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19 mei

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Mei 2006 18:22    Onderwerp: 19 mei Reageer met quote

Französische Gräben westlich der Maas erstürmt

Deutsche Kampfflieger 1. Weltkrieg: Oberleutnant Bölcke
Oberleutnant Bölcke

Großes Hauptquartier, 19. Mai.1916
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf dem westlichen Maasufer wurden die französischen Gräben beiderseits der Straße Haucourt-Esnes bis in die Höhe der Südspitze des Camardwaldes genommen und 9 Offiziere und 120 Mann zu Gefangenen gemacht. Ein erneuter feindlicher Angriff gegen die Höhe 304 brach unter sehr erheblichen Verlusten für den Feind zusammen.
Auf dem östlichen Maasufer steigerte sich zeitweise die gegenseitige Artillerietätigkeit
zu großer Stärke.
Die Fliegertätigkeit war auf beiden Seiten groß. Oberleutnant Bölcke schoß das
16. feindliche Flugzeug südlich von Ripont ab. Bahnhof Luneville, Luftschiffhalle und Kasernen bei Epinal wurden mit Bomben belegt.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Ein Flugzeuggeschwader griff die feindlichen Lager bei Kukus, Causica, Mihalova und Saloniki an.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Zwei feste Grenzwerke der Italiener erobert

Der Erzherzogthronfolger Führer der Angriffstruppen

Wien, 19. Mai.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die an der küstenländischen und Kärntner Front eingetretene Feuerpause hielt im allgemeinen auch gestern an. Heute früh wurden zwei feindliche Angriffe auf die von unseren Truppen unlängst gewonnenen Stellungen östlich Monfalcone abgeschlagen. Eines unserer Seeflugzeuggeschwader belegte die Bahnhofsanlage von San Giorgio di Nogaro und die feindliche Seeflugstation nächst Grado erfolgreich mit Bomben.
An der Südtiroler Front gewann unser Angriff unaufhaltsam Raum. Auf dem Armenterrarücken wurden sechs italienische Angriffe abgewiesen. Unsere zwischen dem Astach- und Laintale vorgerückten Kräfte unter Führung Seiner k. u. k. Hoheit des Feldmarschalleutnants Erzherzogs Karl Franz Josef trieben den Feind an der ganzen Front weiter zurück und bemächtigten sich heute früh der italienischen Werke Campomolon und Toraro. Zwischen Lain- und Brandtal (auf Vallarsa) erreichten unsere Truppen den Nordrand des Col Santo. Im Etschtale mußten die Italiener die Orte Marco und Mori räumen. Die Zahl der seit Beginn unseres Angriffs gemachten Gefangenen hat sich auf über 10000 Mann und 196 Offiziere, die Beute auf 51 Maschinengewehre und 61 Geschütze erhöht.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)


Ein deutscher Dampfer Opfer englischen Flaggenmißbrauchs

Helsingborg, 19. Mai.
Der deutsche Dampfer "Trave" wurde gestern abend um 9 Uhr 30 Minuten auf der Höhe von Kullen von einem englischen U-Boot beschossen, torpediert und versenkt. Die Besatzung, 17 Mann stark, ist gerettet. Das englische U-Boot machte sich dabei eines Flaggenmißbrauchs schuldig, indem es die deutsche Kriegsflagge hißte, um den Dampfer aus den schwedischen Hoheitsgewässern herauszulocken. 1)


Beschießung von El Arisch

London, 19. Mai.
Reuter meldet amtlich:
Am Morgen des 18. Mai bombardierten britische Kriegsschiffe, Aeroplane und Wasserflugzeuge El Arisch, einen wichtigen Posten einer Verbindungslinie zwischen Syrien und Ägypten. Die Kriegsschiffe beschossen das Fort südwestlich der Stadt und man glaubt, daß es in einen Trümmerhaufen verwandelt wurde. Der Luftangriff zerfiel in zwei Abschnitte. Die Wasserflugzeuge eröffneten das Bombardement. Später folgten ihnen Aeroplane, die den Auftrag hatten, die feindlichen Maschinen in Gefechte zu verwickeln und dem Lagerplatz der feindlichen Truppen besondere Aufmerksamkeit zuzuwenden. Eine 1000 Mann starke Truppenabteilung war südlich der Stadt auf den Marsch gesandt worden. Drei Bomben explodierten unter den Truppen, auch die Lagerplätze wurden mit Erfolg mit Bomben belegt. Alle Schiffe und Flugzeuge sind wohlbehalten zurückgekehrt. 1)

www.stahlgewitter.com
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Regulus 1



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Mei 2006 21:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Niet direkt iets van WO I maar op 19 mei 1935 verongelukte TE Lawrence alias Lawrence of Arabia met zijn moto. En die man had dan weer alles te maken met WO I...
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mei 2006 2:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New York Times van 20 mei 1935




Lawrence to Have a Simple Funeral

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rites to Be Held In Village Church Near the Tiny Cottage He Occupied
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Death Saddens Britain
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Churchill Says Empire Has Suffered 'No Greater Blow for Years'
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By FERDINAND KUHN, Jr.
Special to The New York Times

OTHER HEADLINES
Bonus Advocates to Renew Battle if Veto Is Upheld: Shaping New Bill, They Plan Virtual Filibuster Till the Veterans Are Paid: First Test Set in Senate: Naval Measure Will Be Made Vehicle for Three-Way Payment Proposal: Heavy Vote an Obstacle: Roosevelt Forces Count on His Presence to Swing Margin Ending Issue for Session

Lehman Decides to Retire in 1936; Candidate Hunted: Democratic Chiefs Seek Ticket Leader to Avert Bitter Scramble Next Year: R.H. Jackson Is Favored: Mellon Tax-Claims Prosecutor Esteemed by Roosevelt -- Farley, Thatcher Mentioned

Federal Men List Racket 'Big Shots' in Tax Drive Here: Police Undercover Squad Aids Treasury Agents in War on Seven Major Gangs: 33 Named as Principals: Leaders of 'Strong-Arm' Group and Terranova Included With Two Madden Aides: Rings Cover Wider Range: Extortion, Gambling and Praying on Business Laid to Them -- Public-Enemy Act as Weapon

Harnett Warns Motorists to Renew Their Licenses

Wide Area Combed in Fruitless Hunt for Missing Girl: Hundreds of Boy Scouts and Older Volunteers Join Sixty Police and Federal Men: Hope for Safety Wanes: All-Day Search of Queens Swamps and Woods Yields No Clue to Shirley Evans, 8.

Pope Bids British Rejoin Church; Canonizes Two English Saints: In Homily Extolling Sir Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher, Pontiff Appeals to England to 'Return to the Father's House' -- 40,000 Jam St. Peter's for Impressive Ceremony

Flier Spots Firebug in a Jersey Forest: Blaze Started by Pyromaniac Sweeps Over 13,000 Acres on a 20-Mile Front: Five Counties Affected: Valuable Woodland Tracts Are Destroyed and Scores of Houses Are Threatened

Police Will Honor Cab-Driver Heroes: Breast Bars of Commendation to Be Presented to Seventy for Meritorious Service: One Aided Murder Hunt: Another, Though Hurt, Caught Robber -- Other Captures and Fire Rescues Cited

Mayor Is Critical of Constitution: Future of the Nation Must be Written Into It, He Tells the Progressives: Hits 5-4 Court Decisions: Gov. La Follette, at Wisconsin Fete, Says New National Party Must Wait

Girl, Out Late, Killed Stealing Into Home; Rope Snaps as She Slides Down From Roof

Four in Plane Alight Safely in East River After Motor Dies Over the Empire Tower

ondon, May 19 -- Wrapped in the Union Jack he served so well, the body of Colonel T. E. Lawrence was borne this morning to the little slate-roofed mortuary adjoining the hospital at Bovington Camp in Dorset, where the organizer of the great "Revolt in the Desert" had died a few hours earlier.

Two orderlies, who had kept watch over him during his six days of unconsciousness, lifted his body from the ambulance in the pouring rain and carried it into the mortuary chapel. There it lay tonight before the altar, on which a small crucifix stood.

Funeral arrangements are as simple as anything "Lawrence of Arabia" could have wished. The funeral will be held privately on Tuesday in the village church at Moreton, near the tiny cottage where Colonel Lawrence lived, and at the request of his brother, A. W. Lawrence, there will be no flowers and no mourning. Only his relatives and intimate friends will be invited, but there may also be a memorial service in London at which great figures of the empire can pay their late respects.

Injuries to Brain Revealed

His friends feel it was just as well in some ways that Colonel Lawrence did not recover. Injuries to his brain were so serious that he would have been partly blind and dumb for the rest of his life. After a post-mortem examination by Dr. Hugh W. B. Cairns, London brain specialist, the following statement was issued;

"The post-mortem showed such severe lacerations and damage to the brain that in the event of his recovery he would have only regained the partial use of his speech and eyesight. In view of the immense activity and energy of T. E. Shaw [the name Colonel Lawrence assumed when he entered the Royal Air Force after his Arabian adventures] it is felt this may be of some consolation to those who had entertained anxious hopes for his recovery."

All the same, there was a nation-wide feeling tonight that it was a tragic waste to have lost a man of Colonel Lawrence's brilliance at his age of only 46 in an unwarranted and perhaps avoidable motorcycle accident. Through the flood of tributes which have poured in upon his brother and filled the columns of newspapers there was a feeling that Britain might have relied upon Colonel Lawrence again in some emergency still to come.

Winston Churchill expressed it when he said that no greater blow had befallen the British Empire for years.

"I had hoped to see him quit his retirement and take a commanding part in facing the dangers which now threaten the country," said Mr. Churchill. "In Lawrence we have lost one of the greatest beings of our time.

