Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

27 April
Ga naar Pagina 1, 2  Volgende
 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2006 5:37    Onderwerp: 27 April Reageer met quote

April 27

1916 British attempt to bargain with Turks over Kut

On this day in 1916, three British officers, including the famous Captain T.E. Lawrence (known as “Lawrence of Arabia”), attempt to engineer the escape of thousands of British troops under siege at the city of Kut-al-Amara in Mesopotamia through a secret negotiation with the Turkish command.

Since December 1915, British forces under the command of Sir Charles Townshend had been under siege from Turkish and German forces in Kut, on the Tigris River in the Basra province of Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq). Four attempts to push the enemy troops back had resulted only in some 23,000 casualties—nearly twice the strength of the remaining regiment. Exhausted, undersupplied and plagued with illness, Townshend’s men were on the brink of surrender when the British regional command decided to try one last diplomatic maneuver.

Then working in military intelligence in Cairo, Egypt, the recently promoted Captain Thomas Edward Lawrence found office work dull, and thus was excited to be sent, along with two other officers, on a secret mission to negotiate the escape of Townshend and his troops with their Turkish counterparts. On April 27, they made their offer: if the Turks allowed the men in Kut to leave the city and rejoin Allied regional forces located to the south of Kut, they would be rewarded with Ł1 million in gold.

Turkish officers, confident of their imminent victory at Kut, refused the offer, and all Lawrence and his comrades were able to secure was the release of some of the wounded. Kut fell on April 29, as Townshend and his remaining 13,000 men were taken prisoner, in the largest single surrender of troops in British history to that point.

Lawrence’s well-written reports to British military command, both about Kut and Arab nationalism, won him high favor among his superiors. He was soon sent on another important mission, to help engineer an Arab revolt against the Turks led by Feisal Hussein.

http://www.historychannel.com/
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Merlijn



Geregistreerd op: 18-2-2005
Berichten: 11531

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2006 9:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Neuer Luftschiffangriff auf England
Großes Hauptquartier, 27. April 1916.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

Südöstlich von Ypern nahmen wir die englischen Stellungen unter kräftiges Feuer, dessen gute Wirkung durch Patrouillen festgestellt wurde. Südlich von St. Eloi wurde ein stärkerer feindlicher Handgranatenangriff durch Feuer zum Scheitern gebracht.
Im Abschnitt Givenchy-en-Gohelle - Neuville-St.Vaast sprengten wir mit Erfolg mehrere Minen, entrissen in anschließenden Handgranatenkämpfen bei Givenchy dem Gegner ein Stück seines Grabens und wiesen Gegenangriffe ab.
Englische Vorstöße nördlich der Somme blieben ergebnislos.
Im Maasgebiet ist es neben heftigen Artilleriekämpfen nur links des Flusses zu Infanterietätigkeit gekommen, mit Handgranaten vorgehende englische Abteilungen wurden zurückgeschlagen.
Deutsche Patrouillenunternehmungen an mehreren Stellen der Front, so in der Gegend nordöstlich von Armentičres und zwischen Vailly und Craonne, waren erfolgreich.
Im Luftkampf wurde je ein Flugzeug bei Souchez und südlich von Tahure, durch Abwehrgeschütze ein drittes südlich von Parroy abgeschossen. Die Bahnlinie im Noblettetal südlich von Suippes wurde durch ein deutsches Flugzeuggeschwader ausgiebig mit Bomben belegt.
Heute nacht kam ein Luftschiffangriff gegen die Hafen- und Bahnanlagen von Margate an der englischen Ostküste zur Ausführung.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Merlijn



Geregistreerd op: 18-2-2005
Berichten: 11531

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2006 9:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Englischer Gegenangriff bei Ypern zusammengebrochen
Großes Hauptquartier, 27. April 1915.
Weltlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

In Flandern griffen die Engländer mit sehr starken Kräften die neue Linie unserer Stellungen nördlich und nordöstlich von Ypern an, die drei bis vier Kilometer südlich der bisherigen von dicht nördlich der d´Hout-Ferme am Yserkanal über St. Julien in Richtung auf s´Grafenstafel - Calais verläuft. Die Angriffe, die von der deutschen Artillerie südöstlich von Ypern teilweise im Rücken gefaßt wurden, brachen unter außergewöhnlich schweren Verlusten schon im Feuer vollständig zusammen.
Die durch die feindliche Artillerie gänzlich zusammengeschossenen Häuser von Lizerne sind von uns in der letzten Nacht geräumt worden; der unmittelbar örtlich davon auf dem linken Kanalufer gelegene Brückenkopf wird gehalten.
In den bisherigen Kämpfen bei Ypern haben unsere Truppen 50 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
Den wichtigen Eisenbahnknotenpunkt und Etappenhauptort Poperinghe, etwa zwölf Kilometer westlich von Ypern, haben wir mit sichtlichem Erfolge zu beschießen begonnen.
Im Argonnerwalde wurde nordöstlich von Vienne-le-Chateau ein nächtlicher französischer Angriff abgewiesen.
Auf den Maashöhen errangen wir auch gestern weitere Vorteile, trotzdem die Franzosen neue Kräfte heranzogen.
Feindliche Angriffe gegen unsere Combres-Stellung scheiterten. Ein heftiger Angriff im Aillywalde wurde von uns unter starken Verlusten für den Feind zurückgeschlagen. Auch weiter östlich gewann der Feind keinen Boden. Im nächtlichen Nahkampfe arbeiteten wir uns im Priesterwalde erfolgreich vor.
Gegen unsere Stellung auf dem Hartmannsweilerkopf ging der Feind gestern Abend mehrere Male zum Angriff vor. Alle Angriffe mißglückten.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 April 1914, Commons Sitting

Hague Conventions.


HC Deb 27 April 1914 vol 61 c1307 1307

Sir GODFREY BARING asked how many nations have already ratified the Conventions at The Hague in connection with which the Second Peace Conference (Conventions) Bill* has been introduced into this House; how the expenses incurred by parties summoned to the inter national tribunal will be reimbursed; and what machinery will be set in motion to compel the attendance of such parties should they show reluctance to respond to the orders of the Court?

Mr. ACLAND I will circulate the lists of countries in answer to the first part of the question with the Votes, as they are lengthy. As regards the second part of the question this appears to be a matter for consideration when a concrete case arises. As to the third part of the question, I would refer the hon. Member to Clause 1 of the Second Peace Conference (Conventions) Bill.—[See Written Answers this Date.]

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/27/hague-conventions

27 April 1914, Written Answers (Commons)

Hague Conventions.


HC Deb 27 April 1914 vol 61 cc1374-5W 1374W

Sir GODFREY BARING asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he will inform the House how many nations have already ratified the Conventions at The Hague in connection with which the Second Peace Conference (Conventions) Bill has been introduced into this House; whether he will state how the expenses incurred by parties summoned to the international tribunal will be reimbursed; and what machinery will be set in motion to compel the attendance of such parties should they show reluctance to respond to the orders of the Court?

Mr. ACLAND As I promised the hon. Member this afternoon, I give him the list of countries for which he asks:—

Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes.—Ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Cuba, Denmark, France, Germany, Guatemala, Hayti, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States.

Convention respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in War on Land.—Ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Denmark, France, Germany, Guatemala, Hayti, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States.

Convention respecting the Adaptation of the Principles of the Geneva Convention to Maritime Warfare.—Ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Cuba, Denmark, France, Germany, Guatemala, Hayti, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States.

Convention respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Maritime War.—Ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, Guatemala, Hayti, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1914/apr/27/hague-conventions

* Second Peace Conference (Conventions) Bill: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/bills/second-peace-conference-conventions-bill
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sepoy Maluk Singh

The 15th Sikhs and other units of the Lahore Division attacked the German positions on Mauser Ridge on the 26th of April 1915. They were mown down in their droves by machine gun fire and despite knowing the costs launched a similar attack the next day.The troops did not reach within 400 yards of the enemy line despite being fine and brave soldiers.

Sepoy Maluk Singh, from the Punjab, was killed near Hill Top Ridge. His name is listed on Panel 1 of the Menin Gate Memorial.

http://imtheboy.wordpress.com/2010/02/15/sepoy-maluk-singh15th-ludhana-sikhsindian-armykia-27-april-1915-and-sepoy-ran-bahadur-bura4th-gurkha-riflesindian-armykia-1-may-1915/
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

27 april 1915 - Baarle-Hertog kreeg hoog bezoek. Prosper Poul­let, de Belgische minister van Kunsten en Weten­schappen, werd plechtig op het gemeentehuis ontvan­gen. Van op de pui woonde hij een uitvoe­ring bij van de nationale liede­ren, gebracht door een koor van vluchte­lingen­kinde­ren. Daarna sprak hij de bevolking toe, waarbij hij hulde bracht aan de Nederlandse regering voor haar hulp­vaardigheid en goede zorgen bij de opvang van de tiendui­zenden Belgische vluchtelingen. Het officiële programma werd afgerond met een werkbezoek aan de St.-Remigius­kerk “alwaar het orgel een krachtig Brabançonne aanhief”, het post- en douanekantoor en de pasge­bouwde loods voor de nog in de gemeente verblijvende vluchtelingen. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 April 1915, Commons Sitting

FALKLAND ISLANDS BATTLE (ADMIRAL SIR DOVETON STURDEE'S DISPATCH).


