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15 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2006 6:26    Onderwerp: 15 April Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Vergebliche französische Angriffe am "Toten Mann"

Großes Hauptquartier, 15. April.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Ein stärkerer Vorstoß der Engländer gegen die Trichterstellungen südlich von St. Eloi wurde nach Handgranatenkampf völlig zurückgeschlagen.
In den Argonnen und östlich davon teilweise lebhafter Artillerien und Minenkampf.
Links der Maas konnten feindliche Angriffsabsichten gegen unsere Stellungen auf "Toter Mann" und südlich des Raben- und Cumičreswaldes, die durch große Steigerung des Artilleriefeuers vorbereitet wurden, in unserem vernichtenden, von beiden Maasufern auf die bereitgestellten Truppen vereinten Feuer nur mit einigen Bataillonen gegen "Toter Mann" zur Durchführung kommen. Unter schwersten Verlusten brachen die Angriffswellen vor unserer Linie zusammen, einzelne bis in unsere Gräben vorgedrungene Leute fielen hier im Nahkampf.
Rechts der Maas sowie in der Woëvre-Ebene blieb die Gefechtstätigkeit im wesentlichen auf heftige Feuerkämpfe beschränkt. Zwei schwächliche feindliche Handgranatenangriffe südwestlich der Feste Douaumont blieben erfolglos.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die gestern wiederholten örtlichen Angriffsversuche der Russen nordwestlich von Dünaburg halten das gleiche Schicksal wie am vorhergehenden Tage. Am Serwetsch südöstlich von Korelitschi brachten wir einen durch starkes Feuer eingeleiteten Vorstoß schwächerer feindlicher Kräfte leicht zum Scheitern.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Keine Ereignisse von Bedeutung.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Abgeschlagener Fliegerangriff auf Czernowitz

Wien, 15. April.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Gestern nach 5 Uhr früh erschienen sieben feindliche Flugzeuge, darunter vier Kampfflieger, über Czernowitz und den Bahnanlagen nördlich der Stadt. Zur Abwehr stiegen einige unserer Flugzeuge auf, denen es nach zweistündigem, über Czernowitz sich abspielendem Luftkampfe gelang, einen feindlichen Kampfflieger auf 30 Schritte abzuschießen. Das feindliche Geschwader flüchtete. Das getroffene Flugzeug landete im Sturzflug bei Bojan zwischen der russischen und unserer Linie und wurde durch unser Geschützfeuer vernichtet. Der feindliche Beobachter ist tot. Unsere Flugzeuge kehrten unversehrt zurück.
Sonst verlief der gestrige Tag sowohl in Ostgalizien als auch in den anderen Abschnitten unserer Nordostfront verhältnismäßig ruhig.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Am Mrzli Vrh wiesen unsere Truppen neuerliche Angriffe des Feindes auf die gewonnene Vorstellung ab. Im Plöckenabschnitt waren die Minenwerfer heute nacht in lebhafter Tätigkeit. Die Spitze des Col di Lana wird von den Italienern andauernd heftig beschossen. Feindliche Annäherungsversuche im Sugana-Abschnitte wurden abgewiesen.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert ruhig.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:
Feindliche Flieger über Konstantinopel

Konstantinopel, 15. April.
An der Irakfront und an der Kaukasusfront keine wesentliche Änderung der Kriegslage.
In der Nacht vom 14. zum 15. April überflogen zwei feindliche Flugzeuge, die vor den Dardanellen aufgestiegen waren, in großer Höhe Konstantinopel und warfen einige Brandbombon auf zwei Örtlichkeiten der Bannmeile, ohne irgendeine Wirkung zu erzielen. Infolge des Feuers unserer Abwehrgeschütze verloren die feindlichen Flieger ihr Ziel aus den Augen und kehrten nach der Richtung zurück, aus der sie gekommen waren.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 8:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Ostend bombed by 15 Allied aeroplanes.

French airship bombs Freiburg.

Severe fighting off Ostend.

Sir John French's despatch on operations from 2 February to 20 March published.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russian Black Sea fleet bombards Ergeti and other places on the coast of Anatolia.
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1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: Successful French attack south of Douaumont.

Eastern Front

Russians take two lines of trenches near Lake Naroch.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British advance on Tigris.

Russian success near Bitlis.

British occupy Kharga Oasis (120 miles south-south-west of Assiut).
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1917
Western Front

British repulse German attack on Bapume-Cambrai road; severe fighting at Lagnicourt.

British capture Villeret (north-west of St. Quentin).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks driven back to Jebel Hamrin (tableland from Tigris to Persian hills).

Political, etc.

Appeal of President Wilson to American citizens re: war.

Austrian feelers for separate peace with Russian apparent.

Venizelist regime in Greek islands in force.
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1918
Western Front

Fighting continues on Bailleul-Wulverghem line, and Germans capture both places.

Very violent artillery action in Luce Valley (Somme).

Eastern Front

Finland: Germans report occupation of Helsingfors.

Southern Front

Macedonia: Greek troops cross Struma river and occupy villages in Seres district.

British troops take two villages south-west of Demirhissar.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British Naval forces sink ten German armed trawlers in Kattegat.

Political, etc.