"What Lawrence's future work might have been nobody dared to say. But thousands, reading of his amazing career, felt certain he would have been even more useful to his country than when he went into the desert in 1916 to organize the Arab rebellion against the Turkish Empire."

It was learned tonight the Air Ministry had been hoping to acquire Colonel Lawrence as an expert in designing airplane engines to be used in the process of aerial rearmament that is just beginning. For Colonel Lawrence was not only supreme as a tactician in land warfare, but he understood flying as no other military leader could, and he had uncanny mechanical skill.

Colonel Lawrence, who could have had everything, died a poor man. Whatever money he received from the sale of his books he gave to military charities, except for a small income which friends tonight estimated at about $1,000 a year. It was all he needed and all he wanted. "The more money a man has," he said once, "the more he wants, to pay his way."

At the time of his fatal accident he was working on translations in his tiny cottage. It is understood he left no new manuscript of any importance. His books and papers probably will be given to a museum for safekeeping instead of being sold.

His 73-year-old mother still does not know her famous son is dead. She is sailing down the Yangtse River with another son and will not receive the tragic news until she reaches Shanghai.

Colonel Lawrence's death early this morning came after an amazing struggle for life after he was critically injured last Monday when he was hurled from his motor cycle, on which he was traveling at breakneck speed through the peaceful Dorset countryside. He swerved to avoid a boy cyclist.

For almost six days since the accident the 46-year-old steel-nerved leader of the Arab revolt in the World War had lain unconscious in the little military hospital at Bovington Camp, his life hanging by a thread. Noted specialists and a group of special nurses had done all that their skill could do for him, but from the first the odds were against him.

Weakened by Long Fight

The physicians resorted to artificial feeding in an effort to maintain his strength, but the prolonged unconsciousness gradually sapped it. A close watch had been kept on him in the event that he might regain unconsciousness.

At 1 o'clock this morning Sir Farquhar Buzzard, the King's physician, arrived at his bedside after having driven from Oxford. He was immediately joined by other physicians, including Dr. Cairns, who made a dramatic dash, motoring the 100 miles from Arundel upon receiving an urgent call and reaching the hospital at 12:20 A. M.

Dr. A. Hope Gosse, London lung specialist, arrived at the hospital at 2:20 A.M., by auto and immediately went into consultation with Captain C. P. Allen, the hospital surgeon, and the specialist. Colonel Lawrence's relatives, summoned last night, were still maintaining an anxious vigil.

At 3 A.M. it was reported that there had been some failure of Colonel Lawrence's heart action. He died shortly after 8 A.M.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19-05-1915 Begin van de Frans-Britse veldslag in Artois bij Notre Dame de Lorette en Aubers.
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 18 Mei 2010 19:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19/05/1916 Britain and France conclude Sykes-Picot agreement.
Zie ook:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=6982
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 19:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


19-05-1915
Dumfries I SS [+1915] wreck [95y ago]
Dumfries SS was a 4,121grt, British Merchant steamer. On the 19th May 1915 when on route from Cardiff for Leghorn she was torpedoed by German submarine U-27 when 13 miles N from Trevose Head, Cornwall. 2 lives lost.


19-05-1916 Adamantios Korais SS (+1916) wreck [94y ago]

19-05-1917 Askild SS (+1917) wreck [93y ago]
The Norwegian steamship Askild was torpedoed and sunk by UB-20, 10 miles N. of Ushant on a voyage from Penarth to St. Vincent with coal and a general cargo.

19-05-1917
Blanche (+1917) wreck [93y ago]
Blanche; Small Fishing Boat; 12.18 tons; Owned by R. J. White; Built at William A. Chamberlain in 1903. Registered at Fremantle. Registration no. 25/1903. On 19 May 1917, Blanche (Oakji Sadajiro) with a cargo of shell and a crew of 8, was lost off Inside Casuarina Reef, Broome. 12 died.

19-05-1917 Farnham SS (+1917) wreck [93y ago]
Farnham SS was a British Merchant steamer of 3,102grt. On the 19th May 1917 when on route from Bizerta for the Clyde she was torpedoed by German submarine U-57 and sunk. Owned by V. T. Thompson & Co, Sunderland.

19-05-1917 Mardinian SS (+1917) wreck [93y ago]
Mardinian SS was a British Cargo Steamer of 3,322tons built in 1913 by W. Harkess & Son Ltd. in Middlesborough. She was owned by the Ellerman Lines Ltd. On the 19th May 1917 she was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine.

19-05-1918 UB-119 [+1918] wreck [92y ago]

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wrecked-on-this-day.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Turkish Attack at Anzac Cove

On 19 May 1915, their German commander, Field Marshal Liman Von Sanders, sent the first of 42 000 Turkish troops to attack the 12 500 Anzacs then at Anzac Cove. The intention was to drive all Anzac forces on to the beach and kill them there. In places the combatants were only metres apart but it was one assault for which the Anzacs and their British commanders were prepared. British pilots had noticed a build up in the Turkish line, confirming observations by those on the ground, including Charles Bean, that Turkish firing patterns had changed and that heavier artillery was being used. In the resulting six-hour battle, the Turks were to incur around 10 000 casualties as repeated lines of Turkish troops were sent out of their trenches, to be gunned down almost immediately by the Anzac forces. The Anzacs suffered 628 casualties, among them John Kirkpatrick, known as Simpson, who had carried wounded men from battle on a donkey.

On 20 May, several Australians sought to rescue Turkish wounded from the narrow strip of ground between the opposing forces, an area known as No Man's Land, which was becoming littered with dead bodies. An informal truce was called while both sides collected their dead and wounded. On 24 May, an eight-hour formal break in fighting was agreed for both sides to again collect their dead and wounded. The cease-fire was honoured by both sides.

http://www.nla.gov.au/gallipolidespatches/1-07-turkish_attack.html
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/anzaccove_may.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle Of Festubert, May 1915.

(...) The British, in spite of a cold rain, pushed on 1,200 yards north of the Festubert-La Quinque Rue road; and took a defense 300 yards to the southeast of the hamlet. Two farms west of the road and south of Richebourg l'Avoué, the farm du Bois and the farm of the Cour de l'Avoué, in front of which latter the surrendering Saxons were slain, had been held by the Germans with numerous machine guns. The British took both farms by nightfall and found, on counting their prisoners, that they then had a total of 608 as well as several machine guns.

The Second and Seventh Divisions were withdrawn by Sir Douglas Haig on the following day, Wednesday, May 19, 1915. The Fifty-first Division and the Canadians took the places of the men who were sadly in need of relief from active duty. Lieutenant General Alderson received the command of both divisions together with the artillery of both the Second and Seventh Divisions. The cold, wet weather hampered operations and there was comparatively little activity, though hostilities by no means altogether ceased. Each side needed a little rest and time to fill in gaps in their respective lines. Hence it was not until Sunday, May 23, that any fighting on a large scale took place.

Lees alles op http://outofbattle.blogspot.com/2008/07/battle-of-festubert-may-1915_16.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Douglas Haig's 1st Despatch (St Eloi), 19 May 1916

Reproduced below is the text of Sir Douglas Haig's first First World War despatch as British Army Commander-in-Chief, dated 19 May 1916. It summarises details of local operations at St. Eloi. This despatch was the first since Haig's replacement of Sir John French in December 1915.

General Headquarters,
19th May, 1916

My Lord;

1. I have the honour to report the operations of the British Forces serving in France and Belgium since 19th December, 1915, on which date, in accordance with the orders of His Majesty's Government, I assumed the Chief Command.

During this period, the only offensive effort made by the enemy on a great scale was directed against our French Allies near Verdun. The fighting in that area has been prolonged and severe. The results have been worthy of the high traditions of the French Army and of great service to the cause of the Allies. The efforts made by the enemy have cost him heavy losses both in men and in prestige, and he has made these sacrifices without gaining any advantage to counterbalance them.

During this struggle my troops have been in readiness to co-operate as they might be needed, but the only assistance asked for by our Allies was of an indirect nature - viz., the relief of the French troops on a portion of their defensive front. This relief I was glad to be able to afford.

Its execution on a considerable front, everywhere in close touch with the enemy, was a somewhat delicate operation, but it was carried out with complete success, thanks to the cordial co-operation and goodwill of all ranks concerned and to the lack of enterprise shown by the enemy during the relief.

2. On the British front no action on a great scale, such as that at Verdun, has been fought during the past five months, nevertheless our troops have been far from idle or inactive. Although the struggle, in a general sense, has not been intense, it has been everywhere continuous, and there have been many sharp local actions.

The maintenance and repair of our defences alone, especially in winter, entails constant heavy work. Bad weather and the enemy combine to flood and destroy trenches, dug-outs and communications; all such damages must be repaired promptly, under fire, and almost entirely by night.

Artillery and snipers are practically never silent, patrols are out in front of the lines every night, and heavy bombardments by the artillery of one or both sides take place daily in various parts of the line. Below ground there is continual mining and counter-mining, which, by the ever-present threat of sudden explosion and the uncertainty as to when and where it will take place, causes perhaps a more constant strain than any other form of warfare.

In the air there is seldom a day, however bad the weather, when aircraft are not busy reconnoitring, photographing, and observing fire. All this is taking place constantly at any hour of the day or night, and in any part of the line.

3. In short, although there has been no great incident of historic importance to record on the British front during the period under review, a steady and continuous fight has gone on, day and night, above ground and below it.

The comparative monotony of this struggle has been relieved at short intervals by sharp local actions, some of which, although individually almost insignificant in a war on such an immense scale, would have been thought worthy of a separate despatch under different conditions, while their cumulative effect, though difficult to appraise at its true value now, will doubtless prove hereafter to have been considerable.

One form of minor activity deserves special mention, namely, the raids or "cutting-out parties" which are made at least twice or three times a week against the enemy's line. They consist of a brief attack, with some special object, on a section of the opposing trenches, usually carried out at night by a small body of men.