HC Deb 27 April 1915 vol 71 c575 575

Mr. NEVILLE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee's dispatch relative to his expedition to, and the naval action fought near, the Falkland Islands has been published in its entirety, or have any parts been omitted in the dispatch as published?

§ Mr. CHURCHILL All dispatches are carefully edited by the Admiralty, and in the case of the Grand Fleet Squadrons by the Commander-in-Chief as well; and nothing is allowed to appear which throws too much light on British naval tactics or gunnery. Recommendations in regard to individuals are only made public to the extent and in the form in which they are concurred in by the Admiralty.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/apr/27/falkland-islands-battle-admiral-sir

Slag bij de Falklands

De slag bij de Falklands was een zeeslag tussen Groot-Brittannië en Duitsland op 8 december 1914 tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

Lees verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_bij_de_Falklands
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Staffordshire Brigade in Wulvergem (april-juni 1915)

In april 1915 marcheerde de North Midland Division van Belle naar België. Ze hadden net een korte periode van "loopgravenonderricht" nabij Armentičres achter de rug. De Divisie moest voor de eerste keer naar het front om de 28ste Divisie af te lossen tussen Kemmel en Wulvergem. Daar werd hevig gevochten tijdens de maanden oktober en november 1914, toen de Duitsers een gemengde groep bestaande uit een Cavaleriekorps, Indische en Franse troepen van de hellingen rondom Mesen verdreven. De Britten namen vervolgens een positie in op een helling tegenover Wulvergem. De North Midland Divisie werd naar deze positie overgebracht. Men beschouwde ze als een relatief rustige positie en het zou de beste plaats zijn voor een onervaren groep om zich aan te passen aan de routine van een loopgravenoorlog. (...)

Een van de eerste doden was Soldaat Eerste Klas Albert Morris van de 1/2 North Midland Field Compagnie. Morris, een mijnwerker uit Heath Hayes nabij Cannock, was lid van deze eenheid sinds 1909. In 1911 won hij een beker tijdens een wedstrijd van scherpschutters. Hij stierf op 27 april 1915. Luitenant Patrick Welchman, zijn commandant, schreef naar zijn vader over zijn dood:

"Beste Meneer Morris,

Het spijt me zeer u te moeten meedelen dat uw zoon omstreeks het middaguur vandaag gedood werd. Hij werd in de rug geraakt toen hij het bevel had over een groep. We zullen hem heel erg missen. Hij was altijd zo voorzichtig en bereid alles te doen voor iedereen. Ik kon altijd op hem rekenen bij de uitvoering van een moeilijke taak.

Hij ging altijd door met zijn werk, zelfs onder onophoudelijk geschut. Hij was één van mijn moedigste en meest veelbelovende onderofficieren. Ik voel zeer diep met u mee bij dit grote verlies, maar het is één van die smarten waarbij niemand je kan helpen. De enige troost voor u, en het zou een grote moeten zijn, is dat hij stierf voor zijn vaderland in een periode waarin het land hem het meest nodig had. Ik was bij hem toen hij geraakt werd en ik geloof dat hij niet veel geleden heeft. Hij viel bewusteloos vooraleer ik zijn wonden voorlopig had verbonden, maar hij kwam opnieuw bij bewustzijn net voor hij stierf, zo'n twintig minuten later.

Hij werd naar de eerste hulppost gebracht, waar hij de beste medische zorgen kreeg, maar er was niets aan te doen. We zullen al zijn bezittingen zo vlug mogelijk opsturen. Ik hoop dat u me laat weten als ik iets kan doen. Hij wordt vanavond begraven in de kleine begraafplaats nabij de hulppost, naast veel andere van zijn kameraden die hier gesneuveld zijn. Sergeant Stringer, ikzelf en vele mannen van de sectie zullen aanwezig zijn. Gelieve mijn innige deelneming te aanvaarden.

Hoogachtend,
Patrick Welchman."


Mooi artikel op http://www.wo1.be/ned/geschiedenis/gastbijdragen/staffordshire-NDL.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles

27 April -18 May 1915, Sea of Marmara
Gazetted 21 May 1915
Lt Commander E.C.Boyle RN


Boyle was the commander of the submarine E 14 which entered the Straits and penetrated the narrows within 48 hours of the Helles landings, to embark on a sensationally successful series of attacks on Turkish shipping, including the torpedoing, with huge loss of life, of the troopship Guj Djemal, and several warships. He retired as a Rear Admiral in 1932 and died in 1967 having been run over on a pedestrian crossing.

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 22:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Rising outside Dublin

In County Wexford, about 600 Volunteers took over Enniscorthy on Thursday 27 April [1916]. They were led by six men and made Athenaeum Theatre their headquarters. The Volunteers blocked all roads and the railway line, and cut the telephone and telegraph wires. They then besieged the RIC barracks, which was defended by a number of armed constables. Shots were fired and one constable was wounded, although no real attempt was made to seize the barracks. The Volunteers also stopped a train travelling from Wexford to Arklow carrying workers to Kynoch's munitions factory.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Rising
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra

Stavka. 27 April, 1916.

MY BELOVED WIFY,

I thank you tenderly for your dear letter with the enclosed letters from Olga and Alexey. The Little One begins thus: "I count the days - why, you know yourself." Very charming! It rained all the morning, and suddenly became cold - only 10° - after the heat of the previous days.

The French Ministers have arrived, with several officers -they had a prolonged conference with Alexeiev, Belaiev, Sergey and others; then they had dinner, at which meal they were both my neighbours; in this way I avoided the necessity of talking to each separately.

I think your idea, which you write about, of raising another large internal loan, a very good one please speak about it to Sturmer, and even to Bark. I am sure that the latter will be extremely flattered and touched, and at the same time he will be able to show you how it is done, and wherein lie the difficulties, if there are any.

Before my departure I gave the Ministers orders to work out a comprehensive plan for many years ahead for the construction of new railways, so that this new money loan would just help to bring it into. practice.

I have just received the following telegram: "La centenaire met aux pieds des Vos Maj. sa profonde reconnaissance, sa fidelite a un passe toujours present. - Leonille Wittgenstein."

Very prettily expressed, I think.

I enclose Olga's letter, which please return to me. Poor girl! it is only natural that she should suffer she hid her feelings for so long that she had to give them vent at last. She aspires to real personal happiness, which she has never had.

28 April.

Thank heaven, a lovely warm day! It was very cold during the night, only 4°, so that I was even compelled to shut the window! I thank you and Tatiana for your dear letters.

I hope that your face will not trouble you much. God guard you, my darling Wify! I kiss you and the children tenderly, and thank them all for their letters.

Eternally your hubby

NICKY.

I have not been able to fix the date for my departure to the Guards, for several reasons, which I shall explain.

NOTES: "The French Ministers" - Viviani and Albert Thomas. They had been presented to the Tsar about a week previously at Tsarskoe Selo by M. Paléologue. BARK: P. L. Bark, the Minister of Finance. LEONILLE WITTGENSTEIN: Princess Leonille Ivanovna Sayn-Wittgenstein (née Princess Bariatinskaia), born in 1816. - Olga: The Tsar's sister.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/april16.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTALION WAR DIARY FOR 22nd (SERVICE) BATTALION ROYAL FUSILIERS

27 April 1917 - On the night of 26/27 the front trenches for 400 yards north of the RAILWAY in B24a were taken over by 1/RMLI. Some of D Coy were withdrawn to the vicinity of Bn H.Qs.in RAILWAY CUTTING B.20.c.7.7
On the 27th the front line was again cleared for cutting/ On the night of 27/28th the Battalion was relieved in the front line, the 17/MIDDLESEX coming into battle positions in front of the line. The 1/KINGS LIVERPOOL took over Bn H.Qs. in RAILWAY CUTTING and Bn H.Qs. moved to a gun pit at B.20.a.3.6, the Companies going on relief to GIN TRENCH and KLEEMANS STELLUNG. Bn H.Qs. were at DEUTSCHER HOUSE.

http://ww1research.wetpaint.com/page/22nd+Bn+Royal+Fusiliers+April+1917
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 April 1917, Commons Sitting

GERMAN PRISONERS (EMPLOYMENT).


