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16 juni

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jun 2006 5:46    Onderwerp: 16 juni Reageer met quote

1918 Battle of the Piave River

On June 16, 1918, the Battle of the Piave River rages on the Italian front, marking the last major attack by the Austro-Hungarian army in Italy of World War I.

After turmoil-plagued Russia bowed out of the war effort in early 1918, Germany began to pressure its ally, Austria-Hungary, to devote more resources to combating Italy. Specifically, the Germans advocated a major new offensive along the Piave River, located just a few kilometers from such important Italian urban centers as Venice, Padua and Verona. In addition to striking on the heels of Russia’s withdrawal, the offensive was intended as a follow-up to the spectacular success of the German-aided operations at Caporetto in the autumn of 1917.

By June 1918, however, Austria-Hungary’s troops were in a radically different condition than they had been at Caporetto. Supplies were low, as was morale, while the Italians had bulked up their numbers along the Piave and received new shipments of arms from Allied munitions factories. Nevertheless, both commanders in the region—former Commander-in-Chief Conrad von Hotzendorff and Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna—favored an attack. Preparations were laid to divide their two forces and carry out the offensive in a pincer-like motion, with Conrad taking the main task of reaching the city of Verona and Boroevic attempting to cross the Piave and aim for Padua and the Adige Valley.

After some diversionary attacks, the main Austrian offensive was launched on June 15. Conrad’s 10th and 11th Armies made limited progress, and their advance was checked the following day by the forceful counterattack of the Italian 4th and 6th Armies, fortified by British and French troops. Within a week, the Austrians had suffered over 40,000 casualties. Meanwhile, Boroevic’s 5th and 6th Armies, which had crossed the Piave River along the Italian coast on June 10, gained slightly more territory—some three miles along a 15-mile front—but was also forced to give up those gains and retreat on June 19 under the Italian counterattack by the 3rd and 8th Armies. The Austrian troops stalled in their attempt to cross back over the rapid-flowing Piave, however, and the Italians were able to attack their flank; by the time they finally reached the other shore, a total of 150,000 of Boroevic’s men had been killed or wounded.

Though the cautious Italian commander in chief, General Armando Diaz, chose not to pursue the fleeing enemy troops across the river, the offensive ended in dismal failure. It was a fateful blow for Austria-Hungary’s presence on the Italian front. In the months that followed, the depleted, demoralized army ceased to exist as a cohesive force, a destruction that was completed by the Italians during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in late October 1918, just days before the end of World War I.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jun 2006 5:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Neue russische Niederlage östlich Sambor
40000 Russen von Mackensen in vier Tagen gefangen
Englische Niederlage bei La Bassée
Vordringen der Verbündeten an der Lemberger Straße
Seit 1. Juni über 122000 Gefangene
Ein feindliches Kriegsschiff im Ägäischen Meere gesunken

1916
Französische Angriffe am "Toten Mann" bei Verdun blutig abgewiesen
Neue Kämpfe an der ganzen wolhynischen Front
Blockade Griechenlands
Der Wahlkampf in Amerika

1917
Neue Gefechte an der flandrischen Front
Lebhafter Geschützkampf an der Westfront
Die heldenhafte deutsche Verteidigung in Flandern
Erfolgreiche Fliegerunternehmung gegen Runö
Reiche U-Boot-Beute im Atlantischen Ozean und Mittelmeer
Italienische Angriffe südlich des Suganatales gescheitert
Ein englischer Torpedobootzerstörer versenkt
Rückzug der Engländer an der unteren Struma
Türkischer Erfolg an der Kaukasus-Front
Ein englischer Hilfskreuzer torpediert
Rücktritt russischer Oberbefehlshaber

1918
Französische Angriffe gegen Dommiers abgeschlagen
Neue Erfolge an Piave und Brenta
Fliegerangriff auf Paris
Rücktritt Radoslawows

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jun 2006 6:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 juni 1916

Französische Angriffe am "Toten Mann" blutig abgewiesen

Großes Hauptquartier, 16. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Links der Maas griffen die Franzosen mit starken Kräften den Südhang des "Toten Mannes" an. Nachdem es ihnen gelungen war, vorübergehend Gelände zu gewinnen, wurden sie durch einen kurzen Gegenstoß wieder zurückgeworfen; wir nahmen dabei 8 Offiziere, 238 Mann gefangen und erbeuteten mehrere Maschinengewehre. Eine Wiederholung des feindlichen Angriffes am späten Abend und Unternehmungen gegen die beiderseits anschließenden deutschen Linien waren völlig ergebnislos. Der Gegner erlitt schwere blutige Verluste. Rechts der Maas blieb die Gefechtstätigkeit abgesehen von kleineren für uns günstigen Infanteriekämpfen an der Thiaumont-Schlucht im wesentlichen auf starke Feuertätigkeit der Artillerien beschränkt.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Gegen die Front des Generals Grafen Bothmer nördlich von Przewloka setzten die Russen auch gestern ihre Anstrengungen fort. Bei der Abwehr des Feindes blieben über 400 Mann gefangen in der Hand des Verteidigers.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage ist unverändert.

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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 17:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Liverpool Scottish, Bellewaarde Farm, 16 June 1915

Taken near Hooge, a photo of the first attack on Bellewaarde Farm by the Liverpool Scottish, 6 am, 16 June 1915.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Liverpool_Scottish_Bellewaarde_Farm_16_June_1915_Q_49750.jpg

Liverpool Scottish, Bellewaarde Farm, 16 June 1915

Taken near Hooge, a photo of the first attack on Bellewaarde Farm by the Liverpool Scottish, 6 am, 16 June 1915.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Liverpool_Scottish_Bellewaarde_Farm_16_June_1915_Q_49751.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 17:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Military Intelligence Office, Cairo, 16.6.15

Well, here's another week gone, and nothing has happened or is happening, except an occasional Turkish feint on the canal: it's very hit here, with a Khamsin blowing so that we have to keep all doors and windows shut. The shade temperature outside the office is 115° just now. Yesterday it was 112°, but it cools down to 95° or 100° at night; it has gone up to 117° now: it must really be rather like the Persian Gulf, and yet it doesn't feel at all oppressive.

We are very busy just now. I don't really know what with: there is a lot of telegraphing to do, in cipher, which takes a long time - and we have other work, and besides I have 6 maps in hand being drawn.

Wainwright passed through yesterday, going to England. He had been digging in Egypt for some weeks.

Tell Arnie to get out Collignon's book on Greek scuplture. There is a beautiful frontispiece of a head in the Louvre.

T.E.L.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150616_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 17:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dear Miss Griffis - First World War Letters from Harold McGill to Emma Griffis

Shorncliffe, England, June 16, 1915

Dear Miss Griffis,

Your very nice letter of May 30 reached me yesterday and to say I was delighted would be putting it too mildly. Yours was the first and only letter from Calgary, or indeed from Canada, that I have had since we landed over two weeks ago. I hope your health has come quite up to the normal by this time.

We had a very nice trip all the way across. We did not have any leave at Quebec but embarked aboard the S.S Carpathia at once May 17 sailing about 3 p.m. There was scarcely any rough weather on the ocean trip and I never missed a meal. The land lubbers fared better than the old travellers very few of the former being seasick. I never even felt a twinge, but then I was too busy most of the time to indulge in any such frivolities. We never got a glimpse of a submarine although we kept a sharp lookout. There were over 2200 troops aboard and the last part of the journey was run with lights all shut off at nights, or at least with portholes all blanketed. For the last two days we had two machine guns mounted on deck and 100 men on guard with loaded riffles. We came in sight of Plymouth Harbour on the afternoon of May 28 and docked at Devonport – a few miles up the river that evening. The scene coming into Plymouth was most beautiful and I am very glad we arrived during daylight. We did not get any leave from the boat to see Plymouth as I should like to have done for it is a most interesting city. The people gave us a royal welcome and the boys on the training ships cheered themselves hoarse. The Jackies certainly know how to cheer.

We spent the night on the ship and entrained next morning for Shorncliffe. On the way down we passed through some of the most interesting parts of England including London.

Our camp is on a hill over looking the sea about four miles from Folkestone. The ships are passing up and down all day and on clear days we can make out the French coast quite distinctly. With field glasses we can see the towns and villages. We are about 50 minutes by flying machine from the scene of the fighting. We see those machines nearly every day and this evening a big airship (British) flew right-over the camp. It was only a few hundred feet up and we got a fine view of it. The men in the car were dressed in navel uniform. Torpedo boat destroyers are patrolling up and down the coast all day.

Dr. Gunn is at present at Canadian Shorncliffe Hospital about two miles away from here. Dr. McGuffin is here in the Fourth Field Ambulance attached to our brigade. Dr. Charlie Stewart is in charge of the hospital at Beach borough a few miles away. I went out to see him on Sunday. The hospital is an old country seat and is most beautiful. I had the pleasure of meeting the donors, Sir Arthur and Lady Markham who gave up their home for hospital purposes. Tommy Costello came down from London to see us on Sunday. I heard his voice in the next tent to mine and could hardly believe my ears. Upon investigation I found it was Tommy sure enough. He keeps asking everybody if there is much danger connected with the M.O.S. work. I was able to assure him that most of the medical officers with the first division were either killed wounded or driven insane. Dr. Morris called at the camp yesterday but I did not have much time to talk to him as I had to go down to Folkestone.

A few of us drove down to Dover the other evening. It was a most interesting trip. The harbour was full of warships. I shall try to go to Canterbury next Saturday and see the cathedral. It is only a few miles away. I have not been up to London yet.

Was very interested to know that the family responsibilities of Dr. Fallets and Johnson had increased. Is Geo. Johnson out at the Reserve?

Give my kind regards to Miss Murphy and all others and do write again soon.

Yours very sincerely,

Harold W McGill Capt.C.A.M.C

P.S. Send letters as before. We may move. Miss Gee is in France. So is my sister. Have not seen her. Have seen Miss Andrews and Miss Gardiner twice.

http://missgriffis.wordpress.com/2006/03/23/shorncliffe-england-june-16-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Casualty List : 1st/5th Battalion Gordon Highlanders

16 June 1915
Lieut Scott, William Leslie
Killed in action
Age 22
Son of Willian Leslie Scott and Elizabeth Campbell Lowe Scott of Willowbank, Peterhead.

Lieutenant 1/5 Battn. (Territorial), The Gordon Highlanders, was the elder son of William Leslie Scott, Solicitor, and Mrs Scott, Willowbank, parish of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire.

He was born at Peterhead on 24th December 1892 and was educated partly at Peterhead Academy. He afterwards proceeded to the University of Aberdeen where he was studying medicine when the War with the Central Empires broke out.

For about a year prior to the outbreak of the War he was in the Aberdeen University Detachment of the Royal Army Medical Corps, from which he transferred to join the Aberdeen University O.T.C, with which he was in Camp on Salisbury Plain in July 1914.

He received a commission as 2nd Lieutenant in the 2/5th Battalion The Gordon Highlanders in November 1914, and shortly afterwards was transferred to the 1/5th Battalion, in which he was promoted temporary Lieutenant in April 1915, just before that Battalion joined the British Expeditionary Force in France, being subsequently confirmed in his rank.

Lieutenant Scott was killed at Festubert on 16th June 1915. He was Officer in Charge of Bomb-throwers, and was leading his men along a communication trench between the British and German firing lines, to attack the latter, when a bomb or shell exploded in the trench, killing him instantly.

He was buried behind the British lines near Festubert.

http://gordonhighlanders.carolynmorrisey.com/page14.htm & http://gordonhighlanders.carolynmorrisey.com/CasualtylistA.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 17:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Hooge (First Action at Bellewaarde)

The first major battalion action of the Liverpool Scottish was on 16th. June 1915 in what is officially known as 'The First Action at Bellewaarde' which was designed to pin down German reserves whilst there were British and French attacks elsewhere.This action is known in The Liverpool Scottish as 'The Battle of Hooge'. Hooge is a village is a few miles East of Ieper (Ypres), straddling the Menin Road (click here for a more detailed map). The Liverpool Scottish, as part of 9th Brigade ( in turn part of the 3rd Division of the Regular Army) , were to take part in the second phase of the attack on ground just North of The Menin Road between (and including) Railway Wood (still to be seen) in the North and a hedge row seen on the map (just North of a feature known as Y-Wood to the South which no longer exists). They were to be the left hand battalion and to their right was to be a battalion of the Lincolns. The battalion's frontage appears to have been about 400 yards. The assembly position was on the line of 'Cambridge Road', a feature which exists today as a metalled track running North from the Menin Road and a Liverpool Scottish memorial was unveiled and dedicated here on Saturday 29th July 2000 during the centenary year, a project in which the Museum was actively involved.

http://www.liverpoolscottish.org.uk/history.htm#1914 -1920
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 18:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Battle of Artois

The Battle Continues - On the 7th June 1915 some 40 kilometres to the south, the French opened up a diversionary assault on the Somme in an attempt to secure the village of Serre - which would in fact never fall in combat and would become the tomb of the British Pals Battalions in 1916.

In Artois, Neuville St Vaast finally fell to the 5e Armée under Général Mangin on the 9th June but the Labyrinth was still only partially in French hands.

The French then launched further assaults on the German lines on the 16th June attaining a small element of surprise. For the preceding mornings they had been laying down mock preliminary bombardments.

Over the next 24 hours the French artillery would fire over 300 000 shells in the area of Neuville St Vaast and they were still being out gunned by the Germans who from the heights were able to direct fire on French positions with ease.

By the 25th June it was apparent to Général d'Urbal that his men could advance no further and suspended any further operations.

The Cost - Between the 9th May and the 16th June the French reckon to have lost about 700 officers killed and 1,500 wounded, along with 16,000 soldiers killed, 63,500 wounded and 20,500 missing (which usually meant: killed).

They had however shown that given good planning, training and high morale they could achieve stunning success.

The blame for what followed was put down to the reserves being held too far back on the one hand and lack of artillery to subdue the German guns on the other.

This analysis led to a furtherance of the First World War One mantra: more guns, more men.

The overwhelming domination in both type and numbers of the German Artillery was sorely felt by the French. Their 75mm field gun was an excellent piece, but there were nowhere near enough of them and certainly the Allies lagged behind in terms of the very heavy guns.

