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19 April
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Apr 2006 5:45    Onderwerp: 19 April Reageer met quote

April 19

1919 Discussion of Italian claims begins at Paris peace conference

On April 19, 1919, the Saturday before Easter, tense and complicated negotiations begin at the Paris peace conference over Italy’s claims to territory in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.

“The Italians must somehow be mollified,” wrote Britain’s foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, “and the only question is how to mollify them at the smallest cost to mankind.” Italy had agreed to enter World War I in the spring of 1915 after the Entente promised to fulfill its national dream and give it undisputed control over the land around its northeastern border, including the Tyrol region, where many Italians then lived under Austro-Hungarian control. When the actual Treaty of London—which committed Italy to join the war on the side of the Allies—was drawn up in April 1915, however, the Allies had thrown in far more territory from Austria-Hungary, including parts of Dalmatia and numerous islands along the Adriatic coast, as well as the Albanian port city of Vlore (Italian: Valona) and territory from the Ottoman Empire. The Italian delegation in Paris, led by Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando and Sidney Sonnino, Italy’s foreign minister, had argued from the beginning of the conference that they considered the Treaty of London to be a solemn, binding agreement that should dictate the terms of the peace.

For their part, the British and French by 1919 deeply regretted making such promises. They felt that Italy had done little to contribute to the Allied victory: its army had delayed and then bungled their attack on Austria-Hungary, its ships had not honored their promise to patrol the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas and its government had repeatedly asked the other Allies for resources that it then refused to put into the war effort. A British diplomat reported from the conference that the delegates’ attitude toward Italy “has been one of supreme contempt up to now and now it is one of extreme annoyance. They all say that the signal for an armistice was the signal for Italy to begin the fight.”

The formation in December 1918 of a Yugoslav state caused more strain between Italy and its allies at the peace conference. Britain and France supported this new state, and wanted Italy to see that its former claims on South Slav territory and Dalmatia no longer made sense. The Italian government, driven by public opinion among its people, was unwilling to give up these claims, and was firmly opposed to recognition of the new Yugoslav state at the peace conference. Britain and France reluctantly obliged, and were prepared to honor the Treaty of London, although they resented it. The American president, Woodrow Wilson, however, felt differently. He proclaimed that the United States would recognize no such secret treaties (though he had been shown the Treaty of London during the war, he claimed not to remember having seen it) and held fast to his professed dedication to the self-determination of the Yugoslavs, refusing to bend to many of Italy’s demands, including, most sensationally, its claims on Fiume, a small port city on the Adriatic Sea, where Slavs slightly outnumbered the Italian inhabitants.

The negotiations that opened April 19 were intended to last six days. Orlando and Sonnino held firm, warning the other delegates of the possibility of civil war in Italy if their demands were not met and pointing to the escalating conflicts between the radicalizing Socialist Party and the nationalist right with their armed fasci di combattimenti. Resistance to the Italian claims was fierce, led by Wilson, who wrote a statement arguing that the Treaty of London must be set aside and reminding Italy that it should be satisfied with receiving the territory of the Trentino and the Tyrol, where the majority of the population was Italian.

On April 24, the day after Wilson’s statement was published, the Italian delegation left Paris and returned to Rome, where they were met with a frenzied demonstration of patriotism and anti-Americanism. This incident threatened the entire conference, as the German delegation was about to arrive in Paris to receive their terms. The Italians did not return to the negotiations until May 5, joining the deliberations with Germany late; in the final Treaty of Versailles, signed in June, they nonetheless received a permanent seat on the League of Nations, the Tyrol and a share of the German reparations.

Many Italians were bitterly disappointed with their post-war lot, however, and conflict continued over Fiume and other territories in the Adriatic. In September 1919, the poet, playwright and rabid nationalist Gabriele D’Annunzio—who had coined the phrase “mutilated victory” in reference to the peace negotiations in Paris—and his supporters seized Fiume. They remained there some 15 months in complete defiance of the Italian government before Italy and Yugoslavia finally reached an agreement in November 1920, settling the boundaries between the two countries and making Fiume a free state. Benito Mussolini, the future fascist dictator, watched and waited during this period, learning much from D’Annunzio’s charismatic example.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 13:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

German retirement in Alsace.

Fighting for Hill 60.

Sir John French denies that the British have made use of poison gas.

Southern Front

Austrians bombard Sep (near the Iron Gates).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Germans evacuate Keetmanshoop (German south-west Africa).

Political, etc.

Germany expresses regret for sinking of "Katwyk".
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 13:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: Germans fail in three attacks at Les Eparges.

Germans capture two craters at St. Eloi and positions north of Langemarck-Ypres.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Field Marshal von der Goltz Pasha assassinated by Albanian officer in Asia Minor.

Naval and Overseas Operations

South African forces take Kondoa Irangi (German East Africa).

Political, etc.

Cabinet crisis on manpower question reported.
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1917
Western Front

French capture Fort of Conde (east of Soissons, on Aisne) and three villages, and capture Le Teton (in Moronvillers massif) and village of Auberive.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Second Battle of Gaza. Heavy fighting and much ground gained, but, owing to severe losses, attack not pushed through.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Admital Kolchak (Commander of Black Sea fleet) appointed Commander in Chief of Baltic Fleet.

Political, etc.

Speech of Mr. Fisher (Minister of Education), re: educational reform.

Senor G. Prieto (Marquis of Alhucemas) succeeds Count Romanones as Spanish Premier.

U.S.A. announces food policy: provision for Allies before neutrals; and seizes German liner docks in New York.

Pastry restrictions in France.

"Kadaver-Verwertungs-Anstalt" question.
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1918
Western Front

Scarpe river British capture prisoners and machine guns.

Position restored at Givenchy.

Sharp fighting at Robecq.

North of Merville heavy shelling, but no infantry attacks.

Eastern Front

Ukraine: Germans report occupation of two stations of main Sevastopol line.

Southern Front

Asiago Plateau: Successful minor action by British announced.

Macedonia: British withdraw from positions in Struma valley occupied on 15th.

Political, etc.

British Government announces right of search re: Dutch convoy of 16 April.

U.S.A. State Department says American landing in Vladivostok is merely police precaution.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 13:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919
Aftermath of War

No news reported.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 13:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 April, 1916
Wilson on the Sussex Case
United States, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., House Document 1034.

President Wilson's remarks before Congress concerning the German attack on the unarmed Channel steamer Sussex on March 24, 1916.
...I have deemed it my duty, therefore, to say to the Imperial German Government, that if it is still its purpose to prosecute relentless and indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the use of submarines, notwithstanding the now demonstrated impossibility of conducting that warfare in accordance with what the Government of the United States must consider the sacred and indisputable rules of international law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity, the Government of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion that there is but one course it can pursue; and that unless the Imperial German Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of warfare against passenger and freight carrying vessels this Government can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the Government of the German Empire altogether.

This decision I have arrived at with the keenest regret; the possibility of the action contemplated I am sure all thoughtful Americans will look forward to with unaffected reluctance. But we cannot forget that we are in some sort and by the force of circumstances the responsible spokesmen of the rights of humanity, and that we cannot remain silent while those rights seem in process of being swept utterly away in the maelstrom of this terrible war. We owe it to a due regard to our own rights as a nation, to our sense of duty as a representative of the rights of neutrals the world over, and to a just conception of the rights of mankind to take this stand now with the utmost solemnity and firmness....
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson_on_the_Sussex_Case
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 14:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

19 april 1915 - De soldaten lichting 1915 vertrokken om 08.29u vanuit Baarle-Nassau met de trein naar het consulaat-generaal in Vlissingen om van daaruit Engeland te bereiken. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 April 1915 - Life in Ypres

In spite of the fact that the front line was only a few kilometres from the eastern side of Ypres, many hundreds of inhabitants were still living in the historic mediaeval town and its surrounding villages. Restaurants, cafés and shops were still trading and doing good business with the large influx of Allied soldiers.

Up to this point in time the town and the area immediately around it had not been seriously affected by damage from artillery or infantry fighting.

The weather in mid April 1915 was warm and sunny. Farmers were tilling their fields close up to the fighting zone and trees and plants were coming into bloom.

War Diary of the Ypres Town Major

The Town Major was Lieutenant-Colonel E B Hankey. He had arrived in Ypres on 12 April to take over the duties of Town Major. During the Battle of Gheluvelt at the end of October 1914 Major Hankey, as he was then, had played a prominent role in the defence of Ypres.

At the Town Major's office in the Rue Carlton his Staff comprised a Belgian interpreter, a Sanitary Officer from the British Royal Army Medical Corps, a Service APM, an Acting Garrison Sgt. Major, a clerk and an orderly. Two lieutenants were also attached to the Staff from the General Headquarters' Intelligence Department.

