Women can work on the railways

Women are to be given permanent employment beyond the end of the war, though Hull’s Labour councillors claim women tram conductors will suffer ‘mentally and morally’

The railway managers have now given women a fair trial in the railway service, and have come to the conclusion that their experience during the last few months justifies the employment of women not only as a war emergency measure but as part of the permanent system of working the railways.

It is proposed to begin at once the employment of some thousands of women on the railways, and at the end of the war these women will be retained in the service except to the limited extent that it may be necessary to discharge some to permit of the reinstatement of former employees who enlisted in the army or navy.

The following are the branches of work in which women are to be employed:-

Ticket collecting.- At all stations except where the character of the traffic makes it desirable that men only should be employed.

Booking Clerks.- Women will be employed in increasing numbers as booking clerks save for offices dealing with complicated bookings or requiring an unusually long spell of standing.

On the Tubes.- With the exception of driving women can be employed in almost any capacity on the London tube railways, but for dealing with emergencies it will be necessary to retain the services of a high proportion of male employees.

Porters.- The duties of light porters can be performed by women, and a limited number will be engaged in this capacity all over the country.

Clerical Work.- With the disappearance of competition among the companies one of the strongest objections to the employment of women railway clerks goes, and they will be employed to a greater extent in future.

Women as tram conductors: medical arguments against the practice

The Hull City Council yesterday adopted a recommendation of the Tramways Committee to employ women as tram conductors at the same rate of wages as men, if suitable men were not available.

The proposal was strongly opposed by Labour members, who said they were not satisfied that the Tramways Committee had made an effort to obtain male labour.

Dr. Webster said that while they accepted the doctrine that women should have equality with men politically, socially and industrially, there were psychological and physiological reasons which barred women from certain kinds of employment. No more trying occupation for women could be suggested than that of running up and down stairs winter and summer amongst crowds of people.

These women would be debarred from the marriage market, and the increase of population so absolutely necessary now would be curtailed. They desired womenly women, but these women must suffer mentally and morally in this occupation. He read a letter from a Manchester medical man fully agreeing with his statements, and condemning the employment of women as railway clerks and tram conductors.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/02/first-world-war-women-work-railways-1915
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 9:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Terrorism Hits Home in 1915: U.S. Capitol Bombing

Shortly before midnight on Friday, July 2, 1915, police responded to the U.S. Capitol where an explosion had just rocked the Senate wing. Fortunately they found no fatalities – a byproduct of the fact that Congress was not in session and the building was lightly staffed at night. But, there was plenty of carnage and, obviously, great concern about security.

The next evening, Washingtonians opened their Evening Star newspaper to find a peculiar letter under the headline, “Letter Received by the Star Thought to Have Bearing on the Explosion.” The diatribe began, “Unusual times and circumstances call for unusual means” and quickly moved into a critique of American businesses supplying warring European countries with armaments.

Paradoxically, the letter claimed that the attack on the Capitol was a call for peace, “Europe needs enough non-contraband material to give us prosperity. Let us not sell her EXPLOSIVES! Let each nation make her own mankilling machines. Sorry I had to use explosives. (Never again.) It is the export kind and ought to make enough noise to be heard above the voices that clamour for bloodmoney. This explosion is the exclamation point to my appeal for Peace!”[1]

The letter was signed, “R. Pearce” and included a post script: “We would, of course, not sell to the Germans either, if they could buy here.” It had been postmarked less than two hours before the bomb went off.

Beside the letter ran an account of the other big news of the day.

The morning after the Capitol explosion, banker J.P. Morgan, Jr. had been attacked in his summer home on Long Island, New York by an assailant who carried two revolvers and a briefcase packed with dynamite. Morgan suffered two flesh wounds before house servants overpowered the man and tied him up on the front lawn to await police.

When Glen Cove, New York detectives arrested him, the gunman identified himself as Cornell University German Professor Frank Holt. He told authorities that he had never intended to hurt Morgan – he just wanted to scare him. In a statement to the Justice of the Peace, Holt claimed, “My motive in coming here was to try to force Mr. Morgan to use his influence with the manufacturers of munitions in the United States and with the millionaires who are financing the war loans to have an embargo put on shipments of war munitions so as to relieve the American people of complicity in the deaths of thousands of our European brothers.”[2]

Holt continued:

“If Germany should be able to buy munitions here, we would positively refuse to sell them to her. The reason that the American people have not as yet stopped the shipments seems to be that we are getting rich out of this traffic; but do we not get enough prosperity out of non-contraband shipments, and would it not be better for us to make what money we can without causing the slaughter of thousands of Europeans?”[2]

Back in Washington, the events on Long Island were little more than a curiosity at first. Police were focused on the Capitol explosion and found themselves baffled by R. Pearce’s letter. Who was this person? And, perhaps more importantly, where was he or she? Chief Detective Robert Boardman was hearing it from his boss, Chief of Police Raymond Pullman who wanted leads and fast. Indeed, Pullman, who taken an overnight train from Washington to New York City on the night of the attack, had called long distance TWICE at great expense demanding progress.[3]

For hours, Boardman kept reading the Pearce letter over and over but nothing clicked… until he read it side by side with Frank Holt’s statement about the assault on J.P. Morgan, Jr.