The character of these operations - the preparation of a road through our own and the enemy's wire - the crossing of the open ground unseen - the penetration of the enemy's trenches - the hand-to-hand fighting in the darkness and the uncertainty as to the strength of the opposing force - gives peculiar scope to the gallantry, dash and quickness of decision of the troops engaged; and much skill and daring are frequently displayed in these operations.

The initiative in these minor operations was taken, and on the whole has been held, by us; but the Germans have recently attempted some bold and well-conceived raids against our lines, many of which have been driven back, although some have succeeded in penetrating, as has been reported by me from time to time.

4. Of the numerous local actions alluded to, the total number, omitting the more minor raids, amounts to over 60 since December 19th, of which the most important have been:-

The operations at The Bluff, the Hohenzollern Redoubt, and at St. Eloi; the mining operations and crater fighting in the Loos salient and on the Vimy Ridge; and the hostile gas attacks north of Ypres in December, and opposite Hulluch and Messines in April.

The most recent local operations worthy of mention are the capture of some 500 yards of our trenches by the Germans at the Kink, on the 11th May, and the capture by us of 250 yards of their trenches near Cabaret Rouge, on the night of the 15th/16th May.

5. As an illustration of the nature of these local operations, it will suffice to describe two or three of the most important.

Ypres Salient and The Bluff, 8th February to 2nd March, 1916

During the period 8th to 19th February the enemy displayed increased activity in the Ypres salient, and carried out a series of infantry attacks, preceded, as a rule, by intense bombardment, and by the explosion of mines. These attacks may, no doubt, be regarded as a subsidiary operation, designed partly to secure local points of vantage, but probably also to distract attention from the impending operations near Verdun, which began on the 21st February.

After several days' heavy shelling over the whole of our line in this area, the first attack took place on 12th February at the extreme left of our line to the north of Ypres (14th and 20th Divisions, Major-Generals V. A. Couper and R. H. Davies commanding).

A bombing attack was launched by the Germans in the early morning, and they succeeded in capturing our trenches. Our counter-attack, however, which was immediately organised, enabled us to clear our trenches of the enemy, and to pursue him to his own.

After a period of further bombardment on both sides, the German fire again increased in intensity against our trenches and the French line beyond them; and in the evening a second attempt was made to rush our extreme left - this time entirely without success. Smaller attempts against other trenches in the neighbourhood were made at the same time, but were immediately repulsed by rifle and machine-gun fire.

Throughout the operations our position in this part of the line remained intact, except that two isolated trenches of no tactical importance were captured by the enemy a day or two later; they were subsequently obliterated by our artillery fire. Throughout this fighting the French on our immediate left rendered us the prompt and valuable assistance which we have at all times received from them.

Another series of German attacks was launched about the same time in the neighbourhood of Hooge to the east of Ypres. The enemy had pushed out several saps in front of his trenches, and connected them up into a firing line some 150 yards from our lines. During the whole of the 13th February he heavily bombarded our front-line trenches in this neighbourhood and completely destroyed them.

On the following afternoon an intense bombardment of our line began, and the enemy exploded a series of mines in front of our trenches, simultaneously launching infantry attacks against Hooge and the northern and southern ends of Sanctuary Wood (24th Division, Major-General I. E. Capper commanding). Each of these attacks was repulsed by artillery, machine-gun and rifle fire.

Further to the south, however, the enemy was more successful. On the northern bank of the Ypres-Comines Canal there is a narrow ridge, 30 to 40 feet high, covered with trees - probably the heap formed by excavation when the canal was dug - which forms a feature of the flat wooded country at the southern bend of the Ypres salient.

It runs outward through our territory almost into the German area, so that our trenches pass over the eastern point of it, which is known as The Bluff. Here also our trenches were almost obliterated by the bombardment on the afternoon of the 14th, following which a sudden rush of hostile infantry was successful in capturing these and other front-line trenches immediately north of The Bluff - some 600 yards in all (17th Division, Major-General T. D. Pilcher commanding). Two of these trenches were at once regained, but the others were held by the enemy, in the face of several counter-attacks.

On the night of the 15th/16th we made an unsuccessful counter-attack, with the object of regaining the lost trenches. An advance was begun across the open on the north side of the canal, combined with grenade attacks along the communication trenches immediately north of The Bluff.

The night was very dark, and heavy rain had turned the ground into a quagmire, so that progress was difficult for the attacking force, which was unable to consolidate its position in the face of heavy machine-gun and rifle fire.

After the failure of this attack it was decided to adopt slower and more methodical methods of recapturing the lost trenches, and nothing of special importance occurred in the Ypres salient during the rest of the month, although both sides displayed rather more than the usual activity.

The recapture of The Bluff took place after the enemy had held it for seventeen days. After several days' preliminary bombardment by our artillery, the assault was carried out at 4.29 a.m. on the 2nd March by troops of the 3rd Division, Major-General I. A. L. Haldane, and of the 17th Division. Measures taken to deceive the enemy were successful, and our infantry effected a complete surprise, finding the enemy with their bayonets unfixed, and many of them without rifles or equipment.

About 50 Germans took refuge in a crater at the eastern end of The Bluff, and these put up a brief resistance before taking refuge in the tunnels they had constructed, in which they were captured at leisure. Otherwise our right-hand attacking party, whose objective was The Bluff, met with little opposition.

The front line of the centre attack, reaching its assigned objective without much opposition, swept on past it and seized the German Third Line at the eastern side of the salient. This line was not suitable to hold permanently, but it proved useful as a temporary covering position while the captured trenches in rear were being consolidated, and at nightfall the covering party was withdrawn unmolested.

The later waves of our centre attack met and captured, after some fighting, several Germans coming out of their dug-outs. The left attacking party, at the first attempt, failed to reach the German trenches, but those who had penetrated to the German line on the right realised the situation and brought a Lewis gun to bear on the enemy's line of resistance, completely enfilading his trenches, and thus enabling the left company to reach its goal.

Thus our objective, which included apart of the German line, as well as the whole of the front lost by us on the l4th February, was captured, and is still held by us. Several counter-attacks were destroyed by our fire. The enemy's trenches were found full of dead as a result of our bombardment, and five officers and 251 other ranks were captured.

The support of the Heavy and Field Artillery, and a number of trench mortars, contributed largely to the success of the operation.

6. On the 27th March our troops (9th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Division) made an attack with the object of straightening out the line at St. Eloi, and cutting away the small German salient which encroached on the semicircle of our line in the Ypres salient to a depth of about 100 yards over a front of some 600 yards.

The operation was begun by the firing of six very large mines; the charge was so heavy that the explosion was felt in towns several miles behind the lines, and large numbers of the enemy were killed. Half a minute after the explosion our infantry attack was launched aiming at the German Second Line.

The right attack (1st Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers) met with little opposition, and captured its assigned objective; but the left attack (4th Battalion Royal Fusiliers) was not so successful, and a gap was left in possession of the Germans, through which they entered one of the craters.

The following days were spent by both sides in heavy bombardment and in unsuccessful attacks, intended on our part to capture the remaining trenches, and on the part of the Germans to drive us from the positions we had occupied. In the very early morning of April 3rd troops of the 76th Infantry Brigade succeeded in recapturing the crater and the trenches still held by the enemy, thereby securing the whole of our original objective.

We had, moreover, captured five officers and 195 men in the first attack on March 27th, and five officers and 80 men in the attack on April 3rd. The work of consolidating our new position, however, proved extremely difficult, owing to the wet soil, heavy shelling and mine explosions; though pumps were brought up and efforts at draining were instituted, the result achieved was comparatively small.

By dint of much heavy work the brigade holding these trenches (6th Canadian Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Major-General R. E. W. Turner commanding the division) succeeded in reducing the water in the trenches by two feet by the morning of the 5th. This state of affairs could not, even so, be regarded as satisfactory; and during the 5th the enemy's bombardment increased in intensity, and the new trenches practically ceased to exist.

On the morning of the 6th the enemy attacked with one battalion supported by another; he penetrated our new line, and gained the two westernmost craters.

It is difficult to follow in detail the fighting of the next three weeks, which consisted in repeated attacks by both sides on more or less isolated mine craters, the trench lines having been destroyed by shell fire. Great efforts were made to maintain communication with the garrisons of these advanced posts, and with considerable success.

But there were periods of uncertainty, and some misconception as to the state of affairs arose. On the 11th it was reported to me that we had recaptured all that remained of the position won by us on the 27th March and 3rd April. This report, probably due to old craters having been mistaken for new ones, was subsequently found to be incorrect.

The new craters, being exposed to the enemy's view and to the full weight of his artillery fire, have proved untenable, and at the present time our troops are occupying trenches roughly in the general line which was held by them before the 27th.

German Gas Attacks, 27th/30th April

7. On the night of the 29th/30th April the enemy carried out a gas attack on a considerable scale near Wulverghem, on a front of 3,500 yards held by the 3rd and 24th Divisions. The operation was opened by heavy rifle and machine-gun fire under cover of which the gas was released.

Immediately afterwards a heavy "barrage", or curtain of artillery fire, was placed on three parts of this area, and eight infantry attacks were launched. Of these attacks only two penetrated our trenches; one was immediately repelled, while the other was driven out by a counter-attack after about 40 minutes' occupation.

The enemy's object would appear to have been the destruction of mine shafts, as a charge of gun-cotton was found unexploded in a disused shaft, to which the enemy had penetrated. But if this was his object he was completely unsuccessful.

Similar attacks were made by the Germans in front of Vermelles, to the south of La Bassee, on the 27th and 29th April, the discharge of a highly concentrated gas being accompanied by bombardment with lachrymatory and other shells and the explosion of a mine.

