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16 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2006 7:37    Onderwerp: 16 April Reageer met quote

April 16

1917 Lenin returns to Russia from exile

On April 16, 1917, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the revolutionary Bolshevik Party, returns to Petrograd after a decade of exile to take the reins of the Russian Revolution.

Born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov in 1870, Lenin was drawn to the revolutionary cause after his brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander II. He studied law and took up practice in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), where he moved in revolutionary Marxist circles. In 1895, he helped organize Marxist groups in the capital into the "Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class," which attempted to enlist workers to the Marxist cause. In December 1895, Lenin and the other leaders of the Union were arrested. Lenin was jailed for a year and then exiled to Siberia for a term of three years.

After his exile ended in 1900, Lenin went to Western Europe, where he continued his revolutionary activity. It was during this time that he adopted the pseudonym Lenin. In 1902, he published a pamphlet entitled What Is to Be Done?, which argued that only a disciplined party of professional revolutionaries could bring socialism to Russia. In 1903, he met with other Russian Marxists in London and established the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (RSDWP). However, from the start, there was a split between Lenin's Bolsheviks (Majoritarians), who advocated militarism, and the Mensheviks (Minoritarians), who advocated a democratic movement toward socialism. These two groups increasingly opposed each other within the framework of the RSDWP, and Lenin made the split official at a 1912 conference of the Bolshevik Party.

After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Lenin returned to Russia. The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature. However, once order was restored, the czar nullified most of these reforms, and in 1907 Lenin was again forced into exile.

Lenin opposed World War I, which began in 1914, as an imperialistic conflict and called on proletariat soldiers to turn their guns on the capitalist leaders who sent them down into the murderous trenches. For Russia, World War I was an unprecedented disaster: Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and in March 1917, riots and strikes broke out in Petrograd over the scarcity of food. Demoralized army troops joined the strikers, and on March 15, 1917, Nicholas II was forced to abdicate, ending centuries of czarist rule. In the aftermath of the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia's use of the Julian calendar), power was shared between the ineffectual provisional government, led by Minister of War Alexander Kerensky, and the soviets, or "councils," of soldiers' and workers' committees.

After the outbreak of the February Revolution, German authorities allowed Lenin and his lieutenants to cross Germany en route from Switzerland to Sweden in a sealed railway car. Berlin hoped, correctly, that the return of the anti-war socialists to Russia would undermine the Russian war effort, which was continuing under the provisional government. Lenin called for the overthrow of the provisional government by the soviets; he was subsequently condemned as a "German agent" by the government's leaders. In July, he was forced to flee to Finland, but his call for "peace, land, and bread" met with increasing popular support, and the Bolsheviks won a majority in the Petrograd soviet. In October, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd, and on November 7, the Bolshevik-led Red Guards deposed the Provisional Government and proclaimed soviet rule.

Lenin became the virtual dictator of the world's first Marxist state. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry and distributed land but, beginning in 1918, had to fight a devastating civil war against czarist forces. In 1920, the czarists were defeated, and in 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established. Upon Lenin's death in early 1924, his body was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum near the Moscow Kremlin. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor. After a struggle of succession, fellow revolutionary Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2006 7:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Heftige Kämpfe bei Douaumont

Großes Hauptquartier, 16. April.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Beiderseits des Kanals von La Bassée steigerte sich die Tätigkeit der Artillerien im Zusammenhang mit lebhaften Minenkämpfen. In der Gegend von Vermelles wurde die englische Stellung in etwa 60 Meter Ausdehnung durch unsere Sprengungen verschüttet.
Östlich der Maas entwickelten sich abends heftige Kämpfe an der Front vorwärts der Feste Douaumont bis zur Schlucht von Vaux. Der Feind, der hier anschließend an sein starkes Vorbereitungsfeuer mit erheblichen Kräften zum Angriff schritt, wurde unter schwerer Einbuße an seiner Gefechtskraft abgewiesen. Etwa 200 unverwundete Gefangene fielen in unsere Hand.
Östlicher und Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Es hat sich nichts von besonderer Bedeutung ereignet.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Italienische Beschießungen der Dolomitenbefestigungen

Wien, 16. April.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Außer dem alltäglichen Geschützkampfe keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
An der küstenländischen Front fanden im allgemeinen nur mäßige Geschützkämpfe statt. Im Abschnitte der Hochfläche von Doberdo war die Gefechtstätigkeit etwas lebhafter. Östlich von Selz sind wieder kleinere Kämpfe im Gange. Im Plöckenabschnitt nahm unsere Artillerie die feindlichen Stellungen unter kräftiges Feuer.
An der Tiroler Front beschoß der Feind einzelne Räume in den Dolomiten und unsere Werke auf den Hochflächen von Lafraun und Vielgereuth.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert ruhig.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 16. April.
Ein feindliches Torpedoboot, das sich Sed ül Bahr zu nähern versuchte, und einige feindliche Kriegsschiffe, die zusammen mit zwei Flugzeugen in der Umgebung der Insel Kensten in den Gewässern von Smyrna erschienen, wurden durch unser Feuer vertrieben.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_16.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 9:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Germans repulsed at Notre Dame de Lorette.

French airships bomb Strasbourg and other German towns.