Austria: Count Czernin's resignation announced.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 8:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919
Aftermath of War

Bolsheviks retire on Ural front.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 8:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 april 1916
Midden-Oosten, Mesopotamië
Britse vliegtuigen droppen voedsel boven het belegerde garnizoen van Kut-el-Amara. De bevelhebber van het garnizoen, generaal sir Charles Townshend, heeft verklaard dat zijn voedselvoorraad rond de negenentwintigste uitgeput zal zijn. De Britse colonne die oprukte naar Kut-el-Amara werd de dag voordien afgeweerd door de Turken.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 8:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 april 1917
Luchtoorlog, Westfront
Paul René Fonck treedt toe tot een van Frankrijks topgevechtseenheden, Groupe de Chasse Nr. 12, beter bekend als Les Cigognes ('De ooievaars'). Hij is voorbestemd om 's lands top-aas te worden, en heeft tegen het einde van de oorlog 75 overwinningen op zijn naam, hoewel het officieuze aantal op 127 ligt. Op 9 mei en 26 september 1918 haalt Fonck, een uiterst gevaarlijke scherpschutter, zes vijandelijke vliegtuigen neer op één dag.
De eerste wereldoorlog, dag na dag bekeken door Ian Westwell
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 8:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vlamertinge 1914-1918 door Remy Duflou
Maandag 15 april 1918
Sinds enkele dagen was het kalm op deze gemeente. Weinig soldaten verbleven nog in de kampen. De dorpsplaats van Reningelst werd heden nogmaals beschoten. Verscheidene kanons werden geplaatst langs de Kasselstraat, tussen het lindegoed en Bossaert's kapelleken op Reningelst, rond de Dekkerij en op het zuiderdeel van Vlamertinge.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 9:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Do Your Bit For America", 15 April 1917
Following his address to Congress on 2 April 1917, and a formal U.S. declaration of war four days later, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation to the American people on 15 April 1917. The text below is a transcript of Wilson's proclamation.

My Fellow Countrymen
The entrance of our own beloved country into the grim and terrible war for democracy and human rights which has shaken the world creates so many problems of national life and action which call for immediate consideration and settlement that I hope you will permit me to address to you a few words of earnest counsel and appeal with regard to them.

We are rapidly putting our navy upon an effective war footing and are about to create and equip a great army, but these are the simplest parts of the great task to which we have addressed ourselves.

There is not a single selfish element, so far as I can see, in the cause we are fighting for. We are fighting for what we believe and wish to be the rights of mankind and for the future peace and security of the world.

To do this great thing worthily and successfully we must devote ourselves to the service without regard to profit or material advantage and with an energy and intelligence that will rise to the level of the enterprise itself. We must realize to the full how great the task is and how many things, how many kinds and elements of capacity and service and self-sacrifice it involves.

These, then, are the things we must do, and do well, besides fighting - the things without which mere fighting would be fruitless.

We must supply abundant food for ourselves and for our armies and our seamen, not only, but also for a large part of the nations with whom we have now made common cause, in whose support and by whose sides we shall be fighting.

The Thousand Needs For Victory
We must supply ships by the hundreds out of our shipyards to carry to the other side of the sea, submarines or no submarines, what will every day be needed there, and abundant materials out of our fields and our mines and our factories with which not only to clothe and equip our own forces on land and sea, but also to clothe and support our people, for whom the gallant fellows under arms can no longer work; to help clothe and equip the armies with which we are cooperating in Europe, and to keep the looms and manufactories there in raw material; coal to keep the fires going in ships at sea and in the furnaces of hundreds of factories across the sea; steel out of which to make arms and ammunition, both here and there; rails for worn-out railways back of the fighting fronts; locomotives and rolling stock to take the place of those every day going to pieces; mules, horses, cattle, for labour and for military service everything with which the people of England and France and Italy and Russia have usually supplied themselves, but cannot now afford the men, the materials, or the machinery to make.

It is evident to every thinking man that our industries - on the farms, in the shipyards, in the mines, in the factories - must be made more prolific and more efficient than ever, and that they must be more economically managed and letter adapted to the particular requirements of our tasks that they have been; and what I want to say is that the men and the women who devote their thought and their energy to these things will be serving the country and conducting the fight for peace and freedom just as truly and just as effectively as the men on the battlefield or in the trenches.

Soldiers Behind The Firing Line
The industrial forces of the country, men and women alike, will be a great national, a great international, service army - a notable and honoured host engaged in the service of the nation and the world, the efficient friends and saviours of free men everywhere.

Thousands - nay, hundreds of thousands - of men otherwise liable to military service will of right and of necessity be excused from that service and assigned to the fundamental, sustaining work of the fields and factories and mines, and they will be as much part of the great patriotic forces of the nation as the men under fire.

I take the liberty, therefore, of addressing this word to the farmers of the country and to all who work on the farms: The supreme need of our own nation and of the nations with which we are cooperating is an abundance of supplies, and especially of foodstuffs.

The importance of an adequate food supply, especially for the present years is superlative. Without abundant food, alike for the armies and the peoples now at war, the whole great enterprise upon which we have embarked will break down and fail.

The world's food reserves are low. Not only during the present emergency, but for some time after peace shall have come, both our own people and a large proportion of the people of Europe must rely upon the harvests in America.

Where The Fate Of The War Rests
Upon the farmers of this country, therefore, in large measure rests the fate of the war and the fate of the nations. May the nation not count upon them to omit no step that will increase the production of their land or that will bring about the most effectual cooperation in the sale and distribution of their products?

The time is short. It is of the most imperative importance that everything possible be done, and done immediately, to make sure of large harvests.

I call upon young men and old alike and upon the able-bodied boys of the land to accept and act upon this duty - to turn in hosts to the farms and make certain that no pains and no labour is lacking in this great matter.

