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23 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2006 23:00    Onderwerp: 23 juni Reageer met quote

June 23

1915 First Battle of the Isonzo

On June 23, 1915, exactly one month after Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary, the Italian army attacks Austro-Hungarian positions near the Isonzo River, in the eastern section of the Italian front; it will become the first of twelve Battles of the Isonzo fought during World War I.

Of all the fronts of the Great War, the Italian was the least well-suited not only for offensive operations but for any form of warfare at all. Four-fifths of Italy’s 600-kilometer-long border with Austria-Hungary was mountainous, with several peaks rising above 3,000 meters. Despite this, the Italian chief of staff, Luigi Cadorna, desperately wanted to satisfy the demands of his government—as well as the other Allies—by making substantial gains of territory against Austria-Hungary upon Italy’s declaration of war on May 23, 1915.

For its part, Austria-Hungary was surprisingly unconcerned with the Italian entry into the war, despite the fact that it opened a third front for an army whose resources were already stretched dangerously thin. In the years before the war, the Austrian commander in chief, Conrad von Hotzendorff, had often suggested a pre-emptive strike against Italy, as well as against Serbia; in 1915, the prospect of confronting an inferior Italian army seemed to lend a new burst of energy to the Dual Monarchy. Germany, though, pressured Austria-Hungary to fight defensively in Italy and not to divert resources from the Eastern Front against Russia. As a result, while the Italians plotted ambitious offensive operations, including surprise attacks across the Isonzo River, the Austrians settled into their positions in the mountains along the rapid-flowing Isonzo and planned to mount a solid and spirited defense.

After a series of preliminary operations on various sections of the front, Italian forces struck the Austrian positions at the Isonzo for the first time on June 23, 1915, after a one-week bombardment. Despite enjoying numerical superiority, the Italian forces were unable to break the Austro-Hungarian forces, Cadorna having failed to assemble adequate artillery protection to back up his infantry troops—a mistake similar to those made early in the war by commanders on the Western Front. Two Austro-Hungarian infantry divisions soon arrived to aid their comrades at the Isonzo and the Italians were prevented from crossing the river; Cadorna called off the attacks on July 7.

In the four battles fought on the Isonzo in 1915 alone, Italy made no substantial progress and suffered 235,000 casualties, including 54,000 killed. Cadorna’s plans for a highly mobile Italian advance had definitively failed, and battle on the Italian front, as in the west, had settled into slow, excruciating trench warfare.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2006 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 juni 1915

Die Verfolgung der Russen östlich von Lemberg - Eine Höhe in den Vogesen erstürmt

Großes Hauptquartier, 23. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Gestern nahmen wir die Festung Dünkirchen sowie feindliche Truppenansammlungen bei den Ortschaften Bergues, Hondschoote, Furnes und Cassel unter Feuer.
Bei Givenchy dicht nördlich des Kanals von La Bassée und bei Neuville wurden Angriffe durch unser Artilleriefeuer im Keime erstickt. Südlich von Souchez machten wir im Grabenkampf gute Fortschritte.
Auf den Maashöhen setzten die Franzosen ihre Durchbruchsversuche ohne den geringsten Erfolg fort, sämtliche Angriffe wurden unter erheblichen Verlusten für den Feind abgeschlagen. Bisher machten wir 280 unverwundete Franzosen, darunter 3 Offiziere, zu Gefangenen und erbeuteten 7 Maschinengewehre sowie 20 Minenwerfer.
Die Vorpostengefechte östlich von Lunéville dauern noch an. In den Vogesen stürmten wir die seit Monaten heiß umstrittene, die Umgebung beherrschende Höhe 631 bei Ban de Sapt. 193 Gefangene, 3 Maschinengewehre, 1 Minenwerfer und anderes Material waren unsere Beute. Feindliche Wiedereroberungsversuche blieben erfolglos.
Südlich von Neuville brachte eines unserer Kampfflugzeuge einen feindlichen Flieger zum Absturz.
Die amtliche französische Meldung, daß sich belgische Truppen im Südwesten von St. Georges eines deutschen Schützengrabens bemächtigt hätten, ist glatt erfunden.

Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues
.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Lemberg wurde gestern nachmittags durch österreichisch-ungarische Truppen im Sturme genommen, daran anschließend nachts die Szczerekstellung zwischen dem Dnjestr bei Mikolajow und Lemberg. Weiter nördlich ist in der Verfolgung die Linie östlich von Lemberg-Zoltance-Turynka (nordöstlich von Zolkiew) erreicht. Bei Rawa-Ruska und westlich davon ist die Lage unverändert.
Im San-Weichsel-Winkel und links der oberen Weichsel beginnen die Russen zu weichen.


Danzig, 23. Juni.
Wie die "Danziger Zeitung" zuverlässig erfährt, ist Generaloberst v. Mackensen anläßlich der Siege in Galizien zum Generalfeldmarschall ernannt worden.

er österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Der Rückzug der Russen in Südpolen -
Die bisherigen Mißerfolge der Italiener

Wien, 23. Juni.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Nordwest- und die Westfront des Gürtels von Lemberg waren im Zuge der russischen Verteidigungsstellung Zolkiew-Mikolajow von starken russischen Kräften besetzt. Um 5 Uhr vormittags des 22. Juni erstürmte Wiener Landwehr das Werk Rzezna an der Straße Janow-Lemberg. Von Nordwest drangen zu dieser Zeit unsere Truppen über die Höhen östlich des Mlynowkabaches vor und erstürmten einige Schanzen vor Höhe Lysa Gora. Im Laufe des Vormittags wurden im weiteren Vordringen gegen die Stadt die übrigen Werke und Verteidigungsanlagen der Nordwest- und der Westfront in blutigem Kampfe genommen. Hierdurch war die russische Front neuerdings durchbrochen, der Feind, der abermals schwere Verluste erlitt, zum Rückzuge gezwungen. Unsere Truppen drangen in der Verfolgung bis über die Höhen östlich und nordöstlich der Stadt vor und überschritten südlich Lemberg die Straße, die nach Mikolajow führt. Unter dem Jubel der Bevölkerung zog General der Kavallerie Boehm-Ermolli um 4 Uhr nachmittags mit Truppen der zweiten Armee in Lemberg ein.
Auch bei Zolkiew und östlich Rawa-Ruska sind die Russen im Rückzuge. Vereinzelte Vorstöße des Gegners am Tanew wurden abgewiesen.
Heute nacht trat der Feind zwischen San und Weichsel sowie im Berglande von Kielce den weiteren Rückzug an, überall verfolgt von den verbündeten Truppen.
Am Dnjestr ist die allgemeine Lage unverändert
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
In dem nun abgelaufenen ersten Kriegsmonat haben die Italiener keinen Erfolg erzielt. Unsere Truppen im Südwesten behaupten, wie zu Beginn des Krieges, ihre Stellungen an oder nahe der Grenze. An der Isonzofront am befestigten Grenzraum Flitsch-Malborghet, am karnischen Kamm und an allen Fronten von Tirol brachen sämtliche Versuche feindlichen Vordringens unter schweren Verlusten zusammen.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:
Abgeschlagener englisch-französischer Angriff bei Sed-ül-Bahr

Konstantinopel, 23. Juni.
Das türkische Hauptquartier meldet:
An der Dardanellenfront unternahm der Feind mit Unterstützung seiner großkalibrigen Kanonen und der jüngst erhaltenen Verstärkungen am Morgen des 21. Juni mehrere Angriffe gegen unsere Gruppe südlich von Sed-ül-Bahr, doch scheiterten auch diese Angriffe, welche bis nach Mitternacht dauerten, vollständig. Der Feind, der sehr blutige Verluste erlitt, wurde vertrieben und nach seinen früheren Stellungen zurückgedrängt. Am 20. Juni beschädigte eine unserer der Gruppe nördlich von Ari Burun angehörenden Batterien mit ihrem wirksamen Feuer zwei große feindliche Transportschiffe, welche in dieser Gegend der Küste kreuzten, und zwang sie, sich zu entfernen. Am 21. Juni morgens zerstörte unsere Artillerie vollständig eine Batteriestellung, die der Feind aufzubauen im Begriff war.
Von den anderen Fronten wird nichts Wichtiges gemeldet.



