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13 mei

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Mei 2006 6:46    Onderwerp: 13 mei Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Nachtangriff am "Toten Mann" abgeschlagen

Großes Hauptquartier, 13. Mai.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Zwischen Argonnen und Maas fanden an einzelnen Stellen lebhafte Handgranatenkämpfe statt. Versuche des Feindes, in den Wäldern von Avocourt und Malancourt Boden zu gewinnen, wurden vereitelt. Ein feindlicher Nachtangriff südwestlich des "Toten Mannes" erstarb in unserem Infanteriefeuer.
Auf dem östlichen Maasufer erlitten die Franzosen bei einem mißglückten Angriffe am Steinbruch westlich des Ablainwaldes beträchtliche Verluste.
Ein deutscher Kampfflieger schoß über dem Walde von Bourguignon (südwestlich von Laon) einen feindlichen Doppeldecker ab. Südöstlich von Armentières wurde durch unser Abwehrfeuer am 11. Mai ein englisches Flugzeug zum Absturz gebracht und vernichtet.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nördlich des Bahnhofs Selburg wurde ein russischer Angriffsversuch gegen die kürzlich genommenen Gräben durch unser Artilleriefeuer im Keime erstickt. Mehr als 100 Russen wurden gefangengenommen.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Schwere italienische Verluste am Monte San Michele

Wien, 13. Mai.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Am Nordhang des Monte San Michele wiesen unsere Truppen mehrere Angriffe ab. Die Italiener erlitten schwere Verluste.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:
Vergebliche russische Gegenangriffe im Kaukasus

Konstantinopel, 13. Mai.
An der Kaukasusfront unternahm der Feind, nachdem er im Zentrum im Abschnitt von Kope aus seinen Stellungen verjagt worden war, am 29. April, indem er seine am 28. April gescheiterte Offensive erneuerte und verstärkte, in fünfmaligem Ansturm eine Reihe von heftigen Angriffen gegen den Berg Kope und gegen den Berg Bahtli, der nördlich des Kope gelegen ist, um seine verlorenen Stellungen wieder zu erobern. Alle diese Angriffe wurden durch unsere Gegenangriffe zurückgeschlagen. Das wirksame Feuer unserer Artillerie räumte furchtbar in den Reihen der zurückgehenden feindlichen Kolonnen auf. In diesem Kampfe machten wir mehr als 100 Gefangene. Auf den übrigen Abschnitten dieser Front unbedeutende Patrouillengefechte.
Drei feindliche Flugzeuge überflogen gestern die Halbinsel Gallipoli; sie flüchteten nach Tenedos. als die unsrigen erschienen und mit ihnen zusammenzutreffen suchten. Ein feindlicher Kreuzer versuchte in den Hafen von Sighadjik südlich von der Küste von Vourla einzudringen, mußte sich aber nach Samos zurückziehen, nachdem er mit zwei wirkungslosen Schüssen auf unser Feuer geantwortet hatte. Drei unserer Geschosse hatten Volltreffer erzielt.

www.stahlgewiter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Mei 2006 6:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

May 13

1915 Edith Wharton writes of the war’s effect on France

“Since leaving Paris yesterday we have passed through streets and streets of such murdered houses, through town after town spread out in its last writhings,” the celebrated novelist Edith Wharton writes on May 13, 1915, from the town of Nancy, in the Argonnes region of France. “And before the black holes that were homes, along the edge of the chasms that were streets, everywhere we have seen flowers and vegetables springing up in freshly raked and watered gardens.”

Wharton, born in New York City in 1862, settled permanently in France in 1907. Celebrated for her vivid and acutely observed novels of Victorian life, including The House of Mirth (1905) and her later classic The Age of Innocence (1920), Wharton was living in Paris when World War I broke out in the summer of 1914. From the beginning of the war, Wharton devoted herself to the Allied cause, working with the French Red Cross and leading a committee that founded hostels and schools to serve refugees, including many children, from the German-occupied zones of northeastern France and Belgium. She was eventually awarded the French Legion d’honneur (Legion of Honor) for her work.

In 1916, Wharton edited an illustrated literary anthology featuring works by prominent writers and artists including John Galsworthy, Thomas Hardy, W.B. Yeats and John Singer Sargent. She herself traveled to the front lines of the conflict, writing reports for American newspapers urging the United States to enter the war. Her novella The Marne, published in 1918, criticized America's slowness to help France. That same year, Wharton’s wartime observations were collected and published together in the book Fighting France: From Dunkerque to Belport.

Wharton concluded her entry of May 13, 1915, included in Fighting France, with a lyrical description of the town of Nancy at dusk, a peaceful and beautiful scene marred only by the threatening sounds of war in the near distance. “Now, at sunset, all life ceases in Nancy and veil after veil of silence comes down on the deserted Place and its empty perspectives. Last night by nine the few lingering lights in the streets had been put out, every window was blind, and the moonless night lay over the city like a canopy of velvet….The ordered masses of architecture became august, the spaces between them immense, and the black sky faintly strewn with stars seemed to overarch an enchanted city. Not a footstep sounded, not a leaf rustled, not a breath of air drew under the arches. And suddenly, through the dumb night, the sound of the cannon began.”

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 May 1914, Commons Sitting: AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PROGRAMME.

Mr. YERBURGH asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether he has any official information showing that the Austro-Hungarian Government propose to lay down two or more large armoured ships of the "Dreadnought" type to replace the old ships of the "Monarch" class; and, if so, what steps he proposes to take in view of his statement in the House of Commons on 22nd July, 1912, in regard to such further development of naval power in the Mediterranean?

Mr. CHURCHILL No official information as to the number of large armoured ships which the Austro-Hungarian Government propose to lay down can be given until the Naval Estimates have been approved by the Austrian and Hungarian Delegations.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/may/13/austro-hungarian-programme
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 May, 1915: Wilson's First Lusitania Note to Germany

Sent by the President of the United States, Mr. Woodrow Wilson.
United States, Foreign Relations of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1915, Supplement, pp. 393 ff.
The Cunard liner, Lusitania, was sunk by a German submarine on May 7,1915, with a loss of more than 1,100 passengers and crew, including 124 Americans.
The following note was sent by President Wilson under the signature of Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan.


Department of State,
Washington, May 13, 1915

To Ambassador Gerard:

Please call on the Minister of Foreign Affairs and after reading to him this communication leave with him a copy.

In view of recent acts of the German authorities in violation of American rights on the high seas which culminated in the torpedoing and sinking of the British steamship Lusitania on May 7, 1915, by which over 100 American citizens lost their lives, it is clearly wise and desirable that the Government of the United States and the Imperial German Government should come to a clear and full understanding as to the grave situation which has resulted.

The sinking of the British passenger steamer Falaba by a German submarine on March 28, through which Leon C. Thrasher, an American citizen, was drowned; the attack on April 28 on the American vessel Cushing by a German aeroplane; the torpedoing on May 1 of the American vessel Gulflight by a German submarine, as a result of which two or more American citizens met their death and, finally, the torpedoing and sinking of the steamship Lusitania, constitute a series of events which the Government of the United States has observed with growing concern, distress, and amazement.

Recalling the humane and enlightened attitude hitherto assumed by the Imperial German Government in matters of international right, and particularly with regard to the freedom of the seas; having learned to recognize the German views and the German influence in the field of international obligation as always engaged upon the side of justice and humanity; and having understood the instructions of the Imperial German Government to its naval commanders to be upon the same plane of human action prescribed by the naval codes of other nations, the Government of the United States was loath to believe -- it cannot now bring itself to believe -- that these acts, so absolutely contrary to the rules, the practices, and the spirit of modern warfare, could have the countenance or sanction of that great Government. It feels it to be its duty, therefore, to address the Imperial German Government concerning them with the utmost frankness and in the earnest hope that it is not mistaken in expecting action on the part of the Imperial German Government which will correct the unfortunate impressions which have been created and vindicate once more the position of that Government with regard to the sacred freedom of the seas.