HC Deb 27 April 1917 vol 92 cc2727-8 2727

Mr. GILBERT asked the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) what percentage of the total number of German prisoners in this country are now being employed; can he give the numbers 2728 employed on agriculture, forestry, and other trades; and what rate of remuneration are they paid?

§ Mr. JAMES HOPE (Lord of the Treasury) Of the prisoners of war available for employment, 84 per cent. are now working, and the remaining 16 per cent. are earmarked for work, and only await the necessary local accommodation. In addition, there are a large number of officers and non-commissioned officers, besides sick, wounded, and unfit. The employers of the working prisoners pay the Government full district rates for their services, the prisoners themselves receiving an average of about one penny per hour.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/apr/27/german-prisoners-employment
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Burdon McKean

George Burdon McKean VC MC MM (4 July 1888 – 28 November 1926) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Details
He was 29 years old, and a lieutenant in the 14th (The Royal Montreal Regiment) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 27/28 April 1918 at the Gavrelle Sector, France, when Lieutenant McKean's party was held up at a block in the communication trench by intense fire, he ran into the open, leaping over the block head first on top of one of the enemy. Whilst lying there, he was attacked by another with a fixed bayonet. He shot both of these men, captured the position, then sent back for more bombs, and until they arrived he engaged the enemy single-handed. He then rushed a second block, killing two of the enemy, capturing four others, and driving the remainder into a dug-out, which he then destroyed.

He later achieved the rank of Captain. Grave/memorial at Buried at Brighton Extra-Mural Cemetery, Sussex, England. Ref. 41624.

His Victoria Cross is stored at the Canadian War Museum (Ottawa, Canada).

On September 6th, 2003, the Church Square of Cagnicourt, France, was renamed 'La Place George Burdon McKean' in his honour.

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/George_Burdon_McKean
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NOTE FROM CHICHERIN TO THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT DEMANDING THE RECALL OF THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR

27 April 1918

On 23 April the Moscow newspapers published the following statement by the French Ambassador, Noulens.

The landing ofJapanese forces in Vladivostok was the result of the prolonged state of disturbance and alarm in that city. Sooner or later an incident was bound to occur which would have made essential armed intervention for the purpose of guaranteeing the safety of foreigners. For many months the information we have received from Vladivostok indicated a state of anarchy, a constant threat to the lives and property of Allied subjects. When international intercourse attracts to any territory, and in particular to a maritime town, foreign merchants, to the advantage of the whole country, the authorities there should understand that this obliges them to maintain public order and to protect their guests from the excesses of the streets. Otherwise the interested persons will appeal to their Governments for the protection which the local authorities are too weak or otherwise unable or not in a position to guarantee. Then the military forces of the country whose citizens have been subjected to violence must assume the task of restoring order. And that is as it should be, for a country cannot be really independent without strong and organized authorities. The Japanese question, in so far as it is Japanese, can be localized to Vladivostok on condition that the Tokio Government is given the satisfaction it has the right to demand.

But the Allies cannot remain indifferent to the Austro-German successes in the north and in the south, successes far beyond the limits which might have been foreseen after the Brest treaty. The German Governinent is really trying to subdue the whole of Russia economically. Further, through their prisoners of war, they are trying to organize colonial centres in Siberia. The Allies may be compelled to intervene in order to answer this threat, directed as much against the Russian people as against themselves.

But if at any time the Allies Were compelled to resort to military action, they would do so solely in their capacity as Allies who, while not intervening in internal Russian affairs, and without any concealed designs of conquest, were solely concerned with the defence of common interests, and, with the complete consent of Russian public opinion, would oppose by force German conquests in eastern Europe. I have no information regarding the intentions of these Governments in this matter, but, whatever happens, I can say that if an armed offensive should take place in Siberia, it would have the character of an inter-Allied and definitely friendly action.

Upon inquiry we received official confirmation of the authenticity of M. Noulens' statement from M. Le Bon, the French Consul in Moscow.

In the tragic days through which Russia is now passing, M. Noulens' statement can scarcely contribute to amicable relations between the French and Russian peoples. A representative of the French Government who helps to impair the relations between France and Russia cannot be tolerated within the Russian Republic.

The Government of the Russian Federal Socialist Soviet Republic expresses its confidence that M. Noulens will immediately be recalled by the Government of the French Republic.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/27.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Endgame in Flanders, 1918

The fighting blazed on. On 24 April, German and British tanks fought a confused engagement south of Ypres; the German armour was forced to withdraw. On 25 April, German Alpine troops made a major gain in the southern Salient, capturing Mount Kemmel from the French 28 Division after an attack on 17 April had been repulsed. These strategic heights remained under German occupation until September 1918 when they were retaken by the 27 and 30 American Divisions. On 27 April, a second strongpoint, the Scherpenberg, fell to a surging German attack.

Lees verder op http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwi/articles/endgameinflanders.aspx
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Star - Christchurch - 1918 - April

Saturday 27 April 1918 - Wounded in Action
BOWMAN - Private, hus of Mrs J.J.Bowman of 95 Trafalgar st, St Albans, wounded 8 april removed to England, left with 23rd reinforcements.
HARRY - Private Benjamin, 5th son of Mrs H. Harry of 39 Durham st, Sydenham ill in 83rd General Hosp. France, another brother killed in action on 16 Dec.
ALLEN - Private A.J. son of Mrs B.L. Allen 127 Colombo road, again wounded both legs and foot left arm amputated, --- elder son also wounded ----
MILES - Major R. son of Mr Miles, Beresford st, New Brighton, has been severley wounded and is in hospital.
HARRIS - Roy, son of Mr and Mrs F.G.Harris has been wounded in France, ---- was at Gallipoli,
ALLEY - Rewi, 2nd son of Mr F.J.Alley, master at Wharenui School -- wounded in France --- lost their eldest son just over 12 mths ago.

http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~ashleigh/War%20Snippets/1918.April.Star.Christchurch.War.News.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Radenrepubliek in München van 1919

Tegen het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog breekt er in Duitsland de revolutie uit. Eind oktober begin november 1918 was die begonnen met een muiterij in de havensteden Wilhemshaven en Kiel. De revolutie breidde zich snel uit naar de andere groten steden van het land en bereikte op 7 november 1918 de stad München.

Wanneer op 11 november 1918 de Wapenstilstand wordt getekend, keren miljoenen Duitse soldaten van het Keizerlijke leger weer naar huis. Zij voelden zich helemaal niet verslagen maar verraden en schuiven de schuld door op de corrupte politici, de socialisten en de joden. Op 28 juni 1919 wordt het Verdrag van Versailles ondertekend en wordt het Duitse leger gereduceerd tot 100.000 man, het Roergebied bezet door de geallieerde strijdkrachten en resten nog slechts grenswachten en binnenlandse veiligheidstroepen. Hierdoor nam de frustratie bij de soldaten alleen maar toe. Velen van hen traden toe toe tot de intussen overal opgerichte particuliere legertjes de zogenaamde Freikorpsen.

Op 7 april 1919 wordt in München (Beieren) door de Duitse communisten de Radenrepubliek uitgeroepen. Naar het voorbeeld van de Sovjet-Unie (het Russische woord ‘sovjet’ betekent ‘raad’). Minister-president wordt Johannes Hoffmann (1867-1930). Op 27 april volgt nog eens een machtswisseling en komt Ernst Toller van de USPD aan het hoofd te staan.

Lang zal het allemaal niet duren. Onder leiding van Franz Ritter von Epp en zijn Freikorps, bijgestaan door troepenonderdelen van de Reichswehr (het geregelde Duitse leger), volgt een bloedig beleg van de stad München. Ook Ernst Röhm sluit zich bij het Freikorps van von Epp aan. Door Röhm's uitgebreide contacten kan hij de inmiddels tot Brigade Epp omgedoopte divisie, bevoorraden met wapens. Daardoor wordt Röhm een centrale figuur bij het neerslagen van de Radenrepubliek. Op 3 mei 1919 wordt de stad 'bevrijdt'. Ten minste 606 mensen komen daarbij om waaronder 335 burgers.