Zeppelin raid on East Anglia: aeroplane bombs Faversham and Sittingbourne.

Eastern Front

Russians capture two heights south-west of Rosztoki Pass (Carpathians).

Southern Front

Allied fleets bombard Enos.

Albanian rebels bombard Durazzo.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks reach Urumia (north-west Persia).

Naval and Overseas Operations

French cruiser bombards El Arish.

British transport "Manitou" sunk by Turkish torpedo-boat destroyer. 51 lost.

Political, etc.

British apology to Chile for sinking of the "Dresden" in Chilean waters published.

Austria declares that the Italian proposals are in the main unacceptable.

Sinking of "Katwyk" by German submarine causes excitement in Holland
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 9:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: German bombardment of Avocourt Wood and Hill 304.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russians, after nine days' fighting take a position of left bank of Kara Dere.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 9:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

Second Battle of the Aisne (between Soissons and Reims). French take first German positions between Soissons and Craonne, and second positions to south of Juvincourt, and advance line to Aisne Canal between Loivre and Courcy.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British advance towards Istabulat (12 miles south-east of Samarra).

Political, etc.

Strike in Berlin and Leipzig due to defective food distribution.

British food orders re: wheat, barley, and oats.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 9:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Heavy attacks develop at Wytschaete and south-west of Vieux Berquin.

Wytschaete and Metern lost and retaken.

Attacks near Bailleul repulsed.

German progress on Lys river forces British withdrawal from Passchendaele.

Sir Douglas Haig issues special despatch "The 55th Division at Givenchy".

Heavy fighting in Boyelles district, south of Arras.

Eastern Front

Ukraine: Renewed fighting between Soviet troops and those of General Kornilov.

Ukraine Government protests against union of Bessarabia and Romania.

Political, etc.

Military Service Bill passes House of Commons; majority 198.

U.S.A.: Mr. Schwab appointed Director-General of U.S. Shipbuilding.

Hungary: Dr. Wekerle (Premier) resigns.

Dutch Government decides to send convoy to East Indies.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 10:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Armeense genocide in de Nederlandse pers

Algemeen Handelsblad, 16 april 1914

Insp.-generaal in Anatolië
Reuter seint uit Konstantinopel: De Porte heeft den ass.-resident L.C. Westenenk, tijdelijk ter beschikking gesteld van den gouverneur van Sumatra's westkust, en den Noorschen majoor Hoff benoemd tot inspecteur-generaal voor de hervormingen in Oost-Anatolië.

Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/AH-16-4-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 10:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 april 1909: luitenant-kolonel G.A. van Haeften wordt benoemd tot eerste Inspecteur der Koninklijke Marechaussee

Sinds 1841 is de Inspecteur der Cavalerie belast geweest met het algemeen toezicht over de Marechaussee. Dit verandert op 16 april 1909: de luitenant-kolonel G.A. van Haeften is de eerste Inspecteur der Koninklijke Marechaussee.

http://www.nimh.nl/nl/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814_1914/index.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 April 1914, Commons Sitting

TERRITORIAL FORCE.


HC Deb 16 April 1914 vol 61 cc326-7 326

Mr. CHIOZZA MONEY asked the Secretary of State for War how many non-commissioned officers and men in the Territorial Force were discharged during the year 1913; how many of these joined the Territorial Force Reserve; and how many joined the National Reserve?

The UNDER SECRETARY of STATE for WAR (Mr. Tennant) During the year ended 1st October, 1913, the number of non-commissioned officers and men discharged from the Territorial Force was 77,859. There is no information as to how many of these subsequently joined either the Territorial Force Reserve or the National Reserve. From page 124 of the General Annual Report it will be seen that 359 non-commissioned officers and men were transferred direct to the Territorial Force Reserve. These are not included in the numbers shown as discharged.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/16/territorial-force
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 22:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charlie Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor and film director of the silent film era, and became one of the best-known film stars in the world before the end of the First World War. Chaplin used mime, slapstick and other visual comedy routines, and continued well into the era of the talkies, though his films decreased in frequency from the end of the 1920s. (...)

During World War I, Chaplin was criticized in the British press for not joining the Army. He had in fact presented himself for service, but was denied for being too small at 5'5" and underweight. Chaplin raised substantial funds for the war effort during war bond drives not only with public speaking at rallies but also by making, at his own expense, The Bond, a comedic propaganda film used in 1918. The lingering controversy may have prevented Chaplin from receiving a knighthood in the 1930s. A 1916 propaganda short film Zepped with Chaplin was discovered in 2009.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlie_Chaplin
Notable Registrants of the World War I Draft: Charles Chaplin, http://www.archives.gov/southeast/wwi-draft/chaplin.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De chemische oorlog 1915 –1918 en het Belgische leger

Voorjaar 1915
Op 14 februari 1915 onderzocht hulparts J. De Cuyper zes soldaten van de 1ste Legerdivisie die
duizelden en braakten na een Duitse beschieting bij Ramskapelle. In zijn rapport verwees hij naar
stikgas.
In april toonden Duitse krijgsgevangenen het pakje met het kompres die hun artsen zouden
doordrenken en die ze bij een gasaanval voor mond en neus moesten vastmaken. Het Belgische
informatiebulletin van 16 april 1915 vernoemde ongewone activiteiten bij het Duitse XXVI
Reservekorps en aangekomen gasflessen. Tegenover de Belgische 6de Legerdivisie, achter het
kanaal en tot even ten noorden van Steenstrate, leek alles kalm.