The Government of the United States has been apprised that the Imperial German Government considered themselves to be obliged by the extraordinary circumstances of the present war and the measures adopted by their adversaries in seeking to cut Germany off from all commerce, to adopt methods of retaliation which go much beyond the ordinary methods of warfare at sea, in the proclamation of a war zone from which they have warned neutral ships to keep away. This Government has already taken occasion to inform the Imperial German Government that it cannot admit the adoption of such measures or such a warning of danger to operate as in any degree an abbreviation of the rights of American shipmasters or of American citizens bound on lawful errands as passengers on merchant ships of belligerent nationality; and that it must hold the Imperial German Government to a strict accountability for any infringement of those rights, intentional or incidental....

The Government of the United States, therefore, desires to call the attention of the Imperial German Government with the utmost earnestness to the fact that the objection to their present method of attack against the trade of their enemies lies in the practical impossibility of employing submarines in the destruction of commerce without disregarding those rules of fairness, reason, justice, and humanity, which all modern opinion regards as imperative.... The Government and the people of the United States look to the Imperial German Government for just, prompt, and enlightened action in this vital matter with the greater confidence because the United States and Germany are bound together not only for special ties of friendship but also by the explicit stipulations of the treaty of 1828 between the United States and the Kingdom of Prussia.

Expressions of regret and offers of reparation in case of the destruction of neutral ships sunk by mistake, while they may satisfy international obligations, if no loss of life results, cannot justify or excuse a practice, the natural and necessary effect of which is to subject neutral nations and neutral persons to new and immeasurable risks.

The Imperial German Government will not expect the Government of the United States to omit any word or any act necessary to the performance of its sacred duty of maintaining the rights of the United States and its citizens and of safeguarding their free exercise and enjoyment.

BRYAN

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson%27s_First_Lusitania_Note_to_Germany

Wilson notes

Backed by State Department second-in-command Robert Lansing, Wilson made his position clear in three notes to the German government issued on 13 May, 9 June, and 21 July.

The first note affirmed the right of Americans to travel as passengers on merchant ships and called for the Germans to abandon submarine warfare against commercial vessels, whatever flag they sailed under.

In the second note Wilson rejected the German arguments that the British blockade was illegal, and was a cruel and deadly attack on innocent civilians, and their charge that the Lusitania had been carrying munitions. William Jennings Bryan considered Wilson's second note too provocative and resigned in protest after failing to moderate it, to be replaced by Robert Lansing who later said in his memoirs that following the tragedy he always had the "conviction that we would ultimately become the ally of Britain".

The third note, of 21 July, issued an ultimatum, to the effect that the US would regard any subsequent sinkings as "deliberately unfriendly".

While the American public and leadership were not ready for war, the path to an eventual declaration of war had been set as a result of the sinking of the Lusitania. On 19 August U-24 sank the White Star liner SS Arabic, with the loss of 44 passengers and crew, three of whom were American. The German government, while insisting on the legitimacy of its campaign against Allied shipping, disavowed the sinking of the Arabic; it offered an indemnity and pledged to order submarine commanders to abandon unannounced attacks on merchant and passenger vessels.

The British public, press, and government in general were upset at Wilson's actions—not realizing it reflected general US opinion at the moment. They sneered "too proud or too scared". Shells that did not explode at the front were called "Wilsons".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lusitania#Wilson_notes
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Douglas Walter Belcher VC – won 13 May 1915

Lance-Sergeant Douglas Belcher VC aged 25 served in the 1/5th (City of London) Battalion, London Regiment (The London Rifle Brigade).

On 13 May 1915, south of the Wieltje-St. Julien Road, Belgium: “Lance-Sergeant Belcher was in charge of a portion of an advanced breastwork during continuous bombardment by the enemy.

With very few men, Belcher elected to remain and try to hold his position after the troops near him had been withdrawn, and with great skill he succeeded in his objective, opening rapid fire on the enemy, who were only 150-200 yards away, whenever he saw them collecting for an attack.

This bold action prevented the enemy breaking through and averted an attack on the flank of one of our divisions.”

He later acheived the rank of Captain. His medal is displayed at the Royal Green Jackets Museum, Winchester.

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/05/04/douglas-walter-belcher-vc-won-13-may-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grandpa's War

A journal of my research into the experiences of my grandfather Charles Leslie Lionel Payne (1892-1975) as a machine-gunner in the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the Great War

13 May 1915 - Capt Ruddick, Medical Officer
The War Diary notes that on Thursday 13 May, Captain W.W. Ruddick, who had enlisted on 11 November 1914, and had been Medical Officer of the Train since their first months in Winnipeg - he signed the vaccination certifications on many of the soldiers' Medical Forms - also took charge of the Divisional Supply Column at Dibgate. This order was later (17 May) cancelled.

William Wallace Ruddick was a recent graduate as a physician from McGill University in Montreal (June 1914), but was originally from St Martin, New Brunswick, where he had served for two years as an officer with the 28th New Brunswick Dragoons. His father, Robert Carter Ruddick, also practised as a medical doctor in St Martin, St John parish, New Brunswick.

It is interesting to note that although there are images of two Attestation Papers for Ruddick on the LAC Soldiers of the First World War database, neither of these is his original AP. There is one AP filled in and signed at St John, New Brunswick on 26 Feb 1915, which was later rubber-stamped by the Pay & Record Office on 7 May 1915, and another which appears to have been completed in Montreal on 3 Jan 1919, after the end of the war.

The War Diary entry for that day also notes that Ruddick's batman, Private William Fred Fader (#50714 orig. #1659, not #678 as shown in the War Diary), originally with No. 5 Company, was "attached to No. 7 Company for rations, quarters and discipline." Presumably this was because Ruddick himself was now based in the tented camp at Dibgate, while No. 5 Company was still back at West Sandling. Fader was a cook before signing up, and therefore probably well suited to being a batman!

Sources:
1901 Census of Canada, Images from Library & Archives of Canada & Indexed by Automatedgenealogy.com
New Brunswick Vital Statistics from the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick
Canadian Medical News: Medical Colleges - McGill University Canadian Medical Association Journal 1914 July, Vol. 4(7): 644–650
Medical Council Examinations, Canadian Medical Association Journal 1914 November, Vol. 4(11): 978, publ. online by PubMedCentral


http://grandpaswar.blogspot.com/2005/05/13-may-1915-capt-ruddick-medical.html
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 May 1915, Commons Sitting: CORRESPONDENCE FROM HOLLAND.

Mr. FELL asked the Postmaster-General if his attention has been called to the fact that German letters are now being freely delivered in this country, having been addressed to German agents in Holland and by them forwarded in covering envelopes; if correspondence from Holland is examined by the Censor; and, if not, why this condition of affairs is allowed to continue?

The POSTMASTER-GENERAL (Mr. Hobhouse) The delivery of such letters is permitted provided that the contents are harmless. All correspondence from Holland is subject to examination by the British military censors.

Mr. FELL Is it carried through in every case? Are all Dutch letters opened and examined?

Mr. HOBHOUSE They are not censored by the Post Office. That duty falls upon the military censors, and I understand they do so in practically every case.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/may/13/correspondence-from-holland
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Signaller Ellis Silas at Anzac, Gallipoli
Diary of Signaller Ellis Silas – diary extract


13 May - Relieved from trenches. Wash out some underclothing and hunt for ‘grey-backs’ which are now prevalent everywhere. Just as Colonel Pope was coming out of the trenches he commenced to scratch himself – a roar immediately went up from the lads, who exclaimed ‘The Colonel’s got one’. Great excitement – have just been presented with half a loaf of bread – what exactly this means, only those who have been without one can fully appreciate. Some papers at last, and mail from home, among which a copy of London Opinion – an article by Ashley Sterne made me laugh; the first time I have really done so for nearly two months. The letters from home make me think a lot; this terrible life will make me very contented with the ordinary conditions of life. For my part, all I desire is a little studio and the wherewithal for bread and butter.