Het antisemitisme nam door het bestaan van de Radenrepubliek alleen maar toe. Verschillende vooraanstaande joden hadden zich bij de Radenrepubliek aangesloten, die later door Hitler smalend de 'jodenrepubliek' werd genoemd. Het mislukken van de revolutie had niet enkel consequenties voor joodse revolutionairen, maar voor joden zonder meer. Zij werden als «Höllenhunde der jüdischen Weltrevolution» (hellehonden van de joodse wereldrevolutie) gedemoniseerd en hebben zeker ook Hitler geďnspireerd, wanneer deze later zijn boek Mein Kampf zal schrijven. Het was niet alleen maar de communistische Ruth Fischer, die zei «dat zonder deze gebeurtenissen München niet tot wieg van de Hitler-beweging zou zijn geworden».

Hitler zal zijn opkomst vooral te danken hebben aan deze korte revolutie tijdens de Rätenrepublik en die verder handig blijven uitbuiten in zijn propaganda. Waarbij hij zich baseert op de 'dolkstootlegende' (het verslagen Duitse leger dat zich 'verraden' voelde), in combinatie met de harde voorwaarden van het Verdrag van Versailles en het waanidee van de joods-bolsjevistische samenzwering tegen het Duitse Rijk.

Intussen had Anton Drexler op 5 januari 1919 de D.A.P. (Deutsche Arbeiters Partei) opgericht. Adolf Hitler treedt in september 1919 toe tot de D.A.P. Datzelfde jaar treedt ook Ernst Röhm toe tot de D.A.P. en maakt daar voor het eerst kennis met Adolf Hitler.

http://www.verzet.org/content/view/409/31/1/1/
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2010 23:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 April 1920, Commons Sitting

SURRENDERED AEROPLANES.


HC Deb 27 April 1920 vol 128 cc1011-2 1011

Sir HARRY BRITTAIN asked the Secretary of State for War and Air whether it is the intention of the Government to destroy or to make use of the German aeroplanes to be delivered as and when they are handed over?

Mr. CHURCHILL These aeroplanes will be surplus to all possible British requirements, and it has been decided that, except for some machines reserved for exhibition purposes, they shall be reduced to produce and the material sold.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/27/surrendered-aeroplanes
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: Allied attack north of Ypres checked by use of gas.

Eastern Front

German advance towards Shavli (Baltic Provinces).

Southern Front

Dardanelles: Allies establish themselves across the Gallipoli Peninsula.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russians expel the Turks from Kutur (Persia).

Baghdad railway bridge over Euphrates at Jerablus stated to be open for traffic.

Naval and Overseas Operations

French armoured cruiser "Leon Gambetta" sunk by an Austrian submarine in the Adriatic.

"Queen Elizabeth" sinks a Turkish t.b. off Maidos.

Submarine E14 sinks a Turkish gunboat in the Sea of Marmora.

Political, etc.

Mr. Churchill announces that 29 prisoners from German submarines are separately confined and specially treated as a reprisal against the German submarine campaign.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

German attack south of Hulluch repulsed.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russian progress in Bitlis district.

British occupy Moghara Oasis (90 miles south-west of Alexandria).

Naval and Overseas Operations

British submarine sunk in North Sea.

H.M.S. "Russell" mined in Mediterranean, 124 lost.

Political, etc.

Martial law throughout Ireland. General Sir J. Maxwell takes command in Ireland. New Military Service Bill abandoned.

Allied commercial conference at Paris.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

French offensive on the Aisne checked.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Australian transport "Ballarat" torpedoed and sunk; no casualties.

Political, etc.

Speech of Mr. Lloyd George re: present position and future policy.

Spanish Note to Germany re: "San Fulgencio" published.

Guatemala breaks diplomatic relations with Germany.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

In Ypres sector Voormezeele is twice attacked by Germans without success.

Local fighting astride Ypres-Comines Canal.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Armenia: Turks report capture of Kars with 860 guns.

Rapid British advance north of Baghdad; Kifri captured.

Political, etc.

Announcement of Sir W. Weir's appointment as Secretary of State for Royal Air Force.

Independence of Georgia (Trans-Caucasia) declared by its Diet.

Important War Conference at Delhi.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Text of the Convention between Great Britain, China and Tibet, initialled at Simla, 27 April 1914

His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, His Excellency the President of the Republic of China, and His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet, being sincerely desirous to settle by mutual agreement various questions concerning the interests of their several States on the Continent of Asia, and further to regulate the relations of their several Governments, have resolved to conclude a Convention on this subject and have nominated for this purpose their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, the Hon'ble Sir Arthur Henry McMahon, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign and Political Department;

His Excellency the President of the Republic of China, Monsieur Ivan Chen, Officer of the Order of the Chia Ho;

His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet, Lönchen Ga-den Shatra Pal-jor Dorje; who having communicated to each other their respective full powers and finding them to be in good and due form have agreed upon and concluded the following Convention in eleven Articles:

Article I
The Conventions specified in the Schedule to the present Convention shall, except in so far as they may have been modified by, or may be inconsistent with or repugnant to, any of the provisions of the present Convention, continue to be binding upon the High Contracting Parties.

Article II
The Governments of Great Britain and China recognizing that Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, and recognizing also the autonomy of Outer Tibet, engage to respect the territorial integrity of the country, and to abstain from all interference in the administration of Outer Tibet (including the selection and installation of the Dalai Lama), which shall remain in the hands of the Tibetan Government at Lhasa.

The Govermnent of China engages not to convert Tibet into a Chinese province. The Government of Great Britain engages not to annex Tibet or any portion of it.

Article III
Recognising the special interest of Great Britain, in virtue of the geographical position of Tibet, in the existence of an effective Tibetan Government, and in the maintenance of peace and order in the neighbourhood of the frontiers of India and adjoining States, the Government of China engages, except as provided in Article 4 of this Convention, not to send troops into Outer Tibet, nor to station civil or military officers, nor to establish Chinese colonies in the country. Should any such troops or officials remain in Outer Tibet at the date of the signature of this Convention, they shall be withdrawn within a period not exceeding three months.

The Government of Great Britain engages not to station military or civil officers in Tibet (except as provided in the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet) nor troops (except the Agents' escorts), nor to establish colonies in that country.

Article IV
The foregoing Article shall not be held to preclude the continuance of the arrangement by which, in the past, a Chinese high official with suitable escort has been maintained at Lhasa, but it is hereby provided that the said escort shall in no circumstances exceed 300 men.

Article V
The Governments of China and Tibet engage that they will not enter into any negotiations of agreements regarding Tibet with one another, or with any other Power, excepting such negotiations and agreements between Great Britain and Tibet as are provided for by the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet and the Convention of April 27, 1906, between Great Britain and China.

Article VI
Article III of the Convention of April 27, 1906, between Great Britain and China is hereby cancelled, and it is understood that in Article IX(d) of the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet the term 'Foreign Power' does not include China.

No less favourable treatment shall be accorded to British commerce than to the commerce of China or the most favoured nation.

Article VII
The Tibet Trade Regulations of 1893 and 1908 are hereby cancelled.

The Tibetan Government engages to negotiate with the British Government new Trade Regulations for Outer Tibet to give effect to Articles II, IV and V of the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet without delay; provided always that such Regulations shall in no way modify the present Convention except with the consent of the Chinese Government.

Article VIII
The British Agent who resides at Gyantse may visit Lhasa with his escort whenever it is necessary to consult with the Tibetan Government regarding matters arising out of the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet, which it has been found impossible to settle at Gyantse by correspondence or otherwise.

Article IX
For the purpose of the present Convention the borders of Tibet, and the boundary between Outer and Inner Tibet, shall be shown in red and blue respectively on the map attached hereto.

Nothing in the present Convention shall be held to prejudice the existing rights of the Tibetan Government in Inner Tibet, which include the power to select and appoint the high priests of monasteries and to retain full control in all matters affecting religious institutions.

Article X
In case of differences between the Governments of China and Tibet in regard to questions arising out of this Convention the aforesaid Governments engage to refer them to the British Government for equitable adjustment.

Article XI
The present Convention will take effect from the date of signature. The English, Chinese and Tibetan texts of the present Convention have been carefully examined and found to correspond, but in the event of there being any difference of meaning between them the English text shall be authoritative.

In token whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed this Convention, three copies in English, three in Chinese and three in Tibetan.

Done at Simla this 27th day of April, A.D. one thousand nine hundred and fourteen.

Initials and seals of Sir H. McMahon, Chen I-fan, The Lönchen Shatra.

Schedule

Convention between Great Britain and China relating to Sikkim and Tibet, signed at Calcutta the 17th March 1890.
Convention between Great Britain and Tibet, signed at Lhasa the 7th September 1904.
Convention between Great Britain and China respecting Tibet, signed at Peking the 27th April 1906.

The notes exchanged are to the following effect:

It is understood by the High Contracting Parties that Tibet forms part of Chinese territory.