Thus each new campaign was started with the idea that what was needed was a more massive preliminary bombardment with more guns per metre and more shells per hour.

How could the enemy withstand such a horror, how could their defences remain intact?

Twelve months later on the Somme the British would discover that in places, both enemy and installation endured.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_artois.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 18:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arab Revolt - Prelude

Hussein had about 50,000 men under arms, but fewer than 10,000 had rifles. Evidence that the Ottoman government was planning to depose him at the end of the war led him to an exchange of letters with British High Commissioner Henry McMahon which convinced him that his assistance on the side of the Triple Entente would be rewarded by an Arab empire encompassing the entire span between Egypt and Persia, with the exception of imperial possessions and interests in Kuwait, Aden, and the Syrian coast. French and British naval forces had cleared the Red Sea of Ottoman gunboats early in the war. The port of Jidda was attacked by 3500 Arabs on 10 June 1916 with the assistance of bombardment by British warships and seaplanes. The Ottoman garrison surrendered on 16 June. By the end of September 1916 Arab armies had taken the coastal cities of Rabegh, Yenbo, Qunfida, and 6000 Ottoman prisoners with the assistance of the Royal Navy. Fifteen thousand well-armed Ottoman troops remained in the Hejaz. However, a direct attack on Medina in October resulted in a bloody repulse of the Arab forces.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Revolt#Prelude
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 18:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 US Election

The 1916 US Election took place with the First World War continuing in the background. As a result, the world war, that engulfed all the European nations, had a direct effect on the proceedings and the result of the 1916 US Election. The general mass of US favored the neutral standpoint of their country in the war. The incumbent US President Woodrow Wilson was nominated by the Democratic Party to run the race for the US President in the US Election 1916.

The Convention of the Republican Party was held from 7 June to 10 June in Chicago. The importance of this Convention lay in its efforts to bridge the split that had occurred within the party ranks during the US Election of 1912. The division of the Republican Party into the Progressive Republican Party under Roosevelt and the regular Republican Party under Taft had made it easy for the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson to win the election of 1912. The Republican Party authorities therefore very naturally favored the nomination of a moderate who would be accepted by both the sections of the divided party. In such a situation the best available option was Charles Evans Hughes, a Supreme Court Justice.

The Democratic Party Convention for the nomination of presidential candidates for the US Election of 1916 took place from 14 June to 16 June at St. Louis, Missouri. The colossal popularity and admiration of Woodrow Wilson led to his re-nomination along with his Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

http://www.mapsofworld.com/2008-usa-presidential-election/historical-election/1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Flying Corps, a corps of the Army formed in 1912

4th Flying Squadron
Formed Point Cook Victoria, 16 October 1916. Departed Melbourne Omrah 17 January 1917. 1st and 2nd Reinforcements departed Melbourne Omrah 17 January 1917. Arrived England 27 March 1917. Moved to France 18 December 1917 and Germany 7 December 1918, the only Australian unit in the British Army of Occupation. Also known as 71st (Australian) Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. Equipped with Sopwith Camel. Reequipped with Sopwith Snipe October 1918. Returned to Australia Kaiser-i-Hind May 1919 where disbanded 16 June 1919.

http://www.aif.adfa.edu.au:8888/Aviation.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The War in the Mountains

Notes on Kipling's visit to the Italian battle-front in 1917, during the Great War and the articles he wrote

"ONLY A FEW STEPS HIGHER UP"
[June 16 1917]

FOR A SPECIAL JOB, specialists, but for all jobs, youth above everything! That portion of the Italian frontier where men must mountaineer as well as climb is held with the Alpine regiments. The corps is recruited from the people who inhabit, and know what is in the mind of, the mountains - men used to carry loads along eighteen-inch paths round thousand foot drops. Their talk is the slang of mountains, with a special word for every mood and state of snow, ice, or rock, as elaborately particular as a Zulu's talk when he is describing his cattle. They wear a smash hat adorned with one eagle feather (worn down to an honourable stump, now); the nails upon their boots resemble, and are kept as sharp as, the fangs of wolves; their eyes are like our airman's eyes; their walk on their own ground suggests the sea; and a more cheery set of hard-bitten, clean-skinned, steady-eyed young devils I have never yet had the honour to meet.

'What do you do?' I was foolish enough to demand of them from the security of a Mess-room seven thousand feet up among pines and snows. (1) For the moment, the forest cut off the oppression of the mountain view.

'Oh, come and see,' said these joyous children. 'We are working a few steps higher up the road. It is only a few steps.'

They took me by car above the timber-line on the edge of the basin, to the steep foot of a dominant rock wall which I had seen approaching, for hours back, along the road. (2) Twenty or thirty miles away the pillared mass of it had looked no more than implacably hostile - much as Mont Blanc looks from the lake. Coming nearer it had grown steeper, and a wilderness of wrathful crags and fissures had revealed itself. At close range from almost directly below, the thing, one perceived, went up sheer, where it did not bulge outward, like a ship' side at launching. Every monstrous detail of its face, etched by sunshine through utterly clear air, crashed upon the sight at once, overwhelming the mind as a new world might, wearying the eye as a gigantically enlarged photograph does.

It was hidden by a snow tunnel (3), wide enough for a vehicle and two mules. The tunnel was dingy brown where its roof was thick, and lighted by an unearthly blue glare where it was thin, till it broke into blinding daylight where the May heat had melted out the arch of it. But there was graded gravel underfoot all the way, and swilling gutters carried off the snow-drip on either side. In the open or in the dark, Italy, makes but one kind of road.

'This is our new road (4), the joyous children explained. 'It isn't quite finished, so if you'll sit on this mule (5), we'll take you the last few steps, only a few steps higher.'

I looked up again between the towering snowbanks. There were not even wrinkles on the face of the mountain now, but horrible, smooth honey-coloured thumbs and pinnacles, clustered like candle-drippings round the main core of unaffected rock, and the whole framing of it bent towards me.

The road was a gruel of gravel, stones, and working-parties. No one hurried; no one got in his neighbour's way; there were very few orders; but even as the mule hoisted herself up and round the pegged-out turns of it, the road seemed to be drawing itself into shape.

There are little engine-houses at the foot of some of the Swiss bob-runs which, for fifty centimes, used to hoist sportsmen and their bob-sleds up to the top again by funicular. The same arrangement stood on a platform nicked out of rock with the very same smell of raw planks, petrol, and snow, and the same crunch of crampons on slushy ground. But instead of the cog-railway, a steel wire, supported on frail struts and carrying a 2steel-latticed basket, ran up the face of the rock at an angle which need not be specified. Qua railway, it was nothing - the merest grocery line, they explained - and, indeed, one had seen larger and higher ones in the valleys lower down; but a certain nakedness of rock and snow beneath, and side-way blasts of air out of funnels and rifts that we slid past, made it interesting.

At the terminus, four or five hundred feet overhead (we were more than two thousand feet above the Mess-house in the pines) (6), there was a system - it suggested the marks that old ivy prints on a wall after you peel it off - of legends and paths of slushy trampled snow, connecting the barracks, the cook-house, the Officers' Mess and, I presume, the parade ground of the garrison. If the cook dropped a bucket, he had to go down six hundred feet to retrieve it. If a visitor went too far round a corner to admire the panoramas, he became visible to unartistic Austrians (7) who promptly loosed off a shrapnel. All this eagle's nest of a world in two dimensions boiled with young life and energy, as the planks and girders, the packages of other stuff came up the aerial; and the mountain above leaned outward over it all, hundreds of feet yet to the top.

'Our real work is a little higher up - only a few steps,' they urged.

But I recalled that it was Dante himself who says how bitter it is to climb up and down other people's stairs. Besides, their work was of no interest to any one except the enemy round the corner. It was just the regular routine of these parts. They outlined it for the visitor.

You climb up a fissure of a rock chimney - by shoulder or knee work such as mountaineers understand - and at night for choice, because, by day, the enemy drops stones down the chimney, but then they had to carry machine-guns, and some other things, with them. ('By the way, some of our machine-guns are of French manufacture, so our Machine Gun Corps' souvenir - please take it, we want you to have it - represents the heads of France and Italy side by side.') (8)

And when you emerge from your chimney - which it is best to do in a storm or a gale, since nailed boots on rock make a noise - you find either that you command the enemy's post on the top, in which case you destroy him, or cut him off from supplies by gunning the only goat-path that brings them; or you find the enemy commands you from some unsuspected cornice or knob of rock. Then you go down again - if you can - and try elsewhere. And that is how it is done all along that section of frontier where the ground does not let you do otherwise.

Special work is somewhat different. You select a mountain- top which you have reason to believe is filled with the enemy and all his works. You effect a lodgement there with your teeth and toe-nails; you mine into the solid rock with compressed-air drills for as many hundred yards as you calculate may be necessary. When you have finished, you fill your galleries with nitroglycerine and blow the top off the mountain. Then you occupy the crater with men and machine-guns as fast as you can. Then you secure your dominating position from which you can gain other positions, by the same means.

'But surely you know all about this. You've seen the Castelletto,' some one said. (9)

It stood outside in the sunshine, a rifted bastion crowned with peaks like the roots of molar-teeth. The largest peak had gone. A chasm, a crater and a vast rock slide took its place.

Yes, I had seen the Castelletto, but I was interested to see the men who had blown it up.

'Oh, he did that. That's him.' (10)

A man with the eyes of a poet or musician laughed and nodded. Yes, he owned, he was mixed up in the affair of the Castelletto - had written a report on it, too. They had used thirty-five tons of nitroglycerine for that mine. They had brought it up by hand - in the old days when he was a second lieutenant and men lived in tents, before the wire-rope railways were made - a long time ago.

'And your battalion did it all?'

'No - no: not at all, by any means, but - before we'd finished with the Castelletto we were miners and mechanics and all sorts of things we never expected to be . That is the way of this war.'

'And this mining business still goes on?'

Yes: I might take it that the mining business did go on.

And now would I, please, come and listen to a little music from their band? (11) It lived on the rock ledges - and it would play the Regimental and the Company March; but - one of the joyous children shook his head sadly - 'those Austrians aren't really musical. No ear for music at all.'

Given a rock wall that curves over in a sounding-board behind and above a zealous band, to concentrate the melody, and rock ribs on either side to shoot the tune down a thousand feet on to hard snowfields below, and thunderous echoes from every cranny and cul de sac along half a mile of resonant mountain-face, the result, I do assure you, reduces Wagner to a whisper. That they wanted Austria was nothing - she was only just round the corner - but it seemed to me that all Italy must hear them across those gulfs of thin air. They brayed, they neighed, and they roared; the bandsmen's faces puckered with mirth behind the brasses, and the mountains faithfully trumpeted forth their insults all over again.

The Company March did not provoke any applause - I expect the enemy had heard it too often. We embarked on national anthems. The Marsellaise was but a success d'estime, drawing a perfunctory shrapnel or so, but when the band gave them and the whole accusing arch of heaven the Brabanconne the enemy were much moved.

'I told you they had no taste,' said a young faun on a rock shelf; 'still, it shows the swine have a conscience.'

But some folk never know when to stop; besides, it was time for the working-parties to be coming in off the roads. So an announcement was made from high overhead to our unseen audience that the performance was ended and they need not applaud any longer. It was put a little more curtly than this, and it sounded exactly like ears being boxed.

The silence spread with the great shadows of the rock towers across the snow: there was tapping and clinking and an occasional stone-slide far up the mountain side; the aerial railway carried on as usual; the working parties knocked off, and piled tools, and the night shifts began.

The last I saw of the joyous children was a cluster of gnome-like figures a furlong overhead, standing, for there was no visible foothold, on nothing. They separated, and went about their jobs as single dots, moving up or sideways on the face of the rock, till they disappeared into it like ants. Their real work lay 'only a few steps higher up' where the observation-posts, the sentries, the supports and all the rest live on ground compared with which the baboon-tracks round the Mess and the barracks are level pavement. Those rounds must be taken in every weather and light; that is, made at eleven thousand feet, with death for company under each foot, and the width of a foot on each side, at every step of the most uneventful round. Frosty glazed rock where a blunt- nailed boot slips once and no more; mountain blasts round the corner of ledges before the body is braced to them; a knob of rotten shale crumbling beneath the hand; an ankle twisted at the bottom of a ninety-foot rift; a roaring descent of rocks loosened by snow from some corner the sun has undermined through the day - these are a few of the risks they face going from and returning to the coffee and gramophones at the Mess, 'in the ordinary discharge of their duties.'

A turn of the downward road shut them and their world from sight - never to be seen again by my eyes, but the hot youth, the overplus of strength, the happy, unconsidered insolence of it all, the gravity, beautifully maintained over the coffee cups, but relaxed when the band played to the enemy, and the genuine, boyish kindness, will remain with me. But, behind it all, fine as the steel wire ropes, implacable as the mountain, one was conscious of the hardness of their race.

