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Max Immelmann 18 juni 1916

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jun 2006 10:04    Onderwerp: Max Immelmann 18 juni 1916 Reageer met quote

Max Immelmann (1883-1916) was Germany's first air ace of the First World War, scoring seventeen victories until his death in 1916.

Immelmann was actually born in South Africa but chose to renounce his British nationality while studying medicine in Germany. Having thereafter joined the German Army he resigned his commission in 1912 in order to work as an engineer.

With the outbreak of war in August 1914 Immelmann was (as he expected) recalled to active duty. He quickly requested a transfer to the Flying Corps, taking and passing his examination in March 1915. The following month he was promoted Lieutenant.

His initial experiences as an airman were not glamorous however, operating as a reconnaissance pilot near Lille in France. In short order however Immelmann established a reputation as an effective fighter pilot: in Germany (and France, but unlike Britain) successful fighter pilots gained wide public renown and acclaim.

Thus the 'Eagle of Lille' (as German newspapers dubbed him) achieved promotion to First Lieutenant in September 1915. He was responsible for developing a dogfight manoeuvre whose name - the Immelmann Turn - remains to this day, comprised of a simultaneous loop and roll design to allow him to dive back at a pursuing airman. It became standard practice during the remainder of the war.

With seventeen (some attribute just fifteen) 'kills' to his name - and the Pour le Merite awarded by the Kaiser on 12 January 1916 - Immelmann was shot down by British pilot George McCubbin on 18 June 1916 near Lens.

Such was the shock of his death (which was at first attributed to other causes) that Kaiser Wilhelm II grounded his fellow airman (and rival) Oswald Boelcke for a month to avoid the loss of two aces in short order.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/immelmann.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jun 2006 10:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1890
21. September: Max Immelmann wird in Dresden als Sohn des Kartonagefabrikanten Franz Immelmann und dessen Frau Gertrude (geb. Sidonie) geboren.

1898-1911
Immelmann besucht das Kadettenkorps in Dresden, das er mit der Reifeprüfung abschließt.

1911
Er tritt beim Eisenbahnregiment Berlin ein und absolviert die Ausbildung zum Offizier in der Waffengattung Fliegerei.

1913
Immelmann legt die Offiziersprüfung ab.

1913/14
Studium des Maschinenbaus an der Technischen Hochschule Dresden.

1914
Zu Beginn des Ersten Weltkriegs meldet sich Immelmann zur Fliegertruppe für den Luftkrieg. Obwohl in Nordfrankreich als Aufklärungsflieger aktiv, gelingt ihm nach drei Flügen mit einem Kampfeindecker der erste Abschuß.
Dezember: Immelmann wird zum Leutnant der Reserve befördert.

1915
Immelmann wird Kampfflieger.
Zusammen mit Oswald Boelcke (1891-1916) entwickelt er eine neue Form des Luftkampfs, die durch Jagdstaffeln und kleine Flugzeugverbände anstelle der bis dahin üblichen Einzelflieger gekennzeichnet ist. Diese effektivere Flugkampfstrategie prägt bald die Taktik der deutschen Kampffliegerei.
Herbst: Wegen seiner außergewöhnlichen Erfolge wird Immelmann als "Der Adler von Lille" bezeichnet.

1916
Januar: Immelmann erhält nach seinem achten Luftsieg gemeinsam mit Boelcke den Orden Pour le Mérite.
April: Er wird zum Oberleutnant befördert und in das aktive Offizierskorps übernommen.
Mai: Bei einem Luftkampf zeigt Immelmann eine neue, von ihm entwickelte Flugfigur, die aus einem halben Looping und einer halben Rolle besteht. Dieser sogenannte Immelmann-Turn ermöglicht eine schnellere Flugrichtungsumkehr im Luftkampf.
22. Mai: Er wird Führer einer Kampfeinsitzer-Abteilung.
18. Juni: Max Immelmann wird versehentlich von der eigenen Artillerie bei einem Luftgefecht über Sallaumines bei Douai (Nordfrankreich) beschossen und kommt ums Leben.
Winter: Auf der Grundlage seiner Feldpostbriefe an seine Mutter wird Immelmanns autobiographisches Werk "Meine Kampfflüge" herausgegeben.

http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/ImmelmannMax/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jun 2006 10:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Max Immelmann
First German Ace, 15 kills