After the selection and installation of the Dalai Lama by the Tibetan Government, the latter will notify the installation to the Chinese Government, whose representative at Lhasa will then formally communicate to His Holiness the titles consistent with his dignity, which have been conferred by the Chinese Government.

It is also understood that the selection and appointment of all officers in Outer Tibet will rest with the Tibetan Government.

Outer Tibet shall not be represented in the Chinese Parliament or in any other similar body.

It is understood that the escorts attached to the British Trade Agencies in Tibet shall not exceed seventy-five per centum of the escort of the Chinese Representative at Lhasa.

The Government of China is hereby released from its engagements under Article III of the Convention of March 17, 1890, between Great Britain and China, to prevent acts of aggression from the Tibetan side of the Tibet-Sikkim frontier.

The Chinese high official referred to in Article IV will be free to enter Tibet as soon as the terms of Article III have been fulfilled to the satisfaction of representatives of the three signatories to this Convention, who will investigate and report without delay.

Initials and seals of Sir H. McMahon, Chen I-fan, The Lönchen Shatra.

Declaration appended to the 3 July 1914 text of the Simla Convention.

We, the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain and Tibet, hereby record the following Declaration to the effect that we acknowledge the annexed Convention as initialled to be binding on the Governments of Great Britain and Tibet, and we agree that so long as the Government of China withholds signature to the aforesaid Convention, she will be debarred from the enjoyment of all privileges accruing therefrom.

In token whereof we have signed and sealed this Declaration, two copies in English and two in Tibetan.

Done at Simla this third day of July, A.D. one thousand nine hundred and fourteen, corresponding with the Tibetan date, the tenth day of the fifth month of the Wood-Tiger year.

- Seal of the Dalai Lama
- A. HENRY MCMAHON, British Plenipotentiary
- Signature and seal of the Lönchen Shatra
- Seal of the British Plenipotentiary
- Seal of the Drepung Monastery
- Seal of the Sera Monastery
- Seal of the Gaden Monastery
- Seal of the National Assembly

http://www.tibet.freeserve.co.uk/simla.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Loss of the Titanic by C Dixon in the Graphic Supplement of 27 April 1914.



http://www.nmm.ac.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/faqs/ships-and-vessels/in-titanic-why-does-the-helmsman-turn-the-wheel-to-port
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leon Colins, Poster, 27 April 1915



http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/colins-leon-poster-27-april-1915
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henry Normand MacLaurin



Brigadier General Henry Normand MacLaurin (31 October 1878 - 27 April 1915) was a barrister and Australian Army Colonel who served in World War I. He was shot dead by a Turkish sniper at Gallipoli on 27 April 1915. (...)

World War I - On 15 August 1915, MacLaurin was appointed to the First Australian Imperial Force as a full Colonel and given command of the 1st Infantry Brigade.

MacLaurin was the youngest of the three original brigade commanders of the 1st Division, and more than ten years younger than any of his four battalion commanders. For a brigade major, he was given a British regular officer, Major Irvine of the Royal Engineers.

MacLaurin's brigade was the last to come ashore at Anzac Cove. By this time a crisis was developing and Major General Bridges was ordering units to fill gaps almost as soon as they arrived ashore.

During the afternoon of 27 April 1915, when a Turkish counterattack threatened, Major Irvine collected 200 stray men in Monash Valley and was about to send them forward when the news arrived that the need for them had passed. Irvine went up to Steele's Post, where he observed the positions. He was warned about Turkish snipers, but brushed off the warnings and was quoted as saying "It's my business to be shot at". Soon after he was fatally wounded by a sniper.

Less than ten minutes later, MacLaurin was standing on the slopes of the ridge that now bears his name. Unaware of Irvine's fate, MacLaurin was in the act of warning soldiers to keep under cover when he too was shot dead, from the same point, possibly by the same Turkish sniper.

MacLaurin was buried by his men near where he fell in a grave marked with a simple wooden cross. In 1919, his remains were moved to the 4th Battalion Parade Ground Cemetery, on the slopes of Braund's Hill. For his services at Gallipoli he was Mentioned in Despatches. Some weeks after his death, brigade commanders were upgraded from colonels to brigadier generals and MacLaurin was posthumously promoted to brigadier general.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Normand_MacLaurin
Afbeeldingen: http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/2visiting/graves/g_fourthbatt.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

27 April 1915 - Between 27 and 29 April, Turkish counter-attacks failed to drive the Anzacs into the sea. The small area of the Gallipoli peninsula that they now held became known as Anzac. The area on the southern tip of the peninsula, captured by British units on 25 April, became known as Helles.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/january-april-1915.html

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

28 April 1915 - Battalions of the Royal Naval Division began a temporary relief of Australian units at Anzac.

On 28 April, one shrapnel shell from the battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth, containing 24,000 bullets, wiped out a whole Turkish company as they charged against some demoralised British troops at Helles.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/april-may-1915.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Apr 2011 21:03, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

General Smith-Dorrien sacked

The French overall commander of the area was Général Ferdinand Foch (later to become supreme commander in 1918). Throughout the battle he kept pressing on his subordinate Général Putz the importance of attempting counter attacks, but with insufficient artillery support, none, of what seemed to be a number of half hearted attempts, came to anything much.

His counterpart, General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien came to realise that unless the French made some sort of real effort at their end of the line to push the Germans back and away from the canal there was little that his men could do, apart from contain them in front of Ieper.

With a new French offensive about to take place in Artois in which General Haig's 1st Army would be taking part, neither Général Joseph Joffre or the BEF's Commander in Chief, Sir John French wanted to commit more reserves in men, and certainly no more artillery rounds, than were deemed vital.

On 27th April 1915 following a lack of any great movement by the French and the high rate of casualties amongst the British in assisting a number of French no shows, Smith-Dorrien wrote a letter to his GOC.

He explains the general situation and the good work that had been done by the British in maintaining and holding the Germans back from the breach caused by the French retreat.

Then he starts to look at the stark realities of holding an extended position which was too easily open to attack, in particular if the French continued to give ground to his west at Lizerne.

If the French are not going to make a big push, the only line we can hold permanently and have a fair chance of keeping supplied, would be the GHQ line passing just east of Wieltje and Potijze...

...although I am preparing for the worst, I do not think that we have arrived at the time when it is necessary to adopt these measures.


There had always been a lot of animosity between Smith-Dorrien and his Commander in Chief (who had never wanted him in his army) and the letter gave Sir John an opening in effect to be simply vindictive.

That afternoon Smith-Dorrien received an open order (In other words everyone could read it) stating that he was to hand over the operations around Ieper to General Plumer.

All but the first thing that Plumer was tasked to carry out was to look at plans for moving to a better line of defence - in effect what Smith-Dorrien had been saying.

Général Foch was now forced to admit that because of the plans for the Artois offensive there would be no further French reinforcements and Plumer ended up having to retire anyway. By the 3rd May the British had taken up their new positions.

http://www.webmatters.net/belgium/ww1_ieper2_7.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Use of Poison Gas, New York Tribune, April 27, 1915

Boulogne, April 25.-- The gaseous vapor which the Germans used against the French divisions near Ypres last Thursday, contrary to the rules of The Hague Convention, introduces a new element into warfare. The attack of last Thursday evening was preceded by the rising of a cloud of vapor, greenish gray and iridescent. That vapor settled to the ground like a swamp mist and drifted toward the French trenches on a brisk wind. Its effect on the French was a violent nausea and faintness, followed by an utter collapse. It is believed that the Germans, who charged in behind the vapor, met no resistance at all, the French at their front being virtually paralyzed.

Everything indicates long and thorough preparation for this attack. The work of sending out the vapor was done from the advanced German trenches. Men garbed in a dress resembling the harness of a diver and armed with retorts or generators about three feet high and connected with ordinary hose pipe turned the vapor loose towards the French lines. Some witnesses maintain that the Germans sprayed the earth before the trenches with a fluid which, being ignited, sent up the fumes. The German troops, who followed up this advantage with a direct attack, held inspirators in their mouths, thus preventing them from being overcome by the fumes.

In addition to this, the Germans appear to have fired ordinary explosive shells loaded with some chemical which had a paralyzing effect on all the men in the region of the explosion. Some chemical in the composition of those shells produced violent watering of the eyes, so that the men overcome by them were practically blinded for some hours.

The effect of the noxious trench gas seems to be slow in wearing away. The men come out of their nausea in a state of utter collapse. Some of the rescued have already died from the aftereffects. How many of the men left unconscious in the trenches when the French broke died from the fumes it is impossible to say, since those trenches were at once occupied by the Germans.