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 June 1915 – Carl Muller

Invisible ink failed to fool the British Secret Service during the First World War. And as spying during World War I was punishable by death, Carl Friedrick Muller felt the full force of British wrath after he was executed for his betrayals. Yet he almost missed his own execution after the black cab broke down on its way to the Tower of London.

For Muller had stood charged with ‘feloniously attempting to communicate and recording and collecting information with respect to military and naval forces and war materials with intention of assisting [the] enemy’ – to you and me that means passing armed forces’ secrets to the opposition. And the opposition meant Germany.

He’d been enlisted as a secret agent by the Germans, not least because he could speak a number of languages fluently. He was in shipping and was hard up – the perfect combination.

As a result, Muller was to travel between Germany and Britain seemingly innocently, writing correspondence detailing shipping movements to his German pals – but little did he know the Brits were on to him and had intercepted his letters.

Branched off

Unsuspectingly, in February of 1915, he hooked up with a Brit (of German extraction) – John Hahn, who was an East-end baker and together they sent more incriminating letters. Both were unaware their illicit communications were being diverted to Special Branch for closer inspection.

There CID found secret German messages written in formalin (formaldehyde) and lemon juice in between what appeared to be innocent letters written in English. The two were busted.

Hahn’s up

Both men were hauled in and while Hahn pleaded guilty and got seven years, Muller pleaded not guilty and got death. The latter was housed at Brixton Prison and on the day of his execution, he was taken by black cab to the Tower of London where he was to be executed. According to Stephen Stratford it broke down, so another took him on to the place of execution.

So Muller was riddled with a slew of bullets on this day within the grounds of the Tower of London in 1915.

According to a couple of sources, New Scotland Yard’s Assistant Commissioner of Police, Sir Basil Thomson witnessed the execution by firing squad. It was carried out by eight soldiers. He observed: ‘I saw no expression of pain. I found no pulse and no sign of life. Death appeared to be instantaneous, and the body retained the same position. The bullets probably in fragments had passed through the thorax and out of the back. Some blood, mixed with what appeared to be bone, had escaped through the clothing…’. And with that, the second spy to be executed during World War I was pronounced dead.

Details of Muller’s trial and evidence of his damning correspondence now sit in The National Archives at Kew.

http://eotd.wordpress.com/2008/06/23/23-june-1915-carl-muller/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

23 June 1915

Orders were given for the construction of extensive new terraces on the hillsides above North Beach at Braund's Hill to accommodate reinforcements for the proposed August offensive. In general the troops hated this so-called ‘fatigue’ work.

Eight bathers at Anzac Cove were hit by Turkish shell-fire. One man came out of the water with an arm almost severed.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/june-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexandra Day - 23 June 1915

A group of ladies prepare to make a collection. The photograph was taken by Stuart of Brompton Road and the High Road, Balham.

Foto... http://www.flickriver.com/photos/lovedaylemon/4490473763/

Alexandra Rose Day

Alexandra Rose Day is a charitable fund raising event held in the United Kingdom since 1912. It was first launched on the 50th anniversary of the arrival of Queen Alexandra, the consort of King Edward VII, from her native Denmark to the UK. The Queen requested that the anniversary be marked by the sale of roses in London to raise funds for her favourite charities.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandra_Rose_Day
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Military Intelligence Office
Cairo

23.6.15

I got a letter yesterday asking for more details of what I am doing. Well, drawing, and overseeing the drawing of maps: overseeing printing and packing of same: sitting in an office coding and decoding telegrams, interviewing prisoners, writing reports, and giving information from 9a.m. till 7p.m. After that feed and read, and then go to bed. I'm sick of pens, ink and paper: and have no wish ever to send off another telegram. We do daily wires to Athens, Gallipoli, and Petrograd: and receive five times what we send, all in cypher, which is slow work, though we have a good staff dealing with them. Newcombe, one Macdonnell and myself are Intelligence, Captain Cosens, Lord Anglesey, Lord Hartington and Prince Alexander of Battenburg do the ciphering and deciphering with us: that's all we are:- with a Colonel Clayton who does Egyptian Foreign Politics in command of us.