http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/gas2006.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Hampstead Heavies - 138th Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery

16 April 1916 - After an overnight train journey from Le Havre, the Battery arrives at Bethune about 10am and then marches south to the village of Houchin, guided by an NCO of 112 Heavy Battery, the unit to be relieved.

http://hampstead-heavies.com/diary2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Battle of the Aisne, 16 April-15 May 1917

The Second Battle of the Aisne was one of the more disastrous French offensives of the First World War. It was the brainchild of General Robert Nivelle, who had replaced Joffre as the French commander in chief in November 1916. He was an artillery officer who had made his name during the later phases of the Battle of Verdun.

Nivelle was unwilling to resume the war of attrition that had dominated on the Somme and at Verdun during 1916. Instead he wanted to create a gap in the German lines and break out into their back area, a return to the strategy of 1915. He also intended to return to the battlefields of 1915, combining a British attack at Arras with a French attack on the Aisne.

Nivelle believed that he could use his artillery to destroy the German lines. In earlier attacks the artillery bombardment had concentrated on the German front line, often allowing Allied soldiers to capture it. Unfortunately even in 1915 the Germans had constructed an elaborate defensive system with a second line of defences as far as three miles behind the first. The second line had survived the bombardment intact, bringing the Allied advance to a halt. Nivelle planned a massive artillery bombardment that would target the entire depth of the German lines. The French infantry would then advance behind a creeping barrage that would help to protect then from German attack. Any surviving pockets of fierce German resistance would be bypassed and dealt with later, while the advance continued on into the undefended ground in the German rear. This was cause a “rupture” in the German lines.

Nivelle was a great self-publicist. His confidence in the plan spread amongst his troops, especially after the first day of the Battle of Arras (9 April) had seen the British and Canadians capture Vimy Ridge, advancing as far as three miles in places. Unfortunately Nivelle had taken to confidently expounding his plans to anyone who would listen, most notoriously at dinner parties in London during a visit in January 1917. This combined with lax security to warn the Germans of what was coming.

The German defences on the Aisne had been under construction for nearly three years. Nivelle was planning to advance four and half miles on the first day of the offensive. The main German defences by April 1917 were a further mile to the rear! The German plan depended on defensive in depth. The front line trenches were virtually abandoned, used for observation only. Behind them was a maze of machine gun nests, some constructed in shell holes, some in reinforced concrete bunkers. The reserve divisions, whose job it was to stop the French offensive, were out of range of the French artillery, at least 10,000 yards behind the front line.

The French committed 800,000 men to the battle. The initial assault was launched by the Sixth Army under General Charles Mangin (on the left) and the Fifth Army under General Olivier Mazel (on the right). On 20th April they were joined by General Denis Duchêne’s Tenth Army. They were supported by 3,810 artillery guns, although there was a relative shortage of howitzers.

The German line was held by 650,000 men, 21 divisions in the front line and 15 counter attack divisions. The line was held by General Max von Boehn’s Seventh Army on Chemin des Dames and Otto von Below’s First Army to the east.

The preliminary bombardment began on 2 April. It did not have the required effect on the entire depth of the German defences. When the main attack went in on 16 April, the French infantry were able to capture the lightly defended front line, but found the intermediate defences largely intact. Very few of the 200 French tanks played a part in the battle – 150 were either destroyed by German artillery or got bogged down in the mud.

On the first day the French advanced on average 600 yards. On the second day they captured the Chemin des Dames road, itself the objective of earlier battles. The French advance made most progress on the left, where the German front line turned north. The French Sixth Army pushed the Germans back up to four miles. The problem was that this still left the German rear defensive lines intact. The offensive continued for five days before it began to bog down. Different sources give different casualty figures for the battle, but by 20 April it is possible that as many as 130,000 casualties had been suffered (although the official figures were rather lower). By then 20,000 German prisoners and 147 guns had been captured. German casualties during the battle were probably higher than the French, with 163,000 men killed, missing, wounded or captured. On several occasions during the First World War attacking would turn out be less costly than defending.

Compared to many earlier battles, the first five days of the Second Battle of the Aisne had been successful, but the cost had been high. In five days on the Aisne the French had lost as many men as in a month at Verdun. This was too much for the French soldiers to endure. Nivelle had promised a war winning offensive and a rapid breakthrough. Discontent began to rise in the army, manifesting itself as a reluctance to go into the front line.

Nivelle’s authority was fading. On 29 April Pétain was appointed Chief of the General Staff and on 15 May, after more limited successes on the Aisne, Nivelle was replaced as Commander-in-Chief by Pétain, with Foch as Chief of the General Staff. Pétain immediately cancelled the offensive and turned his attention to restoring the crumbling morale of the army.