In January 1916, Kaiser Wilhelm pinned Prussia's highest military honor, the Pour le Mérite, "The Blue Max," on two aviators, Oswald Boelcke and Max Immelmann. Immelmann's legend was confused and contradictory even then. A fierce fighter pilot, dubbed "The Eagle of Lille" by his opponents, he was a mamma's boy whose mother regularly sent him chocolates. The famous half-loop, half-roll maneuver that bears his name, the "Immelmann Turn," most likely was not his invention. Even his death remains clouded in conflicting and self-serving claims.
Youth
Born in Dresden in 1890, Max Immelmann entered the Dresden Cadet Corps at age fourteen. While he was a gifted engineer, his behavior was unacceptable; he and the army parted ways eight years later. But when war broke out, the 24-year old was brought back into military service. He requested the aviation service, because of its mechanical and engineering aspects, but in the universal and timeless fashion of military bureaucracies, he was assigned to pilot training at Aldershof in November, 1914.

His record as a pilot trainee is unclear. Some source say he was a poor student. Others describe him as a natural. He learned on the Rumpler Taube, the Albatros, and the L.V.G.. His letters home described a fairly easy syllabus. He exceeded the requirements of his certification tests by wide margins: reaching 2,600 meters instead of 2,000; gliding 2,200 meters instead of 80; and staying aloft for 90 instead of 30 minutes.

He was an introvert; his closest friends seemed to be his mother and his dog, Tyras. No carousing and dancing with the young girls for him.

Initially he flew the mail and supplies to the German airdromes. He moved up to the Douai airfield. While flying a photographic plane on June 3, 1915, a French Farman shot him down. He landed the plane safely within his own lines, and surprisingly was decorated with the Iron Cross, Second Class for this.
Fokker Eindekker
Not long afterward, a young Dutch airplane designer, Anthony Fokker, arrived at Douai (Döberitz?) with two of his new monoplanes, each equipped with a potent innovation, a machine gun with interrupter gear that allowed it to fire forward through the propeller. Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke familiarized themselves with the Fokker E-I's, "Eindekker" and their revolutionary new weapons.

On August 1, ten British B.E.2c's bombed their Douai aerodrome. Boelcke and Immelman went after the departing Englishmen, but Boelcke's gun jammed after he had fired a few rounds. He landed to fix it and saw Immelmann attack the B.E.2's. Immelmann dived and fired, first at one plane, and then another. One started into a steep glide and Immelmann tailed it all the way to the ground. His gunfire had broken the pilot's elbow and forced him to land. On the ground, Immelmann approached the British pilot. They shook hands and Immelmann informed the Englishman that he was a prisoner. For this exploit, Max received the Iron Cross, First Class.

Immelmann scored again on September 9 and 21. But on the 23rd a French Farman shot up Max's plane, holing the fuel tank and destroying the landing gear. Somehow Immelmann survived and soon scored his fourth victory, a B.E.2c downed over Lille. His fifth a British biplane over Arras. On November 7, another B.E.2c for his sixth kill, and on December 5, his seventh claim, a Morane. By this time, the German press was idolizing him, Der Adler von Lille.
Der Adler von Lille
In the fall of 1915, Immelmann and Boelcke carried on a friendly rivalry, matching each other, victory for victory. Neither was a fancy flier. Immelmann wrote, "I do not employ tricks when I attack." In none of his writings does he refer to the half-loop, half-roll that bears his name. One source even suggested that Allied pilots used this maneuver to get away from Immelmann.

Aerial combat in the winter of 1915-16 was primitive and personal. On a mission over Lille, pilot Captain O'Hara Wood and gunner/observer Ira Jones, flying a BE-2c, had been warned of Immelman's presence in that sctor. While gunner Jones had a Lewis gun, there were four different mounts for it; he had to lift the machine gun from one to the other when needed. A Fokker monoplane came after them, and quickly maneuvered into the BE-2c's blind spot: low and behind. Desperately, gunner Jones picked his Lewis gun up and fired it while holding it in his hands. The recoil of the heavy weapon and the violent movement of the airplane made him lose his grip, and it fell out of the plane. The two British fliers expected the worst, but the Fokker flew off, out of ammunition. Later Captain Wood informed Jones that their opponent had been the famous Max Immelmann, whom he had recognized by his skillful flying.

On January 12, 1916, Immelmann and Boelcke both scored their eighth victories, prompting their decoration with the Blue Max.

While Fokker's monoplanes had permitted Immelmann and Boelcke to excel, the other German aircraft builders had not been idle. Halberstadt and Albatros introduced competing planes. To keep up, Fokker mounted three Spandau machine guns on an Eindekker and installed a more powerful 100 HP engine. This was the E-III. In April, Max tested the E-III, but the interrupter gear couldn't handle three guns and the prop was blasted to bits. Fokker then tried two guns, but in late May, Immelmann "shot himself down" again.