Our first night with blankets – am delirious again, which must be rather trying for my companions sleeping in the same dug-out with me, but they assure me it doesn’t worry them at all. Very nice fellows, but rough; if only one of them had a greater comprehension of the right and proper place to use the past and present tense.

Eén van de 'leukste' dagboeken op het net... http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/s_diary1915may.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 1915

13 May 1915 - Goliath, British, Canopus class Pre-Dreadnought Battleship
Torpedoed by the Ottoman torpedo boat destroyer Muavanent-i-Miliet. Goliath had been providing gunfire support to the invasion of Gallipoli and was anchored in the Dardanelles along with another old British battleship. The Ottoman ship, under the command of a German officer, by keeping close to the cliffs on the European side of the Dardanelles managed to slip past the patrolling British destroyers Bulldog and Beagle. At about 1.15 am the Ottoman ship was spotted by Goliath and challenged but before Goliath could open fire she was hit by two torpedoes, one hit abreast the forward turret and the other abreast the foremost funnel. Goliath rapidly developed a severe list to port before being hit by a third torpedo near her rear turret. The Ottoman ship escaped into the darkness. Goliath sank with the loss of 570 crew.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk15.htm

13 May 1915, Commons Sitting

BRITISH AND TURKISH LOSSES.


HC Deb 13 May 1915 vol 71 cc1794-5 1794

Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether Lord Fisher, in the course of the consultation regarding the March attack on the Dardanelles, expressed the view that it would be wiser to wait for the co-operation of a military force; and, if so, who overruled such advice?

The FIRST LORD of the ADMIRALTY (Mr. Churchill) Before answering the question on the Paper, I may give the House some information I have received. I regret to say that we have just heard from 1795 the Admiral of the Dardanelles that the battleship "Goliath" was torpedoed last night in a torpedo attack by destroyers when she was protecting the French flank just inside the Straits. There are 20 officers and 160 men saved, which, I fear, means that over 500 lives have been lost. The Admiral has also telegraphed that the submarine E 14, which with so much daring penetrated the Sea of Marmora some time ago, has reported that she has sunk two Turkish gunboats and another large Turkish transport. I thought the House would wish to have that information.

With regard to the hon. Member's question, I am sure this House will not approve of this kind of question, which is calculated to be detrimental to public interests of serious importance. The unity and integrity of the Board of Admiralty ought not in time of war to be impugned by any Member. (...)

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/may/13/british-and-turkish-losses
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Souvenir issued with Southend Sandard on 13 May 1915: Zeppelin Raid

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/5385?CISOBOX=1&REC=9
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OFFICERS KILLED 1915

Lieutenant ELPHINSTONE D'OYLY APLIN - Died of wounds 13th may 1915 - 2nd Battalion
Born 14th June 1892, Upnor Castle, Rochester. Commissioned February 1913. Wounded in action 9th May at Frezenberg Ridge and died at No.3 Casualty Clearing Station, France. Aged 22. Son of Lieut-Colonel Hugh Morgan Alpin (Royal Naval Ordnance Dept.) and Annie, of Devon. Buried at Bailleul Communal Cemetery, Nord.

http://glosters.tripod.com/1915off.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

With the Machine Gunners in France and Palestine

Chapter II — The Companies in the Line — Period from 13th May, 1916, to 18th August, 1916

The sector of trenches taken over by the New Zealand Division extended from the River Lys in the north to a place known as Pear Tree Farm in the south, a very short distance from the Lille-Armentières railway; the length of the line was about four miles. The sector was divided into two subsectors—the Houplines on the north and the L'Epinette on the south. The 1st Company relieved the 51st (British) Machine Gun Company in L'Epinette subsector on the 13th May, and the 2nd Company relieved the 52nd Company on the 14th May. The 1st Company suffered casualties on the first day in the line—Private R. J. Autey was killed, and Sergt. W. J. Bartlett wounded by rifle fire. The 3rd Company moved into Armentières with the 3rd (Rifle) Brigade, as part of the Divisional Reserve.

The sector had been occupied by British forces since the tide of the German invasion had been stemmed in 1914. Although a great deal of work had been continuously carried out in the improvement of the trenches, the winter that had just passed had left them in a state that called for urgent attention. The gunners rejoiced that they were exempt from duty in the large working parties that nightly went forward to dig revet and lay down the indispensable duck-walks.

The services of the engineers were given to improve the machine gun emplacements, and to build new ones in concrete

Before a month had passed, the whole sector was satisfactorily cleaned up and renovated, and both infantrymen and machine gunners m the fine were able to live in comparative comfort.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Mach-t1-body-d1-d2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 18:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Fátima

Met Onze Lieve Vrouw van Fátima wordt Maria aangeduid die tussen mei en oktober 1917 zes keer verschenen zou zijn aan de drie herderskinderen (Zuster) Lucia, Franceso en Jacintha nabij het Portugese stadje Fátima.

Verschijning aan de herderskinderen - De verschijningen van Maria werden vooraf gegaan door drie bezoeken van een engel. Op 13 mei 1917 zou Maria voor de eerste keer aan de kinderen verschenen zijn en beloofd hebben elke maand opnieuw op de dertiende te zullen verschijnen. Ze riep de kinderen op om boete te doen en offers te brengen met het doel lijdende zielen uit het vagevuur te helpen en te bidden voor de bekering van zondaars, opdat zij niet naar de hel zouden gaan. De kinderen snoerden zichzelf daarop in met stevige koorden en zagen af van eten en drinken op bijzonder warme dagen. Ook droeg Maria hen op iedere dag de Rozenkrans te bidden omdat dat zou leiden tot innerlijke en algehele vrede.

Zaligverklaring - Twee van de drie herderskinderen, de broer en zus Francisco Marto (1908-1919) en Jacinta Marto (1910 – 1920), werden het slachtoffer van de Spaanse griep. Paus Johannes Paulus II verklaarde hen in 2000 zalig. Het derde herderskind, hun nichtje Lucia dos Santos (1907-2005), trad in 1925 in in een Spaans Karmelietessenklooster. Zij schreef zelf haar herinneringen aan de verschijningen op. Lucia stierf op 13 februari 2005.

Getuigenverslagen van de verschijningen

De engel - In het voorjaar van 1916 (volgens de overlevering) verscheen een engel aan drie herdertjes: Lucia, haar neefje Françesco en zijn zusje Jacinta. De engel had het uiterlijk van een jongen van 14-15 jaar badend in stralend licht. Hij zei de kinderen dat zij niet bevreesd moesten zijn: 'Wees maar niet bang! Ik ben de Engel van de Vrede! Bid met mij mee'. Er volgde een tweede verschijning van de engel een paar maanden later in de zomer van 1916. Weer baden ze samen en hij vroeg de kinderen offers te brengen. Bij de derde verschijning in het najaar had de engel een kelk bij zich waarboven een hostie zweefde; enkele druppels Bloed vielen in de kelk. Zij leerden een nieuw gebed en hij gaf de hostie aan Lucia en liet Françesco en Jacinta uit de kelk drinken. Hij zei daarbij het volgende: 'Neem en drink van het Lichaam en Bloed van Jezus Christus, verontwaardigd door ondankbare mensen. Geef eerherstel aan God voor hun misdaden, en vraag om verzoening met God.'

Hij knielde en herhaalde met de kinderen nog driemaal: 'Allerheiligste Drieëenheid, Vader, Zoon en Heilige Geest, ik offer U op het kostbaar Lichaam en Bloed, Ziel en Godheid van Jezus Christus onze Heer, vertegenwoordigd in alle heilige tabernakels van de wereld, tot eerherstel van alle beledigingen, heiligschennissen en onverschilligheden waardoor Hij beledigd wordt. Door de oneindige verdiensten van het Heilig Hart van Jezus en het Onbevlekte Hart van Maria, bid ik om de bekering van onze zondaars.'
Daarna verdween de engel.