This new form of attack needs for success a favorable wind. Twice in the day that followed the Germans tried trench vapor on the Canadians, who made on the right of the French position a stand which will probably be remembered as one of the heroic episodes of this war. In both cases the wind was not favorable, and the Canadians managed to stick through it. The noxious, explosive bombs were, however, used continually against the Canadian forces and caused some losses.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Use_of_Poison_Gas
Ook hier: http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/chemwar/doc1.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Apr 2011 21:07, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Photograph of men from the 2/5th Battalion Gloucestershire Regiment, with rifles, April 27, 1915



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4916?CISOBOX=1&REC=1
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4th Territorial Battalion - Northumberland Fusiliers - 1914-1918 - Battle of St Julien

Tuesday, 27th April 1915 - For the Northumberland Bde, the day passed practically without incident although enemy shelling did cause further losses in the 4th Bn. The Ypres Salient was now much smaller, more dangerous and subject to German artillery shelling from the south, east and north. Colonel G.P.T.Fielding, previously of the Coldstream Guards, arrived at 5pm and assumed command of the Bde.

L/Cpl John Ord was out searching for snipers who were firing on the stretcher-bearers:

“it was the most awful time of my life. They asked for volunteers and I went, as they could not get our wounded in. One of the wounded lads lay on the field all night, and when he was trying to get a drink from his water bottle the sniper shot him in the back. I helped to carry him in and we were shelled all the way, but we were fortunate in never being hit”. (Hexham Courant: 15 May 1915)

The 4th Bn remained in the Wieltje dugouts for the rest of the week, unable to venture out during daylight due to the continual artillery fire and for fear of snipers. This left them little to do other than improve the dugouts in which they were resting. It was however, an opportunity for the men to write home and attempt to describe the actions of the past few days to family and friends. During the first few weeks in Flanders many of these letters were published by the Hexham Courant and Herald newspapers. Censoring them prior to dispatch became a daily and time-consuming chore for platoon commanders.

Once darkness fell, the Bn began what was to become a routine for the rest of the war. A routine common to all infantry Bns held in support or reserve, that of providing parties of men to work under the supervision of the Divisional RE Coys. Typically these working parties were tasked with carrying raw materials from the supply dumps, digging and repairing trenches and erecting barbed wire entanglements. Many of these nocturnal outings involved hazardous treks over considerable distances, such as the one on the night of the 27th, recalled by Lt Bunbury:

"we went out again on a working expedition, and this time we went by a circuitous cross country route, so as to avoid the Germans favourite spots for dropping shells, to Hill 60, which was at this time in our possession. Got back to our dugouts about 2.30am, having had a pleasant little cross-country walk of about 8 or 10 miles”.

http://www.4thbnnf.com/22_150426_150429_stjulien.html#27th
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Offensive against Baby 700 Hill

Dominating the beach on which the Anzacs landed are two hills. British naval gunners estimated the smaller of the two to be some 700 feet high and named it Baby 700. Maps provided to the troops failed to show the strategic importance of Baby 700 or to reveal the nature of its terrain. The Anzacs sought to take Baby 700 within hours of landing. Caught in the treacherous ravines and steep gullies and on an unmapped open ridge, with the Turks firing down on them, line after line of Australians and New Zealanders were killed and wounded. Each side made ground and then lost it, until dusk when the Anzacs retreated to hold the lower spurs of the escarpment. The Turks held the heights. On 27 April 1915, the Turks launched a determined attack to push the Anzacs back to the beach but failed. A second Anzac attack on Baby 700 was ordered on the night of 2 May. The attack was poorly prepared and coordinated. A New Zealand battalion had been delayed and the Australian brigade leader, John Monash was not informed, with costly results. Turkish forces held off the attack; the Anzacs suffered heavily for no gain.

http://www.nla.gov.au/gallipolidespatches/1-02-baby_700_hill.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Easter Rising 1916: 27 April 1916

EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT - Alfred Fannin was owner of a medical supply business based in Grafton Street. From his home in Herbert Park, he kept a record of the week's events.

"Thursday, April 27th, after lunch - In the forenoon I was down at Morehampton Road shop. All there was normal but supplies somewhat limited. Afterwards down at Baggot St. (Upper). Many shops were closed and supplies in many were running out. No meat. Got the last Oxtongue and 2 Mutton Kidneys at Butchers, all meat commandeered by military. Carried home, 2 stone Potatoes and meat, everybody out carrying home their own stores."

Alfred Fannin, Letters from Dublin, Easter 1916

http://resources.teachnet.ie/dhorgan/2004/thursday.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the Consul in Aleppo (Roessler) to the Reichskanzler (Bethmann Hollweg)

Report - K. No. 47 / No. 1189 - Aleppo, 27 April 1916

I last reported to the Imperial Embassy on the deportation of the Armenians, its consequences and side effects on 9 February of this year – under K. No. 18 – and on 12th of this month – under No. 1033 – I submitted a certain questionnaire completed by Sister B. Rohner, destined for Dr. Vischer in Basle. The people have continued dying since then. Many of the individual occurrences obediently listed below demonstrate that it is intended to bring about their annihilation.

1) Around the middle of February all children were brought from Killis to Bab, after the women had been previously deported.

2) On 16 April, the Armenians who had "resettled” in Maarra and the surrounding villages, most of whom were already considerably weakened by hunger and deprivation, were sent on in the direction of Der-el-Zor.

3) On 19 April, it became known here that the order had been given to likewise deport those 9000 Armenians in Marash who had been spared up until then and were the remainder of former 24000. During the first exile campaign, these people had sold their only belongings while carrying out the order to get ready to go on the road and since then have been severely weakened by deprivation. The implementation of the order has commenced. 120 families arrived in Aintab by 25 April, from where they are to continue to Der-el-Zor via Biredjik. On 26th or 27th a second, larger contingent is expected in Aintab.

4) As I learned on 20 April from a Turkish officer on his way from Der-el-Zor, the Mutesarrif of Der-el-Zor has received the order only to leave as many Armenians there as correspond to 10% of the local population, but to send the rest on to Mosul. The local population of Der-el-Zor could be perhaps 20000. The number of Armenians sent there is assessed at being at least 15000, so that a minimum of 13000 will have to be turned away. The Mutesarrif Suad Bey, a humane kind of person who lived in Egypt for many years, is one of the few Turkish officials who tries to mitigate the horrific orders of the government in their implementation. Nevertheless, the officer was of the opinion that the largest part of the unfortunate people would have to be deported and only very few of them would ever arrive in Mosul. Those who happen to be spared by the Bedouins, Yesidis and Kurds, will be reduced considerably in number by hunger, deprivation and illness.

News received on 19 April told us that in every station between Aleppo and Der-el-Zor, i.e. in Meskené, Abu Hrere, Hamam, Sabkha, 50–100 people are dying every day, most of them as a result of hunger.

5) On 6 April it became known to us here that massacres had occurred again near Ras-ul-Ain. One piece of news said that the largest part of the concentration camp, consisting of 14000 people, had been destroyed, whereas, according to another communication, 400 families had been led out of the camp and murdered en route. After hearing the results of the reliable enquiries of a German who spent several days in Ras-ul-Ain and surrounding areas and paid a visit to me upon his return from there on 22 April, I am forced to assume the following: the camp can now only consist of 2000 exiles. For a period of one whole month, 300 to 500 of them have been led out of the camp daily or almost daily and massacred about 10 kms away from Ras-ul-Ain. The bodies were thrown into the river, which is recorded on the large map by Kiepert of Asia Minor, on the page for Nisebin (D VI), as Djirdjib el Hamar, and which at that time of year was running very high. A Turkish officer who, because of these occurrences, was taking the Kaymakam of Ras-ul-Ain to task, received the calm answer that he was acting on orders. The communications and supply route of the 6th Army from Ras-ul-Ain to Mosul leads through that area. As the building of two bridges proved to be necessary at that point, but the 6th Army did not have enough people at hand to build them, the 4th Army delivered a Syrian Muslim pioneer battalion for this purpose about 15 April. These people, who were transported in two days from Damascus to Ras-ul-Ain and who did not know anything about the plight of the deported Armenians and, as it can be presumed, were not influenced along the way, were quite horrified upon their arrival. They were of the opinion that the Armenians had been massacred by soldiers. This again demonstrates the common belief that the act had been done under orders. In any case, this was the opinion generally widespread in the area. The executioners in the massacre near Ras-ul-Ain were members of the Circassian tribe of Chechens that had taken up residence nearby.

6) At the end of February or the beginning of March, the Armenians in the labour battalion in Aleppo were recommended to convert to the Islamic faith, partly with success. In the course of the month of March, the police compiled lists of the Armenians in Aleppo in preparation for deportation and spread the word that the only way of being spared from deportation was the conversion to Islam. When, as a result of this, a number of families went through with the conversion, they were treated as if the granting of permission for conversion were a special mercy. They were therefore deterred again, whether through fearing unwelcome attention, whether the recommendation to convert came from other authorities than those responsible, and finally, whether they found enjoyment in playing a game of cat and mouse with the Armenians.