©Rudyard Kipling 1917

Notes by Peter Lewis
1. The Mess-room was probably in the barracks complex at the foot of the Tofane di Rozes massif, east of the Col di Rozes at an altitude of 7,000ft.
2.This would have been the Tofane di Rozes, one of the three peaks of the Le Tofane massif which dominates the landscape. It lies about 15km west of Cortina, on Route No.48 leading to the Passo di Falzarego. Kipling would have seen it as he approached Cortina along Route No.51 from Pieve di Cadore and Udine.
3.Austrian intelligence maps for April 1917 show a communications road, partly tunnelled , leading from the barracks complex to the service areas for the front line positions up on the bastion of the Col dei Bois.
4.The end of the communications road was near the top station of an aerial ropeway which led from the main road on the floor of the valley up to the heavily fortified positions on the Col dei Bois.
5.This suggests that either the new road did not quite reach the ropeway terminus, or more likely,it was being built to supplement the limited capacity of the ropeway to support the more forward positions.
6.The Col dei Bois positions were about 6,000ft above the end of the road and the ropeway terminus; they were also served by three smaller ropeways.
7.It seems likely that Kipling was taken up one of the shorter ropeways and into the artillery and machine gun positions on the plateau on top of the Col. The Austrian positions were on the mountain side of the Laguzoi, a very short distance across the Forcella di Travenantes.
8. Machine guns were essential to mountain warfare and both the British and French governments had sent a number in the previous year.
9. This was Kipling’s second view of the Castelletto (Schreckenstein on Austrian and Punta di Bois on Italian maps), a rock outcrop with shear walls separated from the west wall of Tofana I (or Tofana di Rozes) by a narrow saddle. It was often referred to as “Tofana’s little brother”. The Castelletto was a natural fortress and an initial Italian attack in 1915 had failed to dislodge the small Austrian garrison. It dominated the entrance to the Val Travantes and gave the Austrians a vantage point overlooking the Italian positions in the Falzarego valley. In April 1916, the Italians under Lieutenant Luigi Malvessi began work on a tunnel running from the galleries in the Tofana to a large mine chamber under the Austrian positions. The mine was exploded on 17 July 1916, with the King and General Cadorna watching from Mt. Averau. After the explosion, the Italians launched several costly assaults in strength and the Austrians were compelled to withdraw to positions on the eastern slopes of Laguzoi. The positions changed little until the general Italian withdrawal in November 1917.
10.The names of Lieutenants Malvessi, Caetano and Tissi are connected with the mining of the Castelletto, but a German expert on mine warfare thinks that these officers were out of the area on the day of Kipling’s visit.
11. Front Line Band Concerts were very much an Italian speciality; the best known being one conducted by Toscanini on the Isonzo Front (he got a medal for it).


http://www.kipling.org.uk/rg_mountains_onlyafew.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ARMISTICE FATALITIES: - Australian service personnel who died on 11 November 1918
Rodney Noonan - National Archives Defence Service Records Team

Seventeen members of the First AIF died on 11 November 1918, the day the Armistice ending World War I was signed. They came from all states of Australia: eight enlisted in NSW, three in Western Australia, two each in Tasmania and Victoria, and one apiece in South Australia and Queensland. There was no pattern to their deaths. Some died of wounds, others of illness. Most were single but some were married. Their ranks ranged from Private to Sergeant. Several had previously been wounded in action. One had been decorated for bravery. Like all other Australian service personnel who died during the war, their names are listed on the Roll of Honour at the Australian War Memorial.

The World War I service records held by the National Archives of Australia can provide extremely valuable information for family history researchers whose relatives had military service. The following brief histories of five Australians who died on 11 November 1918 provide examples of the types of information that can be found on a service record. The histories were compiled using details taken only from the war service records of these men. Private Edward Wareham Eames (service number 6907) was born and raised in Sydney. He enlisted on 15 March 1917, two months before his nineteenth birthday. At the time he was an unmarried carpenter living with his father Walter. His mother was listed as deceased. A hernia scar on the left side of his body and a scar on the inside of his right leg just below the knee were his only distinguishing physical characteristics.

He left Australia on 16 June 1917 with the 20th reinforcements of the 18th Battalion and arrived in England on 25 August. The following day he was appointed Acting Corporal. He held this rank for four months before reverting to Private on 27 December when he embarked for active duty. He disembarked in France on 28 December and joined his unit in Belgium on New Year's Day 1918. During the course of the next three-and-a-half months his unit moved south into France. On 14 April he was wounded in action but remained on duty and was treated at the front. He remained on active duty until early August when he was hospitalised for six weeks with dysentery. He rejoined his unit on 28 September but was severely wounded on 4 October suffering a gunshot wound to the groin. He was initially evacuated to the 58th Casualty Clearing Station and then two days later was transferred to the 2nd Australian General Hospital at Boulogne. He died on 11 November 1918, five-and-a-half weeks after being wounded.

Sapper William Sandiland Howden (service number 9549) was born in White Kirk, Scotland on 29 May 1887. His parents remained in Scotland although he and his sister had since settled in Australia. His sister lived with her husband in Kurri Kurri, while he lived and worked as a coalminer near Wollongong. He initially attempted to enlist in early 1915 but was rejected for having poor teeth. Despite his dental problems, he successfully enlisted on 23 November 1917. Because of his mining background he served with the engineers in the 1st Australian Tunnelling Company. He embarked from Melbourne on 28 February 1918 and arrived at Liverpool on 20 April 1918. After spending four months in England, he eventually joined his unit in France on 11 September 1918. On 29 September he was wounded in action. A report from the No. 9 General Hospital in France provides an account of what happened next:

The above-named soldier was admitted to this hospital on 1.10.18 suffering from the effects of shell wounds leg, right, and compound fracture of leg, left. His right leg was amputated and a transfusion of blood was given on the 3.10.18 but he died from general infection and exhaustion on 11.11.18. He was buried in St Sever Cemetery Rouen on the 12.11.18. Grave No. 9362. Not all the service personnel who died that day received fatal wounds. Several died of illness. In some cases they were early victims of the 'Spanish Flu', the influenza pandemic that accounted for millions of lives in 1918 and 1919.

Private Joseph Louis Delley (service number 5575) was an unmarried 21-year-old farmer born in Bundaberg, Queensland. He enlisted in Brisbane on 16 March 1916, having previously been rejected nine times as he suffered from the tropical skin disease filariasis.

He left Australia on 7 September 1916 with the 15th reinforcements of the 26th Battalion. He disembarked in England on 2 November and embarked for France in mid-December. He continued to suffer from filariasis and was hospitalised several times in 1917 and 1918. On 27 October 1918 he was admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia and he died at 6pm on 11 November. The official cause of death was influenza septicaemia. The Last Post was played at his funeral and his coffin was draped with the Union Jack. Among the mourners present were an aunt and uncle who lived in Bournemouth and another aunt and uncle who lived in Lancashire. His mother was sent his belongings - three coins, a prayer book, a pocket book and some letters.

Private Robert Boss (service number 2871) was an unmarried labourer from New South Wales who enlisted at Bathurst on 10 August 1916, a month before his twentieth birthday. He embarked on 25 October 1916 with the 7th reinforcements of the 54th Battalion and arrived in England three days after Christmas. He spent almost six months in England, first with the 14th Training Battalion and then on temporary assignment with the Australian Army Postal Corps. In June 1917 he proceeded to France. He was gassed on 16 October and hospitalised for over a month. Following several more months with his unit at the front, he was granted two weeks' leave on 18 February 1918, which was spent in England. He rejoined his unit in March but was hospitalised in April with bronchitis. Upon his release he returned to the front. On 11 October, just a month before his death, he transferred to the 56th Battalion. On 8 November he was hospitalised with influenza and three days later he died of pneumonia.

The highest ranking and most decorated Australian who died on 11 November was Military Medal recipient Sergeant John Page (service number 2135). Born near Quirindi in New South Wales, he enlisted on 13 April 1916. He was an unmarried 28-year-old contractor who nominated his father Peter as his next of kin. On 24 August he embarked with the 3rd reinforcements of the 34th Battalion. He disembarked in England in October and proceeded to France in November. He was appointed Lance Corporal in January 1917, the first of a series of promotions.

On 6 May 1917 he was admitted to hospital suffering a gunshot wound to the groin. He spent several weeks in hospital but rejoined his unit on 15 June and five days later was appointed temporary Corporal. On 15 July, while serving in Belgium, he was wounded for a second time when he suffered a gunshot wound to the neck. He was admitted to hospital in England and shortly after reverted to the rank of Lance Corporal. On 27 October he rejoined his unit, who were now located in France, and in mid-November he was promoted to Corporal. In early December he was promoted to Sergeant. During January-February 1918 he spent six weeks at Brigade School before rejoining his unit on 23 February.

For his actions in early March he was awarded the Military Medal. His citation reads as follows: For devoted service on night of 4-5/3/18 during raid on enemy trenches in vicinity of Warneton. With his party he was temporarily held up by superior numbers of the enemy in the trench leading to his final objective but by his personal courage and determined fighting he eventually cleared the way for the advance. His gallant efforts were of the highest value, and relieved a critical situation for his party.

On 31 August, while serving in France, he was wounded for a third time. He was admitted to hospital in England suffering a gunshot wound to his right arm. He was released from hospital on 16 September and on 22 October 1918 he married 20-year-old domestic servant Elsie Hawkins. The wedding took place in the parish church of her hometown of Harefield, Middlesex. On 31 October he was hospitalised with influenza and he died on 11 November, just three weeks after the wedding. These summaries are indicative of the wealth of information held on service records. All five records also contained basic physical descriptions - height, weight, complexion, and hair and eye colour. The information is not only useful in its own right but the dates, places, units and hospitals mentioned can facilitate further research in newspapers, letters, books, diaries and unit histories.

http://www.warmemorialsnsw.asn.au/traditions/remembranceday.cfm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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The Canton, Ohio speech by Eugene V. Debs

Eugene V. Debs, the most prominent leader of the Socialist Party, delivered this fiery speech against the First World War to 1,200 people at the Ohio state convention of the Socialist Party on June 16, 1918. (...) Contrary to many of the leading socialists of Europe who came out on the side of their own governments, Debs joined a handful of revolutionaries internationally, including the Bolsheviks of Russia, to denounce the war as one waged by the great powers for conquest at the expense of workers all over the world. For giving the Canton Speech, Debs was later tried and imprisoned for "uttering words intended to cause insubordination and disloyalty within the armed forces of the United States, to incite resistance to the war, and to promote the cause of Germany." Debs ran for president in 1920 from his prison cell and won almost a million votes. The speech had been recorded by a government stenographer to be used against Debs by the prosecution.

COMRADES, FRIENDS and fellow-workers, for this very cordial greeting, this very hearty reception, I thank you all with the fullest appreciation of your interest in and your devotion to the cause for which I am to speak to you this afternoon. [Applause.]

To speak for labor; to plead the cause of the men and women and children who toil; to serve the working class, has always been to me a high privilege; [Applause] a duty of love.

I have just returned from a visit over yonder [pointing to the workhouse], where three of our most loyal comrades are paying the penalty for their devotion to the cause of the working class. [Applause.] They have come to realize, as many of us have, that it is extremely dangerous to exercise the constitutional right of free speech in a country fighting to make democracy safe in the world. [Applause.]

I realize that, in speaking to you this afternoon, there are certain limitations placed upon the right of free speech. I must be exceedingly careful, prudent, as to what I say, and even more careful and prudent as to how I say it. [Laughter.] I may not be able to say all I think; [Laughter and applause] but I am not going to say anything that I do not think. [Applause.] I would rather a thousand times be a free soul in jail than to be a sycophant and coward in the streets. [Applause and shouts.] They may put those boys in jail--and some of the rest of us in jail--but they can not put the Socialist movement in jail. [Applause and shouts.] Those prison bars separate their bodies from ours, but their souls are here this afternoon. [Applause and cheers.] They are simply paying the penalty that all men have paid in all the ages of history for standing erect, and for seeking to pave the way to better conditions for mankind. [Applause.]

If it had not been for the men and women who, in the past, have had the moral courage to go to jail, we would still be in the jungles. [Applause.]

This assemblage is exceedingly good to look upon. I wish it were possible for me to give you what you are giving me this afternoon. [Laughter.] What I say here amounts to but little; what I see here is exceedingly important. [Applause.] You workers in Ohio, enlisted in the greatest cause ever organized in the interest of your class, are making history today in the face of threatening opposition of all kinds--history that is going to be read with profound interest by coming generations. [Applause.]

There is but one thing you have to be concerned about, and that is that you keep foursquare with the principles of the international Socialist movement. [Applause.] It is only when you begin to compromise that trouble begins. [Applause.] So far as I am concerned, it does not matter what others may say, or think, or do, as long as I am sure that I am right with myself and the cause. [Applause.] There are so many who seek refuge in the popular side of a great question. As a Socialist, I have long since learned how to stand alone. [Applause.] For the last month I have been traveling over the Hoosier State; and, let me say to you, that, in all my connection with the Socialist movement, I have never seen such meetings, such enthusiasm, such unity of purpose; never have I seen such a promising outlook as there is today, notwithstanding the statement published repeatedly that our leaders have deserted us. [Laughter.] Well, for myself, I never had much faith in leaders. [Applause and laughter.] I am willing to be charged with almost anything, rather than to be charged with being a leader. I am suspicious of leaders, and especially of the intellectual variety. [Applause.] Give me the rank and file every day in the week. If you go to the city of Washington, and you examine the pages of the Congressional Directory, you will find that almost all of those corporation lawyers and cowardly politicians, members of Congress, and misrepresentatives of the masses--you will find that almost all of them claim, in glowing terms, that they have risen from the ranks to places of eminence and distinction. I am very glad I cannot make that claim for myself. [Laughter.] I would be ashamed to admit that I had risen from the ranks. When I rise it will be with the ranks, and not from the ranks. [Applause.]

When I came away from Indiana, the comrades said: "When you cross the line and get over into the Buckeye State, tell the comrades there that we are on duty and doing duty. Give them for us, a hearty greeting, and tell them that we are going to make a record this fall that will be read around the world." [Applause.]

The Socialists of Ohio, it appears, are very much alive this year. The party has been killed recently [laughter], which, no doubt, accounts for its extraordinary activity. [Laughter.] There is nothing that helps the Socialist Party so much as receiving an occasional deathblow. [Laughter and cheers.] The oftener it is killed the more active, the more energetic, the more powerful it becomes.

They who have been reading the capitalist newspapers realize what a capacity they have for lying. We have been reading them lately. They know all about the Socialist Party--the Socialist movement, except what is true. [Laughter.] Only the other day they took an article that I had written--and most of you have read it--most of you members of the party, at least--and they made it appear that I had undergone a marvelous transformation. [Laughter.] I had suddenly become changed--had in fact come to my senses; I had ceased to be a wicked Socialist, and had become a respectable Socialist [laughter], a patriotic Socialist--as if I had ever been anything else. [Laughter.]

What was the purpose of this deliberate misrepresentation? It is so self-evident that it suggests itself. The purpose was to sow the seeds of dissension in our ranks; to have it appear that we were divided among ourselves; that we were pitted against each other, to our mutual undoing. But Socialists were not born yesterday. [Applause.] They know how to read capitalist newspapers [laughter and applause]; and to believe exactly the opposite of what they read. [Applause and laughter.]