Eerste verschijning van Maria - Dan, in de lente van het jaar daarop, op 13 mei 1917, zou in Fátima, Portugal, een hemelse vrouw aan deze drie herderskinderen verschenen zijn. Na de heilige mis waren de kinderen met hun kleine kudde een heuvel opgeklauterd aan de Cova da Iria, de vallei van Irene geheten. Tegen de middag scheen er onweer aan te komen waarop ze de dieren bijeendreven en de heuvel afdaalden. Ze zagen een bliksemschicht en vervolgens in een fel licht een vrouw, geheel in het wit, boven een jonge eik. Ze stond met de voeten op een wolk op de kruin van het eikenboompje, omstraald door een aureool van licht. Eerst wilden de kinderen vluchten, maar toen zei de vrouw: ‘Wees niet bang. Ik doe je geen kwaad.’
Lucia vroeg haar: ‘Waar komt u vandaan, mevrouw?’
Zij antwoordde; ‘Ik kom uit de Hemel.’
‘En wat komt u doen?’ vroeg Lucia weer.
‘Ik zal elke maand op de 13e terugkomen. In oktober zal ik zeggen wie ik ben en wat ik verlang.’
De vrouw vroeg hun of ze de komende zes maanden, elke keer op de dertiende daar aanwezig wilden zijn, op dezelfde tijd.
Vervolgens vroeg de vrouw of de kinderen wilden offeren aan God en of ze bereid waren om te lijden: ‘Wil je pijn verduren voor de bekering van de zondaars om goed te maken wat Onze-Lieve-Heer en het onbevlekt Hart van Maria allemaal wordt aangedaan?’
De kinderen zeiden dat ze daartoe bereid waren.
‘Dan zul je nog heel wat pijn te doorstaan hebben,’ zegt de Verschijning. ‘Maar de genade Gods zal jullie bijstaan.’
Bij het afscheid zei ze: ‘Bid elke dag een rozenhoedje voor het herstel van de wereldvrede (1917 was gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog) en de bekering van de zondaars.’

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onze-Lieve-Vrouw_van_F%C3%A1tima
Zie ook http://www.crystalinks.com/fatima.html
Zie ook http://www.theotokos.org.uk/pages/approved/appariti/fatima.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 18:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stoßtruppen (Stormtroopers) from Landsturm Infanterie Regiment Nr. 13, May 1917

Mooie foto... http://www.flickr.com/photos/29007475@N08/3991539198/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 18:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Pursuit Group History –1917

Comprised of 17th, 27th, 94th, 95th, 103rd, 147th, and 183rd Aero Squadrons

13 May 1917 - 17th Aero Squadron organized at Kelly Field, Texas, as Company "M" 3rd Provisional Aero Squadron, Signal Corps, under command of Major Geoffrey Bonnell, and was composed of volunteers from the southeast and southwest sections of the United States.

http://www.1stfighter.org/history/1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The War in the Mountains

Notes on Kipling's visit to the Italian battle-front in 1917, during the Great War and the articles he wrote

(...) The next day (11 May 1917) was devoted to a tour of the Front in the Isonzo gorge, where the Xth Battle of the Isonzo was due to start the following day. They travelled north from Monte Sabotino, along the Kolovrat to a point overlooking Tolmino before heading back to Udine; a journey described in the first part of A Pass, a King, and a Mountain. The last part of this article covered the following day's experiences as they drove from Udine to Cortina.

On 13 May 1917, they were taken to the part of the Dolomite Front at the Passo di Falzarego, about 14km west of Cortina. This resulted in one of Kipling's best articles Only a Few Steps Higher Up. The final article, The Trentino Front is based on material gathered on the way from Cortina to the main railway (probably at Vicenza or Verona). In it, Kipling describes vividly a drive across the Altipiano dei Sette Communi (where British troops were to be in action later in the year) to a fortress (probably the Granatiera del Cengio) which looked across to Monte Cimone and also gave a panoramic view of the Venetian Plain to the south. This was Kipling's last view of the Italian Front before he headed to the railhead at Vicenza or Verona and the journey back to Paris and London. This final article concludes with some philosophical paragraphs about the hopes for the Italy of the future.

http://www.kipling.org.uk/rg_mountains_intro.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 May 1918, Commons Sitting: AGREEMENTS DURING WAR.

Mr. KING asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he will enumerate the agreements, treaties, or undertakings affecting Central Africa into which His Majesty's Government have entered since the outbreak of war?

Mr. BALFOUR On 19th September, 1914, His Majesty's Government and the French Government assured the Belgian Government that they would support Belgium in every way in securing the integrity of her colonial possessions.

On 3rd February, 1915, an agreement was arrived at between Great Britain and Belgium relating to the Congo-Uganda Boundary from Mount Salimio to the Congo Nile watershed.

On 29th April, 1916, His Majesty's Minister at Havre addressed to the Belgian Government a note to the effect that His Majesty's Government adhered to the declaration made by the French Government to the Belgian Government on that day, pledging their support in the negotiations for peace for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the Belgian Congo, and to obtain for that colony a special indemnity to cover the damage suffered during the War.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/may/13/agreements-during-war
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Clayton M. Sherwood: Diary of Foreign Service

May 13. [Monday] - M bat[tery] fired in P.M. on German concrete emplacement of small callibers. Several airplanes protecting.

http://webspace.webring.com/people/pj/jcsherwood1950/neville/WarDiaryMay18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 19:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Casualty Lists - May 13, 1918

Gen. Pershing Reports 38 Missing in Action, The Largest Total Listed on Any Single Day
Washington, May 13. - The War Department today made public a list of 96 casualties in the American army abroad, bringing the total from the beginning to 5,489. The list contains the names of 38 missing in action, making the net total missing in action 124 men. This is the largest number of missing given out in one day, and is interpreted as meaning that the department is feeding into the daily casualty list the names of men whom the Germans profess to have taken prisoner in the recent battle at Seicheprey.

The department also announced today that Captain R. M. Deming of Balston Spa, N.Y., previously reported as missing, was now reported as a prisoner. The names of three other commissioned officers appear in the list. Lieutenant Guy Raymond Forbes of Minneapolis died of disease. Lieutenant Walter T. O'Donohue of Hartford was wounded slightly. Lieutenant Joseph P. Burke of Pittston, Penn., is missing in action.

Lees verder op http://www.distantcousin.com/military/wwi/nytcasualties/1918/may/13.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Royal Air Force History

13 May 1918- The Independent Force, RAF was formed under the control of Major-General Trenchard. Created with the aim of the strategic bombing of Germany, this was the first time an Air Force had been created anywhere in the world with the intention of conducting air war without reference or subordination to Army or Navy command.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/history_old/line1780.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

With the colors from Aurora, Illinois, U.S.A., 1917, 1918, 1919 (1919)

WALTER D. THIELEN (3) - Bugler, Co. M, 47th Inf.; son of Mr. and Mrs. J. P.
Thielen; horn May 13, 1897; enlisted May 2, 1918: overseas Aug. 11, 1918; engaged in St. Mihiel Sector and Meuse-Argonne Offensive; discharged Aug. 5, 1919.

HARRY SHERMAN CASE (8) - Corp., 31st Co., 4th Regt.. U. S. Marines: son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Case; born July 28, 1893: enlisted Oct. 24, 1914; served as Guard of Honor at P. P. I. E. in San Francisco, Calif, in 1915: overseas Nov., 1915: participated in 6 battles: wounded May 13, 1918; discharged Oct. 23, 1918.

http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/j-w-greenaway/with-the-colors-from-aurora-illinois-usa-1917-1918-1919-eer/page-18-with-the-colors-from-aurora-illinois-usa-1917-1918-1919-eer.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 May 1919, Commons Sitting: WAR MEMORIALS.

Rear-Admiral ADAIR asked the Secretary of State for War whether he will consider the advisability of providing gunmetal or other suitable material derived from guns or other munitions captured from the enemy for the purposes of county or city war memorials; and, if so, whether he will make an announcement on the subject?