On the first occasion two minor infantry attacks penetrated our trenches, but were driven out almost immediately; on the second occasion a small attack was repulsed, but the more serious advance which appears to have been intended was probably rendered impossible by the fact that a part of the enemy's gas broke back over his own lines, to the visible confusion of his troops, who were massing for the attack.

8. While many other units have done excellent work during the period under review, the following have been specially brought to my notice for good work in carrying out or repelling local attacks and raids:-

3rd Divisional Artillery
17th Divisional Artillery
1st Canadian Divisional Artillery
62nd Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
B Battery, I53rd Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
83rd Battery, Royal Field Artillery (Lahore)
22nd Canadian (Howitzer) Brigade
24th Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
115th Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
122nd Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
3rd Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
12th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery
9th Field Company, Royal Engineers
56th Field Company, Royal Engineers
70th Field Company, Royal Engineers
77th Field Company, Royal Engineers
1st (Cheshire) Field Company, Royal Engineers
170th Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers
172nd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers
173rd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers
253rd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers
12th Divisional Signal Company, Royal Engineers
24th Trench Mortar Battery
76/1st Trench Mortar Battery
No. 2 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps
No.6 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps
2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards
1st Battalion, Coldstream Guards
2nd Battalion, Irish Guards
1st Battalion, Welsh Guards
11th (Service) Battalion, The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment)
1st Battalion, The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment)
7th (Service) Battalion, The King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment)
8th (Service) Battalion, The King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment)
1st Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers
12th (Service) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers
1st Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment
8th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment (Territorial)
8th (Service) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)
gth (Service) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)
4th (Extra Reserve) Battalion, The King's Liverpool Regiment
1/8th (Irish) Battalion, The King's Liverpool Regiment (Territorial)
7th (Service) Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment
1/4th Battalion, Suffolk Regiment (Territorial)
7th (Service) Battalion, Suffolk Regiment
8th (Service) Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry
7th (Service) Battalion, Bedfordshire Regiment
1/4th Battalion, The Prince of Wales's Own (West Yorkshire Regiment) (Territorial)
2nd Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers
11th (Service) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers
15th (Service) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers
17th (Service) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers
2nd Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers
15th (Service) Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers
8th (Service) Battalion, King's Own Scottish Borderers
7th (Service) Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
9th (Service) Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
10th (Service) Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
1/6th Battalion, Gloucestershire Regiment (Territorial)
1st Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment
7th (Service) Battalion, East Surrey Regiment
8th (Service) Battalion, East Surrey Regiment
9th (Service) Battalion, West Riding Regiment
2nd Battalion, The Border Regiment
7th (Service) Battalion, The Border Regiment
11th (Service) Battalion, The Border Regiment
7th (Service) Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment
8th (Service) Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment
8th (Service) Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment
1st Battalion, Dorsetshire Regiment
I/4th Battalion, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (Territorial)
1st Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment
5th (Service) Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment
6th (Service) Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment
1st Battalion, The King's (Shropshire Light Infantry)
1st Battalion, Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment)
2nd Battalion, Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment)
2nd Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps
6th (Service) Battalion, The Duke of Edinburgh's (Wiltshire Regiment)
18th (Service) Battalion, Manchester Regiment
1st Battalion, The Prince qf Wales's (North Staffordshire Regiment)
8th (Service) Battalion, The Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire Regiment)
17th (Service) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry
8th (Service) Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's)
1st Battalion, The Gordon Highlanders
2nd Battalion, The Royal Irish Rifles
9th (Service) Battalion, The Royal Irish Rifles
1st Battalion, Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers)
2nd Battalion, Princess Louise's (Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders)
9th (Service) Battalion, Royal Munster Fusiliers
3rd Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own)
5th Canadian Infantry Battalion
7th Canadian Infantry Battalion
29th Canadian Infantry Battalion
49th Canadian Infantry Battalion


9. The activity described above has its counterpart in rear of our lines in the training which is carried out continuously. During the periods of relief all formations, and especially the newly created ones, are instructed and practised in all classes of the present and other phases of warfare.

A large number of schools also exist for the instruction of individuals, especially in the use and theory of the less familiar weapons, such as bombs and grenades.

There are schools for young staff officers and regimental officers, for candidates for commissions, etc. In short, every effort is made to take advantage of the closer contact with actual warfare, and to put the finishing touches, often after actual experience in the trenches, to the training received at home.

10. During the period under review the forces under my command have been considerably augmented by the arrival of new formations from home, and the transfer of others released from service in the Near East. This increase has made possible the relief of a French Army, to which I have already referred, at the time of the Battle of Verdun.

Among the newly arrived forces is the "Anzac" Corps. With them, the Canadians, and a portion of the South African Overseas Force which has also arrived, the Dominions now furnish a valuable part of the Imperial Forces in France.

Since the date of the last Despatch, but before I assumed command, the Indian Army Corps left this country for service in the East. They had given a year's valuable and gallant service under conditions of warfare which they had not dreamt of, and in a climate peculiarly difficult for them to endure.

I regret their departure, but I do not doubt that they will continue to render gallant and effective service elsewhere, as they have already done in this country.

11. I take this opportunity to bring to notice the admirable work which the Royal Flying Corps has continued to perform, in spite of much unfavourable weather, in carrying out reconnaissance duties, in taking photographs - an important aid to reconnaissance which has been brought to a high pitch of perfection - and in assisting the work of our Artillery by registering targets and locating hostile batteries.

In the performance of this work they have flown in weather when no hostile aeroplane ventured out, and they have not hesitated to fly low, under fire of the enemy's guns, when their duties made it necessary to do so. They have also carried out a series of bombing raids on hostile aerodromes and points of military importance.

A feature of the period under review has been the increased activity of the enemy's aircraft, in suitable weather. But the enemy's activity has been mainly on his own side of the line, and has aimed chiefly at interrupting the work carried out by our machines.

In order to carryon the work in spite of this opposition, which was for a time rendered more effective by the appearance in December of anew and more powerful type of enemy machine, it has been necessary to provide an escort to accompany our reconnaissance aeroplanes, and fighting in the air, which was formerly exceptional, has now become an everyday occurrence.

The observers, no less than the pilots, have done excellent service, and many fine feats have been performed by both. Developments on the technical side of the Air Service have been no less remarkable and satisfactory than the progress made on the purely military side.

Much inventive genius has been displayed; and our equipment for photography, wireless telegraphy, bomb-dropping and offensive action generally has been immensely improved, while great skill has been shown in keeping the flying machines themselves in good flying condition.

12. The continuance of siege warfare has entailed for the Royal Engineers work of a particularly arduous and important kind, extending from the front trenches to the Base Ports.

In the performance of this work the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the Field Companies and other units of the Corps have continued to exhibit a very high standard of skill, courage, and devotion to duty.

13. The work of the Tunnelling Companies calls for special mention. Increased mining activity on the part of the enemy has invariably been answered with enterprise combined with untiring energy on the part of our miners, who in carrying out duties always full of danger have shown that they possess in the highest degree the qualities of courage, perseverance, and self-sacrifice.

Their importance in the present phase of warfare is very great.

14. The excellent work done by the Corps of Military Police is worthy of mention. This Corps is inspired by a high sense of duty, and in the performance of its share in the maintenance of discipline it has shown both zeal and discretion.

15. All branches of the Medical Services deserve the highest commendation for the successful work done by them, both at the Front and on the Lines of Communication. The sick rate has been consistently low; there has been no serious epidemic, and enteric fever, the bane of armies in the past, has almost completely disappeared owing to preventive measures energetically carried out.

The results of exposure incidental to trench warfare during the winter months were to a very great extent kept in check by careful application pf the precautions recommended and taught by regimental Medical Officers.

The wounded have been promptly and efficiently dealt with, and their evacuation to the Base has been rapidly accomplished.

The close co-operation which has existed between the officers of the Regular Medical Service of the Army and those members of the civil medical profession who have patriotically given their valuable services to the Army, has largely contributed to the prevention of disease and to the successful treatment and comfort of the sick and wounded.

As part of the Medical Services, the Canadian Army Medical Corps has displayed marked efficiency and devotion to duty.

16. The Commission of Graves Registration and Enquiries has, since it first undertook this work eighteen months ago, registered and marked over 50,000 graves. Without its labours many would have remained unidentified.

It has answered several thousand enquiries from relatives and supplied them with photographs. Flowers and shrubs have been planted in most of the cemeteries which are sufficiently far removed from the firing line, and all cemeteries which it is possible to work in during the daytime are now being looked after by non-commissioned officers and men of this unit.

17. The valuable nature of the work performed by the officers of the Central Laboratory arid the Chemical Advisers with the Armies in investigations into the nature of the gases and other new substances used in hostile attacks, and in devising and perfecting means of protecting our troops against them, is deserving of recognition.

The efforts of these officers materially contributed to the failure of the Germans in their attack of 19th December, 1915, as well as in the various gas attacks since made.

18. The stream of additional personnel and material arriving from England, and the move of complete formations to and from the East during the period under review, have thrown a great deal of work on our Base Ports and on the Advanced Base. The staff and personnel at these stations have coped most ably with the work of forwarding and equipping the various units passing through their hands, and I desire to bring their good work to notice.

19. The large increases made to our forces have necessitated a great expansion in the resources of our Lines of Communication, and I have been greatly struck by the forethought shown by the Administrative Services in anticipating the requirements of the Armies in the Field and in the provision made to satisfy these requirements.

The Base Ports have been developed to the utmost possible extent, advanced Dep6ts have been provided, and communications have been improved to ensure punctual distribution to the troops.

Labour has been organised in order to develop local resources, especially in the matter of timber for defences and hutting, and stone for road maintenance, whereby considerable reductions have been made possible in the shipments from over sea.

Economy has attended the good methods adopted, and the greatest credit is due to all concerned for the results obtained.