With reference to the situation in the town of Ypres as the German artillery began to bombard it, Lieutenant-Colonel Hankey wrote the following in the War Diary:

"19th: The town was bombarded from 10am to 12.30pm. Casualties amongst the inhabitants: 9 killed, 8 wounded. I made arrangements for Belgian travailleurs to be employed permanently on the road near town drinking water supply which was getting very bad." (1)

Damage to British Rear Areas

British units billeted in farms only a few kilometres to the east of Ypres had suffered intermittant shelling from German artillery from late March. This photograph was taken in the Hooge area to the south east of Ypres (3).

Acknowledgements
(1) War Diary of the 5th Army Corps, DA & QMG for the month of April 1915 dated 30/4/15: ref. WO95/4048: Public Record Office
(2) IWM neg. no. Q 61659 (Norman F Ellison collection): photograph by kind permission of the Imperial War Museum Department of Photographs
(3) IWM neg. no. Q 61612 (Norman F Ellison collection): photograph by kind permission of the Imperial War Museum Department of Photographs


Ga voor foto's naar http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/ypbomb19.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World Aviation in 1915

19 April - After making a forced landing behind enemy lines Lieutenant Roland Garros is captured by the Germans and the details of the machine-gun deflector arrangement are studied by his captors.

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/aviation%20timeline/1915.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 14:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Krantenknipsels Emmer-Courant 1911-1918

Advertentie, 19 april 1916
Zoo de Heer wil en zij leven hoopen onze geliefde Ouders Bernard Rudolf Seulman en Anna Geertruida Bruins op Vrijdag 21 April a.s. hunne 25-jarige Echtvereniging te herdenken.

Heengesneld zijn Uwe jaren,
Op oneffen wegen voort;
God moge U nog sparen
Ja, nog vele jaren voort.
Had gij vaak met zorg te kampen,
Zorgen voor het dagelijks brood,
Wil daarom, ouders, U verblijden
Dat gij getrouwd zijt 25 Jaar,
Ja Vader en Moeder, wij, verklaren,
in dit gedicht onz' dankbaarheid,
Dat wij na 25 jaar,
Nog allen zijn bij elkaar,
Wij allen onderteekenaren,
Leef lang nog wat ons zaam verblijd.


Dit is de wensch van Uwe Kinderen: Heinrich Suelman, Helena Suelman, Angela Suelman, Anna Suelman, Agnes Suelman, Catharina Suelman, Alijda Suelman, Maria Suelman.

Barger-Compascuum, 21 April 1916.

http://www.xs4all.nl/~fjmblom/krantenknipsels_Emmer-Courant1916.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 14:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De verschrikkingen van Verdun

Ook het Franse kamp was in moeilijkheden. Joffre voelde dat met Petains eisen van steeds nieuwe versterkingen - die Petain slechts zag als een noodzakelijke roulatie van de troepen - 'het gehele Franse leger door deze gevechten opgeslokt zou worden', en Petain bereidde zelfs geen enkel offensief voor. Op 19 april [1916] besloot hij daarom Petain te promoveren tot commandant van de centrale legergroep in plaats van de Langle de Cary en de zelfverzekerde, welbespraakte Nivelle die aan het hoofd van het Franse 3e corps bij Verdun stond, het commando over het 2e leger te geven. Deze verandering werd bewerkstelligd op de Ie mei, waarbij Petain de indirecte leiding behield van de operaties vanuit het legerhoofdkwartier bij Bar-le-Duc. Hij vond het niet prettig, want hij vreesde een toename van slachtpartijen die hij niet zou kunnen tegen houden.
Nivelle stond echter onder invloed van zijn commandant van de 5e divisie, Mangin - 'de slachter', zoals hij door zijn soldaten genoemd werd. Mangin was een hard officier die in de koloniën gediend had en het idee van de herovering van Fort Douaumont obsedeerde hem.

http://www.verdun.nl/La%20Bataille%20de%2016.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

19th April [1916] - A lot of shelling. Few casualties from a chance shell. About 250 men on a fatigue under instruction of the RE.

Deduced casualties, determined from other sources: 12731 Pte Charles Christy, a native of Liverpool, killed in action on 19 April 1916 in the Calonne trenches. He is buried in Loos British Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second battle of Gaza, 17-19 April 1917

The second battle of Gaza, 17-19 April 1917, was the second British attempt to capture Gaza in under a week. The first attempt, on 26-2 March, had come close to success before a lack of information forced the British commander, General Dobell, to cancel the attack. The British failure encouraged the Turks to make a stand at Gaza. (...)

The second stage of the attack came on 19 April. The 53rd Division attacked along the coast. To its right the 52nd Division attacked along the Es Sire ridge toward the Ali Muntar ridge. On the right the 54th Division attacked the redoubts south east of Gaza. Once the 54th Division had cleared the redoubts, it was to wheel to the left and attack the Ali Muntar Ridge.

The bombardment began at 7.15 am. The first infantry attack, along the coast, began at 7.15am, and at 7.30am the 52nd and 54th divisions joined in. The attack was a total failure. At no point were the Turkish lines seriously threatened. The 54th division made the most progress. One tank reached the second redoubt out from Gaza and held part of the line for a short period, but there was no opportunity to expand the area held, and the British were soon forced back. Elsewhere part of the same division reached the Turkish front line, but could not capture it.

The attack was broken off in the early evening. Both commanders planned further attacks on 20 April. Dobell cancelled his planned attacks as more information came in about the days fighting, while Kress was overruled by Djemal Pasha, the Turkish minister of marine and governor of Palestine and Syria. The British had suffered 6,444 casualties during the attack, half of them in the 54th division. Turkish losses were much lower, at only 2,000.

Rickard, J (2 September 2007), Second battle of Gaza, 17-19 April 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_gazaII.html
Zie ook: http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=72260 en http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Gaza
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS, 19 APRIL 1917

APPEALS re EXEMPTIONS

AUCKLAND - ADAMS, Charles C, seaman, Mako; ANDERSON, David, seaman; ASHTON, Guy B, Whangateau; BLAYNEY, Thomas, Morningside; BRYAN, Frank Claude, Wairamarama; CARMICHAEL, Hugh J, seaman, ex Te Anau; CATER, Claude, dispatch clerk, Kingsland; CHRISTIE, Thomas, farmer, Kopaki; COLEBOURNE, H, Khyber Pass; COLEBOURNE, Horatio, Arawa St; COURT, David Kirk, Lincoln St; CRAWLEY, Thos. G, Sussex St; CROSS, Harry, seaman; DALY, William E, farmer, Piopio; DARRACH, Hugh Alexander, farmer, Mahurangi; DAVENPORT, Herbert B, farmer, Te Kuiti; DEED, Guylotte H J, in camp; DENNIS, Albert E, bushman; DILLY, David, apprentice, Mt Eden; DOUGLASS, Percy J, Grey Lynn; DRIFFELL, Charles C, seaman, Daphne; DUNN, Ernest C, dairy farmer, Naumai; DUTHIE, Alan K, solicitor; EDWARDS, Thomas Charles, iron worker, Archhill; EVANS, William Henry, Houhora; FINNIS, Stanley Alwyn, farmer, Te Kuiti; FLANAGHAN, Reginald K, wood carver, Grey Lynn; FLETCHER, Harold J, Bombay; GAVIN, John Victor, Ellerslie; GOFFIN, Alfred, Grey Lynn; GRAHAM, Ernest jWilfred, fruit farmer, Waikumete; GRAY, Frank, Great Barrier; GRAY, Hugh R, Great Barrier; GREENWOOD, Ernest W, Leigh; GUBB, William Oscar, orchadist/farmer, Port Albert; GUINIVEN, James, Remuera; HARRIS, Roy, tinsmith, St James’ St; HAWKES, Harry, condiment mfr, C Clark & Co.; HEDLEY, Edwin Thos, fruiterer/grocer, Mt Eden Rd; HEINEMANN, Deodrich, farmer, Arapae; HERTZOG, Newman J, Mt Roskill; HIGHAM, Frank, Grey Lynn; HOARE, William E, photo-engraver, Remuera; JOHSTON, Benjamin, volunteer recruit; JUDD, Arthur J, Maungaturoto; KING, Gladstone Wright, farmer, Papakura; KING, Newton, apprentice blacksmith; KIRKLAND, Bert, Princes St; KNELLER, William J, seaman; LAURIE, Charles A, manufacturer’s agent, Mt Eden; LEWIS, Charles H, seaman, Mako; LOWE, Eric Hastings, bushman, Taumarunui; MAGUIRE, James R, Parfield Tce; MARTIN, Oliver W, butter factory asst, Te Kuiti; MASON, Henry, farmer, Glorit; McCALLUM, Joseph F, dairy farmer, Paparoa; McCRAE, Joseph, farmer, Papakura; McCRAE, Shalto D, farmer, Mareretu; McDONNELL, John, dairy farmer, Pakuranga; McELROY, Arthur Lambert, farmer, Mahurangi; McGORAM, Thomas, Kingsland; McIVOR, James, Pukekohe; MEAGHER, Theobold, farmer, Maihihi; MILLER, Samuel J, butter worker, Ambury’s Ltd; MONTGOMERY, George, volunteer recruit; MUIR, Edward F, farmer, Onewhero; MURRAY, John H, Buckland; OSWALD, Edwin W, Queen St, Auckland; PATTERSON, John, Pt Chevalier; PETERS, Henry, Henderson; RENALL, Robert R, Waiuku; ROA, Thomas, Mahurangi; ROBERTS, Arthur Ernest, Panmure; ROFF, Captain G, master of Kahu; RYAN, Thomas B, farmer, Hakaru; SHAW, Archibald McD, Pohuehue; SMITH, Daniel Frederick, 2nd Officer Whangape; SMITH, John Frederich, Clevedon; SMYTH, Christopher Bernard, fireman/motor driver, City Fire Brigade; SOLE, George F, farmer, Mahoenui; STRONG, Ernest Arthur, Onehunga; SUTCLIFFE, Harold, Morningside; TIVANON, John, Waiuku; WALSH, Vivian C, aviation instructor, Kohimarama Flying School; WECK, Robert J, shearer/farmer, Pohuehue; WESTLAND, James, farmer, Kohekohe; WHITE, Louis Norman, Hunua; WHITE, Percival Clive, Wynyard St; WHITTAKER, Lawrence C, Big Omaha; WILSON, John Henry, railway employee; WILSON, Marsden Lynn, surveyor, Hangatiki.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn19apr1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oorlogsdagboek 14-18 Fons Versmissen