R. Pearce Letter
“Europe needs enough non-contraband material to give us prosperity.... We would, of course, not sell to the Germans either, if they could buy here.”

Frank Holt Statement
“If Germany should be able to buy munitions here, we would positively refuse to sell them to her... Do we not get enough prosperity out of non-contraband shipments[?]”

The similarities were striking. Could it be that R. Pearce and Frank Holt were the same man?!

Boardman cabled Pullman: “Ascertain from F. Holt, in custody at Glen Cove, N.Y., for shooting of J.P. Morgan, his whereabouts Thursday and Friday, as he may have placed the bomb in the Capitol here Friday night.”[3]

Initially, Holt denied any connection to the Washington bombing, claiming he was at a hotel in New York City when it had happened. When shown a copy of the R. Pearce letter he allowed, “It does look strange, doesn’t it? It seems that the man who did that thought about like I did, too, doesn’t it? It was rather odd that he used almost the same words as I did. I can’t explain it.”[4]

Unconvinced, Pullman and New York interrogators turned up the heat. (The NYPD had gotten involved in the case to explore its possible connection to other acts of terrorism in New York harbor.) Though Pullman later denied it, NYPD bomb squad head Captain Thomas Tunney suggested that “third degree methods” were employed to get Holt to talk. Glen Cove’s justice of the peace William Luyster was a little more direct: “We had to go after him good and strong before he would tell us what he knew.”[4]

Holt eventually confessed. He told investigators he had arrived in Washington around on the afternoon of Friday, July 2 and checked into a boarding house at Delaware Ave. and C St. NE. There he assembled a bomb made of dynamite and placed it in a suitcase. He walked in the main entrance of the Capitol and walked the halls for about 30 minutes without so much as a glance from a policeman, looking for a place to stash the bomb. He had originally hoped to place it in the Senate chamber but when he found the chamber locked, he settled on a spot in the Senate reception room.

After exiting the Capitol, Holt wandered the streets of Washington, waiting for the bomb to go off. (It was on a timer and scheduled to detonate late at night, so as not to injure anyone.) When he heard the blast at 11:23pm, he hurried to Union Station and boarded the 12:10am train to New York City. (Coincidentally, this was the same train Metropolitan Police Chief Pullman was riding.) By 9am, Holt was in Glen Cove assaulting the nation’s foremost banker.

As strange of a tale as it was, Frank Holt’s story got even stranger after his arrest. For starters, authorities determined his name wasn’t even Frank Holt… Or R. Pearce. It was Erich Muenter. And Erich Muenter had quite a past.

Born in Germany, Muenter had once been a promising young professor at Harvard. However, in 1906 he had made headlines when it was discovered that he poisoned his wife and fled Cambridge. After going underground in Mexico for a number of years, the professor reemerged in Texas, where he adopted a new identity, married again and started re-climbing the academic ladder. Moving from school to school, he worked his way back to the Ivy League at Cornell under the name of Frank Holt.

Muenter was a committed German nationalist and – with the outbreak of World War I – got involved with Abteilung IIIB, the very-active German secret intelligence network that was conducting sabotage operations in the United States. The network was particularly successful at planting incendiary devices on ships that were transporting American-made arms to Britain and France. The bombs had crude timers, which caused them to ignite after several days when the ship was in mid-ocean, miles away from help.

While Muenter appears to have acted alone in his attacks on the Capitol and J.P. Morgan, Jr. he clearly had connections to the network and some knowledge of its larger activities. While in custody, he taunted authorities with veiled statements about Abteilung IIIB’s sabotage efforts, even “predicting” the exact date (July 7) of the next ship bombing. The SS Minnehaha did, indeed, catch fire in the Atlantic that day.

It was clear he was a man of many secrets. Unfortunately for police, those secrets would soon be buried forever. On July 6, when the guard assigned to watch over him was tending to another inmate, Muenter climbed to the top of his jail cell and dove head first into the concrete floor below. His skull was crushed and he died.

For more on Muenter and the Abteilung IIIB network, check out Howard Blum’s captivating book, Dark Invasion: 1915: Germany's Secret War and the Hunt for the First Terrorist Cell in America.