20. I desire to acknowledge here the valuable assistance rendered by the naval transport officers on the Lines of Communication. They have worked with and for the Army most untiringly, efficiently, and with the utmost harmony.

I also desire to acknowledge the indebtedness of the Army to the Royal Navy for their unceasing and uniformly successful care in securing the safety of our transport service on the seas.

21. I wish to acknowledge the work done in the reproduction of maps by the Ordnance Survey Department. Over 90 per cent of the maps used in this country are reproduced and printed in England by the Ordnance Survey, and the satisfactory supply is largely due to the foresight and initiative displayed by this Department.

I can now count on obtaining an issue of as many as 10,000 copies of any map within one week of sending it home for reproduction.

22. I have forwarded under a separate letter the names of the officers, non-commissioned officers and men whom I wish to bring to notice for gallant and distinguished service.

23. I cannot close this Despatch without some reference to the work of my predecessor in Command, Field-Marshal Viscount French. The Field-Marshal, starting the war with our small Expeditionary Force, faced an enemy far superior in numbers and fully prepared for this great campaign.

During the long and anxious time needed for the improvisation of the comparatively large force now serving in this country, he overcame all difficulties, and before laying down his responsibilities he had the satisfaction of seeing the balance of advantage swing steadily in our favour. Those who have served under him appreciate the greatness of his achievement.

I have the honour to be
Your Lordship's most obedient Servant,
D. HAIG, General,
Commander-in-Chief, The British Forces in France

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/haigsteloidespatch.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Pontian Genocide 1916-1923

May 19 has been recognized by the Greek parliament as the day of remembrance of the Pontian Greek Genocide by the Turks. There are various estimates of the toll. Records kept mainly by priests show a minimum 350,000 Pontian Greeks exterminated through systematic slaughter by Turkish troops and Kurdish para-militaries. Other estimates, including those of foreign missionaries, spoke of 500,000 deaths, most through deportation and forced marches into the Anatolian desert interior. Thriving Greek cities like Pafra, Samsous, Kerasous, and Trapezous, at the heart of Pontian Hellenism on the coast of the Black Sea, endured recurring massacres and deportations that eventually destroyed their Greek population.

The opening bell of the genocide came with the order in 1914 for all Pontian men between the ages of 18 and 50 to report for military duty. Those who “refused” or “failed” to appear, the order provided, were to be summarily shot. The immediate result of this firman (decree) was the murder of thousands of the more prominent Pontians, whose name appeared on lists of “undesirables” already prepared by the Young Turk regime.

Added thousands ended up in the notorious Labor Battalions (amele taburu). In a precursor of what was to become a favorite practice in Hitler’s extermination camps, Pontian men were driven from their homes into the wilderness to perform hard labor and expire from exhaustion, thirst, and disease. German advisors of the Turkish regime (what a surprise!) suggested that Pontian populations be forced into internal exile. This “advise” led directly to the emptying of hundreds of Pontian villages and the forced march of women, children, and old people to nowhere. The details of this systematic slaughter of the Pontians by the Turks were dutifully recorded by both German and Austrian diplomats.

The Pontians, unlike Greeks elsewhere in Asia Minor, did try to organize armed resistance against their butchers. Pontian guerrilla bands had appeared in the mountains of Santa as early as 1916. Brave leaders, like Capitan Stylianos Kosmidis, even hoisted the flag of independent Pontus in the hope of help from Greece and Russia (which never arrived). But the struggle was unequal. The Turkish army, assisted by the blood-thirsty Tsets, cuthroats of mostly Kurdish extraction, attacked and destroyed undefended Pontian villages in revenge.

On May 19, 1919, chief butcher Kemal himself disembarked at Samsous to begin organizing the final phase of the Pontian genocide. Assisted by his German advisers, and surrounded by his own band of killers — monsters like Topal Osman, Refet Bey, Ismet Inonu, and Talaat Pasha — the founder of “modern” Turkey applied himself to the destruction of the Pontian Greeks. With the Greek army engaged in Anatolia, a new wave of deportations, mass killings, and “preventative” executions destroyed the remnants of Pontian Hellenism. The plan worked with deadly precision. In the Amasia province alone, with a pre-war population of some 180,000, records show a final tally of 134,000 people liquidated.

The memory of the Pontian Genocide is dedicated to all those in Europe and the U.S. who shamelessly advocate admitting Turkey into the EU and describe it as a “democracy.” They are all blind as they are shameless.

AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN ARCHIVES REVEAL THE CRIME

24 July 1909 German Ambassador in Athens Wangenheim to Chancellor Bulow quoting Turkish Prime Minister Sefker Pasha: “The Turks have decided upon a war of extermination against their Christian subjects.”

26 July 1909 Sefker Pasha visited Patriarch Ioakeim III and tells him: “we will cut off your heads, we will make you disappear. It is either you or us who will survive.”

14 May 1914 Official document from Talaat Bey Minister of the Interior to Prefect of Smyrna: The Greeks, who are Ottoman subjects, and form the majority of inhabitants in your district, take advantage of the circumstances in order to provoke a revolutionary current, favourable to the intervention of the Great Powers. Consequently, it is urgently necessary that the Greeks occupying the coast-line of Asia Minor be compelled to evacuate their villages and install themselves in the vilayets of Erzerum and Chaldea. If they should refuse to be transported to the appointed places, kindly give instructions to our Moslem brothers, so that they shall induce the Greeks, through excesses of all sorts, to leave their native places of their own accord. Do not forget to obtain, in such cases, from the emigrants certificates stating that they leave their homes on their own initiative, so that we shall not have political complications ensuing from their displacement.

31 July 1915 German priest J. Lepsius: “The anti-Greek and anti-Armenian persecutions are two phases of one programme – the extermination of the Christian element from Turkey.

16 July 1916 German Consul Kuchhoff from Amisos to Berlin: “The entire Greek population of Sinope and the coastal region of the county of Kastanome has been exiled. Exile and extermination in Turkish are the same, for whoever is not murdered, will die from hunger or illness.”

30 November 1916 Austrian consul at Amisos Kwiatkowski to Austria Foreign Minister Baron Burian: “on 26 November Rafet Bey told me: “we must finish off the Greeks as we did with the Armenians . . . on 28 November. Rafet Bey told me: “today I sent squads to the interior to kill every Greek on sight.” I fear for the elimination of the entire Greek population and a repeat of what occurred last year” (meaning the Armenian genocide).

13 December 1916 German Ambassador Kuhlman to Chancellor Hollweg in Berlin: “Consuls Bergfeld in Samsun and Schede in Kerasun report of displacement of local population and murders. Prisoners are not kept. Villages reduced to ashes. Greek refugee families consisting mostly of women and children being marched from the coasts to Sebasteia. The need is great.”

19 December 1916 Austrian Ambassador to Turkey Pallavicini to Vienna lists the villages in the region of Amisos that were being burnt to the ground and their inhabitants raped, murdered or dispersed.

20 January 1917 Austrian Ambassador Pallavicini: “the situation for the displaced is desperate. Death awaits them all. I spoke to the Grand Vizier and told him that it would be sad if the persecution of the Greek element took the same scope and dimension as the Armenia persecution. The Grand Vizier promised that he would influence Talaat Bey and Emver Pasha.”

31 January 1917 Austrian Chancellor Hollweg’s report: “. . . the indications are that the Turks plan to eliminate the Greek element as enemies of the state, as they did earlier with the Armenians. The strategy implemented by the Turks is of displacing people to the interior without taking measures for their survival by exposing them to death, hunger and illness. The abandoned homes are then looted and burnt or destroyed. Whatever was done to the Armenians is being repeated with the Greeks.

Thus, by government decree 1,500,000 Armenians and 300,000 Pontian Greeks were annihilated through exile, starvation, cold, illness, slaughter, murder, gallows, axe, and fire. Those who survived fled never to return. The Pontians now lie scattered all over the world as a result of the genocide and their unique history, language (the dialect is a valuable link between ancient and modern Greek), and culture are endangered and face extinction.

A double crime was committed – genocide and the uprooting of a people from their ancestral homelands of three millenia. The Christian nations were not only witnesses to this horrible and monstrous crime, which remains unpunished, but for reasons of political expediency and self interest have, by their silence, pardoned the criminal. The Ottoman and Kemalist Turks were responsible for the genocide of the Pontian people, the most heinous of all crimes according to international law. The international community must recognise this crime.

http://www.greeknewsonline.com/?p=4913
Zie ook http://pontiangenocide.com/19_may_1919.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 18 Mei 2010 22:57, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Letter from Paul B Hendrickson to his father, 19 May 1917

Quincy Ills.
Armory Hall.

May 19-1917

Dear father

Haven't heard from you in a long time. Wish you would write. Are things pretty hard on you at home? I imagine they would be. Well I guess I had it figured about right on the conscription being only a matter of a couple of months. And getting here early has given me quite an advantage; for I have nearly all my equipment, and getting acquainted with this kind of life and way of living, and will be much better able to look out for myself when the hard part does come. A fellow can make it pretty nice for him self if he is a mind to step right up with the rest of the boys and do your part. For they certainly have no use for a slacker around here. If they see a fellow trying to shirk, they just see what all they can make him do.

I am having this afternoon off. I have a slight touch of the mumps. Hurts my jaw when I try to play. So the doctor said I had better not play much until I feel better.

The rest of the fellows are out on drill this afternoon. It certainly is getting hot here now. No breeze and just naturally warm.

From the looks of the paper this morning it looks like some body was going to get a chance to go to France. I don't believe there is a one in the headquarters co. but what expresses their desire or willingness to go. I guess we are going some place soon. We can not find out where. The officers are not letting out any information at all just now.

I see Teddy don't get to go to France as he wanted to. I guess our regulars will be the first ones sent. I am certainly glad I am in the band. For our duties never will be as hard as the other departments have it, and the risk is far less. I couldn't be better satisfied than I am now - only I hate to think of the extra work it makes for you at home. For there is quite a bit I wanted to get done this summer.