The collapse of French morale after the Second Battle of the Aisne would have tragic results further up the line. The British attack at Arras had to continue for longer than was sensible. In the late summer and autumn of 1917 the Third Battle of Ypres (or Passchendaele) went ahead despite the lack of a matching French offensive, partly to prevent the Germans from launching an attack on the vulnerable French sector of the line

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_aisne2.html

Chemin des Dames

Preparations

In preparation for the breaking of this almost impregnable section of the German front line Nivelle massed three armies: Sixth Army (Many of whose regiments were made up of colonial troops) under General Mangin, Fifth Army under General Mazel and Tenth Army under the command of General Duchêne in reserve.

Opposite them was the Seventh German Army under General von Bohm with about 14 divisions to counter the 33 of Mangin and Mazel.

Altogether about 1 200 000 men were massed in readiness for the assault. 500 kilometres of new railway lines were built to supply the attack, and during the build up 872 train loads of artillery ammunition were brought up to supply the 5341 pieces of artillery. Oh! And 170 000 000 rounds of rifle ammunition.

All this for a front of about 40 kilometres (25 miles).

16 April 1917

At 06:00 hours the battle began.

The troops were in a good spirits and like the British on 1 July 1916 the Poilus believed that this time the German line would give under the sheer bravado and audacity of their attack.

Within minutes in a nightmare repeat of the first day on the Somme, the French were mown down in their thousands. The details of the attack had become known to the Germans who had captured a sergent-major of the 3rd Zouaves complete with the plans on 4 April 1917. It had also been the subject of considerable speculation in all the French papers.

The Germans sat out the preparatory bombardments in their shelters. When the time for the French attack came, the Germans were well prepared.

A Basque Deputy called Ybarnégaray who also happened to find himself commanding a battalion of men into battle commented tellingly:

The battle began at six, by seven it had been lost.

Perfectly sited German machine guns had full command over the French as they attempted to climb slopes that in places are as much as 30 degrees. Units of the French army were obliterated in minutes.

On the first day the French suffered 40 000 casualties and their first use of tanks (Schneiders) on unsuited terrain led to 150 of them being destroyed.

For the colonial troops in Mangin's Army the weather was completely unsuitable, unaccustomed to the cold, rain and snow they were particularly hard hit.

Nivelle refuses to halt the attacks

Despite the fact that he was not making the spectacular breakthrough he had prophesied, Nivelle refused to halt his offensive. Further attacks against the German lines were swiftly brought to a halt.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_chemin_3.htm

De muiterijen in het Franse leger in 1917

(...) Als belangrijkste aanleiding tot het ontstaan van de muiterijen van 1917 wordt dan ook genoemd de enorme verliescijfers bij het Franse offensief van 16 april 1917 (het z.g. Nivelle-offensief). ‘L’heure est venue, confiance et courage. Vive la France!’ sprak Nivelle in zijn dagorder van 15 april en hij beloofde zijn soldaten een doorbraak met gegarandeerd succes die de oorlog binnen veertien dagen tot een einde zou brengen. En opnieuw werd de Franse soldaat gevraagd zijn leven te geven Pour la Patrie. (...)

Lees verder op http://www.ssew.nl/muiterijen-franse-leger-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John James DWYER

Regimental number 20610
Date of birth 9 March 1890
Place of birth Lovett, Tasmania
Religion Roman Catholic
Occupation Labourer
Address Allonah, South Bruny, Tasmania
Marital status Single
Age at embarkation 25
Height 5' 11"
Weight 170 lbs
Next of kin Father, Charles Dwyer, Allonah, South Bruny, Tasmania
Previous military service Nil
Enlistment date 4 February 1915
Rank on enlistment Private
Unit name 15th Battalion, 5th Reinforcement
AWM Embarkation Roll number 23/32/2
Embarkation details Unit embarked from Melbourne, Victoria, on board HMAT A20 Hororata on 17 April 1915
Regimental number from Nominal Roll Commissioned
Rank from Nominal Roll Lieutenant
Unit from Nominal Roll 4th Machine Gun Battalion
Fate Returned to Australia 24 August 1918
Medals Victoria Cross
'For most conspicuous bravery when in attack. Sergeant Dwyerr, in charge of a Vickers machine gun, went forward with the first wave of the brigade. On reaching the final objective, this non-commissioned officer rushed his gun forrward in advance of the captured position in order to obtain a commanding spot. Whilst advancing, he noticed an enemy machine gun firing on the troops on our right flank, and causing casualties. Unhesitatingly, he rushed his gun forward to within 30 yards of the enemy gun, and fired point blank at it, putting it out of action, and killing the gun crrew. He then seized the gun and, totally ignoring the snipers from the rear of the enemy position carried it back across the shell swept ground to our front line, and established both it and his Vickers gun on the right flank of our brigade. Sergeant Dwyer commanded these guns with grreat coolness, and, when the enemy counter attacked our positions, he rendered great assistance in repulsing them. On the following day, when the position was heavily shelled, this non-commissioned officer took up successive positions. On one occasion, his Vickers gun was blown up by shell fire,but he conducted his gun team back to Headquarters through the enemy barrage, secured one of the reserve guns, and rushed it back to our position in the shortest possible time. During the whole of the attack, his contempt of danger, cheerfulness, and courage, raised the spirits of all who were in his sector of the line.'
Source: 'Commonwealth Gazette' No. 31
Date: 7 March 1918