7) In Aleppo, in March and the first half of April, not only were the Armenians severely hunted down who had come from elsewhere and were severely hunted down, but also the deportation of those Armenians who were living here began. Individual women and girls were also picked up in the streets and this condition was utilised by the organs of the government, who committed arbitrary acts. It would not have been surprising if the Armenians, whose religion and the honour of their wives had been violated by such deeds, had been driven to acts of despair.

Since 18 April, some peace has set in in Aleppo and it seems that this was due to the intervention of the Imperial Embassy. This induced the Minister of the Interior to give the order to the local authorities not to deport local residents, nor Catholics and Protestants. The form in which the Vali arranged for respite, was his promise to the local priesthood to grant mercy during the Easter celebrations. I myself do not dare yet to hope that the period of respite may last a long time or even that the danger is over. And despite the promise, some individuals have still been deported on the quiet.

I will be sending a copy of this report to the Imperial Embassy.

http://www.armenocide.net/armenocide/armgende.nsf/0c76997d4b06a9d5c125779400679c97/2ce1bacf031ecf59c12568f30059b285!OpenDocument
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leon Colins, Poster, 25-27 April [1916]



http://digitalrussell.mcmaster.ca/colins-leon-poster-25-27-april-1916
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lord Kitchener

27th April 1916 - Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary of State for War, asks for American military participation in Europe.

http://www.worldwar-1.net/
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Railway Pass for recruits for George Albert Faulkner, 27th April 1917



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9329?REC=1
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE FOUNDATIONS OF COLONIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT.
BY SIR JOHN LI. CTCONNELL, M.A., LL.D.

[Bead, April 27th, 1917].

The assembling of representatives of the self-governing
Dominions and of India for the Second Imperial Conference,
which is now taking place in London, has suggested to me
the propriety of inviting the attention of this Society to the
foundations and development of the constitutions of the
self-governing Communities of the Empire and their relations,
both fiscal and constitutional, with the Imperial
Government. I approach this inspiring subject with much
diffidence, because I am conscious that some of the questions
which present themselves require for their discussion
a familiarity with constitutional law and principles and a
knowledge of Colonial history, which I do not possess. In
spite of these difficulties in my task, and conscious of my
inability to discharge it adequately, I venture to lay before
you this evening a summary of the constitutions under which
what I may describe as our greater Colonies have made such
amazing progress in population and in material prosperity,
because it seems to me that there never was a time when
full and accurate knowledge of the principles and development
of Colonial Self-Government was so necessary as it
is to-day.

http://www.tara.tcd.ie/bitstream/2262/4098/1/jssisiVolXIII419_459.pdf
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home

This blog is derived from letters home from Paul Hills during the first World War.

Letter written April 27, 1918
Dear Mother-: I am really dreadfully ashamed and sorry about the way I have not been writing lately but it has been absolutely impossible. Just why I can’t tell you now but there has been no chance. Also I haven’t had any word from you for nearly a month but that has been for the same reason. I have been almost continuously on the move and when I was still, so far separated from things that the mail has had no chance to catch up to me.

I am now in a part of France I have never been in before and a very pretty and interesting one, particularly so now for it is really spring and the whole country is a mass of green fields and apple blossoms. The battery is just now resting but that isn’t at all as it sounds for rest means simply one grand clean up, clean out and adjustment, which keeps everyone more busy than they ever were at the front. I rather hope tho now we stay at it for a little while as I would like very much to write a few letters and see what I have left of my personal equipment.

I can’t understand your not having gotten my letters. I wrote you at least twice a week or more all of February and March. I have heard from Hunt (Talmage, a Princeton friend with whom he first entered the ambulance service in April, 1917) lately, that is comparatively lately. He went home for Xmas and somehow didn’t manage to come back. He gave up his position in the embassy hunting for a commission in the army and now being out of everything is very sore. If you get a chance, look him up in N.Y. as he could tell you some very interesting things and would be glad to. He is still at the Ritz. This is about all now. Good bye, With love, Paul

http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008/11/letter-written-april-27-1918.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leslie's Weekly 1918-04-27



An angry Uncle Sam is at bat, as a baseball with the face of the Kaiser on it is just about to get blasted out of the park.

http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/massweeklies/lesliesweekly/LesliesWeekly1918-04-27.jpg.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Centrum, 27 april 1918
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Aan het Duitsche volk...

... is door het Dagelijks Bestuur van den Bond van Neutrale Landen een manifest gericht, waarvan we den inhoud geheel voor rekening laten van dit Bestuur. Daar dit Bestuur evenwel bestaat uit vooraanstaande mannen, – onze groote bouwmeester Dr. Cuypers is eere-voorzitter – mogen we dit document niet verzwijgen.

Het manifest luidt als volgt:

"Als vrije Nederlanders richten wij het woord tot u. Wij achten het onzen plicht u te wijzen op den indruk, dien de jongste daden, door uwe machthebbers verricht of met hunne medeplichtigheid gepleegd, in de gansche wereld moeten maken. Opnieuw is het Armenische volk aan de Turken uitgeleverd. De moordtooneelen van 1915 zijn hervat. In dat jaar is Turksch-Armenië bijna volkomen uitgemoord, voor zoover de bevolking niet kon wegvluchten en voor zoover de vrouwen en meisjes niet door de Turken werden geroofd.

Meer dan een half millioen Armeniërs zijn toen omgekomen. Misschien twee honderdduizend slaagden er in op Russisch grondgebied te vluchten. Dat gebied is thans met instemming van uwe regeering en die van Oostenrijk-Hongarije aan de Turken uitgeleverd. Reeds zijn hun troepen binnengetrokken in de streken die de Russische legers bezet hebben gehouden. Reeds zijn te Trebizonde, te Samsoen, te Oerfa en elders de moorden en martelingen hervat. Nooit is in eenig vredesverdrag een zoo afgrijselijke bepaling opgenomen als die van den vrede van Brest-Litouwsk, waarbij de Russische provinciën Kars, Batoem en Ardaken aan de Turken werden ten prooi gegeven. Door die vredesbepaling werd opnieuw over honderdduizenden het vonnis van marteling en dood uitgesproken; voor tallooze vrouwen en meisjes bracht zij den gruwel der onteering.

Paul Rohrbach heeft in zijn "Weltpolitisches Wonderbuch", dat in 1916 verscheen zijn afkeuring uitgesproken over de moorden op de Armeniërs in Adana in 1909. Die woorden van afkeuring zijn door uwe censuur geschrapt.

En hoe weinig beteekenden die moordtooneelen, vergeleken met het uitmoorden van een gansch volk, in 1915, met medeplichtigheid van sommige Duitschers aangericht, maar waarover andere Duitschers, die ooggetuigen waren, schande hebben geroepen. Terwijl in het Oosten zulke dingen gebeuren, beschieten uwe kanonnen Parijs. Niet tijdens eene belegering, waarbij de val der stad van beteekenis zou kunnen zijn, maar op een wijze, die geen ander effect kan hebben, dan het dooden der weerloozen en misschien het vernietigen van eenige der schoone gebouwen en monumenten, welke den roem van Europa uitmaken. Deze wilde, nuttelooze beschieting van een centrum der beschaafde wereld, is een kaakslag aan die wereld zelve, een kaakslag ook voor de ontelbare duizenden uwer eigen landslieden, die deze oude en schitterende stad liefhadden, om haar schoonheid en historische waarde en die zichzelven moeten afvragen, welke na den oorlog de plaats zal zijn van de Duitsche natie, die er niet kan berusten voor goed van de overige wereld vervreemd te blijven.

Wij hebben geprotesteerd tegen de verdrukking en leegplundering van België en Noord-Frankrijk; tegen de deportatie hunner bewoners en tegen het te werk stellen van mannen, vrouwen en kinderen, voor oorlogsdoeleinden, tot vlak achter de frontlinie, wat nog heden ten dage geschiedt."

Wij hebben geprotesteerd tegen het deporteeren en vermoorden der Serviërs door Oostenrijkers, Hongaren en Bulgaren; tegen het doen verdringen van honderden weerlooze zeelieden, vrouwen en kinderen door uwe duikbooten.

Wij verheffen opnieuw onze stem en achten het temeer onzen plicht, dat op dit oogenblik te doen, nu uwe vijanden onze schepen hebben gerequieerd, om u beter te kunnen bestrijden.