I particularly appeal to the farmers of the South to plant abundant foodstuffs, as well as cotton. They can show their patriotism in no better or more convincing way than by resisting the great temptation of the present price of cotton and helping, helping upon a great scale, to feed the nation and the peoples everywhere who are fighting for their liberties and for our own. The variety of their crops will be the visible measure of their comprehension of their national duty.

The Government of the United States and the governments of the several States stand ready to cooperate. They will do everything possible to assist farmers in securing an adequate supply of seed, an adequate force of labourers when they are most needed, at harvest time, and the means of expediting shipments of fertilizers and farm machinery, as well as of the crops themselves when harvested.

A Democracy's Chance To Make Good
The course of trade shall be as unhampered as it is possible to make it, and there shall be no unwarranted manipulation of the nation's food supply by those who handle it on its way to the consumer. This is our opportunity to demonstrate the efficiency of a great democracy, and we shall not fall short of it!

This let me say to the middlemen of every sort, whether they are handling our foodstuffs or our raw materials of manufacture or the products of our mills and factories: The eyes of the country will be especially upon you. This is your opportunity for signal service, efficient and disinterested.

The country expects you, as it expects all others, to forego unusual profits, to organize and expedite shipments of supplies of every kind, but especially of food, with an eye to the service you are rendering and in the spirit of those who enlist in the ranks, for their people, not for themselves.

I shall confidently expect you to deserve and win the confidence of people of every sort and station.

To the men who run the railways of the country, whether they be managers or operative employees, let me say that the railways are the arteries of the nation's life, and that upon them rests the immense responsibility of seeing to it that those arteries suffer no obstruction of any kind, no inefficiency or slackened power.

To the merchant let me suggest the motto, "Small profits and quick service," and to the shipbuilder the thought that the life of the war depends upon him. The food and the war supplies must be carried across the seas, no matter how many ships are sent to the bottom. The places of those that go down must be supplied, and supplied at once.

Statesmen and Armies Helpless Without Miners
To the miner let me say that he stands where the farmer does - the work of the world waits on him. If he slackens or fails, armies and statesmen are helpless. He also is enlisted in the great service army.

The manufacturer does not need to be told, I hope, that the nation looks to him to speed and perfect every process; and I want only to remind his employees that their service is absolutely indispensable and is counted on by every man who loves the country and its liberties.

Let me suggest, also, that every one who creates or cultivates a garden helps and helps greatly, to solve the problem of the feeding of the nations - and that every housewife who practices strict economy puts herself in the ranks of those who serve the nation. This is the time for America to correct her unpardonable fault of wastefulness and extravagance.

Let every man and every woman assume the duty of careful, provident use and expenditure as a public duty, as a dictate of patriotism which no one can now expect ever to be excused or forgiven for ignoring.

The Supreme Test Has Come
In the hope that this statement of the needs of the nation and of the world in this hour of supreme crisis may stimulate those to whom it comes and remind all who need reminder of the solemn duties of a time such as the world has never seen before, I beg that all editors and publishers everywhere will give as prominent publication and as wide circulation as possible to this appeal.

I venture to suggest, also, to all advertising agencies that they would perhaps render a very substantial and timely service to the country if they would give it wide-spread repetition.

And I hope that clergymen will not think the theme of it an unworthy or inappropriate subject of comment and homily from their pulpits.

The supreme test of the nation has come. We must all speak, act, and serve together!

Woodrow Wilson
The White House
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/doyourbit.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 9:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The British reaction to warnings about the gas

Two Messages are Received from the French

General Ferry's message from the French 11th Division, warning of a possible attack on the Allied line with gas, was received by the British 28th Division on Wednesday 14 April. It was then relayed to the headquarters of the British V. Corps in Poperinghe that same day.

The following morning, Thursday 15 April [1915], the general commanding the British V. Corps, Lieutenant-General Sir Herbert Plumer, was informed of a message from the French via 28th Division. The message contained information about how the gas cylinders worked and included some of the cotton material taken from Private Jaeger's mouth protector:

"... German prisoner further stated that the gas bottles or cylinders are fitted with rubber pipes running forward towards hostile trench AAA Cylinders are deeply buried in front trenches AAA Battery personnel and others provided with special package of tow on cotton waste for use as protective mask AAA Sample of this cotton waste herewith for analysis if desired received to-day from French Division AAA Prisoner stated that the front intended to be attacked by means of asphyxiating gas on the first favourable opportunity extended from LANGEMARCK to POELCAPPELLE - WIELTJE Road and probably also further south AAA"

The message also said that Jaeger spoke of a dress rehearsal for the attack, which was to have taken place on 13 April without the gas. The French 11th Division had confirmed that three red lights had been seen behind the German lines at about 01.00am on the morning of 14 April. Possibly this was part of the rehearsal for the German attack.

A second message was sent to V. Corps from the British 28th Division containing additional information about the German guns. The French had reported new types of German aircraft:

"German prisoner JAEGER ... gave further details on interrogation AAA Four ZEPPELINS were brought to GHENT during the last few days preceding capture AAA Three squadrons each consisting of eight aeroplanes one captive balloon and one battery anti-aircraft guns had recently arrived AAA One Squadron at STADEN one at HOUTHULST village and one at RUMBEKE AAA RUMBEKE is probably not that at X. Sixteen but more probably other RUMBEKE near SLEGHAGGE Q. twenty seven. One biplane seen by 11th Division on eleventh instant was reported to resemble British pattern so closely that it was not at first fired at AAA Subsequently black maltese crosses were seen AAA Prisoner described how German Automobile anti-aircraft gun is provided with automatic loading arrangements AAA Long gun AAA capable of being turned completely round horizontally on central pivot and capable of elevation or depression through large arc AAA also provided with double sighting arrangements both on right and left AAA French report having seen on fourteenth another type of German aeroplane of new shape somewhat resembling French type AAA Please inform Flying Corps.
From 28th Division, 11.05 a.m."