Discharge date 15 December 1918
Family/military connections Brother: 863 Corporal Thomas Vincent DWYER MM, 4th Machine Gun Bn, returned to Australia, 5 April 1919.
Other details
War service: Egypt, Gallipoli, Western Front
Joined Bn at Gallipoli, 2 August 1915.
Admitted to 13th Casualty Clearing Station, 13 September 1915 (influenza); transferred to 25th Casualty Clearing Station, Imbros, 13 September 1915. Detached to Police, Gallipoli, 18 September 1915. Admitted to 24th Field Ambulance, 19 September 1915 (influenza); discharged, 13 October 1915.
Disembarked Alexandria, 29 December 1915 (general Gallipoli evacuation).
Appointed Driver from 1 January 1916.
Embarked Alexandria to join the British Expeditionary Force, 1 June 1916; disembarked Marseilles, France, 10 June 1916.
Reverted to the ranks at own request.
Appointed Lance Corporal, 31 December 1917.
Admitted to 5th Australian Field Ambulance, 28 March 1917 (mumps); transferred to Casualty Clearing Station and thence to Corps Stationary Hospital, 28 March 1917; discharged to duty, 14 April 1917.
Promoted Temporary Sergeant, 16 April 1917. Rejoined unit from hospital, 16 April 1917.
Promoted Corporal, 22 April 1917; Temporary Sergeant, 22 April 1917.
Wounded in action, 9 June 1917 (gun shot wound, shoulder and arm), and admitted to 3/2nd West Lancashire Field Ambulance; transferred same day to 53rd Casualty Clearing Station, and thence to 26th General Hospital, Etaples; transferred to 39th General Hospital, Havre, 11 June 1917; to 4th Convalescent Depot, Havre, 18 July 1917; to Australian General Base Depot, Rouelles, 12 August 1917; rejoined unit, 22 August 1917.
Promoted Sergeant, 29 August 1917.
Awarded Victoria Cross.
To England on leave, 18 January 1918; leave extended to 3 February 1918; rejoined unit from leave, 3 February 1918.
Unit designation changed to 4th Machine Gun Bn, 1 April 1918.
Promoted Temporary Regimental Sergeant Major, 9 April 1918; 2nd Lieutenant, 20 May 1918; Lieutenant, 20 May 1918.
Detached to Australian Corps Gas School, 22 June 1918; rejoined unit from detachment, 29 June 1918.
To England on duty, 31 September 1918.
Commenced return to Australia on board HT 'Medic', 24 August 1918; disembarked Melbourne for onward travel to Tasmania, 11 October 1918; discharged, 15 December 1918.

Medals: Victoria Cross, 1914-15 Star, British War Medal, Victory Medal
Date of death 17 January 1962
Age at death 71

http://www.aif.adfa.edu.au:8080/showPerson?key=DWYER/JJ/20610
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 23:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vreemd verhaal... Moet je eens helemaal lezen...

Kemmis, C.T., Diary, 15-16 April 1918

Friday, March 1st 1918. Reconnoitered Cambridge and found two munition factories, one in Burleigh St, East Road and one in Gyder St, the former makes shell cases, and the latter ammunition boxes. Weather, fine, but windy. C.T.Kemmis Pte.

Saturday March 2nd 1918. Received letter from Capt Viney, who is to arrive in Cambridge on Monday, March 4th. Reconnoitered outskirts of Cambridge. Weather, fine, but windy. C.T. Kemmis Pte

Monday, March 4th 1918. Had interview with Capt Viney re case concerning pacifists. Interview with Capt Viney in afternoon. Weather, fine, but cold & windy C.T.Kemmis Pte.

Tuesday, March 5th 1918. Pte Tarrant & myself moved to billet at 14. Earl Street Cambridge. Had interview with O.C. 1st Eastern General Hospital. Weather, fine, cold wind. C.T.Kemmis Pte.