We do no internal work: have nothing to do with Egyptians, or police or anything of that sort. That's all done by the Ministry of the Interior. We have only war work:- European Turkey, Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia, Sinai, and Tripoli:- we all dabble in them all. One learns a lot of geography, some people's names, and little else.

The Dardanelles show is looking up a little. If they please it will not take much longer now. But it's a great question what their intentions are. I'm dreading the end of it, as no one can guess what will happen afterwards. No news from Syria: the country is quite at peace.

N.

Hope Bob gets through.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150623_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Flight Timeline

June 23, 1916 - Victor Chapman of Escadrille Americaine is the first American killed.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/world-war-i-flight-timeline1.htm

Victor Chapman

Victor S. Chapman (April 17, 1890 in New York – June 24, 1916 near Douaumont) was a French-American pilot remembered for his exploits during World War I.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Chapman
Zie ook http://www.100megspop3.com/bark/LafayeteEscadrilleMemorial.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Jun 2010 20:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Verdun, 21 February- 18 December 1916

... On 23 June a small number of German troops reached the ridgeline on the Souville heights, with at least one German soldier claiming to have glimpsed the rooftops of Verdun. However, greatest German advances had been won on a narrow front, exposing the most advanced German troops to flank attacks. The French line above Verdun held.

23 June was the nearest the Germans would come to a breakthrough at Verdun. The Battle of the Somme was about to begin, while on the eastern front the Russians had shown an unexpected resilience. A new German attack was planned for 11 July...

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_verdun.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albania during the First World War

In autumn 1915 the Austro-Hungarians occupied north and central Albania and suppressed the Albanian government of Tirana. Italy, which controlled the south of Albania and Vlorë decided to set up an Albanian Republic under Italian protection. This republic was proclaimed on 23 June 1917. (...)

The French entered Korçë on 29 November 1916. On 10 December 1916, by order of the French General Sarrail, a protocol was signed between the French Colonel Descoins and a group of Albanian representatives. A local government composed of 12 members was appointed and was granted many legislative powers. Themistokli Gërmenji was the head of executive power with the title of Prefect of Police.

Korçë was thus awarded the statute of "autonomous province". The Skanderbeg flag was approved together with the Tricolor ribbon and used in the city hall.

On 23 June 1917, Italy proclaimed the independence of Albania under her protectorate, justifying this with the French precedent in Korçë. Austria-Hungary had done it before on 3 January 1917.

http://flagspot.net/flags/al_w1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Piave, 15-23 June 1918

... Both attacks were launched on 15 June. Borojevic had some initial success, but Conrad's attack stalled from the start, allowing the Italian commander, Armando Diaz, to use his reserves to support the Piave front. Unable to gain reinforcements, Borojevic was forced to retreat back over the River Piave, and by the morning of 23 June was back where he had started, although at the cost of 150,000 men and of any effectiveness remaining in his army.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_piave.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Wilbur A. Sawyer Papers

... he was the military liaison with local authorities concerned with keeping order in a town full of new army recruits.