Lees verder op http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/brreact.htm
Voor het complete verhaal, zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4384 (13 april) & http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4411 (14 april)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 9:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1915

15 april 1915
’s Ochtends raakt in de Weesperstraat een man bekneld tussen een tram en een sleperswagen.
Zwaargewond wordt hij een winkel binnengedragen, waar meteen een dokter wordt gewaarschuwd. Voordat deze komt overlijdt de man. Eenmaal aanwezig moet de dokter tot zijn grote schrik constateren, dat de overledene zijn vader is.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War Office, 15th April, 1915.

His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the appointment of the undermentioned Officers to be Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, in recognition of their gallantry and devotion to duty whilst serving with the Expeditionary Force: —

Major Henry William Newcome, 47th Battery, Royal Field Artillery.
For the excellent work performed throughout the campaign, especially on the 10th and llth March, 1915, during the action at Givenchy, when he directed the fire of his Battery from a ruined house with great skill whilst exposed to very heavy rifle fire. The reports furnished by Major Newcome during the engagement were of the greatest value.

Major Andrew Hamilton Gault, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry.
For conspicuous gallantry at St. Eloi on 27th February, 1915, in reconnoitring quite close to the- enemy's position and obtaining information of great value for our attack which was carried out next day. On the 28th February Major Gault assisted in the rescue of the wounded under most difficult circumstances whilst exposed to heavy fire.

Lees verder op http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/29131/supplements/3693/page.pdf en http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/29131/supplements/3694/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth APPLETON O.B.E. R.R.C.

On Friday 9 October 1914 Edie left Southampton and travelled, via Dungeness and Dover, arriving at Ostende at 3am on Sunday 10 October 1914. After a day or two in Ostende she sailed, she thought bound for Dover, but after anchoring off Dunkirk she arrived in Boulogne. By 9 December 1914 she was writing from No 10 Stationary Hospital which was at St Omer from October 1914.

[April] 15th [1915] - Quieter day. Taking over College to-morrow. There was a tremendous heavy bombardment last night. It only lasted three quarters of an hour, but it was impossible to sleep through the noise. I saw at my window and watched it all, gun flashes, ground lights and searchlights. It was all over by about 12.30. I heard to-day that it was covering our troops’ advance.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Intro&4Volumes/intro_and_4volumes.asp#Introduction_to_the_Diaries
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadese postzegels

On April 15, 1915 a one cent war tax was added to the two cent surface rate to first ounce to increase the surface rate to three cents. This tax was in force until July 1, 1926 when the rate returned to two cents with the removal of the war tax. This did not mean two cent stamps became obsolete between April 15, 1915 and July 1, 1926. It is obvious from the approval dates in the above table that two cent stamps were needed after July 1926, however after the war tax was added two cents was required for each added ounce and remained after July of 1926.

http://www.wps.mb.ca/buffalo_PDF/Buffalo%200810.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

15 april 1915 - Drie aanklagers waren overgebracht uit Vilvoorde: Jos de Greef, Petrus Maes en Victor Gijsens. Hun leidsman, Louis Dockx, bracht diezelfde nacht ook twee behoeftige jongens van Beerse over. Hij kreeg daarvoor een vergoeding. Andere leidsmannen die vergoed werden, waren August Van Gorp, Martin Venix, August Huygaerts en Jac Cuylaerts. “Gelief mij te doen kennen welke vergoeding zou mogen toegekend worden voor het overbrengen van een behoeftige vrijwilliger en welke maatregelen U best oordeelt om alle misbruiken tegen te gaan.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; burgemeester aan consul, 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

Weet iemand waar dit over gaat? http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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April 1915 - Armenian Genocide

Thursday 15: The Armenian Genocide began when the Ottoman Empire undertook the systematic annihilation of Armenian intellectuals and entrepreneurs within the city of Constantinople and later the entire Armenian population of the Empire.

Als prelude op:

Saturday 24: Armenian Genocide: The Ottoman Government began their genocidal campaign to annihilate the Armenian people of Anatolia.

http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/1915/

The Extermination of Ottoman Armenians by the Young Turk Regime (1915-1916)

1915 April 15 to 17, Maraş: The military authorities proceed to arrest the Armenian notables of the town as the first stage of operations, and then organize the deportation of over 20,000 Armenians of the town and its surrounding villages to the Syrian Desert. ** (Kévorkian, 2006: 733).

1915; April 15 to 30, kaza of Göksun (mutessarifat of Maraş): In the kaza of Göksun, the deportations claim 9,500 Armenians from 18 localities, all of whom are deported to Aleppo and the Syrian desert. ** (Kévorkian, 2006: 727).

1915; April 15 to 30, kaza of Elbistan (mutessarifat of Maraş): Nearly 6,000 Armenians are deported to the Syrian Desert by order of the kaymakam, Hüseyin Derviş Bey. ** (Kévorkian, 2006: 727).

Mooie site... http://www.massviolence.org/The-Extermination-of-Ottoman-Armenians-by-the-Young-Turk-Regime?artpage=4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Notes on the Front [15 April 1916] (Author: James Connolly)

Notes on the Front
A Mixture of All Sorts. 15 April 1916

"Sydney Barker, the publisher of the Australian organ of the 'Industrial Workers of the World', has been fined Ł100, with the alternative of a year's imprisonment with hard labour, for publishing statements likely to prejudice recruiting.’’