Why should a Socialist be discouraged on the eve of the greatest triumph in all the history of the Socialist movement? [Applause.] It is true that these are anxious, trying days for us all--testing days for the women and men who are upholding the banner of labor in the struggle of the working class of all the world against the exploiters of all the world [applause]; a time in which the weak and cowardly will falter and fail and desert. They lack the fiber to endure the revolutionary test; they fall away; they disappear as if they had never been. On the other hand, they who are animated by the unconquerable spirit of the social revolution; they who have the moral courage to stand erect and assert their convictions; stand by them; fight for them; go to jail or to hell for them, if need be [applause and shouts]--they are writing their names, in this crucial hour--they are writing their names in faceless letters in the history of mankind. [Applause.]

Those boys over yonder--those comrades of ours--and how I love them! Aye, they are my younger brothers [laughter and applause]; their very names throb in my heart, thrill in my veins, and surge in my soul. [Applause.] I am proud of them; they are there for us; [applause] and we are here for them. [Applause, shouts and cheers.] Their lips, though temporarily mute, are more eloquent than ever before; and their voice, though silent, is heard around the world. [Great applause.]

Are we opposed to Prussian militarism? [Laughter.] [Shouts from the crowd of "Yes. Yes."] Why, we have been fighting it since the day the Socialist movement was born; [applause] and we are going to continue to fight it, day and night, until it is wiped from the face of the earth. [Thunderous applause and cheers.] Between us there is no truce--no compromise.

But, before I proceed along this line, let me recall a little history, in which I think we are all interested.

In 1869 that grand old warrior of the social revolution, the elder Liebknecht, was arrested and sentenced to prison for three months, because of his war, as a Socialist, on the Kaiser and on the Junkers that rule Germany. In the meantime the Franco-Prussian war broke out. Liebknecht and Bebel were the Socialist members in the Reichstag. They were the only two who had the courage to protest against taking Alsace-Lorraine from France and annexing it to Germany. And for this they were sentenced two years to a prison fortress charged with high treason; because, even in that early day, almost fifty years ago, these leaders, these forerunners of the international Socialist movement were fighting the Kaiser and fighting the Junkers of Germany. [Great applause and cheers.] They have continued to fight them from that day to this. [Applause.] Multiplied thousands of Socialists have languished in the jails of Germany because of their heroic warfare upon the despotic ruling class of that country. [Applause.]

Let us come down the line a little farther. You remember that, at the close of Theodore Roosevelt's second term as President, he went over to Africa [laughter] to make war on some of his ancestors. [Laughter, continued shouts, cheers, laughter and applause.] You remember that, at the close of his expedition, he visited the capitals of Europe; and that he was wined and dined, dignified and glorified by all the Kaisers and Czars and Emperors of the Old World. [Applause.] He visited Potsdam while the Kaiser was there; and, according to the accounts published in the American newspapers, he and the Kaiser were soon on the most familiar terms. [Laughter.] They were hilariously intimate with each other, and slapped each other on the back. [Laughter.] After Roosevelt had reviewed the Kaiser's troops, according to the same accounts, he became enthusiastic over the Kaiser's legions and said: "If I had that kind of an army, I could conquer the world." [Laughter.] He knew the Kaiser then just as well as he knows him now. [Laughter.] He knew that he was the Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin. And yet, he permitted himself to be entertained by that Beast of Berlin; [applause] had his feet under the mahogany of the Beast of Berlin; was cheek by jowl with the Beast of Berlin. [Applause.] And, while Roosevelt was being entertained royally by the German Kaiser, that same Kaiser was putting the leaders of the Socialist Party in jail for fighting the Kaiser and the Junkers of Germany. [Applause.] Roosevelt was the guest of honor in the white house of the Kaiser, while the Socialists were in the jails of the Kaiser for fighting the Kaiser. [Applause.] Who then was fighting for democracy? Roosevelt? [Shouts of "no."] Roosevelt, who was honored by the Kaiser, or the Socialists who were in jail by order of the Kaiser? [Applause.]

"Birds of a feather flock together." [Laughter.]

When the newspapers reported that Kaiser Wilhelm and ex-President Theodore recognized each other at sight, were perfectly intimate with each other at the first touch, they made the admission that is fatal to the claim of Theodore Roosevelt, that he is the friend of the common people and the champion of democracy; they admitted that they were kith and kin; that they were very much alike; that their ideas and ideals were about the same. If Theodore Roosevelt is the great champion of democracy [laughter]--the arch foe of autocracy [laughter], what business had he as the guest of honor of the Prussian Kaiser? And when he met the Kaiser, and did honor to the Kaiser, under the terms imputed to him, wasn't it pretty strong proof that he himself was a Kaiser at heart? [Applause] Now, after being the guest of Emperor Wilhelm, the Beast of Berlin, he comes back to this country, and wants you to send ten million men over there to kill the Kaiser [applause and laughter]; to murder his former friend and pal. [Laughter] Rather queer, isn't it? And yet, he is the patriot, and we are the traitors. [Applause.] I challenge you to find a Socialist anywhere on the face of the earth who was ever the guest of the Beast of Berlin [applause], except as an inmate of his prison--the elder Liebknecht and the younger Liebknecht, the heroic son of his immortal sire.

A little more history along the same line. In 1902 Prince Henry paid a visit to this country. Do you remember him? [Laughter.] I do, exceedingly well. Prince Henry is the brother of Emperor Wilhelm. Prince Henry is another Beast of Berlin, an autocrat, an aristocrat, a Junker of Junkers--very much despised by our American patriots. He came over here in 1902 as the representative of Kaiser Wilhelm; he was received by Congress and by several state legislatures--among others, by the state legislature of Massachusetts, then in session. He was invited there by the capitalist captains of that so-called commonwealth. And when Prince Henry arrived, there was one member of that body who kept his self-respect, put on his hat, and as Henry, the Prince, walked in, that member of the body walked out. And that was James F. Carey, the Socialist member of that body. [Applause. ] All the rest--all the rest of the representatives in the Massachusetts legislature--all, all of them--joined in doing honor, in the most servile spirit, to the high representative of the autocracy of Europe. And the only man who left that body, was a Socialist. And yet [applause], and yet they have the hardihood to claim that they are fighting autocracy and that we are in the service of the German government. [Applause.]

A little more history along the same line. I have a distinct recollection of it. It occurred fifteen years ago when Prince Henry came here. All of our plutocracy, all of the wealthy representatives living along Fifth Avenue--all, all of them--threw their palace doors wide open and received Prince Henry with open arms. But they were not satisfied with this; they got down and grovelled in the dust at his feet. Our plutocracy--women and men alike--vied with each other to lick the boots of Prince Henry, the brother and representative of the "Beast of Berlin." [Applause.] And still our plutocracy, our Junkers, would have us believe that all the Junkers are confined to Germany. It is precisely because we refuse to believe this that they brand us as disloyalists. They want our eyes focused on the Junkers in Berlin so that we will not see those within our own borders.

I hate, I loathe, I despise Junkers and junkerdom. I have no earthly use for the Junkers of Germany, and not one particle more use for the Junkers in the United States. [Thunderous applause and cheers.]

They tell us that we live in a great free republic; that our institutions are democratic; that we are a free and self-governing people. [Laughter. ] This is too much, even for a joke. [Laughter.] But it is not a subject for levity; it is an exceedingly serious matter.

To whom do the Wall Street Junkers in our country marry their daughters? After they have wrung their countless millions from your sweat, your agony and your life's blood, in a time of war as in a time of peace, they invest these untold millions in the purchase of titles of broken-down aristocrats, such as princes, dukes, counts and other parasites and no-accounts. [Laughter.] Would they be satisfied to wed their daughters to honest workingmen? [Shouts from the crowd, "No!"] To real democrats? Oh, no! They scour the markets of Europe for vampires who are titled and nothing else. [Laughter. ] And they swap their millions for the titles, so that matrimony with them becomes literally a matter of money. [Laughter.]

These are the gentry who are today wrapped up in the American flag, who shout their claim from the housetops that they are the only patriots, and who have their magnifying glasses in hand, scanning the country for evidence of disloyalty, eager to apply the brand of treason to the men who dare to even whisper their opposition to Junker rule in the United States. No wonder Sam Johnson declared that "patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." He must have had this Wall Street gentry in mind, or at least their prototypes, for in every age it has been the tyrant, the oppressor and the exploiter who has wrapped himself in the cloak of patriotism, or religion, or both to deceive and overawe the people. [Applause.]

They would have you believe that the Socialist Party consists in the main of disloyalists and traitors. It is true in a sense not at all to their discredit. We frankly admit that we are disloyalists and traitors to the real traitors of this nation; [applause] to the gang that on the Pacific coast are trying to hang Tom Mooney and Warren Billings in spite of their well-known innocence and the protest of practically the whole civilized world. [Applause, shouts and cheers.]

I know Tom Mooney intimately--as if he were my own brother. He is an absolutely honest man. [Applause.] He had no more to do with the crime with which he was charged and for which he was convicted than I had. [Applause.] And if he ought to go to the gallows, so ought I. If he is guilty every man who belongs to a labor organization or to the Socialist Party is likewise guilty.

What is Tom Mooney guilty of? I will tell you. I am familiar with his record. For years he has been fighting bravely and without compromise the battles of the working class out on the Pacific coast. He refused to be bribed and he could not be browbeaten. In spite of all attempts to intimidate him he continued loyally in the service of the organized workers, and for this he became a marked man. The henchmen of the powerful and corrupt corporations, concluding finally that he could not be bought or bribed or bullied, decided he must therefore be murdered. That is why Tom Mooney is today a life prisoner, and why he would have been hanged as a felon long ago but for the world-wide protest of the working class. [Applause.]

Let us review another bit of history. You remember Francis J. Heney, special investigator of the state of California, who was shot down in cold blood in the courtroom in San Francisco. You remember that dastardly crime, do you not? The United Railways, consisting of a lot of plutocrats and highbinders represented by the Chamber of Commerce, absolutely control the city of San Francisco. The city was and is their private reservation. Their will is the supreme law. Take your stand against them and question their authority, and you are doomed. They do not hesitate a moment to plot murder or any other crime to perpetuate their corrupt and enslaving regime. Tom Mooney was the chief representative of the working class they could not control. [Applause.] They own the railways; they control the great industries; they are the industrial masters and the political rulers of the people. From their decision there is no appeal. They are the autocrats of the Pacific coast--as cruel and infamous as any that ever ruled in Germany or any other country in the old world. [Applause.] When their rule became so corrupt that at last a grand jury indicted them and they were placed on trial, and Francis J. Heney was selected to assist in their prosecution, this gang, represented by the Chamber of Commerce; this gang of plutocrats, autocrats and highbinders, hired an assassin to shoot Heney down in the courtroom. Heney, however, happened to live through it. But that was not their fault. The same identical gang that hired the murderer to kill Heney also hired false witnesses to swear away the life of Tom Mooney and, foiled in that, they have kept him in a foul prisonhole ever since. [Applause.]

Every solitary one of these aristocratic conspirators and would-be murderers claims to be an arch-patriot; every one of them insists that the war is being waged to make the world safe for democracy. What humbug! What rot! What false pretense! These autocrats, these tyrants, these red-handed robbers and murderers, the "patriots," while the men who have the courage to stand face to face with them, speak the truth, and fight for their exploited victims--they are the disloyalists and traitors. If this be true, I want to take my place side by side with the traitors in this fight. [Great applause.]

The other day they sentenced Kate Richards O'Hare to the penitentiary for five years. Think of sentencing a woman to the penitentiary simply for talking. [Laughter.] The United States, under plutocratic rule, is the only country that would send a woman to prison for five years for exercising the right of free speech. [Applause.] If this be treason, let them make the most of it. [Applause.]

Let me review a bit of history in connection with this case. I have known Kate Richards O'Hare intimately for twenty years. I am familiar with her public record. Personally I know her as if she were my own sister. All who know Mrs. O'Hare know her to be a woman of unquestioned integrity. [Applause. ] And they also know that she is a woman of unimpeachable loyalty to the Socialist movement. [Applause.] When she went out into North Dakota to make her speech, followed by plain-clothes men in the service of the government intent upon effecting her arrest and securing her prosecution and conviction--when she went out there, it was with the full knowledge on her part that sooner or later these detectives would accomplish their purpose. She made her speech, and that speech was deliberately misrepresented for the purpose of securing her conviction. The only testimony against her was that of a hired witness. And when the farmers, the men and women who were in the audience she addressed--when they went to Bismarck where the trial was held to testify in her favor, to swear that she had not used the language she was charged with having used, the judge refused to allow them to go upon the stand. This would seem incredible to me if I had not had some experience of my own with federal courts.

Who appoints our federal judges? The people? In all the history of the country, the working class have never named a federal judge. There are 121 of these judges and every solitary one holds his position, his tenure, through the influence and power of corporate capital. The corporations and trusts dictate their appointment. And when they go to the bench, they go, not to serve the people, but to serve the interests that place them and keep them where they are.

Why, the other day, by a vote of five to four--a kind of craps game--come seven, come 'leven [laughter]--they declared the child labor law unconstitutional--a law secured after twenty years of education and agitation on the part of all kinds of people. And yet, by a majority of one, the Supreme Court, a body of corporation lawyers, with just one exception, wiped that law from the statute books, and this in our so-called democracy, so that we may continue to grind the flesh and blood and bones of puny little children into profits for the Junkers of Wall Street. [Applause.] And this in a country that boasts of fighting to make the world safe for democracy! [Laughter.] The history of this country is being written in the blood of the childhood the industrial lords have murdered.

These are not palatable truths to them. They do not like to hear them; and what is more they do not want you to hear them. And that is why they brand us as undesirable citizens [laughter and applause], and as disloyalists and traitors. If we were actual traitors--traitors to the people and to their welfare and progress, we would be regarded as eminently respectable citizens of the republic; we would hold high office, have princely incomes, and ride in limousines; and we would be pointed out as the elect who have succeeded in life in honorable pursuit, and worthy of emulation by the youth of the land. It is precisely because we are disloyal to the traitors that we are loyal to the people of this nation. [Applause.]

Scott Nearing! You have heard of Scott Nearing. [Applause.] He is the greatest teacher in the United States. [Applause.] He was in the University of Pennsylvania until the Board of Trustees, consisting of great capitalists, captains of industry, found that he was teaching sound economics to the students in his classes. This sealed his fate in that institution. They sneeringly charged--just as the same usurers, money-changers, pharisees, hypocrites charged the Judean Carpenter some twenty centuries ago--that he was a false teacher and that he was stirring up the people.