The SECRETARY Of STATE for WAR (Mr. Churchill) I am informed that all captured guns are likely to be required for disposal as trophies of war. Should any such guns or other stores be found not suitable for use as trophies, the possibility of utilising them for the purpose suggested by my hon. and gallant Friend will be considered.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/may/13/war-memorials
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A 'Pathetic Sideshow' - Australians and the Russian Intervention, 1918-1919

The poor quality of the source material has made it difficult to write a full account of the part played by Australians in the unsuccessful allied intervention in Russia after the revolution of 1917. A further reason for historians' neglect of the incident is that because the men served in British, no Australian, units their involvement in such a dubious enterprise raised no real moral dilemma back home in Australia.

The allied intervention in Russia between 1917 and 1920 has spawned a sizeable body of literature, but the material tends to be of varying quality and to leave some areas relatively unexplored. Academic historians, in particular, have tended to concentrate on the higher levels of political and strategic decision-making and diplomacy.

Although the fact of Australian involvement in the intervention forces is relatively widely known, little of substance has been written about it. (1). There is no mention of these activities in the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, and although several of those involved went on to become journalists in later life, none produced memoirs of books about their experiences. Australia evinced little interest at the time, and little interest has been expressed subsequently. On the surface, this is surprising. Australians have considerable interest in their military past, as the healthy state of popular military history in this country demonstrates. Although C.E.W. Bean was unable to include the episode in his official history, one might have expected that more recent historians would have subjected Australian participation in the intervention forces to closer critical scrutiny. This has not been the case.

Part of the explanation lies in the nature of the source material. Because the Australians involved fought as part of imperial, rather than Australian, units the relevant war diaries and other written records are held in Britain, and generally speaking copies have not been made for retention in Australian. In any case, these records often do not discriminate between Australian members of a unit and their British, South African, Canadian or New Zealand comrades. It is therefore very difficult to write about specifically Australian activities, because the material does not help in identifying them. Some other material that was held in Australia was destroyed in the 1920s and 1930s, presumably because it was thought to be neither of historical interest nor contemporary usefulness. (2). Finally, the relatively very small number of men involved and the considerable distance in time from the event mean that the gap in the documentary evidence is unlikely to be made up by recourse to the participants themselves because the vast majority of them are dead, and the survivors, understandably, are uncertain in their recollections. Although a certain amount can be reconstructed from the available evidence, the above reasons explain why Australian historians and other writers have generally had little to say on the subject.

The role of allied soldiers in the intervention was varied, and allied advisers were to be found all over Russia. This was true even of the small Australian contingent. An Australian naval vessel, HMAS Swan, had conducted a reconnaissance in the territory of the Don Cossacks in December 1918 on behalf of the British military mission then advising the White general, Anton Denikin (3). There were several Australians acting as advisers with this mission, one of who commanded a company of the 7th Battalion, the Royal Berkshire Regiment. Forty-eight officers and NCO's were attached to Dunsterforce during 1918 and 1919 and fought in Mesopotamia in an attempt to keep the Turks and the Bolsheviks out of Persia and Transcaucasia by rearming and leading those elements of the old Russian imperial army still prepared to fight. (4). A number of Australians also served as advisers with the British Military Mission to Admiral AV Kolchak in Siberia. By far the greatest number, however served in north Russia in 1918-19, first as advisers and later as part of a relieve force sent in to extricate the earlier party.

The initial allied involvement in north Russia was a reaction to the withdrawal of Russia from the war following the Bolshevik seizure of power din October 1917. The cessation of fighting in the west would not only allow the Germans to transfer large numbers of troops to the western front, but the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also permitted German occupation of large areas of European Russia. Within these territories were large stocks of military equipment, much of it supplied by the allies. In particular, there were large stocks of such supplies in the northern ports of Murmansk and Archangel (now Arkhangel'sk), and the allies were concerned that these should not fall into German hands.

The first Australians to see service in north Russia were part of a military mission of 560 men, made up of experienced officers and NCOs drawn from both the imperial and dominion armies at that time fighting in France. Their job was to train a Russian force in the area as the first step in the formation of a new eastern front. The Australian group of six sergeants and three officers had been chosen from between twenty-five and thirty men selected by Australian Imperial Force (AIF) headquarters in April 1918 in response to a British request for experienced soldiers to take part in a secret mission. All had seen considerable service in France, with three being veterans of the Gallipoli campaign.

The force was divided into two, Syren, which was bound for Murmansk, and Elope, which was to land at Archangel. Murmansk was reached on 24 June, and Elope Force then sailed on to Archangel after a stop of some five weeks' duration. The advisers did not serve together as a composite unit and the Australians, like to rest, were split up and assigned to a variety of tasks over a wide area. As one member of the force later recalled, 'By virtue of this we saw very little of each other and had little or no knowledge of the whereabouts or doings of our Aussie mates'. (5) For this reason it is difficult to make general statements about the activities of this small party of Australians. Captain P.F. Lohan served in a variety of administrative positions both in Murmansk and Archangel regions. Sergeant R.L. Graham was commissioned in the field and became railway transport officer on the Archangel-Vologda railway, while several of the other sergeants were involved in the training of various White Russian and White Finnish units. Captain Allan Brown was attached to the North Russian Rifles based at Onega, and like a number of other advisers during the intervention was murdered by his men when they mutinied on 20 July 1919 and went over to the Bolsheviks. (6) Two things are clear. Like advisers in subsequent revolutionary civil wars, the men of Syren and Elope Forces were in danger not only from the enemy, which they expected, but also from the men they commanded or advised. While Brown was the only Australian in the force to be killed, there was at least one other major mutiny among the White forces in the same month and several other Australians in the force had narrow escapes from bands of mutineers. The commander of forces in north Russia, Major General (later Field Marshal Lord) Edmund Ironside, wrote many years after that the mutinies 'had caused me a greater shock than I like to admit even in my innermost thoughts. I now felt a distinct urge to extricate myself and my troops as quickly as I could' (7). The second point is that the tiny force was entirely ineffectual. The tremendous conflict of revolution and civil war was far too complex to be resolved by a handful of allied soldiers who spoke little or no Russian and who did not understand the background of the events in which they found themselves involved. One British officer, in a dispatch to the War Office at this time, wrote that

'to destroy the Bolsheviks an army of 300,00 men is necessary, and no reliance can be placed on any Russian National Army which may be raised…until the presence of a disciplined foreign army in Russia has set them an example of authority and order.(8)

In such circumstances, how could the men of Syren and Elope be expected to affect the outcome?

Although it was felt that service in north Russia was not arduous after the experience of Gallipoli and France, the Australians at least did not look back on their service very favourably. Some felt that they had no place being involved in a civil war and that, after the defeat of Germany, they should have been withdrawn at once. After all, these men were not volunteers. One member, upon later reflection described their participation as

Another of the many pathetic sideshows of the Great War. It achieved nothing, cost the British taxpayer 15,000,000 (pounds 1919 value), but [the] most tragic thing of all was the number of splendid men who lost their lives in the venture, men who, after having passed through the dangers of France, Gallipoli, and other theatres of the war deserved a better fate. (9)

Instead of being withdrawn, the men were condemned to the rigours of the Russian winter. The fact of their being iced in caused some consternation in the British press and several instances of soldiers from the French and American battalions and the Royal Marines refusing duty caused concern to the British government. It was increasingly clear to the Cabinet that further effort was not going to bring about the desired result and Mr. Winston Churchill, the minister with most enthusiasm of intervention, was no longer able to carry his colleagues with him. On 4 March 1919 the decision was made to withdraw. To ensure the orderly and safe evacuation of the forces already committed, it was decided to form a relief force whose sole purpose would be to safeguard the evacuation (10).