Thus we read in a Labour paper published in England. In a Labour paper published in Scotland we read confirmation of the news published in the capitalist dailies that about a dozen prominent members of the working class movement — trade unionists — have been seized in the middle of the night in Scotland, and deported without any form of trial.

In Ireland we see prominent organisers of the Irish Volunteers arrested and sentenced to deportation for feebly endeavouring to imitate Sir Edward Carson; we see newspapers raided and printing machinery seized by the military amid a chorus of approval from all the enemies of militarism; and in the rural districts we see every day arrests of men for passing the most ordinary comments upon the war.

Free speech and a free press no longer exists. The Rights of Labour have been suppressed; to strike is an offence against the law whenever the authorities choose to declare it so; and all over these countries bands of soldiers and sailors are being encouraged to invade and break up meetings of civilians.

Gradually the authorities have been making successful war upon every public right, gradually the mind of the unthinking has been accustomed to see without alarm the outraging of every constitutional liberty. That arbitrary exercise of power which two years ago would have evoked a storm of protest is now accepted with equanimity and even with approval.

Tyranny grows with what it feeds upon, and the slave soon grows accustomed to the bearing of chains which when first applied seemed worse than death itself. The state of these countries to-day is a sad proof of the truth of these maxims.

That brilliant revolutionist, Tom Mann, speaking at Sheffield said that ‘the termination of the war at this moment would result in serious disaster,’ and that other trade union leader, Ben Tillett, has a constant job on the recruiting platform. These two men were before the war the greatest of internationalists, and rather despised our Irish love for our own nationality, as being mere sentimental slop and entirely out of date. Now they are raving jingoes, howling for the blood of every rival of the British capitalist class.

In the speech above mentioned Mr Tom Mann quoted some figures which serve to show the wonderful fight being made by the Germans against odds. He said that: ‘Official figures showed that the enemy had 19,800,000 men of military age. Russia alone had 19,719,000, and of these 10,000,000 had not been touched. The allies, excluding Britain, had 31,997,000.’

Yet in spite of these enormous odds it is freely admitted by every competent military authority that the superiority lies undoubtedly with the forces of the Central Powers.

More than once we have pointed out this disparity of forces, more than once we have shown that Russia alone has a greater population than Austria and Germany combined, and therefore the fact that the German armies still remain immovably fixed on the soil of her enemies proves either of two things: Either the military forces of the Allies are hopelessly led by bungling incompetents. Or, the German Nation is incomparably superior to any nation in Europe.

But to read the accounts of the war published by the British press, and by the foresworn traitors who run in Ireland the pro-British press, one would imagine that the only real army on the field of battle was the British army, that the Germans were cowering in fear of a British attack, and that the French were in the rear of the British lines somewhere in France, and principally engaged in writing letters urging the British Tommies on.

An American writer, Irvin S. Cobb, writing a humorous sketch recently in the Saturday Evening Post, of Philadelphia, tells how he was interviewed by a bore who was an enthusiastic adherent of the Allies, and – but we will let him tell the story himself. In his Americanese he says:

He cruelly impaled me in the lance tips of his steely relentless glance, and while I wriggled in feeble agony demanded of me, as one intrepid Anglo-Saxon to another, whether I agreed with him that the Anglo-Saxon was waging a magnificent struggle for the liberties and civilization of the world. And if not, why not? Hearing him one got a mental picture of a small determined Anglo-Saxon licking, single-handed, practically all the rest of creation.

I might, I suppose, have told him that my Anglo-Saxon strain wouldn't bear the acid test, some of my ancestors having been the kind of Anglo-Saxons who came from the North of Scotland and spoke Gaelic; and others were the kind of Anglo-Saxons who hailed from the South of Ireland and disliked any mention of the late Oliver Cromwell coming up in the course of social conversation.

I might have added that, after a cursory view of the situation, I was rather of the opinion that, in his struggle against the embattled foeman, the Anglo-Saxon, from time to time, was receiving some slight assistance from Frenchmen and Italians and Russians and Poles and Belgians and Japanese and Hindus and Sikhs and Ghurkas and Turcos and Canadians and Serbians and Australians and New Zealanders and Montenegrins and Algerians and Boers and South Africans and Americans — yes, quite a few Americans — and Celts and Slavs and Walloons, and various other allied branches of the Anglo-Saxon breed. But I didn't.

I waited until he lowered his guard for a precious moment, and then I wrested myself free and fled, leaving him still rendering a favourite selection of airs on the Anglo-Saxophone.


In much the same way does the British and Redmondite press work to distort the news and to impress upon the mind of its readers a totally distorted view of events.

For instance there is one paper in Holland, the Telegraaf, owned and controlled by Englishmen, and when the Freeman's Journal or the Irish Times wishes to make us believe that the people of Holland are enthusiastic for the Allies they always quote this English-owned paper, and nearly always ignore every other.

From Italy the only papers quoted are those that support the Government, the others are either ignored or misrepresented.

In America papers like the New York Sun, which even in normal times is notorious for its snobbery and devotion to English interests and its contempt for American, are the favourites to which the Freeman's Journal turns when seeking American opinion on the war.