The Man of Galilee, the Carpenter, the workingman who became the revolutionary agitator of his day soon found himself to be an undesirable citizen in the eyes of the ruling knaves and they had him crucified. And now their lineal descendants say of Scott Nearing, "He is preaching false economics. We cannot crucify him as we did his elder brother but we can deprive him of employment and so cut off his income and starve him to death or into submission. [Applause.] We will not only discharge him but place his name upon the blacklist and make it impossible for him to earn a living. He is a dangerous man for he is teaching the truth and opening the eyes of the people." And the truth, oh, the truth has always been unpalatable and intolerable to the class who live out of the sweat and misery of the working class. [Applause.]

Max Eastman [applause] has been indicted and his paper suppressed, just as the papers with which I have been connected have all been suppressed. What a wonderful compliment they pay us! [Laughter and applause.] They are afraid that we may mislead and contaminate you. You are their wards; they are your guardians and they know what is best for you to read and hear and know. [Laughter.] They are bound to see to it that our vicious doctrines do not reach your ears. And so in our great democracy, under our free institutions, they flatter our press by suppression; and they ignorantly imagine that they have silenced revolutionary propaganda in the United States. What an awful mistake they make for our benefit! As a matter of justice to them we should respond with resolutions of thanks and gratitude. Thousands of people who had never before heard of our papers are now inquiring for and insisting upon seeing them. They have succeeded only in arousing curiosity in our literature and propaganda. And woe to him who reads Socialist literature from curiosity! He is surely a goner. [Applause.] I have known of a thousand experiments but never one that failed.

John M. Work! You know John, now on the editorial staff of the Milwaukee Leader! When I first knew him he was a lawyer out in Iowa. The capitalists out there became alarmed because of the rapid growth of the Socialist movement. So they said: "We have to find some able fellow to fight this menace." They concluded that John Work was the man for the job and they said to him: "John, you are a bright young lawyer; you have a brilliant future before you. We want to engage you to find out all you can about socialism and then proceed to counteract its baneful effects and check its further growth."

John at once provided himself with Socialist literature and began his study of the red menace, with the result that after he had read and digested a few volumes he was a full-fledged Socialist and has been fighting for socialism ever since.

How stupid and shortsighted the ruling class really is! Cupidity is stone blind. It has no vision. The greedy, profit-seeking exploiter cannot see beyond the end of his nose. He can see a chance for an "opening"; he is cunning enough to know what graft is and where it is, and how it can be secured, but vision he has none--not the slightest. He knows nothing of the great throbbing world that spreads out in all directions. He has no capacity for literature; no appreciation of art; no soul for beauty. That is the penalty the parasites pay for the violation of the laws of life. The Rockefellers are blind. Every move they make in their game of greed but hastens their own doom. Every blow they strike at the Socialist movement reacts upon themselves. Every time they strike at us they hit themselves. It never fails. [Applause.] Every time they strangle a Socialist paper they add a thousand voices proclaiming the truth of the principles of socialism and the ideals of the Socialist movement. They help us in spite of themselves.

Socialism is a growing idea; an expanding philosophy. It is spreading over the entire face of the earth: It is as vain to resist it as it would be to arrest the sunrise on the morrow. It is coming, coming, coming all along the line. Can you not see it? If not, I advise you to consult an oculist. There is certainly something the matter with your vision. It is the mightiest movement in the history of mankind. What a privilege to serve it! I have regretted a thousand times that I can do so little for the movement that has done so much for me. [Applause.] The little that I am, the little that I am hoping to be, I owe to the Socialist movement. [Applause. ] It has given me my ideas and ideals; my principles and convictions, and I would not exchange one of them for all of Rockefeller's bloodstained dollars. [Cheers.] It has taught me how to serve--a lesson to me of priceless value. It has taught me the ecstasy in the handclasp of a comrade. It has enabled me to hold high communion with you, and made it possible for me to take my place side by side with you in the great struggle for the better day; to multiply myself over and over again, to thrill with a fresh-born manhood; to feel life truly worthwhile; to open new avenues of vision; to spread out glorious vistas; to know that I am kin to all that throbs; to be class-conscious, and to realize that, regardless of nationality, race, creed, color or sex, every man, every woman who toils, who renders useful service, every member of the working class without an exception, is my comrade, my brother and sister--and that to serve them and their cause is the highest duty of my life. [Great applause.]

And in their service I can feel myself expand; I can rise to the stature of a man and claim the right to a place on earth--a place where I can stand and strive to speed the day of industrial freedom and social justice.

Yes, my comrades, my heart is attuned to yours. Aye, all our hearts now throb as one great heart responsive to the battle cry of the social revolution. Here, in this alert and inspiring assemblage [applause] our hearts are with the Bolsheviki of Russia. [Deafening and prolonged applause.] Those heroic men and women, those unconquerable comrades have by their incomparable valor and sacrifice added fresh luster to the fame of the international movement. Those Russian comrades of ours have made greater sacrifices, have suffered more, and have shed more heroic blood than any like number of men and women anywhere on earth; they have laid the foundation of the first real democracy that ever drew the breath of life in this world. [Applause.] And the very first act of the triumphant Russian revolution was to proclaim a state of peace with all mankind, coupled with a fervent moral appeal, not to kings, not to emperors, rulers or diplomats but to the people of all nations. [Applause.] Here we have the very breath of democracy, the quintessence of the dawning freedom. The Russian revolution proclaimed its glorious triumph in its ringing and inspiring appeal to the peoples of all the earth. In a humane and fraternal spirit new Russia, emancipated at last from the curse of the centuries, called upon all nations engaged in the frightful war, the Central Powers as well as the Allies, to send representatives to a conference to lay down terms of peace that should be just and lasting. Here was the supreme opportunity to strike the blow to make the world safe for democracy. [Applause.] Was there any response to that noble appeal that in some day to come will be written in letters of gold in the history of the world? [Applause.] Was there any response whatever to that appeal for universal peace? [From the crowd. "No!"] No, not the slightest attention was paid to it by the Christian nations engaged in the terrible slaughter.

It has been charged that Lenin and Trotsky and the leaders of the revolution were treacherous, that they made a traitorous peace with Germany. Let us consider that proposition briefly. At the time of the revolution Russia had been three years in the war. Under the Czar she had lost more than four million of her ill-clad, poorly-equipped, half-starved soldiers, slain outright or disabled on the field of battle. She was absolutely bankrupt. Her soldiers were mainly without arms. This was what was bequeathed to the revolution by the Czar and his regime; and for this condition Lenin and Trotsky were not responsible, nor the Bolsheviki. For this appalling state of affairs the Czar and his rotten bureaucracy were solely responsible. When the Bolsheviki came into power and went through the archives they found and exposed the secret treaties--the treaties that were made between the Czar and the French government, the British government and the Italian government, proposing, after the victory was achieved, to dismember the German Empire and destroy the Central Powers. These treaties have never been denied nor repudiated. Very little has been said about them in the American press. I have a copy of these treaties, showing that the purpose of the Allies is exactly the purpose of the Central Powers, and that is the conquest and spoilation of the weaker nations that has always been the purpose of war.

Wars throughout history have been waged for conquest and plunder. In the Middle Ages when the feudal lords who inhabited the castles whose towers may still be seen along the Rhine concluded to enlarge their domains, to increase their power, their prestige and their wealth they declared war upon one another. But they themselves did not go to war any more than the modern feudal lords, the barons of Wall Street go to war. [Applause.] The feudal barons of the Middle Ages, the economic predecessors of the capitalists of our day, declared all wars. And their miserable serfs fought all the battles. The poor, ignorant serfs had been taught to revere their masters; to believe that when their masters declared war upon one another, it was their patriotic duty to fall upon one another and to cut one another's throats for the profit and glory of the lords and barons who held them in contempt. And that is war in a nutshell. The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles. The master class has had all to gain and nothing to lose, while the subject class has had nothing to gain and all to lose--especially their lives. [Applause.]

They have always taught and trained you to believe it to be your patriotic duty to go to war and to have yourselves slaughtered at their command. But in all the history of the world you, the people, have never had a voice in declaring war, and strange as it certainly appears, no war by any nation in any age has ever been declared by the people.

And here let me emphasize the fact--and it cannot be repeated too often--that the working class who fight all the battles, the working class who make the supreme sacrifices, the working class who freely shed their blood and furnish the corpses, have never yet had a voice in either declaring war or making peace. It is the ruling class that invariably does both. They alone declare war and they alone make peace.

Yours not to reason why;

Yours but to do and die.

That is their motto and we object on the part of the awakening workers of this nation.

If war is right let it be declared by the people. You who have your lives to lose, you certainly above all others have the right to decide the momentous issue of war or peace. [Applause.]

Rose Pastor Stokes! And when I mention her name I take off my hat. [Applause.] Here we have another heroic and inspiring comrade. She had her millions of dollars at command. Did her wealth restrain her an instant? On the contrary her supreme devotion to the cause outweighed all considerations of a financial or social nature. She went out boldly to plead the cause of the working class and they rewarded her high courage with a ten years' sentence to the penitentiary. Think of it! Ten years! What atrocious crime had she committed? What frightful things had she said? Let me answer candidly. She said nothing more than I have said here this afternoon. [Laughter] I want to admit--I want to admit without reservation that if Rose Pastor Stokes is guilty of crime, so am I. If she is guilty for the brave part she has taken in this testing time of human souls I would not be cowardly enough to plead my innocence. And if she ought to be sent to the penitentiary for ten years, so ought I without a doubt.

What did Rose Pastor Stokes say? Why, she said that a government could not at the same time serve both the profiteers and the victims of the profiteers. Is it not true? Certainly it is and no one can successfully dispute it.

Roosevelt said a thousand times more in the very same paper, the Kansas City Star. Roosevelt said vauntingly the other day that he would be heard if he went to jail. He knows very well that he is taking no risk of going to jail. He is shrewdly laying his wires for the Republican nomination in 1920 and he is an adept in making the appeal of the demagogue. He would do anything to discredit the Wilson administration that he may give himself and his party all credit. That is the only rivalry there is between the two old capitalist parties--the Republican Party and the Democratic Party--the political twins of the master class. They are not going to have any friction between them this fall. They are all patriots in this campaign, and they are going to combine to prevent the election of any disloyal Socialist. I have never heard anyone tell of any difference between these corrupt capitalist parties. Do you know of any? I certainly do not. The situation is that one is in and the other trying to break in, and that is substantially the only difference between them. [Laughter.]

Rose Pastor Stokes never uttered a word she did not have a legal, constitutional right to utter. But her message to the people, the message that stirred their thoughts and opened their eyes--that must be suppressed; her voice must be silenced. And so she was promptly subjected to a mock trial and sentenced to the penitentiary for ten years. Her conviction was a foregone conclusion. The trial of a Socialist in a capitalist court is at best a farcical affair. What ghost of a chance had she in a court with a packed jury and a corporation tool on the bench? Not the least in the world. And so she goes to the penitentiary for ten years if they carry out their brutal and disgraceful program. For my part I do not think they will. In fact I feel sure they will not. If the war were over tomorrow the prison doors would open to our people. They simply mean to silence the voice of protest during the war.

What a compliment it is to the Socialist movement to be thus persecuted for the sake of the truth! The truth alone will make the people free. [Applause.] And for this reason the truth must not be permitted to reach the people. The truth has always been dangerous to the rule of the rogue, the exploiter, the robber. So the truth must be ruthlessly suppressed. That is why they are trying to destroy the Socialist movement; and every time they strike a blow they add a thousand new voices to the hosts proclaiming that socialism is the hope of humanity and has come to emancipate the people from their final form of servitude. [Applause.] [Here Mr. Debs is handed a drink of water.]

How good this sip of cool water from the hand of a comrade! It is as refreshing as if it were out on the desert waste. And how good it is to look into your glowing faces this afternoon! [Applause.] You are really good looking [laughter] to me, I assure you. And I am glad there are so many of you. Your tribe has increased amazingly since first I came here. [Laughter.] You used to be so few and far between. A few years ago when you struck a town the first thing you had to do was to see if you could locate a Socialist; and you were pretty lucky if you struck the trail of one before you left town. If he happened to be the only one and he is still living, he is now regarded as a pioneer and pathfinder; he holds a place of honor in your esteem, and he has lodgment in the hearts of all who have come after him. It is far different now. You can hardly throw a stone in the dark without hitting a Socialist. [Laughter.] They are everywhere in increasing numbers; and what marvelous changes are taking place in the people!

Some years ago I was to speak at Warren in this state. It happened to be at the time that President McKinley was assassinated. In common with all others I deplored that tragic event. There is not a Socialist who would have been guilty of that crime. We do not attack individuals. We do not seek to avenge ourselves upon those opposed to our faith. We have no fight with individuals as such. We are capable of pitying those who hate us. [Applause.] We do not hate them; we know better; we would freely give them a cup of water if they needed it. [Applause.] There is no room in our hearts for hate, except for the system, the social system in which it is possible for one man to amass a stupendous fortune doing nothing, while millions of others suffer and struggle and agonize and die for the bare necessities of existence. [Applause.]

President McKinley, as I have said, had been assassinated. I was first to speak at Portsmouth, having been booked there some time before the assassination. Promptly the Christian ministers of Portsmouth met in special session and passed a resolution declaring that "Debs, more than any other person, was responsible for the assassination of our beloved President." [Laughter.] It was due to the doctrine that Debs was preaching that this crime was committed, according to these patriotic parsons, and so this pious gentry, the followers of the meek and lowly Nazarene, concluded that I must not be permitted to enter the city. And they had the mayor issue an order to that effect. I went there soon after, however. I was to speak at Warren, where President McKinley's double-cousin was postmaster. I went there and registered. I was soon afterward invited to leave the hotel. I was exceedingly undesirable that day. I was served with notice that the hall would not be opened and that I would not be permitted to speak. I sent back word to the mayor by the only Socialist left in town--and he only remained because they did not know he was there--I sent word to the mayor that I would speak in Warren that night, according to schedule, or I would leave there in a box for the return trip. [Applause.]