Recruiting began almost at once. The force was to consist of two brigades and was to be specially raised for brief service in Russia. It was dubbed the North Russian Relief Force, and attracted officers and men of the British army from every regiment and corps. Efforts were also made to enlist the men of the dominions, who enjoyed a uniformly high reputation for their exploits in France. The Australians destined to join the force were recruited Major Harry Harcourt, a Royal Dublin Fusilier who had had extensive contact with the men of the AIF during the war, and Warrant Officer Charles Oliver, late of the 21st Battalion AIF and a former physical training instructor at the Royal Military College, Duntroon. Some 400-500 Australians may have indicated a willingness to join, but nothing like this number actually enlisted. (11)

All Australians who volunteered were to be discharged from the AIF and were to re-enlist in the British army as private soldiers for one year. This was necessary because the dominion prime ministers had already indicated that they were not interested in providing forces for the intervention, and indeed opposed it altogether. The AIF authorities relinquished control over the men and responsibility for them while they were part of the relief force, but undertook to repatriate them to Australia after they returned to Britain from Russia. Some Australian officers undoubtedly changed their minds when they found that they would have to enlist a private soldiers and would not be able to keep their rank, and it is probable that quite a number of men, having joined on impulse, exercised the right to reconsider. Among the reasons for withdrawing were the prospect of harsh conditions in Russia, the requirement to join the British army, and the overriding allure of returning home to Australia. This ambivalent attitude was noted by General Sir William Birdwood in a letter to the Governor-General, Sir Ronald Munro-Ferguson, when he wrote that he was

'almost inundated by applications or recommendations to send some of our troops to Russia. It really seems astounding that apparently such large numbers of our men should be keen on this, while presumably the same men are ready to make a tremendous fuss if not returned to their homes without delay' (12)

The 100-120 Australians who finally enlisted had several reasons for doing so. Some had arrived as reinforcements in Britain too late to see any fighting, and wanted to experience active service before returning to Australia. Others were decorated veterans of the campaigns on Gallipoli and the western front, and some at least were motivated by a desire to see Russia, confident that any fighting would be far less arduous than that which they had already experienced (13). Some of this group undoubtedly did not feel able to 'settle down' after their war experience, and may well have seen service in the relief force as a means of further postponing the return to civilian life which many viewed with apprehension. Interestingly, there appears to have been no overt political motivation among those who volunteered.

The majority of the Australians served in the 45th Battalion (Service) Royal Fusiliers, and the 201st Special Battalion, Machine Gun Corps. The force arrived in Archangel in early June and almost immediately moved up the Dvina River to a camp at Osinova. This was to be the base for the force for the rest of the short campaign. The months of June and July were taken up with training exercises, which were often conducted with White Russian forces, and small-scale patrol and ambush op0erations around Troitska to the south. These operations were intended both to keep the Bolshevik forces off balance and at a distance, and to instil in the White forces a willingness to come to grips with the enemy again the day, rapidly approaching, when the allied forces would withdraw. (14). Members of the force were also used to suppress the July mutinies among the White troops.

On 26th July the British government dispatched Lord Rawlinson to Archangel to oversee the conduct of the evacuation. Before he arrived, Ironside launched a large-scale offensive on both sides of the river. It was designed to deal the Red forces in the region a heavy blow in order to prevent them from interfering with the withdrawal of allied troops, and it was hoped that such a blow would strengthen the regime in Archangel. It was overall a very successful operation, with the 6th Red Army suffering many casualties and losing large numbers of prisoners and much equipment. After its successful conclusion, small-scale patrol activity continued in order to screen the removal of stores and equipment downriver to Archangel, and by the night of 26-27 September the relief force had been successfully withdrawn from the city. Murmansk was evacuated on 12 October, after which the flotilla of troopships and escorts sailed for Britain.

The August offensive had been very successful, but had probably also been unnecessary. The Red forces in the region numbered only about 6000 men and were engaged in little more than holding operations, although they were quick to try and exploit openings such as those offered by the July mutinies. Indeed the very success of the August attack may have resulted from the fact that the Reds had no intention of interrupting the allied evacuation, and were caught unprepared by the sudden, vigorous and unwarranted offensive action. The main Red Army activity in early August was on the Siberian front, where Kolchak's White armies were falling back in disarray. This serves to emphasize even further the pointlessness of allied intervention in north Russia. The area was a peripheral theatre of operation during the Russian civil war - a side-show within a side-show from the British point of view. The decisive theatres were elsewhere, and in these the fighting was being done by the Russians themselves. Only in north Russia did interventionist forces have the potential to be decisive, but they could decisively have influenced the outcome even of this secondary theatre of war only if they had been present in much larger numbers. Since all participating governments lacked enthusiasm for the small commitment actually made, a large commitment was never likely.

The reaction in Australia to these events, and to the involvement of Australians, was muted. The newspapers carried many stories about the fighting in Russia, but most of these were reprints of articles in the British press, and rarely mentioned Australians. The raising of the relief force had caused some comment, however. The journal of the Returned Sailors' and Soldiers' Imperial League, The Soldier, had wondered how Australian soldiers would like working under British officers (15). Several of the papers produced by the labour movement carried critical editorials, generally on the theme that Australian soldiers should have no part in putting down a popular revolution (16). Apart from reports of the men's return to Australia and the award of two Victoria Crosses to them, the mainstream press paid the contingent little attention. The one exception to this was a trenchantly argued editorial in the Melbourne Truth on 24 May. Like the labour press, this newspaper argued that Australians should not be part of an attempt to suppress a popular revolution and set up a military dictator ship. The paper stated that the Australian uniform 'has not yet been stained by anything of which an Australian need be ashamed', and called for the removal of Australians from the force (17).

An attempt was made to raise the question in the federal parliament on 8 August during question time. The Acting Prime Minister, William Watt, dealt with it in a generally uninformative way. 'I do not know' he admitted, 'whether it is a fact that Australian soldiers are taking part in the occupation of Russia, nor do I know the circumstances under which any Australian soldiers who may be in Russia were enlisted (18).

Another attempt to raise the matter on 21 August was similarly dealt with and the issue did not trouble the parliament again.

The lack of interest in Australia should come as no surprise. In the aftermath of the Great War and the bitterness engendered by the conscription debates of 1916 and 1917, attention had focused upon the devastating influenza epidemic and the peace conference at Versailles. In the second half of 1919 the labour press, which might otherwise have seized upon the issue of intervention, was distracted by the forthcoming election and concentrated its energies on a campaign against its bitter foe, Prime Minister Billy Hughes. In any case, there were no foreign policy considerations involved, because the Australians taking part were fighting as members of the British army. It was therefore a simple matter to overlook their involvement.

The dominion prime ministers had earlier made it clear that they were not interested in providing forces for quixotic imperial adventures in north Russia. In Britain there had been left-wing disturbances in the army, as weary conscripts demanded rapid demobilization, and there had been unrest among the conscript troops already in Archangel. The British population in general was profoundly war-weary. In order to raise the relief force it was natural that the British government should have sought to enlist colonials and others whose involvement in Russia would not arouse much comment in Britain. As a result, there were clearly identifiable groups of Australians, Canadians, South Africans and New Zealanders in the British battalions of the North Russian Relief Force. For the involved it was an interesting, even an exciting, interlude before they returned home. But their presence was unable to alter the fact that external intervention in the Russian civil war could not affect the outcome, and their activities in north Russia condemned to death the White Russians who had placed faith in them.