Fons Versmissen hield een dagboek bij. Honderd jaar later publiceren we het als blog.

Izenberge, donderdag 19 april 1917 - Gaston heeft te vroeg gejuicht ...

Lees verder op http://oorlogsdagboek14-18fonsversmissen.skynetblogs.be/archive/2017/04/19/izenberge-donderdag-19-april-1917-8719950.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 19 April 1917.

Valkenswaard. Droevig ongeval. Hedenmiddag overkwam den heer A. van Deurzen, schilder, en diens knecht H. Geldens een ernstig ongeval. Bezig zijnde met het schilderen aan de nieuwe villa van den WelEd. heer Dr. Kouling, kwamen zij beiden op een gegeven oogenblik van de stelling te vallen. In deerniswekkenden toestand werden zij opgenomen en per brancard naar het Roode Kruis bij de dames Gyrath vervoerd, alwaar geneeskundige hulp werd verleend.

Schitterend... "In deerniswekkenden toestand..." http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 - 1917

19 April 1917 - Seeadler, German, Bussard class Light Cruiser. Internal explosion on the Jade.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk17.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Machine Gun Corps 1914-1918

One of the new aspects of the First World War was the Machine Gun. Although it had a lineage going back to the American Civil War, it was in the static, trench warfare conditions of the Western Front that the Machine Gun began to have a decisive effect.

At the start of the First World War in 1914 British Army infantry battalions each had a machine gun section of two maxim guns, manned by a junior officer and 12 men. However, experience in 1914 and 1915 suggested that the Army would need many more Machine Guns, and that they would need to be manned by dedicated units, using specialist tactics and organisation. On 2 September 1915 a proposal was submitted to the War Office to create a specialist Machine Gun Company per each infantry brigade, instead of Machine Guns being operated by the battalions themselves. These Companies were organised into a new Machine Gun Corps.

The re-organisation was completed by the start of the battle of the Somme in July 1916. Shortly after the Machine Gun Corps was create the Maxim was replaced by the Vickers. Infantry battalions were given the Lewis light machine gun to increase their firepower.

With their rate of fire, machine guns could generate as much fire as hundreds of rifles, and could seriously hamper attacking infantry. This was shown on the first day of the Somme on 1 July 1916 – if Machine Guns were set up along the line, with interlocking fields of fire, the attacking troops would face a death trap.

A total of 170,500 officers and men served in the Machine Gun Corps, of which 62,049 were killed, wounded or missing. A number of them came from Portsmouth.

Lance Corporal Owen Bugden, 20 and from Fratton, was serving with 163rd Company of the Machine Gun Corps when he was killed on 19 April 1917. He was supporting 54th Division in Palestine, and is remembered on the Jerusalem Memorial.

Lees verder op http://dalyhistory.wordpress.com/2010/03/27/the-machine-gun-corps-1914-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stockport Soldiers who died 1914 - 1918

JOSEPH CLARKE M.C.

Former member of Stockport Lads’ Club. Regular soldier, enlisting on 5 June 1909, serving with the 17 th Lancers in India. Commissioned from rank of Corporal, with effect from 26 February 1917, and assigned to the Worcestershire Regiment. Transferred to the Royal Flying Corps at the end of 1917 and went to India in April 1919. Killed near Ambala.

Awarded the Military Cross, as a 2 nd Lieutenant still served with the Worcesters. The citation, published in the London Gazette on 19 April 1918 reads “For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when in command of his company during an advance. Though all the company officers and sergeants were either killed or wounded at an early stage, he inspired his men with his own personal enthusiasm, so that both the first and second objectives were captured and held.”

http://www.stockport1914-1918.co.uk/c.php[/b]
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Armeense genocide in de Nederlandse pers

Het Centrum, 19 april 1922 (Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek)

Politieke moorden

BERLIJN, 18 April. Te Charlottenburg zijn hedenmiddag twee Turken, Djemal Azmi bey, gewezen gouverneur-generaal van Trebizonde, en prof. Baha Eddin Sjakir uit Konstantinopel vermoord door schoten in de nek. Men veronderstelt ook nu weer met een politieken moord te doen te hebben.

Aan de "N.R.Ct." wordt nog geseind: De daders maken vermoedelijk deel uit van een geheime Armenische organisatie, welke haar zetel in Amerika heeft. Waarschijnlijk beschikten zij over voldoende geldmiddelen, zoodat het niet onmogelijk is, dat zij reeds uit Berlijn gevlucht zijn.

Djemal Azmy bey laat een weduwe met drie kinderen, prof. Baha Eddin Sjakir een weduwe met twee kinderen achter. In gezelschap van vrouw en kinderen waren de slachtoffers gisteravond van een feest gekomen, waaraan ook de weuwe van den onlangs te Berlijn vermoorden Talaat Pasja had deelgenomen. De weduwe bevond zich in het gezelschap van beide families toen de aanslag werd gepleegd. De vrouwen van beide slachtoffers vielen dadelijk in zwijm.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/CE-19-4-1922.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 15:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leslie Irvin

Zaterdag 19 april - De Amerikaan Leslie Leroy Irvin maakt als parachutist de eerste vrije val vanaf 915 meter.

http://www.terugblik.com/1910-1919/1919/1919.html

World Aviation in 1919

19 April - The first recorded free fall parachute jump takes place at McCook field in Dayton, Ohio. Leslie Leroy Irvin jumps from an aeroplane before deploying his parachute.

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/aviation%20timeline/1919.htm

Leslie Irvin

Leslie Leroy Irvin (10 September 1895 — 9 October 1966) made the first free-fall parachute jump in 1919. Irvin was born in Los Angeles. He became a stunt-man for the fledgling Californian film industry, for which he had to perform acrobatics on trapezes from balloons and then make descents using a parachute. In those days parachutes were stored in canisters rather than in packs on the pilots' backs. Irvin made his first jump when aged fourteen. For a film called Sky High, he first jumped from an aircraft from 1,000 feet in 1914. He developed his own static line parachute as a life-saving device in 1918 and jumped with it several times.

He joined the Army Air Service's parachute research team and at McCook Field near Dayton, Ohio on 19 April 1919, Irvin made the first premeditated free-fall parachute descent, though he broke his ankle on landing. The parachute that was used was designed by Floyd Smith and made by Major EC Hoffman from the U.S. Air Service Engineering Division. What was notable was that the parachute was deployed from a back-pack using a 'rip cord' rather from a canister attached to the aircraft. This invention was made by Polish inventor Theodore Moscicki.[citation needed] This is safer because a spinning aircraft could interfere with the deployment of the earlier chutes. Floyd Smith also flew the plane. Less than two months later The Irving Air Chute Company was formed in Buffalo, New York.