Even on the matter of the recent Irish Convention it is the editorials of this lickspittle journal that the Freeman's Journal quotes to show the trend of Irish opinion upon this historic gathering. Never did the Sun in recent years show anything but contempt and hatred for all sincere Irish movements against English rule, but nevertheless on Monday, April 10, the Freeman's Journal gravely cites the paper in question in the defence of John E. Redmond against the angry denunciations of the American Irish.

And so the tale goes on, ad infinitum, a carnival of tyranny, a saturnalia of military license, an spammer of well-paid falsehoods. These are the everyday accompaniments of present day British rule in Ireland, and in the world.

Well, we must endure it, we suppose. At any rate we are not leaving Dublin until the Whit Trade Union Congress at Sligo. After that if the worst comes to the worst we can take our courage in our hands and —

Goed artikel van een goed schrijver... http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/E900002-069/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 15 April 1916.

Valkenswaard. Bij het Hoofd der school, den W.Ed. Heer P. Reijnders, is gisteren nacht het geheele waschgoed gestolen. Het waschgoed lag op de bleek in een afgesloten tuin, waarbinnen de dieven zijn doorgedrongen en zich alzoo meester gemaakt hebben van alles wat er lag. Van de dader(s) is, zooals gewoonlijk niets bekend.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Onslow (1916)

HMS Onslow was an M class destroyer launched on 15 February 1916, completed by 15 April 1916 and sold for breaking up on 26 October 1921. During the First World War, her captain was John Tovey, (later Admiral of the Fleet).

She saw action at the Battle of Jutland, where, Onslow was badly damaged, with her speed reduced to 10 knots (12 mph; 19 km/h). Nevertheless, Tovey pressed home the attack against first a cruiser and then a line of battlecruisers. Onslow was brought back to Aberdeen despite the damage, having been towed out of action by the destroyer HMS Defender, under heavy fire. The report on the battle by Admiral Beatty stated that:

Defender, whose speed had been reduced to 10 knots, while on the disengaged side of the battle cruisers, was struck by a shell which damaged her foremost boiler, but closed Onslow and took her in tow. Shells were falling all round them during this operation, which, however, was successfully accomplished. During the heavy weather of the ensuing night the tow parted twice, but was resecured. The two struggled on together until 1pm 1st June, when Onslow was transferred to tugs. I consider the performances of these two destroyers to be gallant in the extreme, and I am recommending Lieutenant-Commander J. C. Tovey of Onslow, and Lieutenant Commander Palmer of Defender, for special recognition... —Admiral David Beatty

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Onslow_(1916)
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Battle of Lagnicourt (15 April 1917)

Observing that the Australian 1st Division was holding a frontage of 13,000 yards (12,000 m), the local German Corps commander (General Otto Von Moser, commanding the German XIV Reserve Corps) planned a spoiling attack to drive back the advanced posts, destroy supplies and guns and then retire to the Hindenburg defences. Passing his plans to higher command, they assigned an extra division to his corps to further strengthen the attack.

Attacking with 23 battalions (from four divisions), the German forces managed to penetrate the Australian front line at the junction on the Australian 1st Division and Australian 2nd Division and occupy the village of Lagnicourt (damaging some Australian artillery pieces).

Counter-attacks from the Australian 9th and 20th Battalions restored the front line, and the action ended with the Australians suffering 1,010 casualties, against 2,313 German casualties.

Lees het gansche artikel op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arras_(1917)#Battle_of_Lagnicourt_.2815_April_1917.29

Flanking operation: the German attack on Lagnicourt, 15 April 1917

Fifth Army (Gough)
V Corps (Fanshawe)
62nd (2nd West Riding) Division.
I ANZAC Corps (Birdwood)
1st Australian Division
2nd Australian Division.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 10:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commonwealth War Graves Commission: 1917: The Battle of Arras

Noreuil, 16 km south-east of Arras, was the scene of a fierce engagement between Australian troops and the Germans on 15 April 1917.
Noreuil Australian Cemetery (244 burials) was begun in April 1917 but more than 80 of the graves, almost all of the 50th Australian Infantry Battalion, were later destroyed by shell fire.

http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/Arras%20Leaflet%20PDF.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 11:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Vredesconferentie van Stockholm 1917

De internationale sociaal-democratie is in 1914 uiteengevallen door het uitbreken van de wereldoorlog. In alle landen, oorlogvoerend of niet, tekenen zich drie stromingen af. Ter rechterzijde de Meerderheidssocialisten die, afhankelijk van hun nationale identiteit, tégen of juist vóór een aparte vrede met Rusland zijn. Ter linkerzijde zijn de internationalisten, revolutionairen en pacifisten verenigd in het Internationaal Socialistisch Comité (ISC). Doorgaans wordt deze groepering Zimmerwalders genoemd, naar hun eerste conferentie in 1915 in het Zwitserse Zimmerwald. Een middengroep poogt voorzichtig de relaties tussen de socialisten uit de oorlogvoerende landen te herstellen. Deze is vertegenwoordigd in het door de Belg Camille Huysmans aangevoerde Bureau van de Socialistische Internationale (BSI).

Het BSI besluit op 15 april 1917 zich in het neutrale Stockholm te vestigen. De Zimmerwalders doen het zelfde. Vanuit de BSI begint een 'Hollands-Skandinavisch Comité' voor een vredesconferentie te ijveren. Een derde gesprekspartner is de Petrogradse Arbeidersraad, waarin mensjewiki, bolsjewiki en socialistenrevolutionairen kort na de Februarirevolutie van 1917 (nog) vereend zijn.