Jeffrey Grey

Endnotes
1.The two major studies on the subject are:
Peter Burness, 'The Australians in North Russia 1919' Sabretache: Journal of the Australian Military Historical Society, vol. XXII, no. 4, August 1976; 'The Forgotten War in North Russia', Defence Force Journal, 22, May-June 1980.
2.The report and associated papers of Captain Ernest William Latchford, formerly of the 38th Battalion, AIF, and the British Military Mission, Siberia. The destruction of this material is recorded at the Australian Archives, Brighton, Victoria.
3.Jeffrey Grey, 'HMAS Swan in Russia', Sabretache, vol. XXV, no. 2, April-June 1984
4.CEW Bean, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1919, vol. V, The AIF in France 1918, Sydney 1937, pp. 703-57; CH Ellis, The Trans-Caspian Episode, London, 1963.
5.Mr JRC Kelly, letter to the author, 28 May 1979.
6.Mutiny Slavo-British Legion, North Russia 1919-21, WO 149/7604, Public Record Office (PRO), London.
7.Lord Ironside, Archangel, 1918-19, London, 1953, p. 160
8.Lavergne to War Office, 14 October 1918, WO 149/8378, PRO.
9.Mr JRC Kelly, unpublished manuscript lent to the author. The problems faced by advisers in Russia are well described in LT Morris, 'Disillusioned Friends: British Officers in South Russia, 1919-20', British Army Quarterly, April 1983.
10.RH Ullman, Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917-1921, vol. 2, Britain and the Russian Civil War, November 1918- February 1920, Princeton, 1968, pp.133-5.
11.Harcourt claimed many years later that this number had been recruited, but his claim cannot be substantiated. See his letter to the editor, Army, 21 November 1968.
12.Birdwood to Munro-Ferguson, 13 May 1919, Novar papers, 3DRL 2574, Australian War Memorial.
13.Mr. Norman Brooke, conversation with the author, 20 March 1979.
14.The day-to-day activities of the relief force can be followed in the unit war diaries. The war diaries for the 45th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, and the 201st Battalion Machine Gun Corps, can be found at WO 95/5430, PRO.
15.The Soldier: Official Organ of the Returned Sailors' and Soldiers' Imperial League of Australia, 6 June 1919, p.4.
16.Australian Worker, 3 July 1919, p.15; The Worker, Brisbane, 10 July 1919, p.11.
17.Truth, 24 May 1919, p.4
18.Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 7th Parliament, 2nd session, vol. LXXXIX, p.11438.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2010 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Greek Invasion of Turkey 1919

Greek intelligence indicated that the Turkish forces in the İzmir garrison were about 3000 men, actually there were 3400 men consisting of four infantry battalions and one artillery company with a few guns. However, of the 3400 men, only 200 soldiers were active. The army corps commander was also in İzmir. Thus, the Greeks faced nil opposition.

A lot of Allied warships had already massed at İzmir by May 13, 1919. Everybody along the piers were curious about them. This number of warships in the waters no doubt curbed any ideas the Turks had about resisting. After all, many Turks lived in Izmir. But the civilians peering out at the many warships were still unaware what was going to happen.

The first of 13,000 Greek troops, 4000 animals and 75 artillery guns now descended, without incident in Izmir and its environs. The Rum people and others were ecstatic with the sight of Greek soldiers reclaiming what was thought was theirs all along. Part of the “Great Idea”. The quays and town was decorated and lined with Greek flags. Large crowds cheered and troops marched down the streets. For most, it was a euphoric scene and experience filled with pride. The locals were not surprized for on the previous day Greek leaders there had posted proclamations announcing the coming event. However, not all were happy. The Turks were not of course, and since no instructions had arrived from the War Ministry, many local Turk leaders chosed to resist defiantly. In the Turkish areas of Izmir, men ran up and down the steets calling for recuits to resist the occupation, some fires were set, groups gathered to plan and speeches were condemning the arrival of Greek troops on Turkish soil. Lacking weapons, the Izmir Reserve Officers Group led hundreds of angry Turks to the local police armory and busted down the doors, seizing the weapons and ammunition.

Lees verder op http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Greek-Invasion-of-Turkey-1919
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THE EDINBURGH GAZETTE, MAY 13, 1919

Lord Chamberlain's Office,
St. James's Palace, S.W.,
9th May 1919.
The KING has been pleased to appoint Herbert French, Esquire, M.A., M.D., to be Physician to His Majesty's Household, in the room of Sir Robert William Burnet, K.C.V.O., M.D., resigned.

Marlborough House, S.W. 1,
- 9th May 1919.
Queen Alexandra has been pleased to appoint the Hon. Lucia White to be a Maid of Honour to Her Majesty.

Buckingham Palace.
8fh May 1919.
This day had audience of The KING:—
Senor Doctor Don Isaac Alzamora, to present his Letters of Credence as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from the Republic of Peru.

http://www.edinburgh-gazette.co.uk/issues/13443/pages/1643/page.pdf
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V. I. Lenin - To the Indian Revolutionary Association*

Delivered: 13 May, 1920

I am glad to hear that the principles of self-determination and the liberation of oppressed nations from exploitation by foreign and native capitalists, proclaimed by the Workers’ and Peasants’ Republic, have met with such a ready response among progressive Indians, who are waging a heroic fight for freedom. The working masses of Russia are following with unflagging attention the awakening of the Indian workers and peasants. The organisation and discipline of the working people and their perseverance and solidarity with the working people of the world are an earnest of ultimate success. We welcome the close alliance of Moslem and non-Moslem elements. We sincerely want to see this alliance extended to all the toilers of the East. Only when the Indian, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Persian, and Turkish workers and peasants join hands and march together in the common cause of liberation—only then will decisive victory over the exploiters be ensured. Long live a free Asia!

* Lenin’s message of greetings “To the Indian Revolutionary Association” was broadcasted on May 10, 1920, in reply to the resolution of the Assembly of Indian Revolutionaries held in Kabul on February 17, 1920. The Assembly’s resolution, which was addressed to Lenin, read as follows: “The Indian revolutionaries express their deep gratitude and their admiration of the great struggle carried on by Soviet Russia for the liberation of all oppressed classes and peoples, and especially for the liberation of India. Great thanks to Soviet Russia for her having heard the cries of agony from the 315,000,000 people suffering under the yoke of imperialism. The mass meeting accepts with joy the hand of friendship and help extended to oppressed India” (Pravda No. 108, May 20, 1920).

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1920/may/13b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Mei 2010 0:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

13 mei 1917 - De Baarlese vluchtelingengemeenschap groeide weer aan. Julia Catharina Kaethoven beviel op het Oosteneinde van een dochtertje, Blan­che Henriëtte. Vader Oscar Leopold Van Holle­beke, voor de oorlog tolbeambte in Weelde, werd in het bevol­kingsregister ingeschreven als: “...verblijvende tijdelijk al hier.” (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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VIER BRITSE OORLOGSGRAVEN - Rooms-katholieke begraafplaats St. Petrus Banden, Den Haag

Drie van de zesenzestig Engelse militairen die in Den Haag geïnterneerd waren zijn aan een dodelijke ziekte bezweken en hebben op de rooms-katholieke begraafplaats St.-Petrus Banden hun laatste rustplaats gekregen. De graven hebben eenvoudige, staande zerken van hardsteen en banden van bianco del mare. Begraven zijn daar:
Thomas Dolan, oud 36 jaar, sergeant 2nd Battalion of the Royal Scotts, overleden op 13 mei 1918.
George Patrick Diprose, oud 33 jaar, sergeant 2nd Battalion of the Suffolk Regiment, overleden op 29 september 1918.
William Owen Roberts, oud 37 jaar, sergeant 1st Battalion of the Royal Welsh Fuseliers, overleden 15 november 1918.
Behalve deze drie militairen ligt hier ook begraven: Pauline, Catherine French – Jongmans, oud 20 jaar, overleden op 7 december 1918. Zij was gehuwd met sergeant French, Suffolk Regiment die was verbonden aan de Engelse ambassade.
Alle vier de graven staan onder beheer van de Britse Oorlogsgravenstichting.

http://www.eerstewereldoorlog.nu/agenda/vier-britse-oorlogsgraven/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Monument Captain Bowlby in de Wulvestraat Ieper

Op het voetstuk onder dit eenvoudige witte kruis lezen we dat het gedenkteken opgetrokken werd in herinnering aan Geoffrey Vaux Salvin Bowlby die kapitein was bij de Royal Horse Guards. Hij werd in deze omgeving gedood op 13 mei 1915 toen hij een tegenaanval tegen de Duitsers leidde.

http://www.digilife.be/teleducatie/vbssj/omd98/omd26.htm
Ook hier: http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/779
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul van Ostaijen: "VALAVOND"

Nu is van Kalifornies goud de tijd;
De sterrevende zon vergaart
Haar krachten voor een verre vaart,
De laatste van die dag, ter aardewaart.