An early brochure of the Irvin Air Chute Company credits William O'Connor 24 August 1920 at McCook Field as the first person to be saved by an Irvin parachute.

Two years later, Irvin's company instituted the award of a gold pin to pilots who successfully bailed out of disabled aircraft using an Irvin parachute (see Caterpillar Club). By the 1930s his parachutes were in use by forty air forces. During the Second World War, Irvin parachutes alone saved over 10,000 lives.

As aircraft flew at ever increasing altitudes, pilots and aircrew were subject to ever lowering temperatures, Irvin also designed and manufactured the classic sheepskin flying jacket to meet their requirements.

Later the company also made car seat belts, slings for cargo handling and even canning machinery. Today the company is known as Irvin Aerospace Inc. and specializes in parachutes and inflatable life-saving equipment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leslie_Irvin_(parachutist)
Zie ook http://www.flying-jacket.com/about-irvin.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 16:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 April 1920, Commons Sitting

WAR CRIMINALS (TRIAL).


HC Deb 19 April 1920 vol 128 cc16-8 16

Mr. G. DOYLE asked the Prime Minister what progress, if any, has been made during the last three months in bringing the ex-Kaiser and other War criminals to justice; if the refusal of the Netherlands Government to surrender the first-named has been accepted by the Supreme Council as final; if the said Government have promised to take effective measures against his escape and conspiring with persons from Germany to promote unrest in that country; and if the Netherlands Government have given any undertaking that they will intern the ex-Kaiser in one of their Colonies under an effective guard?

Mr. BONAR LAW As the House is aware, the surrender of the ex-Emperor under Article 227 of the Treaty of Versailles has, during the last three months, been the subject of an exchange of Notes between the Supreme Council of the Allies and the Netherlands Government. The Netherlands Government have not been able to see their way to comply with the request of the Allied Governments in this matter. They have, however, undertaken full responsibility for the safe custody of the person of the ex-Emperor and the control of his correspondence and relations with the outside world. For this purpose they have assigned him a place of residence within a specified portion of the Province of Utrecht.

Mr. DOYLE Can the right hon. Gentleman say where the ex-Kaiser is at present?

Mr. BONAR LAW In some part of the Province of Utrecht.

Colonel LOWTHER Could not the Dutch Government send him to the Isle of Cayenne, and will a recommendation to that effect be made to that Government?

Lieut. - Commander KENWORTHY May I ask why it was that during the War we were able to bring successful pressure on the Dutch Government with regard to imports, and now we are apparently helpless in view of this great danger to Europe?

Mr. BILLING May I ask whether from the answer of the right hon. Gentleman we are to understand that the Allies have given up all hope of fulfilling the Prime Minister's election pledge that the ex-Kaiser would be brought to trial?

Mr. BONAR LAW All the facts are well known to the House.

Lieut. - Commander KENWORTHY No; they are not.

Mr. BONAR LAW The Allies have done their best to induce the Government to take action. They have not succeeded, and they do not propose to use force.

Mr. BILLING If the whole of the Allied Powers cannot insist on the Dutch Government doing this, what possible hope is there for the League of Nations?

Mr. BONAR LAW The League of Nations does not propose in the first instance, or except as a last resort, to use force. The alternative for the Allies in this case is to use force.

Mr. BILLING Would not an economic boycott have the same effect?

Colonel LOWTHER Are we to understand if an arch-criminal takes refuge in Holland it is not proposed to use force?

Mr. BONAR LAW That does not arise.

Sir F. HALL asked the Prime Minister if he can give the House any information with regard to the progress which has been made with the arrangements for the trial of war criminals in Germany; if he will state when the trials are to take place; and whether an official shorthand writer will be present on behalf of Great Britain, whose soldiers and prisoners in Germany suffered most from German barbarism.

Mr. BONAR LAW I can add nothing to the statement which the Prime Minister made in the House of Commons on this subject on 29th March last.

Sir F. HALL Is the right hon. Gentleman aware that we have had no official information from the Government at all on this subject as to what is going to be done, and that we only know what we have to gather from the papers, and can he under the circumstances give a fuller reply to my question?

Mr. BONAR LAW The statement made by the Prime Minister was that negotiations were going on, and that arrangements had not yet been completed.

Sir F. HALL Will they be completed, or have they been completed, or are they likely to be completed very soon?

Mr. BONAR LAW I can express a hope as regards the last.

Mr. DOYLE If these War criminals succeed in escaping to Holland, as the ex-Kaiser has, and if Holland on application refuses to give them up

Mr. SPEAKER That is a doubly hypothetical question.

Colonel LOWTHER Is the right hon. Gentleman aware of the strong feeling there is all over the country on this subject?

Viscount CURZON Are there any officers on the black list at present under detention in this country?

Mr. BONAR LAW I should like notice of that question.

Mr. BILLING Will the right hon. Gentleman give an undertaking to this House that the Government will insist on Germany producing the criminals named, having regard to their possible escape, and will he give them a time limit to commence their trial and put them under arrest in the meantime?

Mr. BONAR LAW The subject has been very fully discussed, and I can add nothing.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/19/war-criminals-trial
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Conferentie van San Remo

19 april 1920 - De conferentie werd gehouden van 19 tot en met 26 april en tijdens de conferentie werd besloten hoe de Arabische gebieden in het Midden-Oosten verdeeld werden. Engeland en Frankrijk hadden tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog kans gezien om het Ottomaanse Rijk ten gronde te brengen en zodoende de macht te krijgen over het Midden-Oosten. Mede dankzij T.E. Lawrence lukte het de Engelsen en Fransen de Turken te verslaan en de gebieden in hun bezit te krijgen.

De Engelsen en de Fransen wisten dat het gebied in het Midden-Oosten rijk aan olie was. Daarnaast was de ligging van de landen zeer strategisch. De landen hadden al in 1916 een akkoord bereikt, maar ontkenden dit aan de buitenwereld.

Op de conferentie van San Remo werden de beide landen het volledig eens over de verdeling van de landen. Frankrijk kreeg het bestuur over Syrië en Libanon, terwijl Engeland het bestuur zou krijgen over Irak en Palestina. Er werd tevens een Volkenbond opgericht om te zorgen dat er vrede en rechtvaardigheid zou zijn in de Arabische landen. Op deze manier konden de Arabische gebieden snel zelfstandig worden, terwijl Frankrijk en Engeland nog wel van de olievoorraden van de landen kon profiteren.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1920-04-19/Conferentie+van+San+Remo

Arab Riots of the 1920s
By Jacqueline Shields

At the end of World War I, discussions commenced on the future of the Middle East, including the disposition of Palestine. On April 19, 1920, the Allies, Britain, France, Italy and Greece, Japan and Belgium, convened in San Remo, Italy to discuss a peace treaty with Turkey. The Allies decided to assign Great Britain the mandate over Palestine on both sides of the Jordan River, and the responsibility for putting the Balfour Declaration into effect. Arab nationalists were unsure how best to react to British authority. The two preeminent Jerusalem clans, the el-Husseinis and the Nashashibis, battled for influence throughout the mandate, as they had for decades before. The former was very anti-British, whereas the latter favored a more conciliatory policy.

Lees verder op http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/riots29.html
Zie ook http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/1920_Palestine_riots
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Remo_conference
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Inventions Surge After Titanic Disaster
The Times, Saturday 19 April 1913

INVENTIONS OF 1912 - The Influence of the Titanic Disaster
The 20th report of the Comptroller of Patents, Designs and Trademarks was issued as a parliamentary paper last night.
The loss of the Titanic was followed by a remarkable number of inventions relating to the general problem of saving life at sea. Mechanical devices affecting the safety and speed of the lowering of boats from ships received considerable attention, as also did ship fittings designed to be readily detached and used as rafts in case of emergency, and buoyant fittings for personal wear.
Means for preventing collisions at sea attracted many inventors, more particularly for detecting the near presence of ice at night or in a fog; while others devoted themselves to enabling a wireless distress signal to be received even though the operator was off duty.

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/inventions-surge-after-titanic-disaster.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Apr 2010 7:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOLDIER AND DRAMATIST

BEING THE LETTERS OF HAROLD CHAPIN, AMERICAN CITIZEN WHO DIED FOR ENGLAND AT LOOS ON SEPTEMBER 26TH, 1915.

To his Wife.

FRANCE, April 19th, 1915.

Don't you worry about bullets, dear. My visits to the danger zone look like being few and far between and only at such moments as the danger is at a minimum. We don't take part in charges and countercharges in the R.A.M.C. and it is in these real operations that the casualties occur.