I haven't received any pay yet. We don't know the cause of all the delay. My rail road money was used for paying up my scholar ship dues in my study and also my insurance - leaving me some for my own use.

I have two good (new) suits of clothes - two new pairs shoes and all my personal effects in the way of clothing & towels and toilet articles. Am pretty well fixed. I only wish I could know you were not having it any harder than I am.

Hoping to get a letter from you soon I remain your loving son -

Paul B. Hendrickson

http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/letters/p170519f.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Mei 2010 12:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Ruthven VC

William Ruthven VC (21 May 1893 - 12 January 1970) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth[1] forces.

VC action - He was 24 years old, and a sergeant in the 22nd Battalion, (Victoria), Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC. The full citation for his actions appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette of 9 July 1918 (dated 11 July 1918):[2]

“War Office, 11th July, 1918.
His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Officers and Non-Commissioned Officer: —
[...]
No. 1946 Sjt. William Ruthven, A.I.F.

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative in action. During the advance Sjt. Ruthven's company suffered numerous casualties, and his company commander was severely wounded. He thereupon assumed command of this portion of the assault, took charge of the company headquarters, and rallied the section in his vicinity.

As the leading wave approached its objective it was subjected to heavy fire from an enemy machine-gun at close range. Without hesitation he at once sprang out, threw a bomb which landed beside the post, and rushed the position, bayoneting one of the crew and capturing the gun. He then encountered some of the enemy coming out of a shelter. He wounded two, captured six others in the same position, and handed them over to an escort from the leading wave, which had now reached the objective.

Sjt. Ruthven then reorganised the men in his vicinity and established a post in the second objective.

Observing enemy movement in a sunken road near by, he, without hesitation and armed only with a revolver, went over the open alone and rushed the position, shooting two enemy who refused to come out of their dug-outs.

He then single-handed mopped up this post and captured the whole of the garrison, amounting in all to thirty-two, and kept them until assistance arrived to escort them back to our lines.

During the remainder of the day this gallant non-commissioned officer set a splendid example of leadership, moving up and down his position under fire, supervising consolidation and encouraging his men.

Throughout the whole operation he showed the most magnificent courage and determination, inspiring everyone by his fine fighting spirit, his remarkable courage, and his dashing action.”


References - He later achieved the rank of major.
His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial (Canberra, Australia).

References
[1] Australians would now be awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia, but this was not instituted until 1991
[2] London Gazette: no. 30790, pages 8155–8156, 9 July 1918. Retrieved on 2007-12-14.


http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/William_Ruthven
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Mei 2010 12:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

19 mei 1916 - “Ik heb uw brief ontvangen en ben blij dat gij, Charles Lauwerysen en August Nooyens het nog altijd goed stelt. Ik heb over enige dagen een brief van thuis ontvangen en ge kunt niet geloven hoe blij ik was want het was meer dan zes maanden geleden dat ik nog iets van thuis had gehoord. Mijn broeder Charel had een paspoort gekregen tien dagen geleden, om hooi te halen dat nog in een beemd zat achter de draad. Zo had hij op de Baarlebrug een brief geschreven. Dat was nogal een toer om daar naartoe te rijden, want hij moest langs Weelde-Statie en Baarle en dan naar Baarlebrug. (Hetzelfde verhaal hoorden we over Fons Van Beek: die moest ook twee uur om rijden en was dan op een kwartier afstand van thuis. Mondelinge mededeling Gust Van Beek) Charel reed ’s morgens om 8 uur van huis en was ’s avonds om 11 uur terug. En ze moeten het hooi nog uitdragen, want hij kon niet in de beemd komen. En dan had hij nog een lui paard, dat van Van Ginneken. Ons paard moest veulen. Het was maar twee jaar oud toen ze ermee naar de hengst gingen. Dat is wel jong, maar in zo’n tijd moet je al wat doen om het niet te moeten afgeven. Ze hadden al van alles af moeten geven: haver, koren, hooi en stro. Het werd wel betaald, maar niet veel. Het is anders allemaal duur. Laatst hadden ze nog een nest jonge varkens verkocht van vier weken oud. Ze kostten 62 frank per stuk. Ze hebben nog zoveel beesten als voor de oorlog… Voor de boeren gaat het nog redelijk. Louis Van Loon was juist die dag overleden. Het is spijtig van zo’n jonge kerel.” (soldaat Jan Verstraelen uit Zondereigen aan zijn kozijn Cornelis Huybrechts in Kamp Harderwijk)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Mei 2010 12:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aletta Jacobs, Verslag van het bezoek aan de regeringsleiders van de oorlogvoerende landen
namens het Haagse vrouwen (vredes)congres van 1915.

Uit het archief van Aletta Jacobs

Duitsland 19 mei - 23 mei 1915
Woensdag 19 mei vertrokken Miss Addams en Dr. Alice Hamilton van Chicago, Mevr. Van Wulfften
Palthe van Den Haag en ik naar Berlijn. Aan de grenzen in Bentheim werden onze koffers en papieren
met bijzondere zorg nagezien, vooral al onze aanbevelingsbrieven aan de verschillende
ambassadeurs, doch zonder enige moeite konden we verdergaan en arriveerden ’s avonds om
ongeveer 7 uur in Berlijn. Logeerden in Hotel Adlon.

Donderdag 20 mei gingen wij ’s ochtends direct met onze aanbevelingsbrief naar de Hollandse
ambassadeur baron Gevers, die ons beleefd, doch uit de hoogte ontving, doch beloofde stappen te
zullen doen om ons bij Von Jagow, de minister van Buitenlandse Zaken en Von Bethmann Hollweg,
minister-president, te doen ontvangen. De Amerikaanse dames waren daarvoor bij de Amerikaanse
gezant geweest.

http://www.alettajacobs.org/extra/Aletta_verslag-1915-regeringen.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het zedelijkste volk op vredesmissie
Door Peter Giesen − 14/01/06

De eerste vredesmissie uit de geschiedenis stond onder leiding van Nederland: in 1913 reisden Nederlandse officieren naar Albanië, waar zij het commando voerden over de Albanese gendarmerie die het geweld tussen de plaatselijke krijgsheren moest beteugelen.

De eerste vredesmissie werd ook een pijnlijke mislukking. De Nederlandse militairen raakten hopeloos verstrikt in de intriges van de Balkan. Op 15 juni 1914 sneuvelde de Nederlandse commandant, majoor Lodewijk Thomson, bij een aanval van Albanese strijdgroepen. Even later brak de Eerste Wereldoorlog uit. De officieren voegden zich weer bij het gemobiliseerde Nederlandse leger, Albanië in chaos achterlatend.

Binnenkort moet Nederland besluiten over de uitzending van een missie naar Afghanistan. Hierover sprak premier Balkenende deze week in morele termen: 'Het gaat om de toekomst van het Nederlandse volk.' Daarmee plaatste hij zichzelf in een lange traditie, waarin Nederland zich opwerpt als morele natie, een onvermoeibaar pleitbezorger van de internationale rechtsorde. 'Een zeker moralisme, denken in goed en fout, de nadruk op het recht, dat zijn wel constanten in de Nederlandse buitenlandse politiek', zegt historicus Remco van Diepen, auteur van Voor Volkenbond en Vrede en Hollanditis.

Maar ook andere constanten spelen een rol in het Afghanistandebat, zegt hij. 'Nederland heeft zich altijd georiënteerd op de Angelsaksische wereld. De relatie met de Amerikanen is heel belangrijk.' Een klein land weet zich graag beschermd door machtige vrienden.

Blazoen

Aan het einde van de 19de eeuw was Nederland op zoek naar een nieuwe nationale missie. De militaire macht van de Gouden Eeuw was definitief voorbij, schreef de historicus W.J. Hofdijk, maar hij zag een nieuwe taak voor de Nederlandse Leeuw, 'den fieren klauw rustend op een blazoen, waarin ge het devies lezen zult: het is schooner het zedelijkste dan het machtigste volk ter wereld te zijn.'

Rond 1900 was Den Haag uitgegroeid tot het belangrijkste centrum van internationaal recht. In 1899 en 1907 kwamen de groten der aarde er bijeen voor twee Internationale Vredesconferenties, waar zij probeerden een grote Europese oorlog af te wenden. De statuur van Den Haag werd bekroond met de opening van het Vredespaleis in 1913.

Hoewel Nederland zichzelf graag als 'het zedelijkste volk' afficheerde, was de nadruk op internationaal recht ook in het eigen belang. Rond 1900 stonden de grote mogendheden tot de tanden bewapend tegenover elkaar. Bij een oorlog zou Nederland kansloos zijn tegen de maritieme supermacht Engeland of de Pruisische vechtmachine van keizer Wilhelm.

Nederland was extra kwetsbaar omdat het Indië, dat enorme koloniale rijk aan de andere kant van de aardbol, nooit op eigen kracht zou kunnen verdedigen. 'Recht is mooi voor de zwakke. Kleine landen zijn erbij gebaat dat de grote mogendheden zich netjes aan de regels houden', zegt Michael Riemens, docent geschiedenis aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Onlangs promoveerde hij op De passie voor vrede, een geschiedenis van de internationale betrekkingen tussen 1880 en 1940.

De belangrijkste voorvechter van een internationale rechtsorde was de Leidse volkenrechtgeleerde Cornelis van Vollenhoven. In 1910 schreef hij in De Gids zijn beroemde artikel Roeping van Holland. In plaats van de 'lijdende vrede' van het pacifisme pleitte hij voor een 'strijdende vrede': een supranationale rechtsgemeenschap waarin een internationale politievloot de orde zou moeten bewaren. Nederland zou hierin een leidende rol moeten spelen, aldus Van Vollenhoven. Juist een klein en 'belangenloos' land als Nederland was bij uitstek geschikt om te bemiddelen tussen de grote mogendheden en hun vuige machtspolitiek.