The Grand Army of the Republic called a special meeting and then marched to the hall in full uniform and occupied the front seats in order to silence me if my speech did not suit them. I went to the hall, however, found it open, and made my speech. There was no interruption. I told the audience frankly who was responsible for the President's assassination. I said: "As long as there is misery caused by robbery at the bottom there will be assassination at the top." [Applause.] I showed them, evidently to their satisfaction, that it was their own capitalist system that was responsible; the system that had impoverished and brutalized the ancestors of the poor witless boy who had murdered the President. Yes, I made my speech that night and it was well received but when I left there I was still an "undesirable citizen."

Some years later I returned to Warren. It seemed that the whole population was out for the occasion. I was received with open arms. [Applause.] I was no longer a demagogue; no longer a fanatic or an undesirable citizen. I had become exceedingly respectable simply because the Socialists had increased in numbers and socialism had grown in influence and power. If ever I become entirely respectable I shall be quite sure that I have outlived myself. [Laughter.]

It is the minorities who have made the history of this world. It is the few who have had the courage to take their places at the front; who have been true enough to themselves to speak the truth that was in them; who have dared oppose the established order of things; who have espoused the cause of the suffering, struggling poor; who have upheld without regard to personal consequences the cause of freedom and righteousness. It is they, the heroic, self-sacrificing few who have made the history of the race and who have paved the way from barbarism to civilization. The many prefer to remain upon the popular side. They lack the courage and vision to join a despised minority that stands for a principle; they have not the moral fiber that withstands, endures and finally conquers. They are to be pitied and not treated with contempt for they cannot help their cowardice. But, thank God, in every age and in every nation there have been the brave and self-reliant few, and they have been sufficient to their historic task; and we, who are here today, are under infinite obligations to them because they suffered, they sacrificed, they went to jail, they had their bones broken upon the wheel, they were burned at the stake and their ashes scattered to the winds by the hands of hate and revenge in their struggle to leave the world better for us than they found it for themselves. We are under eternal obligations to them because of what they did and what they suffered for us and the only way we can discharge that obligation is by doing the best we can for those who are to come after us. [Applause.] And this is the high purpose of every Socialist on earth. Everywhere they are animated by the same lofty principles; everywhere they have the same noble ideals; everywhere they are clasping hands across national boundary lines; everywhere they are calling one another Comrade, the blessed word that springs from the heart of unity and bursts into blossom upon the lips. Each passing day they are getting into closer touch all along the battle line, waging the holy war of the working class of the world against the ruling and exploiting class of the world. They make many mistakes and they profit by them all. They encounter numerous defeats, and grow stronger through them all. They never take a backward step.

The heart of the international Socialist never beats a retreat. [Applause.]

They are pressing forward, here, there and everywhere, in all the zones that girdle the globe. Everywhere these awakening workers, these class-conscious proletarians, these hardy sons and daughters of honest toil are proclaiming the glad tidings of the coming emancipation, everywhere their hearts are attuned to the most sacred cause that ever challenged men and women to action in all the history of the world. Everywhere they are moving toward democracy and the dawn; marching toward the sunrise, their faces all aglow with the light of the coming day. These are the Socialists, the most zealous and enthusiastic crusaders the world has ever known. [Applause.] They are making history that will light up the horizon of coming generations, for their mission is the emancipation of the human race. They have been reviled; they have been ridiculed, persecuted, imprisoned and have suffered death, but they have been sufficient to themselves and their cause, and their final triumph is but a question of time.

Do you wish to hasten the day of victory? Join the Socialist Party! Don't wait for the morrow. Join now! [Applause.] Enroll your name without fear and take your place where you belong. You cannot do your duty by proxy. You have got to do it yourself and do it squarely and then as you look yourself in the face you will have no occasion to blush. You will know what it is to be a real man or woman. You will lose nothing; you will gain everything. [Applause.] Not only will you lose nothing but you will find something of infinite value, and that something will be yourself. And that is your supreme need--to find yourself--to really know yourself and your purpose in life. [Applause.]

You need at this time especially to know that you are fit for something better than slavery and cannon fodder. [Applause.] You need to know that you were not created to work and produce and impoverish yourself to enrich an idle exploiter. You need to know that you have a mind to improve, a soul to develop, and a manhood to sustain.

You need to know that it is your duty to rise above the animal plane of existence. You need to know that it is for you to know something about literature and science and art. You need to know that you are verging on the edge of a great new world. You need to get in touch with your comrades and fellow workers and to become conscious of your interests, your powers and your possibilities as a class. You need to know that you belong to the great majority of mankind. You need to know that as long as you are ignorant, as long as you are indifferent, as long as you are apathetic, unorganized and content, you will remain exactly where you are. [Applause.] You will be exploited; you will be degraded, and you will have to beg for a job. You will get just enough for your slavish toil to keep you in working order, and you will be looked down upon with scorn and contempt by the very parasites that live and luxuriate out of your sweat and unpaid labor.

If you would be respected you have got to begin by respecting yourself. [Applause. ] Stand up squarely and look yourself in the face and see a man! Do not allow yourself to fall into the predicament of the poor fellow who, after he had heard a Socialist speech concluded that he too ought to be a Socialist. The argument he had heard was unanswerable. "Yes," he said to himself, "all the speaker said was true and I certainly ought to join the party." But after a while he allowed his ardor to cool and he soberly concluded that by joining the party he might anger his boss and lose his job. He then concluded: "I can't take the chance." That night he slept alone. There was something on his conscience and it resulted in a dreadful dream. Men always have such dreams when they betray themselves. A Socialist is free to go to bed with a clear conscience. He goes to sleep with his manhood and he awakens and walks forth in the morning with his self-respect. He is unafraid and he can look the whole world in the face [applause and laughter], without a tremor and without a blush. But this poor weakling who lacked the courage to do the bidding of his reason and conscience was haunted by a startling dream and at midnight he awoke in terror, bounded from his bed and exclaimed: "My God, there is nobody in this room." [Laughter.] He was absolutely right. [Laughter and applause.] There was nobody in that room.

How would you like to sleep in a room that had nobody in it? [Laughter.] It is an awful thing to be nobody. That is certainly a state of mind to get out of, the sooner the better.

There is a great deal of hope for Baker, Ruthenberg and Wagenknecht who are in jail for their convictions; but for the fellow that is nobody there is no pardoning power. He is "in" for life. Anybody can be nobody; but it takes a man to be somebody.

To turn your back on the corrupt Republican Party and the still more corrupt Democratic Party--the gold-dust lackeys of the ruling class [laughter], counts for still more after you have stepped out of those popular and corrupt capitalist parties to join a minority party that has an ideal, that stands for a principle, and fights for a cause. [Applause.] This will be the most important change you have ever made and the time will come when you will thank me for having made the suggestion. It was the day of days for me. I remember it well. It was like passing from midnight darkness to the noontide light of day. It came almost like a flash and found me ready. It must have been in such a flash that great, seething, throbbing Russia, prepared by centuries of slavery and tears and martyrdom, was transformed from a dark continent to a land of living light.

There is something splendid, something sustaining and inspiring in the prompting of the heart to be true to yourself and to the best you know, especially in a crucial hour of your life. You are in the crucible today, my Socialist comrades! You are going to be tried by fire, to what extent no one knows. If you are weak-fibered and fainthearted you will be lost to the Socialist movement. We will have to bid you goodbye. You are not the stuff of which revolutions are made. We are sorry for you [applause] unless you chance to be an "intellectual." The "intellectuals," many of them, are already gone. No loss on our side nor gain on the other.

I am always amused in the discussion of the "intellectual" phase of this question. It is the same old standard under which the rank and file are judged. What would become of the sheep if they had no shepherd to lead them out of the wilderness into the land of milk and honey?

Oh, yes, "I am your shepherd and ye are my mutton." [Laughter.]

They would have us believe that if we had no "intellectuals" we would have no movement. They would have our party, the rank and file, controlled by the "intellectual" bosses as the Republican and Democratic parties are controlled. These capitalist parties are managed by "intellectual" leaders and the rank and file are sheep that follow the bellwether to the shambles.

In the Republican and Democratic parties you of the common herd are not expected to think. That is not only unnecessary but might lead you astray. That is what the "intellectual" leaders are for. They do the thinking and you do the voting. They ride in carriages at the front where the band plays and you tramp in the mud, bringing up the rear with great enthusiasm.

The capitalist system affects to have great regard and reward for intellect, and the capitalists give themselves full credit for having superior brains. When we have ventured to say that the time would come when the working class would rule they have bluntly answered "Never! it requires brains to rule." The workers of course have none. And they certainly try hard to prove it by proudly supporting the political parties of their masters under whose administration they are kept in poverty and servitude.

The government is now operating its railroads for the more effective prosecution of the war. Private ownership has broken down utterly and the government has had to come to the rescue. We have always said that the people ought to own the railroads and operate them for the benefit of the people. We advocated that twenty years ago. But the capitalists and their henchmen emphatically objected. "You have got to have brains to run the railroads," they tauntingly retorted. Well, the other day McAdoo, the governor-general of the railroads under government operation; discharged all the high-salaried presidents and other supernumeraries. In other words, he fired the "brains" bodily and yet all the trains have been coming and going on schedule time. Have you noticed any change for the worse since the "brains" are gone? It is a brainless system now, being operated by "hands." [Laughter.] But a good deal more efficiently than it had been operated by so-called "brains" before. [Laughter.] And this determines infallibly the quality of their vaunted, high-priced capitalist "brains." It is the kind you can get at a reasonable figure at the market place. They have always given themselves credit for having superior brains and given this as the reason for the supremacy of their class. It is true that they have the brains that indicates the cunning of the fox, the wolf, but as for brains denoting real intelligence and the measure of intellectual capacity they are the most woefully ignorant people on earth. Give me a hundred capitalists just as you find them here in Ohio and let me ask them a dozen simple questions about the history of their own country and I will prove to you that they are as ignorant and unlettered as any you may find in the so-called lower class. [Applause. ] They know little of history; they are strangers to science; they are ignorant of sociology and blind to art but they know how to exploit, how to gouge, how to rob, and do it with legal sanction. They always proceed legally for the reason that the class which has the power to rob upon a large scale has also the power to control the government and legalize their robbery. I regret that lack of time prevents me from discussing this phase of the question more at length.

They are continually talking about your patriotic duty. It is not their but your patriotic duty that they are concerned about. There is a decided difference. Their patriotic duty never takes them to the firing line or chucks them into the trenches.

And now among other things they are urging you to "cultivate" war gardens, while at the same time a government war report just issued shows that practically 52 percent of the arable, tillable soil is held out of use by the landlords, speculators and profiteers. They themselves do not cultivate the soil. They could not if they would. Nor do they allow others to cultivate it. They keep it idle to enrich themselves, to pocket the millions of dollars of unearned increment. Who is it that makes this land valuable while it is fenced in and kept out of use? It is the people. Who pockets this tremendous accumulation of value? The landlords. And these landlords who toil not and spin not are supreme among American "patriots."

In passing I suggest that we stop a moment to think about the term "landlord." "LANDLORD!" Lord of the Land! The lord of the land is indeed a superpatriot. This lord who practically owns the earth tells you that we are fighting this war to make the world safe for democracy--he who shuts out all humanity from his private domain; he who profiteers at the expense of the people who have been slain and mutilated by multiplied thousands, under pretense of being the great American patriot. It is he, this identical patriot who is in fact the archenemy of the people; it is he that you need to wipe from power. It is he who is a far greater menace to your liberty and your well-being than the Prussian Junkers on the other side of the Atlantic ocean. [Applause.]

Fifty-two percent of the land kept out of use, according to their own figures! They tell you that there is an alarming shortage of flour and that you need to produce more. They tell you further that you have got to save wheat so that more can be exported for the soldiers who are fighting on the other side, while half of your tillable soil is held out of use by the landlords and profiteers. What do you think of that?

Again, they tell you there is a coal famine now in the state of Ohio. The state of Indiana, where I live, is largely underlaid with coal. There is practically an inexhaustible supply. The coal is banked beneath our very feet. It is within touch all about us--all we can possibly use and more. And here are the miners, ready to enter the mines. Here is the machinery ready to be put into operation to increase the output to any desired capacity. And three weeks ago a national officer of the United Mine Workers issued and published a statement to the Labor Department of the United States government to the effect that the 600,000 coal miners in the United States at this time, when they talk about a coal famine, are not permitted to work more than half time. I have been around over Indiana for many years. I have often been in the coal fields; again and again I have seen the miners idle while at the same time there was a scarcity of coal.

They tell you that you ought to buy your coal right away; that you may freeze next winter if you do not. At the same time they charge you three prices for your coat Oh, yes, this ought to suit you perfectly if you vote the Republican or Democratic ticket and believe in the private ownership of the coal mines and their operation for private profit. [Applause.]

The coal mines now being privately owned, the operators want a scarcity of coal so they can boost their prices and enrich themselves accordingly. If an abundance of coal were mined there would be lower prices and this would not suit the mine owners. Prices soar and profits increase when there is a scarcity of coal.

It is also apparent that there is collusion between the mine owners and the railroads. The mine owners declare there are no cars while the railroad men insist that there is no coal. And between them they delude, defraud and rob the people.

Let us illustrate a vital point. Here is the coal in great deposits all about us; here are the miners and the machinery of production. Why should there be a coal famine upon the one hand and an army of idle and hungry miners on the other hand? Is it not an incredibly stupid situation, an almost idiotic if not criminal state of affairs?

We Socialists say: "Take possession of the mines in the name of the people." [Applause.] Set the miners at work and give every miner the equivalent of all the coal he produces. Reduce the work day in proportion to the development of productive machinery. That would at once settle the matter of a coal famine and of idle miners. But that is too simple a proposition and the people will have none of it. The time will come, however, when the people will be driven to take such action for there is no other efficient and permanent solution of the problem.

In the present system the miner, a wage slave, gets down into a pit 300 or 400 feet deep. He works hard and produces a ton of coal. But he does not own an ounce of it. That coal belongs to some mine-owning plutocrat who may be in New York or sailing the high seas in his private yacht; or he may be hobnobbing with royalty in the capitals of Europe, and that is where most of them were before the war was declared. The industrial captain, so-called, who lives in Paris, London, Vienna or some other center of gaiety does not have to work to revel in luxury. He owns the mines and he might as well own the miners.