Oh my dear, I do wish you could have heard and seen the first evening I spent in the (more or less) sergeants' mess at that Advanced Dressing Station! There were only two sergeants in it, but the old nobility of the little party had acquired the habit of taking their evening tot of rum with them round a stove in the "dispensary"; one of the uninjured front rooms of the house, uninjured only comparatively you understand. There were no windows of course, and the ceiling had fallen in places on the occasion when a shell had smashed up the kitchen and officers' mess---both kitchen staff and officers being, by the merest chance, out at the time. There was also an improvised chimney through the wall, the actual chimney being out of action. In spite of this improvisation, the smoke from the stove, which they fed very generously with wood from a deserted timber yard near by, slowly filled the room and limited each sitting of the little parliament to about an hour and a half, by the end of which time, the strongest having given in, the weaker vessels accompanied him to the front door to watch the star shells light up the country opposite, and recover from their partial asphyxia.

I sat out two of these sittings. The elder of the sergeants lolled at ease in a comfortable chair one leg either side of the stove (the stoves hereabouts stick well out into the room). He was suffering from a carbuncle on his neck and wore a white bandage like a stock round his throat, gray shirt open at neck; usual khaki rather dirty; ragged red moustache and hair and a weather beaten face surrounded by an Aberdeen accent. That is my everlasting impression of him. A queer, clean, well bred little man whose lack of moustache made him look almost cherubically boyish, leaned most of the time over the back of his chair and punctuated his remarks, when they waxed a shade too preposterous, by offers to re-dress his neck or apply a hot fomentation.

He was a curiously acute young man, this last, very blasé. Everyone liked him and he seemed to like everybody---(I believe in these old parties that have been together since the first months one should say that the men love each other. You at home still associate love with demonstrativeness, though goodness knows why, and would think I mean they go on like Brutus and Co. whereas I really mean they feel towards each other as members of a family feel towards each other). Help! What a digression. They all seemed to like the blasé young man, leave it at that. I will continue this description in my next.

http://www.vlib.us/medical/Chapin/Chapin03.htm#68
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Supremacy of the British Soldier (19 april 1917)

Supremacy of the British Soldier is a letter written by Arthur Conan Doyle first published in The Daily Chronicle on 19 april 1917.

Supremacy of the British Soldier - A Striking Comparison of Captures

Sir, — It may be of interest to remind your readers how completely, judged by every test, the British soldiers have mastered the German during the war.

After the foolish gibe of the Emperor, and the constant sneers of the German Press, which made merry for so long over our attempts to raise an army, it is instructive to get down to the actual figures, which would be infinitely more favourable if it were not for the losses in the first week of actual fighting, when we were in the presence of forces which outnumbered us by five to one.

In prisoners we have at least double, the British prisoners in Germany being about 34,000 in number, while we have close upon 70,000 Germans. Only during the Mons retreat have the Germans taken any considerable number of prisoners from us. Our losses during that week came to nearly 15,000 men.

On the other hand, on the Marne, at Loos, again and again at the Somme, on the Ancre, and now at Arras and the Vimy Ridge, we have made captures which run into thousands.

The comparison of captured guns is even more remarkable. Our losses during the Mons retreat may be put at about 60, the great majority of which were at the glorious defeat of Le Cateau. Afterwards, the guns which we have lost could be counted upon the fingers of one's hands. There were two at the La Bassee action in October 1914, four heavy guns in the poison gas action of April 23, 1915, and possibly one or two at different times, but the total certainly could not exceed 70.

Against this, we have up to date taken about 200 in the present fighting, and 140 in the fighting on the Somme. Eight were taken in the Battery L action and four by the cavalry next day. Six were taken by the Lincolns on September 9, and about a dozen others, mostly disabled, during the Marne retreat. Twenty-one were taken at Loos.

Altogether, our total amounts approximately to 400 guns, as against 70 which we have lost.

It would be well if some prominence could be given to such figures in those little neutral countries where it is not yet understood that the German soldier has found his master. The superstition of Prussian supremacy never rested upon any very firm basis, and now it has been destroyed for ever.

Giving our enemies credit for all the military virtues which they undoubtedly possess, it has none the less been clearly shown that brave slaves led by clever fiends can and will be beaten by freemen led by gentlemen.

ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE
Windlesham, Crowborough, Sussex April 18, 1917.

https://www.arthur-conan-doyle.com/index.php?title=Supremacy_of_the_British_Soldier_(19_april_1917)
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Apr 2018 7:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German “Big Bertha” gun bombards Ypres - 19 April 1915

When the French left the sector east of Ypres and handed it over to the British in mid April they took with them their anti-aircraft guns, which were not replaced by similar weapons in the British force. As a result, the number of German aircraft flying over the Allied lines increased. In particular German aircraft made reconnaissance flights for the German artillery to help them register on sites of importance. The towns of Ypres, Poperinghe and the villages in the immediate area began to be shelled with more intensity from mid April.(1)

The artillery shelling of Ypres by the Germans in mid April was intended as a diversion to draw the Allies' attention away from the German front line in the north of the Ypres Salient.

From Saturday 17th April some of the 92 heavy German howitzers (2) behind the battle front to the north and north-east of the Allied Ypres Salient (XXIII. Reserve Corps; XXVI. Reserve Corps; XXVII. Reserve Corps) started up a long-range bombardment of Ypres.

On Monday 19th April the one German 42cm (17 inch) howitzer joined in the bombardment, firing shells weighing 1, 719lb (816kg) each. The shells were fired in pairs and, according to the British Official History, “travelled through the air with a noise like a runaway tramcar on badly laid rails”.(3) This huge gun was located in the vicinity of the Houthulst Forest, north of Ypres.

The huge German 42cm siege gun was named “Dicke Bertha” by its designer and subsequently translated into “Big Bertha” by the British soldiers.

The 42cm howitzer had been developed since the 1890s by the German Army and the steel-making firm of Krupp. Originally developed as a coastal defence howitzer the design of the gun was modified by Krupp so that it could be dismantled and moved by road for use inland. Two of these mobile guns were built for the German Army and were used in Belgium and on the Russian Front in the First World War. The purpose of the gun was to demolish concrete fortifications, firing ten of its one-ton shells in an hour. Its range was about 10 kilometres (6.2 miles).(4)

With the destructive capabilities of such a huge weapon, the demolition of the historic medieval town of Ypres began.

Acknowledgements
(1) British Military Operations: France and Belgium 1915, p. 162
(2) British Military Operations: France and Belgium 1915, p. 166
(3) British Military Operations: France and Belgium 1915, p. 187
(4) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Artillery


http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/big-bertha-bombards.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Apr 2018 7:53, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stanley John Marlow 19 April 1917 - Oundle School

STANLEY JOHN MARLOW 19 APRIL 1917 - Stanley John Marlow was born in Darlington on 1st August 1895 and lived at Preston Deanery Hall in Northampton where his father was a boot manufacturer. Stanley, who was the only son of the marriage (he had three younger sisters) attended Bilton Grange prep school before coming to New House in January 1910. He was a keen member of the OTC passing two happy school camps on Salisbury Plain before leaving school in 1912. In May 1914, he joined the Northamptonshire Territorials and was promoted to Lieutenant a month after the war broke out.

He saw action in Gallipoli and was then moved to Egypt in August 1915. From there he served in Palestine and was killed at the Battle of Gaza aged 21, on 19th April 1917. At the time of the attack, he was second in command of his company and with characteristic courage was right in front of his men, cheering them on by his gallant example when he was killed instantly. He was buried in Gaza Military Cemetery. His Commanding Officer reflected: “He justified every responsibility placed upon him and he met his death with the cheerful courage that characterized his whole life.”

To honour their son, Stanley’s parents erected a rood screen, choir stalls and an altar rail in their local church of St James in Northampton. The dedicatory plaque ends with the words “Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori”.

Fotootje op http://www.oundleschool.org.uk/Stanley-John-Marlow-19-April-1917?returnUrl=/World-War-I-
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz

Wilhelm Leopold Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz (12 August 1843 – 19 April 1916) also known as Goltz Pasha, was a Prussian Field Marshal and military writer. (...)

In German service (1914–1915) - At the outbreak of the First World War Goltz was recalled to duty and appointed the military governor of Belgium. In that position, he dealt ruthlessly with what remained of Belgian resistance to German occupation, mostly sniper-fire and damaging rail and telegraph lines. As Martin Gilbert notes in The First World War, in early September 1914, the newly appointed Goltz proclaimed: "It is the stern necessity of war that the punishment for hostile acts falls not only on the guilty, but on the innocent as well." On 5 October, he was even clearer when he ordered: "In the future, villages in the vicinity of places where railway and telegraph lines are destroyed will be punished without pity (whether they are guilty or not of the acts in question). With this in view hostages have been taken in all villages near the railway lines which are threatened by such attacks. Upon the first attempt to destroy lines of railway, telegraph or telephone, they will immediately be shot." (...)