In mei al wordt duidelijk dat de Britten, Belgen, Fransen en Russen nee tegen een conferentie zullen zeggen. Een schijnbaar eindeloze reeks bilaterale onderhandelingen, preliminaire vergaderingen, tripartite gesprekken en elkaar doorkruisende initiatieven volgt. De Zimmerwalders houden een conferentie in Stockholm om te besluiten of ze aan de Stockholm conferentie deel zullen nemen, en de Russen komen met een eigen vredesinitiatief. Als ten slotte na vier maanden de conferentie toch weer in de steigers staat, weigeren de regeringen van de Geallieerden, zoals de Britse Labour premier Lloyd George, paspoorten te verstrekken aan de afgevaardigden die naar Stockholm willen reizen. Vanaf augustus 1917 is het duidelijk dat de conferentie er nooit zal komen.

Achter alle 'kleine' discussies rond deze mislukte conferentie speelde de grote geschiedenis een rol. Leken de kansen op het militaire toneel te keren, dan werden ook wat Stockholm betreft de vlaggen weer verhangen. Zo had de aanvankelijk gereserveerde, later instemmende en tenslotte oncoöperatieve houding van Engelands Labourregering te maken met de inschatting van de kansen op een aparte Russisch-Duitse vrede. En zo zag Lenin naarmate de tijd vorderde steeds weidser perspectieven voor de bolsjewiki, waardoor hij minder energie wilde steken in een mogelijk succesverhaal van de Tweede Internationale. Brandhaarden van toen, zoals de vele autonomievraagstukken van etnische minderheden, de plaats van Turkije in Europa of de westerse inmenging in Iran, leken in veel opzichten op die van nu. De trucs en schaduwgevechten van de onderhandelaars in het socialistische kamp doen al evenzeer vertrouwd aan. Enkelen hunner kwamen na de oorlog aan de macht. Zo blijven, ondanks het uiteindelijke fiasco van dit vredesproject, hun motieven en gedragingen het waard bestudeerd te worden.

http://labourhistory.net/stockholm1917/background-nl.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 17:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 April 1918, Commons Sitting

IMPERIALISM.


HC Deb 15 April 1918 vol 105 c34 34

Mr. LYNCH asked the Prime Minister whether he has made inquiries through the representatives of Australia and South Africa in order to ascertain in what degree the military contribution of those Dominions has been lessened by reason of the objection to the principles and symbols of Imperialism; and whether, in view of the urgency of the situation, he will announce to the Dominions the abolition in all State documents in regard to them of the terms "Empire," "Imperial," and all that applies military domination proceeding from a central authority?

Mr. BONAR LAW The answer is in the negative.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/15/imperialism
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 17:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

April 15, 1918 -- Working around gun pit and registering in the afternoon. A very quiet and dull day. Made a drink of cocoa and then went to bed. We could hear big strafing down south all afternoon and night.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/REMEMBERS/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/bottomley/april1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 18:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Georges Clemenceau, in conversation with General Mordacq (15th April 1919)

"In the last three days, we have worked well. All the great issues of concern to France are almost settled. Yesterday, as well as the two treaties giving us the military support of Britain and the United States in case of a German attack, I obtained the occupation of the Rhineland for fifteen years, with partial evacuation after five years. If Germany does not fulfil the treaty, there will be no evacuation either partial or definitive. At last I am no longer anxious. I have obtained almost everything I wanted."

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWclemenceau.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

INDEPENDENT GEORGIA (1918-1921) - TOWARDS GEORGIAN INDEPENDENCE: 1917-18

Brest-Litovsk repudiated
The Turkish ultimatum was received with the greatest indignation in the Transcaucasian Diet or Seim. This new parliamentary body, which assembled at Tbilisi on 23 February 1918, was a local substitute for the short-lived Russian Constituent Assembly in Petrogradwhich had been so unceremoniously dispersed by Lenin’s Bolsheviks. Nikolai Chkheidze and Irakli Tsereteli, dethroned from their tribunes in the Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government, now reappeared in their native Georgia to raise the clarion call of revolutionary democracy. A tug-of-war ensued between the Transcaucasian delegation at the Trebizond peace conference and the government and Diet in Tbilisi. On 10 April 1918, Chkhenkeli declared himself willing to accept the Brest-Litovsk treaty and conduct further negotiations based upon it. Simultaneously, Tbilisi was gripped by patriotic and warlike frenzy. On 13 April 1918, Irakli Tsereteli declared in the Diet: ‘Turkish imperialism has issued an ultimatum to Transcaucasian democracy to recognize the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. We know of no such treaty. We know that in Brest-Litovsk the death sentence was passed upon Revolutionary Russia, and that death sentence to our fatherland we will never sign!’ Tsereteli’s speech was greeted with thunderous applause. The next day, Evgeni Gegechkori, the Transcaucasian Premier, telegraphed Chkhenkeli and told him to break off negotiations with the Turks and leave Trebizond. That night, despite the manifest reluctance of the Muslim representatives, the Transcaucasian Diet declared war on the Turks.

This bellicose act was a piece of somewhat ridiculous panache. Divided against itself, Transcaucasia had neither the means nor, in so far as the Muslim elements were concerned, the will to resist. On 15 April 1918, it was announced in Istanbul that the Turkish Army had entered Batumi. Some of the forts had surrendered without firing a shot and the town and port had been occupied without resistance. The Muslim Georgians of Lazistan and of Atchara, of which Batumi is the main city, were helping the Turks, tearing up railway lines, wrecking trains and conducting guerilla operations generally. Having now seized most of the territories they coveted, the Turks renewed their peace overtures. On 22 April 1918, Vehip Pasha telegraphed Chkhenkeli and asked whether he was now prepared to resume peace talks. The Transcaucasian Diet had no alternative but to accept the offer.