That is where you workers are and where you will remain as long as you give your support to the political parties of your masters and exploiters. You vote these miners out of a job and reduce them to corporation vassals and paupers.

We Socialists say: "Take possession of the mines; call the miner to work and return to him the equivalent of the value of his product." He can then build himself a comfortable home; live in it; enjoy it with his family. He can provide himself and his wife and children with clothes--good clothes--not shoddy; wholesome food in abundance, education for the children, and the chance to live the lives of civilized human beings, while at the same time the people will get coal at just what it costs to mine it.

Of course that would be socialism as far as it goes. But you are not in favor of that program. It is too visionary because it is so simple and practical. So you will have to continue to wait until winter is upon you before you get your coal and then pay three prices for it because you insist upon voting a capitalist ticket and giving your support to the present wage-slave system. The trouble with you is that you are still in a capitalist state of mind.

Ga verder, twee posts naar beneden
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 15 Jun 2010 20:18, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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June 16, 1918: Battle of the Piave River

On June 16, 1918, the Battle of the Piave River rages on the Italian front, marking the last major attack by the Austro-Hungarian army in Italy of World War I.

After turmoil-plagued Russia bowed out of the war effort in early 1918, Germany began to pressure its ally, Austria-Hungary, to devote more resources to combating Italy. Specifically, the Germans advocated a major new offensive along the Piave River, located just a few kilometers from such important Italian urban centers as Venice, Padua and Verona. In addition to striking on the heels of Russia's withdrawal, the offensive was intended as a follow-up to the spectacular success of the German-aided operations at Caporetto in the autumn of 1917.

By June 1918, however, Austria-Hungary's troops were in a radically different condition than they had been at Caporetto. Supplies were low, as was morale, while the Italians had bulked up their numbers along the Piave and received new shipments of arms from Allied munitions factories. Nevertheless, both commanders in the region–former Commander-in-Chief Conrad von Hotzendorff and Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna–favored an attack. Preparations were laid to divide their two forces and carry out the offensive in a pincer-like motion, with Conrad taking the main task of reaching the city of Verona and Boroevic attempting to cross the Piave and aim for Padua and the Adige Valley.

After some diversionary attacks, the main Austrian offensive was launched on June 15. Conrad's 10th and 11th Armies made limited progress, and their advance was checked the following day by the forceful counterattack of the Italian 4th and 6th Armies, fortified by British and French troops. Within a week, the Austrians had suffered over 40,000 casualties. Meanwhile, Boroevic's 5th and 6th Armies, which had crossed the Piave River along the Italian coast on June 10, gained slightly more territory–some three miles along a 15-mile front–but was also forced to give up those gains and retreat on June 19 under the Italian counterattack by the 3rd and 8th Armies. The Austrian troops stalled in their attempt to cross back over the rapid-flowing Piave, however, and the Italians were able to attack their flank; by the time they finally reached the other shore, a total of 150,000 of Boroevic's men had been killed or wounded.

Though the cautious Italian commander in chief, General Armando Diaz, chose not to pursue the fleeing enemy troops across the river, the offensive ended in dismal failure. It was a fateful blow for Austria-Hungary's presence on the Italian front. In the months that followed, the depleted, demoralized army ceased to exist as a cohesive force, a destruction that was completed by the Italians during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in late October 1918, just days before the end of World War I.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/battle-of-the-piave-river
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Foutje... Hierbij deel twee van de toepsraak van Debbs.

Lincoln said: "If you want that thing that is the thing you want"; and you will get it to your heart's content. But some good day you will wake up and realize that a change is needed and wonder why you did not know it long before. Yes, a change is certainly needed, not merely a change of party but a change of system; a change from slavery to freedom and from despotism to democracy, wide as the world. [Applause. ] When this change comes at last, we shall rise from brutehood to brotherhood, and to accomplish it we have to educate and organize the workers industrially and politically, but not along the zigzag craft lines laid down by Gompers, who through all of his career has favored the master class. You never hear the capitalist press speak of him nowadays except in praise and adulation. He has recently come into great prominence as a patriot. You never find him on the unpopular side of a great issue. He is always conservative, satisfied to leave the labor problem to be settled finally at the banqueting board with Elihu Root, Andrew Carnegie and the rest of the plutocratic civic federationists. When they drink wine and smoke scab cigars together the labor question is settled so far as they are concerned.

And while they are praising Gompers they are denouncing the I.W.W. There are few men who have the courage to say a word in favor of the I.W.W. [Applause.] I have. [Applause.] Let me say here that I have great respect for the I.W.W. Far greater than I have for their infamous detractors. [Applause.]

Listen! There has just been published a pamphlet called "The Truth About the I.W.W." It has been issued after long and thorough investigation by five men of unquestioned standing in the capitalist world. At the head of these investigators was Professor John Graham Brooks of Harvard University, and next to him John A. Fish of the Survey of the Religious Organizations of Pittsburgh, and Mr. Bruere, the government investigator. Five of these prominent men conducted an impartial examination of the I.W.W. To quote their own words they "followed its trail." They examined into its doings beginning at Bisbee where the "patriots," the cowardly business men, the arch-criminals, made up the mob that deported 1,200 workingmen under the most brutal conditions, charging them with being members of the I.W.W. when they knew it to be false.

It is only necessary to label a man "I.W.W." to have him lynched as they did Praeger, an absolutely innocent man. He was a Socialist and bore a German name, and that was his crime. A rumor was started that he was disloyal and he was promptly seized and lynched by the cowardly mob of so-called "patriots."

War makes possible all such crimes and outrages. And war comes in spite of the people. When Wall Street says war the press says war and the pulpit promptly follows with its Amen. In every age the pulpit has been on the side of the rulers and not on the side of the people. That is one reason why the preachers so fiercely denounce the I.W.W.

Take the time to read this pamphlet about the I.W.W. Don't take the word of Wall Street and its press as final. Read this report by five impartial and highly reputable men who made their investigation to know the truth, and that they might tell the truth to the American people. They declare that the I.W.W. in all its career never committed as much violence against the ruling class as the ruling class has committed against the I.W.W. [Applause.]

You are not now reading any reports in the daily press about the trial at Chicago, are you? They used to publish extensive reports when the trial first began, and to prate about what they proposed to prove against the I.W.W. as a gigantic conspiracy against the government. The trial has continued until they have exhausted all their testimony and they have not yet proven violence in a single instance. No, not one! They are utterly without incriminating testimony and yet 112 men are in the dock after lying in jail for months without the shadow of a crime upon them save that of belonging to the I.W.W. That is enough it would seem to convict any man of any crime and send his body to prison and his soul to hell. Just whisper the name of the I.W.W. and you are branded as a disloyalist. And the reason for this is wholly to the credit of the I.W.W., for whatever may be charged against it the I.W.W. has always fought for the bottom dog. [Applause.] And that is why Haywood is despised and prosecuted while Gompers is lauded and glorified by the same gang.

Now what you workers need is to organize, not along craft lines but along revolutionary industrial lines. [Applause.] All of you workers in a given industry, regardless of your trade or occupation, should belong to one and the same union.

Political action and industrial action must supplement and sustain each other. You will never vote the Socialist republic into existence. You will have to lay its foundations in industrial organization. The industrial union is the forerunner of industrial democracy. In the shop where the workers are associated is where industrial democracy has its beginning. Organize according to your industries! Get together in every department of industrial service! United and acting together for the common good your power is invincible.

When you have organized industrially you will soon learn that you can manage as well as operate industry. You will soon realize that you do not need the idle masters and exploiters. They are simply parasites. They do not employ you as you imagine but you employ them to take from you what you produce, and that is how they function in industry. You can certainly dispense with them in that capacity. You do not need them to depend upon for your jobs. You can never be free while you work and live by their sufferance. You must own your own tools and then you will control your own jobs, enjoy the products of your own labor and be free men instead of industrial slaves.

Organize industrially and make your organization complete. Then unite in the Socialist Party. Vote as you strike and strike as you vote.

Your union and your party embrace the working class. The Socialist Party expresses the interests, hopes and aspirations of the toilers of all the world.

Get your fellow workers into the industrial union and the political party to which they rightly belong, especially this year, this historic year in which the forces of labor will assert themselves as they never have before. This is the year that calls for men and women who have courage, the manhood and womanhood to do their duty.

Get into the Socialist Party and take your place in its ranks; help to inspire the weak and strengthen the faltering, and do your share to speed the coming of the brighter and better day for us all. [Applause.]

When we unite and act together on the industrial field and when we vote together on election day we shall develop the supreme power of the one class that can and will bring permanent peace to the world. We shall then have the intelligence, the courage and the power for our great task. In due time industry will be organized on a cooperative basis. We shall conquer the public power. We shall then transfer the title deeds of the railroads, the telegraph lines, the mines, mills and great industries to the people in their collective capacity; we shall take possession of all these social utilities in the name of the people. We shall then have industrial democracy. We shall be a free nation whose government is of and by and for the people.

And now for all of us to do our duty! The clarion call is ringing in our ears and we cannot falter without being convicted of treason to ourselves and to our great cause.

Do not worry over the charge of treason to your masters, but be concerned about the treason that involves yourselves. [Applause.] Be true to yourself and you cannot be a traitor to any good cause on earth.

Yes, in good time we are going to sweep into power in this nation and throughout the world. We are going to destroy all enslaving and degrading capitalist institutions and re-create them as free and humanizing institutions. The world is daily changing before our eyes. The sun of capitalism is setting; the sun of socialism is rising. It is our duty to build the new nation and the free republic. We need industrial and social builders. We Socialists are the builders of the beautiful world that is to be. We are all pledged to do our part. We are inviting--aye challenging you this afternoon in the name of your own manhood and womanhood to join us and do your part.

In due time the hour will strike and this great cause triumphant--the greatest in history--will proclaim the emancipation of the working class and the brotherhood of all mankind. [Thunderous and prolonged applause.]

http://www.isreview.org/issues/20/debs_canton.shtml

Extraatje om het goed te maken ( Wink ): Mark Ruffalo reads Eugene Debs's Canton, Ohio, Speech: http://vimeo.com/1366882
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First TransAtlantic flight

16 June 1919 – Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Brown arrive in Dublin by train from Galway after their transAtlantic flight. Dublin University students succeeded in kidnapping Alcock – the flight had been sponsored by press baron Arthur Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe, who was born in Chapelizod in 1865.

http://www.dublinheritage.ie/dublindiary/index.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 June 1920, Commons Sitting

SOLDIERS' GRAVES (EGYPT AND PALESTINE).


HC Deb 16 June 1920 vol 130 c1264 1264

Mr. GILBERT asked the Secretary of State for War what arrangements have been made for the preservation and upkeep of British soldiers' graves in Egypt and Palestine?

Sir A. WILLIAMSON The Imperial War Graves Commission are now actually taking over the cemeteries in Egypt for permanent construction. They have appointed a local executive committee to carry out the work in that country. The principal architect has completed designs for the cemeteries, and the terms of contract are being considered. In Palestine the cemeteries have not yet been taken over by the Commission, but the architect has visited the country and made his preliminary sketch designs, and in the case of four the final designs have been completed.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/jun/16/soldiers-graves-egypt-and-palestine
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 158, June 16, 1920

"The Bolshevists," says a gossip writer, "do not always rob Peter to pay Paul." No, they sometimes just rob Peter.

A Yarmouth report anticipates a shortage of herrings. It is said that the Prime Minister has a couple of second-hand red ones for disposal which have only been drawn across the path once or twice.

"One of the Kaiser's mugs," says a news item, "has just been sold in New York for forty pounds." We have suspected for some time that he was a double-faced fellow.

General von Kluck has been telling somebody that he lost the battle of the Marne by a fluke. As we can't have the War over again we must let the matter remain at that.

According to an evening paper a temperance speaker fainted during a procession in a Kentish town, and was immediately carried into a shop and brought round by whisky. The report that on being informed of this fact he again went off into a faint is happily without foundation.

The fact that at least seven people have expressed their intention of swimming the English Channel this year draws attention once more to the lack of accommodation on our cross-Channel steamers.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/32080/32080-h/32080-h.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Aletta Jacobs, Verslag van het bezoek aan de regeringsleiders van de oorlogvoerende landen
namens het Haagse vrouwen (vredes)congres van 1915.


Belgische regering in Le Havre 16 juni 1915
Van Parijs begaven wij ons dinsdagmorgen 16 juni naar Havre, om de Belgische regering te zien.
Niettegenstaande onze goed in orde zijnde papieren en ons ‘sauf conduit’ [vrijgeleide] naar Havre en
terug naar Parijs, werden wij toch in Havre zeer weinig vertrouwd. Nadat eerst de Franse politie en
daarna de Engelse politie onze papieren zeer nauwkeurig onderzocht en goedgevonden had,
moesten wij toch nog op het politiebureau voor de commissaris verschijnen, die ons uithoorde wat wij
kwamen doen, waar wij gingen logeren, of wij propaganda gingen maken voor onze ideeën etc. Nadat
wij dat alles beantwoord hadden, mochten wij gaan, maar toen wij in het hotel aankwamen had de
commissaris reeds getelegrafeerd met dit gevolg dat dit hotel, dat vol Engelse militairen was, ons niet
wilde opnemen. Wij hebben toen daar geluncht, zijn toen direct met een auto naar St. Adresse
gereden, waar de Belgische regering zetelt, en na aldaar minister D’Avignon gesproken te hebben,
zijn wij met de trein van 5 uur naar Parijs teruggekeerd.
Voor minister D’Avignon had de heer Paul Otlet ons een aanbevelingsbrief meegegeven. Minister De
Broqueville was afwezig, naar het oorlogsveld. Het onderhoud met D’Avignon was van korte duur,
omdat België, zoals hij ons verzekerde, niets kon doen en geheel afhankelijk was van Engeland en
Frankrijk.
In Parijs teruggekeerd, gebruikten wij de woensdag 17 juni om onze papieren in orde te brengen en
de terugreis over Londen te beginnen. Wij vernamen daar dat wij ook in Parijs niet vertrouwd werden
en gevolgd waren geworden door een commissaris van politie.
Die laatste woensdagavond wilden wij nog eens wat zien wat ons enigszins zou opvrolijken. Wij
stapten daarom ‘de Vaudeville’ binnen, waar die avond voor het eerst een nieuwe revue zou worden
vertoond. Wij waren niet weinig verrast toen in het 2e bedrijf door in Hollands fancy-dress gekleed
boertje en boerinnetje verteld werd dat Holland zulke mooie tulpen van allerlei kleur, naar de gewonde
soldaten in de hospitalen gestuurd had en hoe verheugd de zieken daarmee waren. Daarna zong een
dame die zich onder het publiek bevond en dicht bij ons zat, een mooi danklied voor Koningin
Wilhelmina voor haar vriendelijke schenking. Dat onze koningin de dank ontvangt die ons Congres
toekomt is niet eerlijk, maar het deed ons toch goed.

http://www.alettajacobs.org/extra/Aletta_verslag-1915-regeringen.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Joseph Harcourt Tombs

Joseph Harcourt Tombs VC (1884-28 June 1966) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

VC action - A resident of Grantham, Lincolnshire, and Old Boy of The King's School, Grantham, he was about 31 years old, and a Lance-Corporal in the 1st Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment), British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 16 June 1915 near Rue du Bois, France, Lance-Corporal Tombs, on his own initiative, crawled out repeatedly under very heavy shell and machine-gun fire to bring in wounded men who were lying about 100 yards in front of our trenches. He rescued four men, one of whom he dragged back by means of a rifle sling placed round his own neck and the man's body.