In Ottoman service (1915-1916) - Soon afterward Goltz gave up that position and became a military aide to the (essentially powerless) Sultan Mehmed V. Baron von der Goltz did not get along with the head of the German mission to Turkey, Otto Liman von Sanders, nor was he liked by the real power in the Ottoman Government, Enver Pasha.

Despite the mutual dislike, in mid-October 1915, with the British under General Townshend advancing on Baghdad, Enver Pasha put Goltz in charge of the Fifth Army (see the Mesopotamian Campaign). Baron von der Goltz was in command at the Battle of Ctesiphon - which was a draw, as both sides retreated from the battlefield. However, with the British retreating, Goltz turned his army around and followed them down the river. When Townshend halted at Kut, Goltz laid siege to the British position. Much like Julius Caesar's legions at the Battle of Alesia, the Turkish 6th Army under the command of Halil Kut Pasha had to fight off a major British effort to relieve the Kut garrison while maintaining the siege. All told the British tried three different attacks and each one failed at a total cost of 23,000 casualties. The battles included The Battle of Wadi, The Battle of Hanna and the Battle of Dujaila.

Armenian Genocide - During the 1915 campaign of the Russians in eastern Anatolia, German officers had recommended the selected deportation of local Armenian population in Eastern Anatolia, in case the Russian advance caused an "uprising". When Enver Pasha showed such orders to Goltz he approved of them as a military necessity. In the words of one historian, "Goltz's later actions to stop deportations indicate it is unlikely that he understood its larger significance." In December 1915 Goltz directly intervened, threatening to resign his command if the deportations were not halted. It was a measure of Goltz's stature in the Ottoman Empire that he, as a foreign military officer, was able, if briefly, to influence domestic policy. However, he was able to effect only a temporary reprieve, and then only in Mesopotamia. It would have been almost unheard of for a soldier to resign during wartime, and in the end Goltz did not do so.

Death - Goltz died on 19 April 1916, in Baghdad, just two weeks before the British in Kut surrendered. The official reason for his death was typhus, although apparently there were rumors that he had been poisoned by the Turks.[9] In accordance with his will, he was buried in the grounds of the German Consulate in Tarabya, Istanbul, overlooking the Bosporus.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colmar_Freiherr_von_der_Goltz
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alberta Equal Suffrage Act

On 19 April 1916, Alberta Premier A.L. Sifton's Liberal government passed a bill granting women's suffrage. The Alberta Equal Suffrage Act gave women 'absolute equality' with men in provincial, municipal, and school affairs, and permitted women to vote and run for office in all Alberta-based elections. Alberta was the third province in Canada to grant women the right to vote. Manitoba and Saskatchewan had already passed similar laws in January and March earlier in the year.

http://www.albertasource.ca/aoe/ui/indexx.aspx?callpage=54&sid=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RETURNED SOLDIERS SETTLEMENT ACT, Act No. 21, 1916.

An Act to make provision for the settlement of
r e t u r n e d soldiers on Crown lands or lands
acquired under the Closer Settlement Acts ;
to amend the Crown Lands Consolidation
Act, 1913, the Closer Settlement Acts, the
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Act, 1910, and the
Irrigation Act, 1912 ; and for purposes consequent
thereon or incidental t h e r e t o . [Assented
to, 19th April, 1916.]

Lees verder op http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/sessionalview/sessional/act/1916-21.pdf
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Easter Rising 1916

The Easter Rising of 1916 took place on Easter Monday 24th April 1916. The Rising was carried out by 1,600 men and women from the Irish volunteers and the Irish citizen army. When the war broke out in 1914 the IRB saw the war as a perfect opportunity to strike, even though the war placed Home Rule on the statue book and the English promised to implement it after the War, divisions quickly became apparent. The main aim of the IRB (The Irish Republican Brotherhood which grew out of the Fenian movement was founded in the 1850s by James Stephens in Ireland and John O'Mahony in New York.) was to gain power within Ireland through armed struggle and proclaim an independent Irish Republic. The management of the Rising was composed of civil leaders, untrained in military action.
In August 1915, the IRB Military Council was formed. It was eventually composed of seven members – Thomas Clarke, Sean MacDermott, Patrick Pearse, Eamonn Ceannt, Joseph Plunkett, James Connolly, and Thomas MacDonagh.

The main mastermind of the rising was Thomas Clarke supported by Pearce. For Pearce success or failure militarily was immaterial as he believed in a blood sacrifice and this would be enough to stimulate Nationalist perception. Pearce had written, "Bloodshed is a cleansing and sanctifying thing… there are many things more horrible than bloodshed, and slavery is one of them." The Easter Rising has been described as a "revolution of the intellectuals," the revolutionaries were by no means great military strategists, but romantic visionaries influenced with Mythical heroes. Pearce likened Irelands struggle to revive its soul to Christ's sacrifice.

For the Rising to be successful, the IRB had to maintain secrecy and stay under the radar of the British Government. The strength of extreme groups became evident when on St Patrick's Day 1916 the Irish Volunteers staged impressive military manoeuvres' in Dublin City centre. However, more alarming was the Irish Citizen's army mock attack on Dublin Castle, this showed how easy a Rising could take place and proved the military might of the volunteers. Although this alarmed the army the Under secretary Nathan he dispelled any thoughts of a rebellion with a letter to the Adjutant General stating, "Though the Irish Volunteer element has been active of late, especially in Dublin, I do not believe that its leaders mean insurrection or… have sufficient arms." On the 17th April 1916 Nathan was given a report stating a shipment of arms was being delivered, Nathan dispelled this, as he had received no information from informants within the Irish Volunteers. The IRB had successfully kept the plan for a rising a secret as Dublin Castle was looking in the wrong place. On Thursday afternoon, 19th April 1916 the Aud a German ship disguised as a Norwegian fishing ship sailed into Tralee Bay, extraordinarily the Aud did not have a wireless so no contact could be made with the insurgents. The Aud remained for twenty four hours of the coast before being intercepted by the Royal Navy in which events further delivered a blow to the rising as the captain of the Aud sank the ship along with the cargo which consisted of 20,000 rifles. With this the chance of a successful Military rising disappeared, this devastating blow left no doubt the rebellion could never succeed Militarily.

With the sinking of the Aud the military council resorted back to the "blood sacrifice", MacNeil feared an IRB rebellion and persuaded the Irish Volunteers leadership "to support his demand that only orders which were countersigned by him could be issued to the Volunteers." This showed how anxious MacNeil had become, the IRB realised the Volunteers would only support a rising if the British Government either introduced conscription or tried to suppress the Volunteers movement or did not introduce Home Rule after the war. With this McDermott, Plunkett and MacDonagh forged the "Castle document" containing details of the Government's plan to suppress the Volunteers.

This had the outcome the IRB were hoping for as MacNeil issued instructions for his men to prepare for conflict; however, Bulmer Hobson discovered the IRB had also issued directives to prepare for "an Insurrection on Easter Sunday." It was at St Endas MacNeil and Hobson discovered the plan for a rising after confronting Pearse. MacNeil intended to issue countermand orders to the Volunteers for Easter Sunday, but was quickly persuaded by Pearse and MacDermott German aid was expected. MacDermott nor the plotters had any knowledge of the Aud's devastating failure. MacNeil however soon became aware of how deep the conspirator's deception lay and with news; finally of the Aud's failing and suspicion of the forgery of the "Castle document" he was determined to thwart a suicidal rising. MacNeil almost scuppered the rising by issuing orders in the "Sunday Independent" prohibiting all Volunteer movements scheduled for Easter Sunday. MacNeils intervention at the eleventh hour prevented a successful uprising as only 1,600 insurgents assembled to partake in the doomed rebellion, there was no doubt these men were marching to their deaths without knowing what they were about to do.

Even with no chance of a military victory, the IRB still pushed on with the Rising in which Pearse aptly named himself the President and Commandant General of the Irish Republic forces and Connolly named himself Vice President and Commander of the Irish Republic. On Easter Monday 24th April 1916 at 12 noon the empty streets echoed the lack of support and knowledge of what was about to occur. The Volunteers and Citizen Army marched through the city to seize their various strong points. Five key buildings were held; Headquarters were established in the General Post Office from which Irish flags were flown and where Patrick Pearse announced the creation of a provisional government of the new Irish Republic to a few bemused onlookers. The rebels also seized St Stephens Green, Four Courts, Boland's flour mill and the Jacobs biscuit factory.