Transcript:
Enroute Washington to Old Point Comfort
On board S.S. Northland.
[June 23, 1918]
Dear Margaret:
You're a dear Old Sweetheart, and I wish I could be with you while the children are sick,--and always. Your letter came this morning, and I was very sorry to learn that little Gertrude was so unhappy with the measles. I hope you can protect little Ruth, but I presume it is improbable that she will escape. I am glad you are nearer than California, anyway. We can write with less delay, and I could come to Harbor Springs in any emergency.
If Gertrude's temperature was not above 101.8 by rectum, she is probably not having a very severe case. Don't you remember how prostrated Peggy was when she had some infection, probably intestinal, at the time we feared diphtheria? I hope that Gertrude will be feeling fine by the time this letter arrives.
Dear Margaret! I am glad you wish I were around. It makes me almost sick to think of your taking so much of the load of our "partnership," as Major Snow would call it. I don't think "partnership" expresses it, but I wish I could do more of my share. I hope that you never feel that I am running away from my responsibilities. I hope I am filling them better by the work I am doing, even if it has pulled up our roots and kept us moving over the earth. It has taken us to beautiful places--Chicago and Harbor Springs--beautiful partly because you were there, and I know my Margaret is a game sport and likes to play the whole game as far as her husband's limitations permit.
I am planning to wire you when I get to a telegraph station in the morning. I want you to know that I care, even if I can't help much.
Measles, according to laboratory experiments and Harold Gray, are infectious about 5 days, possibly 8, after the beginning of the eruption, but I think I would not let the children come in contact with others until they seemed well and had no distinct eruption, probably two weeks after eruption began. The trouble will be that Peggy and Ruth will probably come down after the incubation period is over. The period is about two weeks, or a little more, I believe.
If the boric acid wash is warmed, I think Gertrude would not fight it so hard. It's the chill of the cold solution that makes it such a shock to her.
Pneumonia, with measles, would probably be an extension of the cough and cold that goes with measles, but it might be more insidious. A person with pneumonia would breathe very rapidly, cough, and be prostrated. Now don't count her respirations every few minutes and get worried. You know children breathe faster than adults and the respirations run high with fever. Excuse me, sweet Medico, for repeating facts so well known to you. I wish I were with you so you would not feel quite so much anxiety and responsibility. I hope the Doctor is good and has your confidence.
I am glad Peg loved the good-night stories. I hope they were silly enough to amuse you and not sufficiently foolish to lower me in your estimation. I live and work largely for your plaudits, Old Darling.
I wish I could call back my brief note of last evening, written when I was so tired, and sleepy. I had been asked to grade the officers of rank below me in my section, and I knew I would have to sit up and do it, if it was to be finished before my change of station today. I had to learn the method first,--one of these wonderful attempts to gain accuracy by eliminating the thinking process. You think of ten men one or two grades in rank above the persons in question. Then you make five separate lists or standards by selecting for each list five of the men who are best, worst, and in between, for each of the attributes considered, e.g. physical characteristics, intelligence, etc. Then you take the name of the person to be graded and match him up to persons of equal quality in the key, and read off the grade. The five grades are added for total grade, and the figures are recorded on a wonderful card containing history, etc. They now have our histories, pictures, fingerprints, etc.
I think we are quite thoroughly identified, but they want us to wear two metal tags around our necks before we go overseas. Victor had his on when he returned from the bathroom this morning. I suppose he wanted to have his body identified if he was drowned in the tub.
By the way, I have been appointed a member of the "Committee on Health" of the National Conference of Social Workers for a term of two years. Hermann Biggs is Chairman. It will do no harm, and may possibly do some good. It is a big organization, but its health section has been rather inactive.
On Friday I dined at the same table with a colored man. This will have to be kept dark from the Atlanta relatives and the citizens of Newport News. Capt. and Mrs. Spingarn invited me to dinner with Mr. Du Bois, editor of the Negro magazine "The Crisis." Mr. Du Bois is a Harvard man with PhD. from Germany. He is black but has fine features, not Ethiopian in type.