Footnotes
[1] “Letter Received by the Star Thought to Have Bearing on the Explosion,” Evening Star, 3 July 1915: 2.
[2] “J.P. Morgan Shot by ‘Inspired’ Man at Country Home,” Evening Star, 3 July 1915: 2.
[3] Blum, Howard, Dark Invasion: 1915: Germany's Secret War and the Hunt for the First Terrorist Cell in America, New York: Harper Collins, 2014.
[4]Bomb Explosion at Capitol Perpetrated by Same Man Who Shot J. Pierpont Morgan,”Sunday Star, 4 July 1915: 8.

_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 9:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Day in Aviation - Important Dates in Aviation History - 2–6 July 1919

2–6 July 1919: Two weeks after Alcock and Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic airplane flight, the Royal Air Force rigid airship R 34 landed at Mineola, Long Island, New York, completing the first East-to-West Atlantic crossing by air. The airship was under the command of Major George Herbert Scott, A.F.C., R.A.F. The total complement, including passengers, was 30 persons.

The 108 hour, 12 minute flight started from East Fortune Airship Station near Edinburgh, Scotland at 2:38 a.m., British Summer Time (1:38 a.m., Greenwich mean time) on Wednesday, 2 July. R 34 arrived at Mineola at 9:54 a.m. Eastern Daylight Savings Time (1:54 p.m. G.M.T.) on Sunday, 6 July. According to records of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the distance flown by R 34 was 5,797 kilometers (3,602 miles). On arrival, the airship had only 40 minutes of fuel remaining.

R34 was based on extensive study of the captured German Zeppelin, L-33. It was built for the Royal Naval Air Service by William Beardmore and Company, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire, Scotland, but with the end of World War I, the RNAS and Royal Flying Corps were merged to become the Royal Air Force. 643 feet long (196 meters), with a maximum diameter of 78 feet, 9 inches (24 meters), the dirigible had a total volume of 1,950,000 cubic feet (55,218 cubic meters). The airship had a light weight metal structure covered with doped fabric. Buoyancy was provided by 55,185 cubic meters (1,948,840 cubic feet) of gaseous hydrogen contained in 19 gas bags inside the airship’s envelope. R 34 had a gross lift capacity of 59 tons. Useful lift was 58,240 pounds (26,417 kilograms).

The airship was powered by five water-cooled, normally-aspirated, 15.395-liter (989.483-cubic-inch-displacement) Sunbeam Maori Mk.IV dual overhead cam (DOHC) 60° V-12 engines with four valves per cylinder. The Mk.IV’s cylinder bore had been increased from 100 millimeters to 110 millimeters (3.94 to 4.33 inches), resulting in a larger displacement than previous Maori variants. The Maori Mk.IV was a direct-drive engine which produced 275 horsepower at 2,000 r.p.m. Each engine turned a two-bladed, 17 foot diameter (5.182 meter) propellers through a remote gearbox with a 0.257:1 reduction. The two wing engines were equipped with reversible gearboxes. With the engines turning 1,800 r.p.m., the R 34 had a cruising speed of 47 knots (54 miles per hour/87 kilometers per hour) and consumed 65 gallons (246 liters) of fuel per hour.

R 34 made the return flight to England, 10–13 July 1919, in 75 hours, 3 minutes.

Major Scott was appointed Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.

© 2017, Bryan R. Swopes, https://www.thisdayinaviation.com/6-july-1919/

The R34 airship

The R34 airship, which made the first ever east-west flight across the Atlantic as well as the first-ever return flight across the pond, is a forgotten chapter in British aviation history.
The Scottish county of East Lothian is known for its scenic golf courses, historic castles and one of the biggest gannet colonies in the world at the Bass Rock. What’s less known is its place in aviation history. In the early hours of 2 July 1919 the biggest airship in Britain left its hangar at the airfield at East Fortune. The 643ft-long craft soon took off and headed west. After a journey of four and a half days that encountered poor weather and engine problems the dirigible landed in the USA. The R34 had completed the first east-to-west aerial crossing of the Atlantic. It touched down with approximately one hour's fuel left.

Along the way two stowaways had been discovered, a kitten called Whoopsie and a human called William Ballantyne – a crew member who had been removed to make room for an American observer but didn’t want to miss out. He was found over water, otherwise he would have been given a parachute and sent homewards. A parachute was used by one of the officers who jumped to help the American reception personnel who were unused to dealing with an airship of that size.