Juist nu is het de tijd om het u zelven te zeggen: Meen niet, dat wij, Nederlanders, zoo verdorven zijn, om gehoor te geven aan de stemmen, die ons zouden willen misleiden omtrent ons waarachtig belang, dat gelijk is aan dat der menschheid.

wij moeten ons verheugen, dat onze schepen zullen gaan varen tot redding van het door de barbaarsche bevelen van uwe militaire gezagshebbers geteisterde Frankrijk. Hoe meer zij varen des te eer zullen nieuwe vruchtboomen geplant worden in het schoone, thans door uwe opperste legerleiding in een woestijn herschapen Picardië, waar zij er al duizenden heeft laten omhakken, zonder eenige oorlogsnoodzaak. Hoe meer zij varen, des te vroeger zal het uur der bevrijding slaan voor België en Elzas-Lotheringen, voor Polen en Lithauen, voor de Lijflanders, voor de Slaven en Roemenen van het Donaurijk, voor Serven en Armeniërs of voor wat er van de arme volken zal zijn overgebleven.

Prins Willem van Oranje, de held in onzen vrijheidsoorlog, was een ernstig christen en spaarzaam met het openlijk aanroepen van het Opperwezen. Tot God richtte hij zich in het uur van zijn dood. Zijn laatste woorden waren een bede om hulp voor het volk, dat hij den zwaren weg naar de vrijheid had gewezen.

Die bede herhalen wij voor de volken thans door Duitschers en Turken, door Hongaren en Bulgaren geknecht.

U, Duitschers, wenschen wij toe, dat de schellen u van de oogen mogen vallen voor het voor goed te laat is, en de gansche wereld zal opstaan tegen de verdrukking waartoe uwe machthebbers zich opmaken. Zeer spoedig zult gij tot inkeer dienen te komen, indien gij nog iets wilt trachten te heroveren van de eer, die men u vroeger toedroeg en die gij thans verloren hebt.

Uwe leiders willen u de hegemonie in Europa verschaffen. Dat zal nooit gelukken, ondanks alle militaire overwinningen. De menschheid is te ver gevorderd, om zich opnieuw een juk te laten opleggen zooals dat, waaronder de verdragen van Brest-Litowsk de volken van Oost-Europa willen brengen.

Uwe leiders hebben u tot de nachtmerrie der beschaafde wereld verlaagd.

Bevrijd uzelven. Dit is de eenige weg om u voor een volkomen verderf te behoeden."

Het dagelijksch bestuur van den
BOND VAN NEUTRALE LANDEN.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/CE-27-4-1918.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CZECHOSLOVAK LEGION IN ITALY

Only at the beginning of 1917 were Czech and Slovak prisoners (concerning their nationality) allocated to the camp of Santa Maria Capua Vetere at Naples. On 17th January 1917 the Czechoslovak Volunteer corps was founded there, with Sokol functionary J. Čapek being in the lead.

Czech prisoners reported for Italian combat units with the aim to form their own Czechoslovak Units there. They were inspired by heroic deeds of Czechoslovak spies who succeeded in joining the Italian Corps. Italian Government, however, postponed forming Czechoslovak units and allowed to create working battalions for war purposes only.

As a result to Italian defeat at Caporetto in October 1917 and following a diplomatic insistence by Gen. M.R. Štefánik , on 27th April 1918 it was allowed to establish Czechoslovak Armed Forces in Italy. General A. Graziani was appointed the commander.

Finally, there was a Czechoslovak division in Italy. It consisted of the 31st, 32nd, 33rd, 34th Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment /the 35th and 39th Regiment came into existence in September/. Italian King Vittorio Emanuele III also participated in the festive parade of Czechoslovak division. On 24th May 1918 our legionnaires were presented with a banner which had been embroidered by ladies of Rome.

In mid-August 1918 the division moved to the front in the area between the Gardsk Lake and the river Adiz. It got involved in the fights for Doss Alto . It experienced difficult combat situations in the trenches as well as in "caverns".

Almost 20.000 men were assigned to the legions in Italy, out of which 350 were killed. Several dozens of them lost their lives being executed after they were taken prisoners.

http://cslegie.wz.cz/AJ/italieAJ.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lankhof Farm Bunkers



Built in a group of seven and located at Lankhof Farm in the Ypres Salient are a series of seven excellently preserved bunkers. They were built on a small island set aside from the farm (which was formerly surrounded by a moat).

The farm was in constant use by British artillery and infantry units throughout the war and was referred to as the Lankhof Battery. The Messines Ridge - in German hands - was bombarded from this position prior to the opening of the Battle of Messines on 7 June 1917. The bunkers were captured by the German Army during the great Spring advance on 27 April 1918 in spite of fierce British opposition.

The bunkers, while visible from the farm's driveway, cannot be viewed up close given that they lie on private land (used for grazing by farm animals).

However the farmer occasionally grants special permission for visitors to inspect the bunkers.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/today/lankhoffarmbunkers.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sopwith Salamander



The Sopwith TF.2 Salamander was a British World War I ground attack aircraft which first flew in April 1918. The war ended before the type could enter squadron service, although two were in France in October 1918.

By 1917, the use of close support aircraft had become an essential part of an infantry attack. On the German side, specialist aircraft were designed specifically for the task, such as the Halberstadt CL.II and the armored Junkers J.I – the British however relied for this work on ordinary fighters such as the DH 5, and the Camel, and general purpose two seaters such as the F.K.8. Ground fire took a heavy toll of aircrew involved, and an equivalent to the armored German machines was sought. The first British aircraft to be built specifically for "ground strafing", as close support was known, was an armored version of the Camel, known by the company as the "TF.1" (for "trench fighter"). This did not go into production, but information gained in testing it was used for the Salamander design.
[Read more]

Design of the Salamander, conceived as an armored version of the Sopwith Snipe, began in January 1918. The forward portion of the fuselage was a 650 lb (295 kg) box of armor plate. The rear portion was a generally similar structure to the Snipe's, but flat sided, to match the forepart. The wings and tail unit were identical with the Snipe, and the same Bentley BR2 rotary engine was fitted. This was protected by a standard (unarmored) cowling – the foremost armor plate forming the firewall.

Originally an armament of three Lewis guns was planned, as for the TF.I. Two would have fired forward and downwards through the cockpit floor, while a third would have fired upwards. In the event a conventional battery of two synchronised Vickers guns was mounted in front of the cockpit, as on the Snipe, although they were staggered, the starboard gun being mounted a few inches forward of the port one.

The prototype underwent its initial trials in April 1918 [27 April 1918], and was sent to France for evaluation on 9 May, but subsequently crashed on 19 May during test program while with No. 65 Squadron when the pilot had to avoid a tender crossing the aerodrome responding to another crash. . By this time four prototypes were flying, undergoing many of the same modifications to the tail and ailerons as the Snipe in order to correct the initially rather heavy and unresponsive controls.

Production was intended to be on a very large scale – The Air Navigation Co., Glendower Aircraft, and Palladium Motors all signed contracts to supply Salamanders, as well as the Sopwith company itself. By the end of the war, however, only 37 Salamanders were on RAF charge, and only two of these were in France. None had as yet been issued to an operational squadron.

With the Armistice, the immediate need for a specialist close support aircraft evaporated, and no squadron was ever fully equipped with the type, which had disappeared from RAF service altogether by the mid 1920s. The type was not developed, but was used in trials of various patterns of disruptive camouflage in the early post war years. One example went to America, and was apparently still in existence at McCook Field in 1926.

http://www.wwiaviation.com/british1918.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Interior of a Ward on a British Ambulance Train. Near Doullens, 27 April 1918.



http://rgcrompton.info/crompton/1805info4b.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Offensive in Flanders. French and British wounded having their wounds dressed in a British Ambulance Train near Doullens. 27 April 1918.



http://rgcrompton.info/crompton/1805info4b.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Offensive in Flanders. French and British wounded having their wounds dressed at No.29 Casualty Clearing Station, Gezaincourt. 27 April 1918.



http://rgcrompton.info/crompton/1805info4b.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The once magnificent centre of Ypres, with its cathedral and thirteenth century Cloth Hall 27th April 1918.



http://www.warpoetry.co.uk/end_First_World_War.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Apr 2011 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Limerick Soviet


Money printed by the Limerick Soviet.

The Limerick Soviet (Irish: Sóivéid Luimnigh) was a self-declared soviet that existed from 15 to 27 April 1919. At the beginning of the Irish War of Independence, a general strike was organised by the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the British army's declaration of a "Special Military Area" under the Defence of the Realm Act, which covered of most of Limerick city and a part of the county.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limerick_Soviet
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Ga naar Pagina 1, 2  Volgende
Pagina 1 van 2

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group