Mrs. Spingarn said she would help try find a house if desired.
Grace's sister Mary got her passport all right and I wired her to that effect.
I am enclosing a picture for little Gertrude and her mother.
Blythe is still staying with us. He will take my bed. When he goes home, Meads will move upstairs and room with Victor. Blythe is trying to sell some photographic apparatus to the gov't and is wiring to bring out the inventor to demonstrate it, so I think he will be here ten days more at least.
I feel as though I were entering on another era of the work. I am moving bag and baggage to Newport News to start more intensive work in a limited area. Everybody is kind enough to talk as though I were being played as a trump card in a very difficult situation. But I am not scared, although I realize fully that the first few weeks of such an assignment, are much less pleasant than interesting. I am promised backing from so many sources, that I will be left busy thinking up things to ask for. The army, the shipping board, the Training Camp Commission, and the Red Cross, and Public Health Service all want to help, and I am to be the peace maker and organizer and publisher of results. So here goes!
It was a strenuous matter to clear my desk, break in Meads, pack, and move in the few days between my trip and change of station. But it has been accomplished. I think Meads is happier and begins to see the possibilities in his job.
I take it Gertrude, Sr., will embark on a similar adventurous career in a few days. I took Meads over to introduce him at the Tr. Camp Commission before I left and I found Mrs. Rippin there.
She said Mrs. Falconer had wanted to wire Gertrude a few days ago, but had lost her address. I gave Mrs. Rippen the address at Idylwilde for wires or letters. I think they want Gertrude and may wire her to hurry up or else wire to keep track of her. If Gertrude has not written at all, I think she should write to Mrs. Martha Falconer, War Dept Commission on Training Camp Activities, 19th and G. Sts, Washington, D.C. She may wish to write Mrs. Rippin at the same address, but that is not as important.
Major Snow asked me last evening if I would like to have Gertrude as a secretary or assistant in the Newport News experiment. I did not encourage the idea very much because I thought Gertrude would rather work for someone she didn't know so well. Besides I hope Mrs. Falconer will find a better job than helping me.
I wish you were near enough so that you could run down occasionally after, or between, the measles. It would do me a lot of good to have a little encouragement. You have been so inspiring when you have talked to me about my adventures. You are so much wiser and even-tempered than I,--and so kindly to me and my schemes. After you have approved of them, they just have to succeed!
I am so glad that we had a honeymoon together in the transition between the two pieces of work. "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." I need recreation, and I seem to depend on you almost entirely for it. Unless you share my pleasures, they are never complete. If you do, the simplest movie becomes grand opera.
So I hope you will look with favor on my new detail, and will come down on the boat with me sometime. There was a beautiful sunset, and soon afterward there was a fine big moon. But what fun was there sitting out without you? So I came in and wrote a letter,--this epistle of unnecessary length.
There will probably be money forthcoming for office, stenographic service, automobile, etc., for carrying on the work. 35,000 dollars will be available during one year from Rockefeller Foundation in addition to much greater sums being spent by various agencies on the ground. The commission is transferring the personnel so as to give me good workers.
So, Dear Love, I am being tried out again. I know you will love me whether I succeed or fail, but I think you will love me more if I succeed. So I must have success at all costs!
Until you get a definite address from me write me c/o Col. Chas. Lynch, Surgeon of Port of Embarkation, Newport News, Va.
Prof. Charles Gilman Hyde has received a commission as Captain and has been sent to Fort Oglethorpe. Herms is at Newport News, and so are Maj. and Mrs. Cumming.
Tell little Gertrude that her Papa loves her and is sorry she is sick. Tell her a story for me.
Good night, dear Margaret. I am going to go to bed in the "lower shelf" and lie here, listening to the lapping of the waves, and thinking of you, until sleep comes, and I dream you are really with me,--and am supremely happy.
Good night, Dear Love,
Wilbur