The British Government had been taken by surprise and was now more or less entirely in the dark. Immediately troops were ordered from the Curragh and other camps outside Dublin. Conciliation with the Irish rebels was out of the question; the rebels were to be trampled, rapidly. However, if the British in Dublin were in the dark, so were the rebels, they had no wireless links either between the strong points they had seized. Looting by the crowds began and Martial law was declared. British reinforcements arrived and the 'atrocities' had begun. Even with the British authorities being caught unaware they outnumbered the "Rebels". The Rising lasted barely a week and the hopelessness of the fight became evident. On Saturday 29th April Pearse surrendered, the heavy use of artillery had caused high casualties and civilian deaths a great loss for a cause in which the public were unaware.

http://insulanobilis.blogspot.com/2010/01/easter-rising-1916-part-1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Positions of forces at 2pm on the 19th of April, 1917 during the Second Battle of Gaza.

British forces are shown in red and Turkish forces are shown in blue.
Abbreviations:
ALH = Australian Light Horse
ICC = Imperial Camel Corps
NZMR = New Zealand Mounted Rifles (Brigade)
AMR = Auckland Mounted Rifles (Regiment)
WMR = Wellington Mounted Rifles (Regiment)
Imp Mtd Div = Imperial Mounted Division

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Second_Battle_of_Gaza_map.jpg
Lees hier: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Gaza
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Belmore park, construction of the Sydney underground railway, 19 April 1917

Foto... http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-145535231/view
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, Volume CXIII, Issue 93, 19 April 1917

Lees verder op http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19170419.2.38
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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German "Death Card" of Josef Schmid

A 'Sterbebild' ('Death Card') to Gefreiter (Private) Josef Schmid, Reserve Infant. Regt. nr. 16, 2. Bat. 6. Komp., killed in action 19th April 1917 aged 27.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/3597?CISOBOX=1&REC=1
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ROSS T - New Zealand Forces

Wounded 19 April 1917 - dangerously wounded head - admitted to hospital 6 November 1917 - died of wounds 8 November 1917.

Gewondenkaart op https://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/196333
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sugar Permit. Army-No. 239591. 19 April, 1918.

http://bartlettart.blogspot.com/2008/06/sugar-permit-army-no-239591-19-april.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Bessie Love, Moving Picture Stories, Magazine Cover [United States] (19 April 1918)

http://www.magazine-covers.net/t2806618/bessie-love/moving-picture-stories-magazine-united-states-19-april-1918-magazine-cover.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Registration of German Alien Enemies 1918

Newton, Kansas - Harvey County, Kansas

A presidential proclamation of 16 November 1917, pursuant to section 4067 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, required "all natives, citizens, denizens or subjects of the German Empire" age 14 and older who were "within the United States" to register as "alien enemies." The actual registration was conducted by various marshals designated by the regulations; in Newton, the chief of police carried out the registration. Each "alien enemy" was issued a registration card, which he was required to have on his person at all times. He also needed permission from the local registrar to travel or change place of residence. The initial registration included only men; the regulations stated "females are not alien enemies." An act of Congress of 16 April 1918 changed the definition of "alien enemy" to include women age 14 and older, and a presidential proclamation followed on 19 April 1918.

http://www.bethelks.edu/mla/holdings/indexes/alien_reg.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Presidential Proclamation of April 19, 1918

U.S. Executive Office of the President.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
A PROCLAMATION.

WHEREAS, by Act of Congress, approved the sixteenth day of April, one thousand nine hundred and eighteen, entitled "An Act to amend section four thousand and sixty-seven of the Revised Statutes by extending its scope to include women", the said section four thousand and sixty-seven of the Revised Statutes is amended to read as follows:

Whenever there is a declared war between the United States and any foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, attempted, or threatened against the territory of the United States by any foreign nation or government, and the President makes public proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States, and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed, as alien enemies. The President is authorized, in any such event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the conduct to be observed, on the part of the United States, toward the aliens who become so liable; the manner and degree of the restraint to which they shall be subject, and in what cases, and upon what security their residence shall be permitted, and to provide for the removal of those who, not being permitted to reside within the United States, refuse or neglect to depart therefrom; and to establish any other regulations which are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety,

WHEREAS, by sections four thousand and sixty-eight, four thousand and sixty-nine, and four thousand and seventy, of the Revised Statutes, further provision is made relative to alien enemies;

AND WHEREAS a state of war has heretofore been declared and proclaimed to exist between the United States and the Imperial German Government and between the United States and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution of the United States and the said sections of the Revised Statutes, do hereby further proclaim and direct that the conduct to be observed on the part of the United States towards all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Germany or Austria Hungary of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized, shall be as follows:

All such natives, citizens, denizens or subjects of Germany or Austria-Hungary are enjoined to preserve the peace towards the United States and to refrain-from crime against the public safety, and from violating the laws of the United States and of the States and Territories thereof, and to refrain from actual hostility or giving information, aid or comfort to the enemies of the United States, and to comply strictly with the regulations which are hereby or which have been or may be from time to time promulgated by the President; and so long, as they shall conduct themselves in accordance with law, they shall be undisturbed in the peaceful pursuit of their lives and occupations and be accorded the consideration due to all peaceful and law-abiding persons, except so far as restrictions may be necessary for their own protection and for the safety of the United States; and towards such of said persons as conduct themselves in accordance with law, all citizens of the United States are enjoined to preserve the peace and to treat them with all such friendliness as may be compatible with loyalty and allegiance to the United States.

And all of such natives, citizens, denizens or subjects of Germany t or Austria-Hungary who fail to conduct themselves as so enjoined, in addition to all other penalties prescribed by law, shall be liable to restraint, or to give security, or to remove and depart from the United States in the manner prescribed by sections four thousand and sixty- nine and four thousand and seventy of the Revised Statutes, and as prescribed in the regulations duly promulgated by the President;

And pursuant to the authority vested in me, I hereby declare and, proclaim, as necessary in the premises and for the public safety, that Regulations 1 to 12 inclusive m the Proclamation issued by me under date of April 6th, 1917, and Regulations 13 to 20 inclusive in the Proclamation issued by me under date of November 16th, 1917 shall be and they hereby are extended to and declared applicable to all natives, citizens, denizens or subjects of Germany, being females of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized; provided, that this extension of Regulation 4 of the Proclamation issued by me under date of April 6th, 1917 shall not become effective until such time as may be fixed and declared by the Attorney General of the United States.

And pursuant to the authority vested in me, I hereby declare and proclaim, as necessary in the premises and for the public safety, that Regulations 1 to 3 inclusive in the Proclamation issued by me under date of December 11th, 1917 shall be and they are hereby extended to and declared applicable to all natives, citizens, denizens or subjects of Austria-Hungary, being females of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized. .

This Proclamation and the Regulations herein contained shall I extend and apply to all land and water, continental or insular, in any way within the jurisdiction of the United States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done in the District of Columbia, this nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and eighteen, and of the independence of the United States the one hundred and forty-second.

WOODROW WILSON the President:

FRANK L. POLK
Acting Secretary of State.

http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/USA/EnemyAlien4_1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 22:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Bruce Lockhart, diary entry (19th April, 1918)

Soviet decree about women having the right to divorce a man and the latter not having the right to refuse. Saw Trotsky - fairly satisfactory but hope is not great. In afternoon had long talk with Chicherin and Karakhan on subject of agreement. Overwhelmed with work. We have no staff, and it is impossible to get through half of what we ought to do.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSlockhart.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Smiles in Belgium Once More by Norman Rockwell, April 19, 1919 Issue of The Literary Digest

At the time this painting was rendered, World War I was unofficially over. Troops had pulled back, meaning German troops were no longer in Belgium.
Though the war was not officially over until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919, this was a time of great jubilation. No bullets or artillery shells were flying.
In this illustation, two soldiers are accompanied by two children, celebrating the end of World War I. All the characters are smiling and rightly so.
Both soldiers wear the same color uniform. However, one soldier is assumed to be American, one to be British. The little girl in the foreground is waving the American Stars and Stripes in one hand and the British Union Jack in the other.
One soldier is riding a little boy piggy-back. The other soldier is pushing the little girl in a wheelbarrow.
The town is visible in the background. Smoke from smokestacks indicates that industry has started again.
This was a time of positive anticipation. Norman Rockwell captured those feelings with his canvas and brush.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-literary-digest-cover-1919-04-19-smiles-in-belgium-once-more.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Apr 2018 7:56, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 19, 1919

http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/4346220681/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Apr 2018 7:56, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Apr 2011 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Black Sea mutiny

On 19 April 1919, the crews of the battleships Jean Bart and France, mutinied. Although their sympathies lay with the Reds and not with the Whites, the crews' primary grievances were:

(i) the slow rate of their demobilisation (following the end of World War I) and
(ii) the small quantity and atrocious quality of the rations.