Daar heeft de zon een laatste maal
Haar stervensweeë gouden praal
Verzameld in een glazen tremportaal.


13 mei 1915

Uit "Diverse Verzen"

http://users.telenet.be/gaston.d.haese/ostaijen.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Koninklijke bezoek aan de Valerieusstraat in het kader van de Winkelweek, 8-13 mei 1916

Koninging Wilhelmina verlaat de kruidenierszaak van Louis Retèl op nr. 96. Aan de gevel 'koloniale waren en comestibles'.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/53966913@N07/5268785534/in/photostream
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lothar-Siegfried Freiherr von Richthofen

(...) Maar het geluk bleef niet voortduren. Lothar werd op 13 mei 1917 zwaar gewond door luchtafweer na het neerhalen van een RAF B.E.2e. (...)

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Lothar_von_Richthofen
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Adrienne Bolland, rebelse meid en aviatrice

De eerste die over de Andes vloog was de Argentijnse 1e luitenant L. Candaleria die op 13 mei 1918 met een Morane-Saulnier Parasol over een lager gedeelte van de Andes vloog. Het was de Chileen D Godoy die op 12 december 1918 met een Bristol over het hoge gedeelte van de Andes vloog. Op 1 april 1921 was de beurt aan Adrienne Bolland. Ze steeg op van Mendoza in Argentinië en landde 10 uur later in Santiago de Chile. De avond daarvoor kreeg ze een mysterieus bezoek van een Braziliaanse vrouw die haar vertelde dat ze tussen de bergen een meer zou zien in de vorm van een oester. Daar moest ze naar links naar een bergwand. Wanneer ze naar rechts zou gaan, een vallei in, zou ze verdwalen. Ze volgde de raad op en de wind die tegen de bergwand naar boven werd geblazen, stuwde haar toestel omhoog. Eenmaal over de top kwam ze in rustige dalen. Koud tot op het bot, met gebarsten aderen in haar neus en lippen, onder het bloed. Maar ze werd de Godin van de Andes, heldin in Argentinië en Chili. Een grote menigte heette haar welkom. De consul van Frankrijk ontbrak, want hij dacht dat het een 1 april grap was.

http://www.avianet.eu/meer_red.php?ID=3645
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oorlogsmonument 1914 - 1918 der gemeenten Westkerke en Roksem, Westkerke

BLOMME Alfons Ernest ou/of Alphonse Ernest, Conflit/Conflict: 1914 - 1918, Statut/Statuut: Mort pour la patrie - Stierf voor het Vaderland, Naissance/Geboorte: 12/04/1896 Westkerke, WV, BE, Décès/Overlijden: 10/05/1918 Nieuwpoort (Nieuport), WV, BE, Grade/Graad: Soldat de 2ème classe - Soldaat 2 klasse, Régiment/Regiment: Génie - Genie Transmissietroepen, Plus d'infos/Meer info: Zoon van Seraphien en Sidonie LOBBRECHT (Doodsprentje). Mil. 1915. Oorspronkelijke begraafplaats: De Panne (La Panne), WV, BE, begraafplaats "Duinhoek", graf nr 4/35. Datum van begrafenis: 13 mei 1918 (Bron [4]). Overleden op 22 jaar

http://www.bel-memorial.be/names_on_memorials/names_on_mon_id_512.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 mei 1918 - Hr.Ms. 'Hellevoetsluis'

Aan boord van de hulpmijnenveger Hr.Ms. 'Hellevoetsluis' explodeert een afvuurkoker, waarbij twee bemanningsleden om het leven komen en drie zwaar gewond raken.

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=5&d=13
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mei 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Armeense genocide - Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 13 mei 1916
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Gruwelverhalen
ST. PETERSBURG, 13 Mei. (P.T.A.) Men meldt uit Moskou, dat prins Argoetinski, lid van de Kaukasische sectie van de vereeniging van steden, aan het comité-generaal van die vereeniging een verslag heeft toegezonden over den staat van zaken in Trebizonde, nadat die stad door de Turken was ontruimd.

Bij de inbezitneming van de stad vonden de Russen er 15,000 inwoners, uitsluitend Grieken, want de Turken waren alle gevlucht. Wat de Armeniërs uit Trebizonde en omstreken aangaat, deze waren door de Turken afgemaakt of verdronken. Men bevestigt aansluitend dat de wreedheden der Turken tegen de Armeniërs van Trebizonde alles te boven gaan wat zij tot nog toe op dat gebied op hun geweten hebben. De verdrijving der Armeniërs uit de stad begon in Juli 1915. Bij wijze van begin werden eenige honderden invloedrijke jonge Armeniërs gevat onder voorwendsel dat zij met den vijand heulden, in booten gebracht en op zee verdronken. Andere Armeniërs werden naar het dorp Djivistik in de buurt van Trebizonde gebracht, de mannen en de vrouwen afzonderlijk. De vrouwen werden verkracht en gedood, de kinderen aan de bajonet geregen. De Turken maakten van hun geweten alleen gebruik tegen heel kleine kinderen, die zij als schietschijf gebruikten. De overlevenden werden naar Erzeroem gebracht

Christelijke Turken vertellen, dat de geheele weg bezaaid lag met lijken van kinderen en volwassenen. Na de eerste ontploffingen begonnen de Turken Armenische jongens weg te voeren, die voor een deel bestemd waren voor Turksche gezinnen om er tot den Islam bekeerd te worden. Anderen werden vermoord en, naar de Grieken zeggen, in manden opeengehoopt en in zee geworpen. Bij de vlucht der Turken uit Trebizonde werden de kinderen uit de Turksche gezinnen aan de Grieken overgelaten. Die kinderen zijn nu door de zorgen van de weldadigheidsvereeniging te Batoem opgenomen. Tot dusver heeft men 60 kinderen verzameld. De Grieken beweren, dat men er wel 1000 kan vinden. Een deel der kinderen is door de Grieken gered, anderen zijn gevlucht naar naburige gehuchten of hebben zich buiten verborgen, zich voedende met wortels en vruchten of met aalmoezen. De te Trebizonde gevonden kinderen bieden een schrikwekkende aanblik. Zij zijn met lompen bedekt, zien er ziek en ontdaan uit en vragen telkens of ze niet afgemaakt behoeven te worden. Het is de algemeene opvatting der Grieken, dat de Turken een massa-moord bedreven hebben, volgens een plan, dat ongetwijfeld op initiatief der Turksche regeering is vastgesteld, die onmeedoogend een ieder vervolgde, die hulp aan de Armeniërs verleende. Men schat het aantal kinderen, dat in de zee geworpen is, op 800. Tal van Armeniërs hebben bij de nadering der Turken zelfmoord gepleegd.

http://www.armeensegenocide.info/pers-nl/NRC-13-5-1916.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 13 Mei 2019 12:22, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Mei 2019 8:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ossendrecht 13 mei 1918 - Het geïnterneerde vliegtuig der Duitschers.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/jansluijter/13152545414
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Mei 2019 12:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 mei 1916 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Louis Quévrin is op 1 juli 1896 geboren in het Naamse dorp Rosée, nu een deelgemeente van Florennes. D ongehuwde zoon van Antoine Joseph Apollon en Jeanne Marie Louise Ghislaine treedt in 1915 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Op 12 mei 1916 raakt hij gekwetst in Diksmuide en wordt om 9 uur 's morgens met een doorboorde buik geëvacueerd naar het Belgian Field Hospital, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep in Hoogstade. Hij overlijdt daar 's anderendaags om 9 uur 's morgens.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 15 mei 1916 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade, grafnummer 556.

Ook zijn broer, Paul Quévrin, heeft de oorlog niet overleefd. Hij ligt naast zijn broer Louis begraven.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/13-mei-1916
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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