By June of 1916, Immelmann's victories had mounted to 15.
Death
On June 18, Immelmann engaged some FE-2b's of RFC Squadron 25. According to British accounts, gunfire from an FE-2 piloted by Lt. G.R. McCubbin and gunned by Cpl. J. H. Waller hit Immelmann's Fokker and it dived into the ground. Perhaps the notion that a lowly two-seater FE-2 had brought down their leading ace, the Germans announced that he had been downed by anti-aircraft fire. This explanation also suited Tony Fokker, who filed a report noting that "the fuselage had been shot in two by shrapnel fire."

Other sources, including Max's brother Franz, blamed the interrupter gear, and claimed that amongst the wreckage, his propeller had been found, shot away right in line with his own guns. Most authorities concur with this explanation, but like so many events of World War One's aerial combat, the death of Max Immelmann remains obscured by conflicting reports and uncertainty.

Sources:

* The Aerodrome
* Heroes of the Sunlit Sky, by Arch Whitehouse, Doubleday, 1967
* The Canvas Falcons, by Stephen Longstreet, Barnes & Noble, 1970
* Knights of the Air, by Ezra Bowen, Time-Life Books, 1980
* Rand McNally Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft: 1914-1980, by Enzio Angelucci, The Military Press, 1983

http://www.acepilots.com/wwi/ger_immelmann.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jun 2006 10:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En op onze Wiki:

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Max_Immelmann
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jun 2006 10:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Max Immelmann ligt begraven in zijn geboorteplaats Dresden.





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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jun 2006 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hey!

Ze hebben zijn vijgeblad vergeten!


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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Nov 2010 23:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Immelmann, Max. (1890-1916). Born: Dresden, Saxony. Known as "The Eagle of Lille," one of Germany's early aces.

Max entered the Dresden Cadet School when he was 15. Fascinated with mechanical devices and engines, he chose to join the 2nd Railway Battalion as an Ensign in 1912. He was promoted to Leutnant des Reserves in July 1914.

When war was declared, Max and his brother Franz applied to become army pilots. Instead, Max received his orders to report to his old unit. Later that year his transfer to the Air Service went through and Max was learning to fly at Johannesthal.

At first he was assigned to fly mail planes. In March 1915 he was reassigned to a new front line unit, Feldfliegerabteilung 62 stationed near Douai. There, he flew L.V.G. reconnaissance two-seaters.

The Fokker Scourge
In the summer of 1915, FFA 62 received one of Germany's hottest new technological weapons, the Fokker E-1. FFA 62's. C.O. Hauptman Kastner assigned his unit's best pilot, Lt. Oswald Boelcke, to fly the E-1. When FFA 62 received a second Fokker, it went to Max. Oswald and Max then started a friendly scoring rivalry, each hunting the skies alone. Max liked to patrol over the town of Lille, hence the sobriquet "Eagle of Lille." This was the time that the British referred to as the 'Fokker Scourge.'
For his first victory (in August 1915), Max was awarded the Iron Cross. For his fourth, the Military St. Henry Order of Saxony. At his sixth, he received the Hohenzollern House Order. In January 1916, both Immelmann and Boelcke scored their eighth victories and both received the Pour le Meritè , the first pilots to do so. For his twelfth victory, Immelmann was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Military St. Henry Order -- a very high Saxon award.

The Immelmann Turn
Max Immelmann is nearly forgotten today, but his name lives on in the aerial manoeuvre named after him. Today, an 'Immelmann turn' starts with a half loop up, followed by a half-roll. Ironically, this was not a manoeuvre Max used. Fokker Es did not have the power or agility required. Max's real turn consisted of a steep climb with a tight flat turn at the top (near stall speed) to dive down the same direction he had just come.

Controversial Demise
Max died in a crash on June 18, 1916. The RFC claimed that Lt. McCubbin and Corporal Waller shot down Immelmann and decorated them accordingly. Max's brother, and others, maintained that the synchronizer gear had failed and that Max shot off his own propeller, causing violent vibrations that shook apart his Fokker. Anthony Fokker himself examined the wreckage and, citing severed (rather than stretched/broken) cables and frame members, insisted that Max's plane had been hit by friendly anti-aircraft fire. Proof for any of the three theories was inconclusive.

http://www.gwpda.org/bio/i/immelman.html

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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 10:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



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Wat er restte van het vliegtuig van Immelmann na de fatale crash

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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 10:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



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Immelmann zoals de Duitsers zich hem graag herinnerden

mvg,

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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 11:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zie ook http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Max_Immelmann
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