Wednesday, March 6th 1918. Visited shop where the "Cambridge Magazine" is published. Nothing to report. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Thursday, March 7th 1918. Reported to the 1st Eastern General Hospital. Visited Cambridge Magazine shop, nothing to report. Weather, fine & cold. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Friday, March 8th 1918 to [March] 12th [1918] Made enquires regarding pacifist propaganda. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Wednesday, March 13th 1918. Kept observation on University Library. Weather, fine & cold. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Thursday, March 14th 1918. Had interview with Chief Constable, Mr. Holland, who gave names of three suspected pacifists, Messers Dent, Dingwall, & Ogden. Visited Bath Hotel in evening. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Friday, March 15th 1918. Identified Messers Dent, Ogden, & Dingwall, also found the residences of each. Weather, fine but windy. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Saturday, March 16th, 1918. Kept observation on Dent & Dingwall 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Monday, March 18th 1918. Kept observation on Dent & Dingwall 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Tuesday, March 19th 1918. Observation on Dent and Dingwall. Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, wet. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Wednesday, March 20th 1918. Observation on Dent and Dingwall. Visited Salisbury Hotel, Tenison Road, nothing to report. Weather, fine, but windy. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Thursday, March 21st 1918. Kept observation on Dent & Dingwall. 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Visited "Bath Hotel," nothing to report. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Friday, March 22nd 1918. Observation on Dent & Dingwall 1 p.m. - 4 p.m. Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, fine & windy. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Saturday, March 23rd 1918. Visited Cambridge Magazine Shop, had conversation with lady assistant, but got no information. Observation on Dent & Dingwall. Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Sunday, March 24th 1918 Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Monday, March 25th, 1918. Observation on Dent & Dingwall 1 p.m. 4 p.m. Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, fine. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Tuesday, March 26th 1918 Observation on Dent & Dingwall. Interview with Mr. Harvey, Special Constable, Trumpington. Weather, some storms. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Wednesday, March 27th 1918. Visited Cambridge Magazine Shop. No information, Dent believed to be away. Weather, Fine but dull. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Thursday, March 28th 1918. University Library closed, Herts & Beds shop closed, the manager of this shop, Mr. Martin, is believed to be a pacifist, he is a discharged soldier. Visited Bath Hotel. Weather, stormy. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Friday, March 29th 1918. Observation on University Library, Dent still away, did not see Dingwall. Weather, wet. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Saturday, March 30th 1918. Observation on 13. Warkworth St, residence of Lt. Leslie. Weather, story. C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Monday, April 15th 1918. Observation on 13. Warkworth St in morning. Interview with Capt. Viney at Police Station at 2 p.m. Case engaged on closed. Orders to proceed to Brentwood on following day, Pte Tarrant proceeding to Norwich. Weather, cold, very stormy. C.T. Kemmis, Pte

Tuesday, April 16th 1918. Returned to Brentwood, reported to Lieut Hemwood 4:30 p.m. Billetted at 22. North Rd. Avenue. Weather. Very wet & cold. C.T. Kemmis, Pte

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/kemmis-ct-diary-15-16-april-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 April 1918, Written Answers (Commons)

MATCHES (SHORTAGE).


HC Deb 16 April 1918 vol 105 cc243-4W 243W

Mr. A. ALLEN asked the President of the Board of Trade whether his attention has been drawn to complaints by the Clydebank Food Control Committee as to the shortage of matches in the burgh of Clydebank; and whether he can see his way to increase the number of boxes of matches issued to retailers there?

Sir A. STANLEY Yes, Sir. In view of the increased population in Clydebank and similar places, arrangements have been made for forwarding increased supplies of matches.

Mr. ALLEN asked the President of the Board of Trade if he can state the number of boxes of matches released each week for use in London and Scotland respectively?

Sir A. STANLEY The number of boxes released for the London area is 4,000,000 per week, and that for Scotland 2,400,000 per week.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1918/apr/16/matches-shortage
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 23:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jack Thomas Counter

Jack Thomas Counter VC (November 3, 1898 - September 16, 1970) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 19 years old, and a private in the 1st Battalion, The King's (Liverpool) Regiment, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 16 April 1918 near Boisieux St. Marc, France, it was necessary for information to be obtained from the front line and the only way to get it was over ground with no cover and in full view of the enemy. A small party tried without success, followed by six men, singly, each one being killed in the attempt. Private Counter then volunteered and, going out under terrific fire, got through and returned with vital information which enabled his commanding officer to organise and launch the final successful counter-attack. Subsequently he also carried five messages across the open under heavy artillery barrage to company headquarters.

His medal is on display at the Jersey Museum, Saint Helier.

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Jack_Thomas_Counter
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 23:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letland

Letland kent een nog complexer verloop van de feiten. De Geallieerden en de Duitsers beslissen de macht er over te dragen aan de "Voorlopige Volksraad van Letland", geleid door Karlis Ulmanis. Vanaf november 1918 ontschepen Britse troepen in Liepaja en Riga. Op 4 december wordt een sovjetregering opgericht in Riga. De Al-Russische Sovjetregering erkent de onafhankelijkheid van Letland op 22 december 1918.
Vanaf februari 1919 heroveren Duitse troepen onder de leiding van von der Goltz een groot deel van Letland. De "roden" kunnen tot begin 1920 de oostelijke provincie Latgallen onder controle houden. Von der Goltz pleegt op 16 april 1919 een staatsgreep en jaagt de ploeg van Ulmanis letterlijk de zee in -- naar een Brits oorlogsschip. Op 23 april wordt Riga op de "roden" heroverd en nu ontbrandt de strijd tussen Letse troepen van Ulmanis, met steun van de Britten en de Fransen en von der Goltz. De Geallieerden dwingen een wapenstilstand af en op 8 juli 1919 wordt Ulmanis aan de macht gebracht. Met de steun van Poolse "witte" troepen worden de "roden" ook in Latgallen van de macht verdreven.

http://www.katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/SUWO2/02Beschermgordel.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2010 23:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Reichsmarine 1919-1935
by Jason Pipes

On November 11th, 1918, Germany signed the armistice ending the First World War. On April 16th, 1919, before the Treaty of Versailles was enacted, Germany established a new navy - the Vorläufige Reichsmarine or Interim Imperial German Navy. Two years later on March 31st, 1921, the name was changed when Vorläufige was dropped and the navy became simply the Reichsmarine. It was at this time that the Reichsmarine - which had been founded in 1919 - became the full fledged German navy. The Reichsmarine flag was first flown on April 11th, 1921, and the Kaiser's flag was hoisted for the last time on December 31st, 1921. The navy that existed between 1919 and 1935 was in every way transitory, even when the term Vorläufige was removed from the title. The German navy was in every way "Interim" before 1935. The Reichsmarine would exist until May 21st, 1935, when the Kriegsmarine was offically formed.