In 1913 besloot de toenmalige internationale gemeenschap tot een experiment in de geest van Van Vollenhoven: de pacificatie van Albanië door neutraal gezag. In 1912 waren de Turken van de Balkan verjaagd. Albanië had zichzelf onafhankelijk verklaard, maar werd aan alle kanten bedreigd, zowel door buurlanden Servië, Montenegro en Griekenland als door de onophoudelijke strijd tussen plaatselijke krijgsheren.

Op de conferentie van Londen in 1913 werd besloten de Duitse prins Wilhelm zu Wied, een achterneef van koningin Wilhelmina, tot koning van Albanië te bombarderen. Een nieuw te formeren Albanese gendarmerie zou de lokale warlords uit elkaar moeten houden. Nederland werd gevraagd het commando te voeren omdat het neutraal was en in Atjeh ervaring had opgedaan met het pacificeren van islamitische strijders.

Majoor Thomson, die zich al snel ontpopte als de feitelijke leider van de expeditie, voelde zich een 'pionier der beschaving' in een land dat oogde 'of het nooit nieuw en nooit rein kan zijn geweest', schreef hij in februari 1914. 'Het tijdperk van de Middeleeuwen is eigenlijk voor Albanië nimmer afgesloten.'

Desertie

Het contingent Nederlanders was klein: veertien officieren, twee artsen en een verpleegkundige. De dappere, onbaatzuchtige Hollanders werden voortdurend dwarsgezeten door luie en onbetrouwbare Albanezen, schreef kapitein Fabius op jongensboekachtige toon in Met Thomson in Albanië uit 1918. Zelfs het formeren van een gendarmerie was onbegonnen werk. Als puntje bij paaltje kwam, lag de loyaliteit van de Albanezen bij hun eigen clanleiders, en niet bij die merkwaardige tweederangsvorst uit het verre Duitsland.

De Albanezen deserteerden bij bosjes, hun plaats werd ingenomen door avontuurlijke vrijwilligers die uit alle hoeken van Europa kwamen toegestroomd. Uiteindelijk voerde Thomson het bevel over een rariteitenkabinet: een Duitse fabrikantenzoon die graag dronk en als liefhebberij langs de slagvelden zwierf. Een Brit die aan één oog blind was en met het andere slechts kon zien met behulp van een monocle. Een Nederlander die zelfs in dit gezelschap zo ongeschikt was dat majoor Roelfsema uit eigen zak zijn terugreis naar het vaderland betaalde.

Deze vrijwilligers kwamen slechts opdagen als er iets te schieten viel. Tot wachtlopen en andere nuttige, maar saaie militaire taken verlaagden zij zich niet. Vijftig Roemeense vrijwilligers maakten het nog bonter. Zij paradeerden door de hoofdstad Durazzo (het huidige Durrës), maar bemoeiden zich niet met de gevechten.

Thomsons grootste tegenstander was de krijgsheer Essad Pasha Toptani, die gesteund werd door Italië. Op 19 mei 1914 liet Thomson Pasha arresteren. Onder Italiaanse druk ging koning Wilhelm - een knappe en beminnelijke man die zich beter thuis voelde in het ordelijke Potsdam dan in de wildernis van Albanië - akkoord met verbanning naar Italië.

Binnen de kortste keren was Pasha terug om een opstand tegen de koning te leiden. Op 15 juni 1914 vielen de rebellen Durazzo aan. Thomson spoedde zich naar het front, waar hij dodelijk werd getroffen door een vijandelijke kogel. Ruim een maand later verlieten de Nederlanders Albanië, even later gevolgd door Wilhelm.

Thomsons dood veroorzaakte in Nederland een golf van nationalisme. Zijn kist werd per trein door het land gevoerd. Overal stonden mensen op het perron om de held van Durazzo een laatste groet te brengen. In haar begrafenisrede vergeleek koningin Wilhelmina hem met Michiel de Ruyter en Jan Pieterszoon Coen, het bewijs dat Nederland nog steeds helden afleverde. Thomson kreeg twee standbeelden en werd in 2000 nog postuum ereburger van Durrës.

Het experiment van de eerste vredesmissie eindigde als een tragische operette. Met de internationale rechtsorde van Van Vollenhoven liep het in eerste instantie niet beter af. Op 26 juni 1914 nodigde minister van Buitenlandse Zaken Loudon alle landen uit een vertegenwoordiger te leveren ter voorbereiding van de derde Internationale Vredesconferentie, die in 1915 in Den Haag voor het eerst bijeen zou komen. Twee dagen later viel het fatale schot in Sarajevo.

Statenorganisaties

Toch was Van Vollenhoven een van de grote theoretici van de internationale rechtsorde, zegt Riemens. 'Destijds was duidelijk dat het systeem van soevereine staten tot anarchie leidde, en uiteindelijk zelfs tot de slachting van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Overal werd nagedacht over manieren om dat anders te organiseren, bijvoorbeeld door statenorganisaties waarin het recht een belangrijke rol zou spelen. Op die manier is Europa uiteindelijk ook gepacificeerd'.

De liberale vooruitgangsdenker Van Vollenhoven zag dat een gemondialiseerde wereld behoefte had aan internationale instituties. Maar ook de argumenten van zijn belangrijkste tegenstrever, de Amsterdamse hoogleraar Struycken, klinken onverminderd actueel. Hij was een conservatieve katholiek die vond dat Nederland zich op de derde Vredesconferentie moest tooien met een 'rustige slaapmuts' en niet met een 'bont harlekijnspak'.

Riemens: 'Recht kun je niet van bovenaf afdwingen, vond Struycken. Het moet van onderop groeien. Je moet eerst cultuur en beschaving brengen. Dan zal de rechtsorde vanzelf ontstaan. Die kwestie is nog steeds aan de orde. Kun je westerse begrippen als verkiezingen, democratie en de grondwet zo maar transponeren naar een andere samenleving?'

http://www.volkskrant.nl/vk/nl/2664/Nieuws/archief/article/detail/780162/2006/01/14/Het-zedelijkste-volk-op-vredesmissie.dhtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 19:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aantekeningen uit het dagboek van Trui Thöne 1915

Woensdag, 19 Mei 1915 - Er kwam vandaag een Belgisch meisje naaien; een vluchteling, snoezig meisje.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/dagboeken-trui/dagboek-januari-december-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 19:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Strathmore Standard, 19 mei 1915



http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/SMS/1915/05/19/1/Ar00106.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 May 1915 → Lords Sitting

BELGIAN REFUGEES AT ETON.


HL Deb 19 May 1915 vol 18 cc1050-1 1050

§ LORD BRAVE had given notice that he would ask His Majesty's Government—

1. Why the Belgian refugees, twenty-one in number, now placed in the Public School at Eton, are penalised in the exercise of their religious duties in being forbidden to enter the Catholic church in Eton town and being obliged to attend on Sunday mornings a distant church in Windsor, and on week-days being debarred from all possibility of attending any service, although the service in the Eton Catholic church is available; whether the Headmaster in making this prohibition is acting ultra vires or not, or whether the authority for such regulations is vested in the governing body by law solely without reference to the headmaster or not;

2. Whether Belgian refugee boys have been admitted to any other of the public schools of England affected by Acts of Parliament, and if so, whether there also they are forbidden their nearest church, or whether they are quite free to frequent it; and further

3. Whether the governing body of Eton is empowered by Act of Parliament to modify the Statutes affecting Eton School so as to relax the restrictions imposed by Anglican authorities on the freedom of Catholics, Presbyterians, Jews, or other non-Anglicans to attend their respective places of worship.

The noble Lord said: My Lords, I desire to postpone for a time the Questions standing in my name on the Paper. I am entirely in the hands of the House and the Government in this matter, but I have very recently received a communication from the Headmaster of Eton in which he says that he is in correspondence with certain authorities as to the propriety of withdrawing the veto. Consequently I think it might be desirable to allow a little further time for a conclusion to be reached, although unfortunately some three or four months have already elapsed in trying to come to a conclusion. It would be more satisfactory if the Headmaster would answer the first portion of my Questions himself privately. The subject is of some public interest, and I may mention that 1051 only recently I received a letter from Canada in which I am informed that the matter has been noticed there and has had a disastrous effect upon recruiting among Catholics, who resent the attitude which the most important public school in Great Britain has assumed towards their co-religionists. I mention that as showing that this is a matter which affects not only many in this country but many throughout the Colonies. With your Lordships' permission, however, I beg to postpone the Questions for the present.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1915/may/19/belgian-refugees-at-eton
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Bellevue Times, 19 mei 1916



http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/BVT/1916/05/19/1/Ad00102_13.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Intellectual Poland; a lecture delivered at Cambridge on May 19, 1916
by Leon Litwinski.

http://www.archive.org/stream/intellectualpola00litw#page/n7/mode/2up
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gedenksteen militaire en burgerlijke doden (De Mokker - WOI-WOII)



Deze gedenksteen herinnert aan de militaire en burgerlijke doden van de Koekelaarse wijk De Mokker van WOI en WOII. De familienaam Viaene komt driemaal voor. Het gezin van Charles Viaene en Eugenie Dutolly telde 12 kinderen. Aloïs was de oudste zoon; hij was geboren in 1887. Bij het uitbreken van de oorlog, hij was 27 en zelf reeds vader, diende hij onmiddellijk als soldaat het 5de Linieregiment te vervoegen. Hij sneuvelde reeds op 12 november 1914 te Adinkerke en werd in de berm van de spoorlijn Veurne-Adinkerke begraven. Later werd hij overgebracht naar de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Ramskapelle. Oscar was het 4de kind, hij was geboren in 1892. Hij diende tevens als soldaat bij het 5de Linieregiment. Hij vond de dood op 19 mei 1916 toen hij op rust was en granaathagel insloeg op zijn barak naast de kerk in Pollinkhove. Hij werd er op het kerkhof begraven. Later werd hij overgebracht naar de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van De Panne. Op die ongelukkige dag geraakte zijn 1 jaar jongere broer Ernest, die eveneens als soldaat dienst deed bij het 5de Linie, zwaar gewond. Er begon een lange lijdensweg naar verschillende hospitalen en hij overleed tenslotte in Bredene op 4 september 1919. Hij werd begraven in Oostende en later eveneens overgebracht naar De Panne. Een vierde zoon Maurice, geboren in 1897, overleefde wel de oorlog.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/1273
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldier's Mail - Letters Home from a Yankee Doughboy 1916-1919

Somewhere near Gironville, 5/19/1918

4 A.M.

Dear Em

Yesterday was a perfect summer day, and one that never could be equaled in the States especially at this time of year. By all appearances now it is going to be just as good a day today. OH. Em if you only knew how much we appreciate this sun, and dry weather. Those of us that have got by all winter and Spring with out a trip to the hospital, can excuse all the tough weather that has followed us ever since stepping on to foreign soil, after experiencing such balmy days as the last few have been.