The French government acceded to the mutineers demands but pursued the ringleaders.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9_Marty
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2012 17:06    Onderwerp: 19 Apr 1917: SS Mongolia attacked by German submarine Reageer met quote

19 Apr 1917: SS Mongolia attacked by German submarine

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=27206
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Apr 2018 7:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chinese laborers

The first contingent of 1,086 Chinese labourers arrives at Le Havre in France. Men from northern China are recruited into the Chinese Labour Corps to fill the manpower shortage caused by the war. Many are tradesmen who are employed as railway workers, crane drivers, fitters, motor mechanics and riveters in the tank and motor corps workshops, or in the power, heating, electricity, steam, forestry, quarrying and waterfront sectors. By the end of the war the Corps would number nearly 96,000.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/19-april-1917/

The forgotten army of the first world war - How Chinese labourers helped shape Europe

For centuries, the roots of Cheng Ling’s family burrowed deep into the wheat and potato fields of Shandong province. Yet one family member ventured far away, farmer Bi Cuide. The family has one memento of that journey, in fact the sole possession Cheng has to remind her of grandfather Bi. It is a bronze medal bearing the profile of a sombre King George V on one side, and St George on horseback, clutching a sword, the steed trampling the shield of the Central Powers. The sun of victory rises above. The sun of victory rises between two years: 1914, 1918.

The British medal of merit marks Bi’s sacrifice in helping the British military to win the first world war. The honour arrived after peace had been made, along with some money for his widow. All the family knew is that Bi had died, somewhere abroad. Cheng first discovered the disc when she visited her ancestral home in Laiwu in the 1970s. Then a teenager, she was curious about the number etched along the rim: 97237.

For decades, no-one in her family knew what that meant.

The first world war pitted the allied powers, including Britain, France and Russia, against the Central Powers, including Germany and the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian empires. Years into fighting, the male populations were depleted. Soldiers were hunkered in trenches carved into the countryside of Europe. The allies needed help, and it came from China.

Chinese workers dug trenches. They repaired tanks in Normandy. They assembled shells for artillery. They transported munitions in Dannes. They unloaded supplies and war material in the port of Dunkirk. They ventured farther afield, too. Graves in Basra, in southern Iraq, contain remains of hundreds of Chinese workers who died carrying water for British troops in an offensive against the Ottoman Empire.

Bi joined hundreds of thousands of Chinese men, mostly from the countryside, to help Britain, France and the other members of the Entente win the war that toppled the empires of Austria-Hungary, the Ottomans and Germany.

The story of the largest and longest-serving non-European labour contingent in the war has largely been forgotten but is slowly being rediscovered a century later.

It is the story of farmers, intellectuals and young students joining French, British, American and Russian forces for money and even for education in Europe.

Lees en kijk verder op http://multimedia.scmp.com/ww1-china/ , een heel mooie site van de South China Morning Post.
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Apr 2018 7:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chronology of the Easter Rising | Century Ireland - RTE

Monday, 17 April, 1916 - The Military Council meets and approves the draft of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. The Council also agrees who will form the provisional government, the seven of whom will also put their names to the Proclamation.

Wednesday, 19 April, 1916 - Those who will act as commandants during Easter week are made aware that the Rising is scheduled to begin at 6.30pm on Easter Sunday.

Thursday, 20 April, 1916 - Bulmer Hobson uncovers the plans for a Rising, and immediately informs Eoin MacNeill. The two men drive to St Enda’s at midnight and confront Pearse who tells them that they are powerless to stop the Rising from taking place.

Lees verder op http://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/index.php/articles/chronology-of-the-easter-rising

The ‘Castle Document’

There was a small press at Count Plunkett’s home of Larkfield, Kimmage, on which it is said that the ‘Castle Document’ was printed on 13 April 1916. This document alleged that the Dublin Castle authorities proposed to arrest many important public figures, and to raid homes and buildings:

‘First, the following persons are to be placed under arrest—All members of the Sinn Féin National Council; the Central Executive Irish Sinn Féin Volunteers; General Council Irish Sinn Féin Volunteers; … Coisde Gnotha Committee Gaelic League.

The following premises will be occupied … First, premises known as Liberty Hall …; number six Harcourt Street, Sinn Féin Building; number two Dawson Street, Headquarters Volunteers; … number twenty-five Rutland Square, Gaelic League Office; … Sinn Féin Volunteer premises in city; all National Volunteer premises in city; … Surrey House, Leinster Road, Rathmines.

The following premises will be isolated and all communication to or from prevented—Premises known as Archbishop’s House, Drumcondra; Mansion House, Dawson St.; number forty Herbert Park; Larkfield; Woodtown Park; Saint Enda’s College, Hermitage, Rathfarnham …’

The consensus is that after Joseph Plunkett ‘forged’ the document he sent Rory O’Connor with it from Miss Quinn’s private nursing home to Kimmage. O’Connor took it to George Plunkett and Colm Ó Lochlainn to print it. Its provenance has never been proven, however. Thomas MacDonagh’s son, Donagh, claimed that there really was a directive that all the leaders of the separatist organisations should be arrested ‘immediately on receipt of an Order from the Chief Secretary’s Office … and signed by the under-secretary and the General Officer Commanding the Forces in Ireland’.

This document was branded as bogus by the British authorities, but Grace Gifford Plunkett stated that she was present while Plunkett decoded part of it:

‘I remember the document that was published because I wrote it out myself for Joe, sitting on his bed in Larkfield House. Joe did not do it in the nursing home … It did come out from the Castle, I know who brought it out. Donagh MacDonagh was married to a girl named Smith. It was her father that brought it out.’

Eugene Smith was a telegrapher in Dublin Castle, and he gave Patrick J. Little a signed and witnessed statement that he recognised the document as genuine and abstracted from the Castle files. And in Kilmainham Gaol, on the night before he was executed, Seán MacDermott swore to Msgr Patrick Browne that the document was genuine. Moreover, it had several ‘errors’ that Joseph Plunkett was unlikely to have made.

Little was the editor of New Ireland, which first published the document. According to Little’s article, Rory O’Connor produced the document at a meeting in Dr Séamus O’Kelly’s house in Rathgar. Then Alderman Thomas Kelly read it at a Dublin Corporation meeting on 19 April, indicating that he had received it from Little. Kelly was highly regarded by all parties and thus the document was taken very seriously.

On 19 April 1916, Eoin MacNeill, as commandant of the Volunteers, drafted an order in response to the ‘Castle Document’ which included the following instructions: ‘Your object will be to preserve the arms and organization of the Irish Volunteers, and the measures taken by you will be directed to that purpose’.

MacNeill, Arthur Griffith, the O’Rahilly, Seán Fitzgibbon, Liam Ó Briain, Joseph Plunkett and Seán MacDermott met at Dr O’Kelly’s home at various times on Holy Saturday (22 April) night. By then, MacNeill was convinced that the ‘Castle Document’ was a fake. Thereafter he dispatched messengers throughout the country with countermanding orders for the Sunday rising: ‘Volunteers completely deceived. All orders for special action are hereby cancelled, and on no account will action be taken.’

Joseph E.A. Connell Jr is the author of Who’s who in the Dublin Rising (Wordwell Books).

Further reading
J. Brennan, ‘The Castle Document’, Irish Times, 28 March 1958.
G. Gifford, Witness Statement no. 257.
F.X. Martin (ed.), Leaders and men of the Easter Rising (London, 1967).


https://www.historyireland.com/volume-24/the-castle-document/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Apr 2018 9:21, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Apr 2018 8:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Moord op juf Mien schokte Noorden

De vondst van het ontzielde lichaam van onderwijzeres Mien Jansen in Paterswolde, vandaag precies een eeuw geleden, maakte grote indruk in de regio.

Twee bosarbeiders die 19 april 1917 bezig waren met het uitpoten van jonge dennen in het Kluivingsbos op de rand van Paterswolde en Groningen, ontdekten op een kleine open plek in het groen een stoffelijk overschot. Het in verregaande staat van ontbinding verkerende lichaam bleek dat van de 29-jarige Groningse onderwijzeres Willemiene Henriëtte Jansen, die werd vermist sinds september 1916.

Lees verder op https://www.dvhn.nl/groningen/Moord-op-juf-Mien-schokte-Noorden-22150423.html Je wordt wel gevraagd je te registreren...
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