Later life - He later achieved the rank of Corporal. During World War II Tombs enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force and served at the Flying School in Trenton, Ontario. A 1952 operation to remove some of the shrapnel still embedded in his stomach was not completely successful, and in 1964 he suffered a stroke

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Museum of the King's Regiment (Liverpool, England).

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Joseph_Harcourt_Tombs/1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 16 Juni 1917.

Valkenswaard. Gedurende den laatsten tijd werd alhier een groote hoeveelheid sigaren aan de Duitschers verkocht. Door dezen werden de verkoopers bereidwillig ontvangen. Toen gisteren een zekere N. en B. zich wederom aan de grens bevonden, scheen daar plotseling verandering in gekomen te zijn; en wel in die mate dat zij werden achtervolgd door geweerkogels, echter zonder hen te treffen, zoodat genoemde heeren er nog met den schrik afkwamen. Wat van deze verandering de oorzaak is, is onbekend, doch het schijnt dat zij eenig wantrouwen koesteren. (Wij ontvingen een ongeveer gelijkluidend bericht van onzen correspondent te Luyksgestel, die meldt, dat zekere v.d. C. en L. door de Duitschers gearresteerd zijn en meegenomen. Red.)

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 23:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enkele gegevens over de oorlog 1914-1918 te Boekhoute

Honderd en negen soldaten uit Boekhoute hebben de oorlog meegemaakt; tien jongens zjjn gesneuveld op het veld van eer. Vier mensen, twee mannen en twee vrouwen werden gefusilleerd; en drie opgeeiste burgers kwamen niet meer weer. (...)

Op 9 en 16 juni 1917 werd er een liefdadigheidsconcert gegeven ten voordele van de krijgsgevangenen. Er was zeer veel belangstelling vanwege al onze mensen.

Leuk artikel. Lees verder op http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~noemeetjesland/meetjesland/ons_meetjesland/1974_2/oorlog_Boekhoute_1914_18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 23:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdrag van Versailles

De tekst van het Verdrag van Versailles werd tijdens een geallieerde voorbesprekingen als compromis tussen de regeringsleiders van Frankrijk, Engeland en de Verenigde Staten, respectievelijk Clemenceau, Lloyd George en Wilson (deze laatste had erop aangedrongen dat de geallieerde regeringsleiders persoonlijk aan de onderhandelingen deelnamen) zonder inbreng van Duitse vertegenwoordigers uitgewerkt en op 7 mei 1919 aan de Duitse regering voorgelegd. Duitse schriftelijke tegenvoorstellen die daarop volgden, werden door de geallieerden nagenoeg volledig afgewezen en op 16 juni 1919 beantwoord met een ultimatum om het verdrag binnen 5 dagen te accepteren. Met het oog op het geallieerde dreigement, Duitsland geheel te bezetten en in de hoop op de mogelijkheid tot een spoedige revisie, veranderde de meerderheid van de Nationale Vergadering van de Weimarrepubliek haar aanvankelijk afwijzende houding en stemde na terugtreden van het kabinet Scheidemann met een meerderheid van 99 afgevaardigden op 22 juni 1919 in met de ondertekening van het verdrag.

http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/42137042/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 23:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

B.C. de Jonge, Herinneringen van Jhr. Mr. B.C. de Jonge

Dagboek op 16 juni 1919: ‘Aankomst te Sabang. Met een trotsch gevoel voor het eerst voet te zetten op eigen koloniaal gebied. Wat is een mensch in zijn hart toch imperialist. Maar dat mag men dan ook wel een beetje zijn, wanneer men op dat prachtige Sabang aankomt. Eerst dat binnenkomen in de mooie baai, dan dat aanleggen aan de steiger, misschien 50 Meter uit de wal, alsof het vanzelf spreekt en dan de kennismaking met de voortreffelijke wegen- en huizenbouw in de schitterend mooie, uitbundig rijke natuur. Na eerste kennismaking (o.a. gezeten vóór het hotel met mooi uitzicht op baai en prachtige zonsondergang), gegeten op het schip, waar groote bende. 's Avonds rondgewandeld en gezeten in sociëteit, waarna bezoek aan bal, aangeboden door Mij in Scheepsagentuur.’

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/jong146heri01_01/jong146heri01_01_0008.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1920

8 juni 1920 - Hoewel een deel van het gemeentepersoneel, waaronder dat van de tram, voor 24 uur in staking is gegaan, is er geen sprake van stopzetting van de dienst. Wethouder Wierdels verklaart dat in de morgenuren reeds voor tweederde normaal wordt gereden, en dat hij verwacht, dat in de middag de dienst geheel kan worden uitgevoerd.
Maar ’s middags doen zich pas moeilijkheden voor. Op het Parkschouwburgterrein is dan een betoging voor de syndicalistische stakers, die slechts een kleine minderheid vormen, maar die een grote menigte trekt van wat de krant “straatjanhagel” noemt. Aan het eind van de middag wordt een stoet geformeerd, die vanaf het Parkschouwburgterrein door de Sarphatistraat en de Weteringschans trekt. De betogers schelden het personeel van passerende trams uit, en beginnen vanaf het Frederiksplein de rijdende trams te belemmeren door op de rails te blijven lopen, of op de rails te gaan zitten.
Van een tram van lijn 5, die daardoor tot stoppen wordt gedwongen, wordt de bijwagen afgekoppeld, waarna de ruiten worden ingegooid. Ook van andere trams worden de ruiten ingegooid, zodat de passagiers in allerijl een goed heenkomen moeten zoeken. De politie-agenten die de stoet begeleiden zijn te weinig in aantal om een en ander te beletten.
Op de Weteringschans worden vervolgens van twee trams van de lijnen 10 en 7 de beugels neergehaald, en ook hier worden de ruiten ingegooid. Een andere tram van lijn 7 wordt eveneens tot staan gebracht, waarna de bijwagen wordt afgekoppeld, en onder gejuich en gejoel richting Leidscheplein teruggeduwd. De conducteur daarvan wordt naar buiten gesleurd en mishandeld. Omstanders die hem trachten te ontzetten, slagen daar pas in, als de politie komt. Dan wordt er weer een stoet geformeerd en het strijdlied “de Internationale” wordt aangeheven.
Een ander incident heeft plaats op de kruising Bilderdijkstraat-Kinkerstraat. Daar heeft zich een grote menigte nieuwsgierigen verzameld om een andere stoet voorbij te zien gaan.
Dan nadert van af het Kwakersplein een driewagenstel van lijn 3. Een onverlaat gooit vlak voor deze tram, die zonder stoppen doorrijdt, het wissel om, waardoor de tram in volle vaart ineens rechtsaf slaat, en bijna een paar kinderen overrijdt. Gelukkig kan de bestuurder nog tijdig remmen.
’s Avonds is het weer rustig in de stad, en de directie van de tram besluit, in tegenstelling tot het eerdere voornemen, toch de dienst normaal te laten uitvoeren.

16 juni 1920 - In de gemeenteraad komen de rellen van 8 juni aan de orde. Het raadslid De Wolf stelt vragen aan de burgemeester over de gebeurtenissen, en vooral over de afwezigheid van de politie. De burgemeester zegt dat het blijkens officiële rapporten allemaal zo erg niet is geweest, al zijn er wel ergerlijke dingen gebeurd. De politie was elders in de stad nodig geweest om het tramnet te beschermen. Hij zal in de commissie voor strafverordeningen bespreken of het niet beter is terug te keren tot de oude situatie, toen er voor iedere betoging een vergunning door hem afgegeven moest worden. Hij zal in ieder geval strenger toezien op communistische betogingen, omdat die duidelijk niet in staat zijn de orde in hun eigen gelederen te bewaren. Van de zijde van de communistische raadsleden wordt daarop beweerd, dat het rechtse provocateurs waren geweest die de ongeregeldheden hadden veroorzaakt.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1920.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Xivray-et-Marvoisin, 6/16/1918

On the morning of June 16, the 103rd Infantry was attacked in force by German infantry while holding the sub-sector of Xivray-et-Marvoisin, Bouconville and Rambucourt very close to the enemy lines. The attack began with a concentrated artillery bombardment followed by infantry assaults on three sides (north, east and west). The 103rd repulsed the German attacks at a cost of 28 killed, 167 wounded and 47 gassed. The Germans withdrew leaving more than 60 dead, 10 prisoners and equipment including machine guns and flame throwers. Heavy German shelling continued throughout the sector for the next four days, eventually forcing evacuation of the 26th Division HQ from Boucq to Trondes a mile further to the rear…



From:
SOLDIER'S MAIL
LETTERS HOME FROM A YANKEE DOUGHBOY 1916-1919


http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2009/06/16/battle-of-xivray-et-marvoisin-6161918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 0:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vrouwe Anna (BR-19) (+1915)


Gebouwd in 1905, de BR-19, Vrouwe Anna uit Breskens, een garnalenvisser met zeilen aangedreven, liep op een mijn. De 4 bemanningsleden kwamen om en zijn nadien aan de kust aangespoeld

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?10661
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 0:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On June 16th, 1916, the Italian sailing vessel Dolmetta M. was sunk by the German submarine U-35 (Lothar von Arnauld de la Peričre) in the Ligurian Sea, some 10 miles south of Porto Maurizio.

On June 16th, 1916, the Italian sailing vessel Era (1078 grt.) was sunk by the German submarine U-35 (Lothar von Arnauld de la Peričre) some 10 miles southeast from Porto Maurizio, in the Ligurian Sea.

On June 16th, 1916, the Italian sailing ship Eufrasia (71 grt.) was sunk by the German submarine U-35 (Lothar von Arnauld de la Peričre), 30 miles north of Caboi, Corsica.

Zie ook: http://www.wrecksite.eu/wrecked-on-this-day.aspx?16/06/2011
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 0:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


Boy Measuring Height, this Norman Rockwell painting, appeared on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post
June 16, 1917 Issue of The Saturday Evening Post

Read more: http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-saturday-evening-post-cover-1917-06-16-boy-measuring-height.html#ixzz1Q3DRKpsx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 8:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First battle of Bellewaerde Ridge op 16 juni 1915.

Wie een sterke beschrijving wil van deze actie, lees dan

Mud And Khaki The Memories Of An Incomplete Soldier

Author: H. S. Clapham

Service with the 1st Battalion the HAC, 7th Brigade 3rd Division, in the Ypres Salient from January to October 1915. Graphic description of the attack on Bellewaerde Ridge 16 June. Interesting front line photography.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jun 2014 10:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

La bataille du Matz: de strijd in juni 1918 bij Compičgne
Door Eric R.J. Wils

(...) De Fransen boden furieus weerstand op hun tweede verdedigingslinie ten zuiden van de Marne en de Duitse aanval viel feitelijk al stil op 16 juli 1918. Operatie Friedensturm was mislukt en dat deed het Duitse moreel bepaald geen goed voor het verdere verloop van de strijd aan het Westelijk Front. De volgende dagen begonnen de Fransen, met hulp van Amerikaanse en Italiaanse divisies met het terugdringen van de Duitsers aan de zuidkant van de saillant. Op 21 juli was de frontlijn weer opgeschoven ten noorden van de Marne. (...)

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/bataille-du-matz/La%20Bataille%20du%20Matz.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jun 2014 10:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dagboek van Frederik van Eeden - zondag 16 juni 1918

Gisteren haalde ik Dr. der Mouw af van den trein. Ik wilde zien of ik hem zou herkennen naar zijn werk. Ik verwachtte een jonge man, en sprak een verkeerde aan. Toen zag ik een oud, professoraal mannetje37 met een lange grauwe baard en een grijze pet. Ik kreeg een gevoel van teleurstelling. Maar wij spraken al spoedig op intiemen voet. Hij is zeer gevoelig, ook geestig en leevendig. Maar hij is oud en voelt zich oud.38 Hij vreest spoedig te zullen sterven.

Wij praatten veel en de dag vloog om. Het was geen teleurstelling. Maar ik voelde scherp ons verschil. Ik vond mijzelven frisch en sterk in vergelijking met hem. Toch kan hij nu lyrische verzen maken van hooge kwaliteit, terwijl ik in allerlei praktische werksaamheid steek, en weinig dicht.38a Maar ik stelde mij terstond positief op Christelijk standpunt.

Hij spreekt minachtend oover ‘liefde’. Hij erkent alleen bewondering. Daar is zijn zwakte - want wij kunnen dat hooge standpunt voor ons niet handhaven. Wij hebben Jezus te volgen en de liefde. Wat hij teegen mij had zei hij aldus, dat hij het woord ‘weenen’ niet kon uitstaan, eevenmin als de woorden ‘der’ en ‘dewijl’. Die woorden, zei hij, worden niet door de gemeenschap met werkelijkheid gevuld. (...)

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/mouw001hgmp01_01/mouw001hgmp01_01_0013.php
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