I wish you could hear these birds sing outside this dugout, and see the sun just rising between two hills just to our right, which are held by the Boshe. To sum it all up Em, it is a beautiful Summer morning, with peace and quiet every where. Yesterday morning was the same until old Sol got about an hour high and then, the same old fire works began, airships began to buzz over head, the big drums began to roll, and another day of modern science was well started.

It was pretty quiet “out front” last night but right here Id better can this stuff before I go too far with it. They have started. Two seventy sevens from across the way have been hurled over landing in a town. More will follow these two, other batteries will pick it up and then the usual days work will be in full swing. Our birds still continue their twitter though and I guess the only thing that would stop them would be a regular barrage (during which a fellow would do well to hear himself sing let alone listen to nature). Many a morning Ive stood sat or layed waiting for this barrage (just at dawn) the sound of which reminds me of all the snare and base drums, explosions and fire works that Greater Boston could muster, and all going at once. But some dry land and a little sun, a fag now and then, and we should worry.

We have been on some part of the line continually now since Feb. 7/18 with the exception of the few days that was taken to march that seventy or eighty miles to our training base, and loaded into trucks on our arrival and landed here. We are due for a furlough or a rest soon for to date the last leave that any of us have been lucky enough to get was that last Sat. & Sunday I got from Westfield, and the last time I was home. Well we didn’t come over here for pleasure and Im as contented as one could wish to be, but I thought I’d mention this in answer to questions asked as to whether Id received my furlough as yet. We are over here for business (no Border stuff understand) and any one that comes over with any thing else as their object is going to be mistaken badly.

We are getting the assurance that every one “over there” are doing their bit and every thing possibly for us. I got ahold of a Boston Post of “some weeks back” and the accounts of the big parade and the wonderful “come through spirit” of America, for the Third Liberty Loan was very interesting and also incouraging for us fellows that are “over here” and nead backing now. But to change the subject Em – I received two fine letters from you last night bearing the dates April 23, and 25 and was very glad to hear that you are all well. You opened up the first by saying that it was pretty near the close of a perfect day, and your discription of the kids playing ball and piggy is a scene I can well picture, and would appreciate could I witness it. If you think you’re filling all your letters with explaining about your new job, what in the world must be thought of the contents of mine. It shows that we are both interested in our work and surely in each other by writing very often regardless of what we say.

Glad to hear that Zella is with you, for Im sure she makes it pleasant and also glad that you have such pleasant surrounding to work in. There must sure be some close to Mary now, and tell her Em I wish her luck. Ha. So the kids fight yet, and Old George is the go between. It would be good if we had an Old George in this World Affair wouldnt it? I suppose Nellie, the husband, (Charlie is it?) Old George and the kids do present some wonderful sights these warm spring evenings, with their graphophone going. Has he got those flags in his possession yet, or doesn’t he display them now?

Bully for Napolean! We could use him to good advantage Em if we had him with us right on this sector. Look Em, you know how the farmers in Maine used to rig up scare crows, stick them out in a cornfield, and how these scare crows would answer the purpose of protecting said young corn from being dug up by said crows. Well we have some listening posts in “No Man’s Land,” from which valuable information is some times obtained. You see we would stick young speedy out there, and old Fritz thinking it an old Yankee trick (to draw their attention from some where else) would laugh at it and leave said it unmolested. Of coarse our first problem would be to teach him (not to see every thing understand) but to remember and explain all he did see. It wouldn’t cost the government much for cloths either. So much for speedy, he is just as you say though Em, a great help to his mother and the neighbors. I thought that sugar refinery would cut off quit a little of the view, but it is nice to be able to see the Naval Hospital yet.

Well Em I suppose it is getting warm over there now, and I can say right here that as I write it gets hotter and noisier. I can picture Pa trotting off to bed when there is nothing else to do, and look Em don’t forget to put a screen in his window for if the mosquitoes there are as active as they are here, they will pester him to death. Between mosquitoes (as large as horse flys) and cooties (almost as large) our days work is pretty well cut out for us. Im with you Em in wishing Madge out of the place she is now in and hope that before long she will be.

Following up you letter I will say yes, the 104th did have quite a tough time of it and came through pretty well too. One young fellow, Alpen by name who was in “my old company” Co. K, was knocked off in this jam and a few of the others wounded. I thank Adeline for her kind regards and tell her I was asking for her the next time you see her. Lillian also. Same to the Hollands. Im pretty sure Harry will be over here any way but then he may think different. Good luck to him. I thank Zella for her best wishes, and I hope you all spend a pleasant and enjoyable 17th (OO La La).

The reason for the different colored ink that made up the letters of Mar. 14, and 30th that you speak of in your letter of April 25 was in compliance with that common sense saying “Get what you can no matter what it is.” I’ve written one letter with as much as three different pens, in which was different colored ink. The fancy designs I made on some of my letters was done while there was absolutly nothing else to do. Trench stuff you see.

It is news to me to hear that Boston’s Own has not left yet, for we heard that they were already on their way to France long ago. When they do get here we will probably never see them for they may be placed many miles from this division. As for them making it possible for us to get some rest, I rather it would make all the more work for the Hun with us still at it until the whole dirty business is cleaned up. Just like Lena when she is cleaning house or doing anything, “Everybody up and doing and stuck until its done.” OH you Lena! Lena playing solitaire, Pa reading the paper, your getting ready for bed, Bert working until nine oclock. That old song “I wonder how the Old Folks are at home” means nothing to me on receipt of your letters for I know all about them after reading the contents.

As for Harry giving up the chance to go to England to train, I think he failed to use good judgment for that is where he would get some real good training. I bet your some class in your new rig. Well Em Im going to stop not because I have nothing more to say or because this is all the paper I can scrape up, but because I feel as though Ive said enough. So with love to all I close

Sam.

Samuel E. Avery Hdq. Co. 103rd Inf. A.E.F.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2009/05/19/somewhere-near-gironville-5191918/


Envelope Trench Art - Back Side


Envelope Trench Art - Front Side
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

STRATEGISCHE BOMBARDEMENTEN OP ENGELAND
Frans Decamps

(...) De laatste vliegtuigraid op Engeland werd uitgevoerd op 19 mei 1918 door een formatie van 38 GOTHA
GROßFLUGZEUGE en 2 STAAKEN RIESENFLUGZEUGE. Dit werd voor de Duitse luchtmacht een zware
mislukking en nederlaag. Het Britse luchtdoelgeschut haalde drie GOTHA toestellen neer en de intussen meer
ervaren nachtjagerpiloten schoten er ook nog drie naar beneden. Vanaf die nacht werden de nachtvluchten op
Engeland stopgezet en werden die zware bommenwerpers alleen nog ingezet bij Duitse offensieven in Frankrijk. (...)

http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/bombardement.pdf

In de nacht van 19 mei 1918 vlogen 38 Gothas van de Bogohl 3 naar Engeland voor de laatste en grootste raid uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Zes Gothas werden uit de lucht geschoten door jagers en luchtafweer, een zevende crashte tijdens het landen. Na deze raid werden geen bombardementen meer uitgevoerd op Engeland.

http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Gotha_G.IV
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2011 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Op 19 mei 1919 luidde Mustafa Kemal Atatürk de bevrijdingsoorlog in, nadat hij na een geheime en gevaarlijke boottocht vanaf Istanbul voet zette op de haven van Samsun. Al snel heeft hij de bevolking in Anatolië gemobiliseerd. De Turkse bevrijdingsoorlog duurde tot 1922. Een deel van de verloren gebieden werd herwonnen. Op 29 oktober 1923 heeft M.K. Atatürk de Turkse republiek uitgeroepen.

http://www.nederlandersinturkije.nl/turkije/feestdagen/

Turkse Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog

(...) Achteraf stelde Atatürk de start van de Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog vast als 19 mei 1919. In werkelijkheid stond er pas vanaf 1920 daadwerkelijk een professioneel Turks leger op de been. Dit leger bleek zo succesvol dat de Turken vanuit hun rompstaat geheel Anatolië weer onder controle kregen. De veldslagen duurden van 1920 tot 11 oktober 1922, op welke datum er een wapenstilstand werd ondertekend. Dit Verdrag van Mudanya werd op 24 juli 1923 opgevolgd door het Verdrag van Lausanne. In dit verdrag werd officieel het einde van de Turkse Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog bezegeld met de erkenning van de Turkse soevereiniteit en de volledige terugtrekking van de geallieerde troepen uit Anatolië. In Turkije wordt dit nog steeds gevierd als een totale overwinning op de geallieerden.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkse_Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog
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