The crew were fêted by the people of New York, and met the American President Woodrow Wilson. After several days of being entertained and re-equipping the airship, it was time to return. The journey home encountered no major issues. The R34 was scrapped in 1921 following an accident. In the Museum of Flight that now stands on the East Fortune airfield site, the airship’s nose cone, in the shape of a heraldic crest, can be seen.

https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/articles/the-r34-airship/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Jul 2018 10:00, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 9:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

July 1919 | Weimarer Republik

1 July
The forty-third session of the National Assembly, from 3:22 to 8:26pm
Government representatives answer various questions.
Budget Committee report on the “Decree on the acquisition of agricultural settlement land” of 30 January 1919. Extensive debate on the creation and promotion of small enterprises, state-funded housing developments i.a. [DNV, Vol. 3, pp. 484-528]

2 July
The forty-fourth session of the National Assembly, from 12:19 to 8:03pm
Deliberations resume on the “Draft constitution of the German Reich” (second reading) with reports on the constitutional principles and proposed amendments by members of the constitutional committee Conrad Haußmann (DDP), Wilhelm Kahl (DVP), Oskar Cohn (USPD) and. for the government, Hugo Preuß (DDP). Debate ensues on the official name of the state (“Reich” or “Republic”), the “unity question” (centralised or federal state system), the role of the Reichspräsident, referenda and people’s initiatives, and the Reich colours (“flag dispute”). First vote on Article 1: “The German Reich is a republic”; the use of the word “Reich” is maintained throughout the rest of the constitutional text.
The proclamation of a Councils’ Republic in nearby Gotha comes as unsettling news for the National Assembly.
[DNV, Vol. 3, pp. 529-607]

https://www.weimarer-republik.net/724-1-July-1919.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kate Frye’s Diary: The Lead-Up To War: 2 July 1914

Thursday July 2nd 1914

To office. Attended the Committee. To lunch at Harrods with Mrs Hartley, Alexandra [Wright] and Gladys [Wright] and Miss Bessie Hatton. Work at the office all afternoon. John arrived for me at 5.30pm. I left with him and we came back in a bus to Claverton Street.

I tidied myself and then by bus to Tottenham Court Road where we had a mysterious fish dinner. We liked the first half as we were extremely hungry and then it palled.

Then we strolled to the Scala Theatre and John got 2 dress circle seats for ‘La Dame aux Camelias’. Lydia Yavorska. Parts of it were a scream as all her things are, but she was very lovely in parts – and especially just at the end – she did look so dead. Some of the characters were vilely played. Ambrose Flower – he is rather winning – just like an Elenor Glynn [ sic] man – but just a prop for the dear Princess to fall up against – or on to. She looked a picture – but some of her frocks were hideous. Back by bus.’

https://womanandhersphere.com/2014/07/02/kate-fryes-diary-the-lead-up-to-war-2-july-1914/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 10:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abbott, Jane, Diary, 30 June-2 July 1914

Case Study: An American in Vienna on the Outbreak of the First World War: Jane Abbott’s Diary

[partial transcription][page] 27
2 July
Met Mrs. Lewis. We rode to the Stadtpark where Mr. Lewis met us. …We who had been such dear friends for so many years were on the same continent and if trouble came could call on each other. Had ice cream, not like ours, with whipped cream on top. Strawberry very nice and wafers at the café. We saw the best dressed and most interesting people whom we have seen in parks. After supper Donald told me there had been a letter from Ruth with the sad news that George had stricken with apoplexy – terribly anxious but Don said it might not be fatal. We went down to the Ring to see the procession, the bringing home the bodies of Ferdinand and Sophie. Stood packed in like sardines for at least an hour before they passed, train from Trieste came about ten. A mass of people along the route. Mounted police cavalrysoldiers on foot, and the two hearses, each hearse drawn by eight horses, each horse mounted by a soldier in red artillery trousers. There was no sound of the steps of horses. We were told there would be straw or hay put down, but that was not done. It seems as if the horses must have had something done to their shoes. The march of the soldiers, a long easy swinging gait impressed me. No flowers, no music, uncovered head, and silence. A terrible, terrible thing to happen in a civilized world. The heart of the whole world bleeds for the agonized children.

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/abbott-jane-diary-30-june-2-july-1914 & http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/abbott-jane-diary-2-3-july-1914
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 03 Jul 2018 8:30, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 10:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Catalogue reference: FO 371/2158 (2 Jul 1914)

Telegram from the British ambassador to Serbia, Dayrell Crackanthorpe, to the foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, 2 July 1914.

In his description of the popular mood in the Serbian capital Belgrade after the assassination on 28 June, Crackanthorpe observes that the primary sensation is one of 'stupefaction rather than of regret'. He also notes the unfortunate timing of Franz Ferdinand's visit to Sarajevo (on the 525th anniversary of the defeat that marked the collapse of the Serbian empire) and praises the restrained attitude of the Serbian government.

Lees het telegram op http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/first_world_war/p_archduke_assassination.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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