Lees verder op http://www.feldgrau.com/articles.php?ID=51
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Woensdag 16 April 1919.

Valkenswaard. Heden, 16 April, is het 25 jaren geleden dat Fr. Verleg als arbeider in dienst trad bij de firma Gebr. van Best alhier.

Gefeliciteerd, meneer Verleg! helmpompom http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Toplis @ 16 Apr 2010 10:15 schreef:
Meierijsche Courant, Woensdag 16 April 1919.

Valkenswaard. Heden, 16 April, is het 25 jaren geleden dat Fr. Verleg als arbeider in dienst trad bij de firma Gebr. van Best alhier.

Gefeliciteerd, meneer Verleg! helmpompom http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm

116 jaar werken bij firma Gebr van Best, chapeau puh
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly - "Labour and Ireland, Dublin Working Class, amid Great Emotion, Hoist and Salute the Flag of Ireland"

On Sunday, April 16, 1916, let the date be forever remembered, Dublin witnessed a scene that moved thousands of men and women to tears of joy and thanksgiving. On that day the Irish Citizen Army, the armed forces of Labour, on the top of the headquarters of the Irish Transport Workers’ Union, hoisted and unfurled the Green Flag of Ireland, emblazoned with the Harp without the Crown, and as the sacred emblem of Ireland’s unconquered soul fluttered to the breeze, the bugles pealed their defiant salute, and the battalion presented arms, strong men wept for joy, and women fainted with emotion.

From early in the day the historic square was the centre of Dublin. Crowds were continually arriving to assure themselves that the ceremony was really to take place. All sorts of rumours were current all the week. Field guns were to level the Hall with the ground, all the avenues of approach were to be occupied by masses of troops with machine guns, Mr Connolly and all his officers were to be arrested at dead of night, martial law was to be declared on Saturday, and so forth; the stories were endless, and the bearers of the stories came from all quarters and ranks of society. But the preparations were quietly proceeded with, and the appointed hour found Beresford Place and all its avenues of approach blocked indeed, not by troops, but by tens of thousands of a breathless, excited, and jubilant crowd.

The duty and honour of unfurling the flag was allotted to Miss Molly Reilly, a young and beautiful member of the Irish Women Workers’ Union.

In front of the Hall the Irish Citizen Army cleared a space and formed into three sides of a square. Inside their formation positions were occupied by the Women’s Section, who made a splendid and beautiful show, the Citizen Army Boy Scouts, under Captain Carpenter, and the Fintan Lalor Pipers’ Band. Captain Poole and a Colour Guard of sixteen men escorted the Colour Bearer who was accompanied also by the three young girl dancers known as the Liberty trio.

The flag was deposited first on a pile of drums in the centre of the square. After inspecting the troops, Commandant Connolly took up his position in front of the drums with Commandant Mallin on his left and Lieutenant Markievicz on his right. Then the Colour Bearer, Miss Reilly, advanced from her escort, received the Colours from the Commandant, and turned about to face the Colour Guard. As she did so the Guard presented arms, and the buglers sounded the Salute. When the Colour Bearer had retaken her place in the centre of the Guard that body moved off around the square, whilst the Pipers’ Band played appropriate music.

As the Colour Guard reached the entrance to the Hall again, and reformed to their original front the Colour Bearer carrying the Colours across her breast bore them into the hall, and up to the roof. At this point the excitement was almost painful in its intensity. So closely had the crowds been packed that many thousands had been unable to see the ceremony on the square, but the eyes of all were now riveted upon the flag pole awaiting the re-appearance of the Colour Bearer. All Beresford Square was packed, Butt Bridge and Tara Street were as a sea of upturned faces. All the North Side of the Quays up to O’Connell Street was thronged, and O’Connell Bridge itself was impassable owing to the vast multitude of eager, sympathetic onlookers.

The Fintan Lalor Pipers’ Band is among the very first rank of the Pipe bands of Ireland, but so anxious and prayerfully eager were the people that its fine music was scarcely heeded as the hearts of all beat rapidly with longing for the appearance of the Flag upon its position.

At last the young Colour Bearer, radiant with excitement and glowing with colour in face and form, mounted beside the parapet of the roof, and with a quick graceful movement of her hand unloosed the lanyard, and THE FLAG OF IRELAND fluttered out upon the breeze.

Those who witnessed that scene will never forget it. Over the Square, across Butt Bridge, in all the adjoining streets, along the quays, amid the dense mass upon O’Connell Bridge, Westmoreland Street and D’Olier Street corners, everywhere the people burst out in one joyous delirious shout of welcome and triumph, hats and handkerchiefs fiercely waved, tears of emotion coursed freely down the cheeks of strong rough men, and women became hysterical with excitement.

As the first burst of cheering subsided Commandant Connolly gave the command, “Battalion, Present Arms”, the bugles sounded the General Salute, and the concourse was caught up in a delirium of joy and passion.