http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/LW/B/B/J/L/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Estonia: The War of Independence 1918-1920 and 23 June 1919

At the end of World War I, Estonia was engaged in a War of Independence with two former major powers. At the time of the Armistice on 11 November 1918, the Estonian Provisional Government was forced to defend its declaration of independence against attacks by Soviet-Russian troops and a Baltic-German Landeswehr army under General von der Goltz. By the end of December 1918, the Soviet-Russian forces, in an effort to re-establish the borders of the Tsarist Empire, had succeeded in occupying half of Estonia.

However, the tide began to turn in late December 1918 when Finnish volunteers as well as British naval assistance began to arrive in Estonia to support Estonia's defence. By the time the volunteers and equipment reached the front, the Soviet advance had been halted and in less than a month Estonia was virtually cleared of all Soviet forces.

The War of Independence was carried out by a multi-national force of 85,500 Estonians, 3,700 Finns, more than 5,000 Russians of the North West White Army (under the command of the Estonian Defence Forces General Staff), 9,800 Latvians, 3,000 British, 400 Swedes and 250 Danes and up to 700 Baltic Germans (who were Estonian citizens but had a separate Baltic Battalion).

However, intermittent fighting continued on the eastern and southern fronts throughout 1919. In northern Latvia, a mixed Estonian-Latvian force under the Estonian command of General Johan Laidoner defeated the Red Army troops operating in Northern Latvia. However, half of Latvia was still occupied by the troops of General von der Goltz.

On 5 June 1919, General von der Goltz advanced and attempted to isolate the right wing of the Estonian Army. Despite his well-equipped and experienced troops, his army was defeated at Roopa (20 June) and Cēsis-Rauna (21-22 June). The final battle at Cēsis (Võnnu) on 23 June saw the collapse of the von der Goltz army. Following this victory, Estonian and Latvian forces co-operated to ensure the fall of the puppet regime that had been established in Riga. Latvia's freedom was regained and Estonia's borders were secured.

The defeat of the two invading forces in 1919 and the signing of the Tartu Peace Treaty in 1920 between Estonia and Soviet Russia marked the successful achievement of Estonia's independence after centuries of struggle, and thus 23 June became a day to celebrate this victory.

http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/country/estonian-holidays-in-2010/victory-day.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2010 21:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Acceptance of Versailles Terms

June 23, 1919 - The new German government, under Gustav Bauer, accepted the Allies' peace terms unconditionally after the Weimar Assembly voted 237 to 138 for conditional acceptance to avoid an Allied invasion of Germany. The Majority Socialists and the Liberals, who controlled the National Assembly, assumed the odium for signing the treaty.

http://www.indiana.edu/~league/1919.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Jun 2010 21:21, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 juni 1917
Western Front


Further German attacks near Vauxaillon and Filain repulsed.

Naval and Overseas Operations

P. & O. liner "Mongolia" sunk off Bombay by mine.

Political, etc.

Return of M. Thomas to Paris from Russia.

Resignation of M. Zaimis, Greek Premier.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_06_23.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2014 10:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Officers of the 34th Division, Camp Cody, N.M., June 23, 1918

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007664375/
of http://www.loc.gov/item/2007664375/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2014 10:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Weerextremen - Nederland

Dagrecord: 1918 - Laagste etmaalgemiddelde temperatuur 10,6 °C

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/23_juni
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2014 10:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Smokkelbomen

Controleurs die in Dieren poseren bij een op 23 juni 1918 in beslag genomen partij smokkelwaar die verborgen was in uitgeholde boomstammen. Het betrof smokkel van chocolade en zeep naar Duitsland. Tussen Laag Soeren en Dieren werd op 23 juni 1918 het transport aangehouden en overgebracht naar Dieren naar het schoolplein van de toenmalige "Fransche School" waar de foto is genomen. Links zittend met wat repen in de hand een commies, daarnaast de politiechef van Dieren Dhr. Klomp, staande achter hem: Willemsen, commies te Dieren, rechts daarvan staande op een der bomen Overkamp, veldwachter te Ellecom, rechts staande op de boom de veldwachters Luiten(l) en Noorderdorp(r), de man met baard is Dirksen de vader van de fotograaf.

Bekijk de foto! http://www.geldersarchief.nl/zoeken/?mivast=37&mizig=284&miadt=37&miaet=14&micode=1501&minr=1098744&milang=nl&misort=last_mod%7Cdesc&mizk_alle=smokkel&miview=ldt
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