In a few short words at the close Commandant Connolly pledged his hearers to give their lives if necessary to keep the Irish Flag Flying, and the ever memorable scene was ended.

Gepubliceerd op 22 april 1916, in Workers’ Republic. http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1916/04/labireland.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels - "In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog."

16 april 1916
Een van de gewichtigste gebeurtenissen van de hele week is nog altijd, na de mis, het aflezen van de ambtelijke mededelingen op de kerksteen. De jonge veldwachter staat er gereed, met de papieren in de hand en wacht tot al de parochianen uit de kerk gekomen zijn. Met een greintje spot in de glimlach kijkt hij uit de hoogte over de menigte die nieuwsgierig rond hem gedrumd staat, gelijk iemand die zeggen wil: ik weet er alles van, en gij moet het nog vernemen. Hij leest voor, luidop en duidelijk met nu en dan een commentaar van 't zijne3, op een toon tussen haakjes. Zo kan hij een welbegrepen spotknufje4 niet inhouden als de Duitsers, die er niets schijnen van te weten, ons de verordening voorschrijven: dat alle land moet gebruikt en bebouwd worden en er hoegenaamd geen grond braak mag blijven liggen. Na anderhalf jaar bezetting, veronderstelt de veldwachter terecht zou de Duits toch wel moeten gezien hebben dat hier nergens een voetje land onbenuttigd blijft liggen en dat er nu met de oorlog nog meer en nauwer op geschaft5 wordt. Ja, konden de boeren het maar vinden om de grond op twee verdiepingen te beplanten, - zeker dat ze 't niet laten zouden. Bij de ambtelijke aanmaning om veel olievruchten te verbouwen, zoals klaprozen, zonnebloemen, enz. gaat een algemene spotlach uit de menigte - en de veldwachter doet er als commentaar tussen haakjes bij. - ‘Zijzelf gaan ons nu komen zeggen wat er voordeligst geplant moet worden,...’ Bloemen voor een boer, zijn dingen die geen ogenblik ernstig in aanmerking genomen worden - in gewone tijd zelfs - late varen1 nu als de tarwe 100 fr. staat en 't lijnzaad 125 fr. gekost heeft.

Maar er volgen twee ernstiger mededelingen:

1e Dinsdag om 11 uur moeten al de koeibeesten op [de] plaats ten toge gesteld worden. Er blijft iets als een groot vraagteken in de lucht hangen en een bange verwachting...

2e Het tweede is iets van heel andere aard - een verrassing eigenlijk, te weten: dat alwie inkwartiering gegeven heeft aan Duitse troepen, sedert 't begin van de oorlog zijn rekening moet indienen ten laatste tegen deze avond om 6 uur.

Dat komt op zijn hoogst onverwacht en zonder voorbereiding - Rekening? op welke basis zij moet opgemaakt worden - geen woord - en waarom die korte termijn: 't avond 6 uur? Dat alles schijnt raadselachtig. Eindelijk komt - gelijk altijd de opheldering. Ziehier wat ik in 't naar huis gaan van klappeien verneem: Enige inwoners hadden vernomen dat de burgers in Kortrijk, van de stad als vergoeding kregen 0,25 fr. per man en per nacht voor inkwartiering. Naderhand werd men gewaar dat er in Vichte een briefje uithing gestempeld door de gemeente waarbij de burgers verzocht werden hun rekening in te dienen voor vergoeding van inwartiering. Dat uithangbriefje zou men van ginder medegenomen hebben en het hier onder de neus van de burgemeester gelegd, - met als gevolg de mededeling die we zoëven gehoord hebben.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0020.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Thomas Fredrick Littler

Fred Littler joined the Cheshire Regiment shortly after his 17th birthday in 1914. He trained in Aberystwyth, Cambridge, Northampton and Norwich, before beginning work at Siddley Deasy in Coventry.
He signed for Foreign Service on his 18th birthday, and, after further training, left England for Rouen in March 1916. His diary describes his experience of battle in Northern France for 11 months from April 1916, where he sustained a leg injury, which eventually led to his return to England to convalesce.
In England he met his future wife and joined the Royal Engineers with whom he returned to France in April 1918 until the end of the war. He reports many casualties around him on the front line and in support positions, and himself survived Spanish Flu, a major killer, towards the end of the war.


April 16th 1918 - We were laying a mine under the Menin road and railway, and completed the work, also a bridge at 150yds distance towards Ypres, and 6 of us were detailed off to guard the mine the whole night while the infantry and artillery fell back to new positions.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/littlerdiary6.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 19:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Notable Registrants of the World War I Draft: Charles Chaplin



http://www.archives.gov/southeast/wwi-draft/chaplin.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2014 9:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 April 1915 - Korporal Jakob Kücher - 3rd Army KuK Infantry

From Neukirchen, Austria, Jakob was a hotelier in Salzburg before the war. A recalled reservist, he saw service in Poland and Rumania from August 1914. Jakob was killed during a Russian attack on his positions near the Roztoki Pass in the Carpathian Mountains on the mid-morning of 16 April 1915.

Aged 31 at death, Jakob has no known grave.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/2985-16-april-1915-korporal-jakob-kuecher.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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