Mooi artikel op http://matiane.wordpress.com/2010/02/15/independent-georgia-1918-1921/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 18:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duits Voorjaarsoffensief 1918

(...) Reeds op 9 april volgde de in het operatiegebied van het 6de Duitse leger voorbereide 2de aanvalsstoot tegen de Vlaamse heuvelrug bij de Leie, opnieuw met het doel om de havens langs Het Kanaal te veroveren. Ook deze leidde aanvankelijk tot succes bij Armentičres en Estaires, maar faalde op de linkervleugel en eindigde in een verbeten worsteling van het aan de rechterzijde aansluitende 4de Duitse leger om de sterk verdedigde, op 15 april bestormde Kemmelberg. Ieper bleef in handen van de Engelsen. Ook hier waren de Duitse troepen dicht bij een overwinning, als Foch niet in uiterste nood 8 divisies aan zijn reserves had onttrokken, zodat de Duitse doorbraak mislukte. (...)

Lees verder op onze eigenste Wiki: http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.eu/wiki/index.php/Duits_Voorjaarsoffensief_1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Christopher Bale 1918 - 7th Lincolnshire Regiment

Emily Marion Ruth
The Beloved wife of Arthur Bale
Who died December 3rd 1920
Aged 47 years

Affliction sore long time she bore
Physicians were in vain
Till God did please to give her ease
And free her from all pain

Also
Sergnt William C Bale Lincolnshire Regiment
The dearly beloved son of the above
Killed in Action April 15th 1918
Aged 25 years


William Christopher BALE
Serjeant 11131. 7th Battalion Lincolnshire Regiment. Killed in action in France & Flanders on 15th April 1918. Aged 29. Born and lived Seething. Enlisted Grimsby. Son of Arthur and Emily M. N. Bale, of Seething, Brooke, Norwich. Buried: Varennes Military Cemetery, Somme, France. Ref. I. M. 9.
www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=72637

Met foto's... http://www.flickr.com/photos/43688219@N00/4104446352/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 18:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 15, 1918: British evacuate Passchendaele Ridge

With the Germans, in the throes of a major spring offensive on the Western Front, hammering their positions in Flanders, France, British forces evacuate Passchendaele Ridge, won by the Allies at such a terrible cost just five months earlier, on April 15, 1918.

Under the command of Erich von Ludendorff, the German army launched "Operation Georgette," the second phase of their first major offensive on the Western Front for more than a year, on April 9, 1918, near the River Lys in Flanders. In the first days of the attack, the Germans regained the momentum they had lost at the end of March, when the Allies halted the first phase of the attacks at Moreuil Wood and around Amiens, France. Storming ahead against the British and Portuguese divisions at the Lys (one Portuguese division was so overwhelmed it refused to go forward into the trenches after the initial bombardment), German forces advanced quickly as panic swept down the Allied lines of command.

On April 15, less than a week after Georgette began, the British were forced to evacuate Passchendaele Ridge, an area that had seen heavy bloodshed the previous fall, during the Third Battle of Ypres. That battle had ended in the Allied capture of Passchendaele on November 6, 1917, but only at the cost of 310,000 British casualties, compared with 260,000 on the German side. In addition to Passchendaele, the Germans gained control of Messines Ridge, the scene of another important Allied victory in June 1917, before the Allied defenses hardened and Ludendorff shut down the Georgette operation on April 29, 1918.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/british-evacuate-passchendaele-ridge
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 April 1919, Commons Sitting

TRENCHES (COUNTRY DISTRICTS).


HC Deb 15 April 1919 vol 114 c2702 2702

Major WHELER asked the Secretary of State for War whether he is aware that a number of the trenches dug in the Sittingbourne district and throughout the country districts generally have not yet been filled in; that barbed wire entanglements still remain fixed, with the result that the land taken by the military authorities for these purposes is useless for cultivation, and the cultivation of surrounding land is impeded; and what steps he proposes to take to remove these obstructions to agricultural work?

Mr. FORSTER I would refer my hon. and gallant Friend to the very full answers given on the 17th and 26th March to my hon. and gallant Friend the Member for Epping and my right hon. Friend the Member for Chelmsford, respectively. The arrangements for local settlement under the Defence of the Realm Losses Commission, referred to in the two answers quoted, have now been completed and were put into operation by an Army Council Instruction issued on 3rd April.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/apr/15/trenches-country-districts
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin - Speech Delivered At The First Moscow Soviet Commanders’ Courses
April 15, 1919 - Brief Newspaper Report


Lenin recalled the words of a certain German general who said that if the soldiers knew what they were fighting for, there would be no war. The situation was different in our times. The Red Army had a great and definite task to perform-to emancipate the working class. The workers’ and peasants’ Red Army was growing and gaining strength day by day. This growth was due to the fact that the workers and peasants were profoundly conscious of their aims. And although they had suffered a number of reverses on the Eastern Front, they still had to halt Kolchak and defeat him. And they would do it. Krasnov’s gangs had more than once created a serious situation for Soviet Russia, but in spite of the help they had been receiving from the whole of the bourgeois world, these gangs had been routed, and would soon suffer complete defeat. That had been achieved only because of the political consciousness of the workers and peasants. “In accepting this Red Flag from the District Committee,” continued Lenin, “you must firmly and resolutely carry it forward. Every day brings us news to the effect that the Red Flag of liberty has been raised, now in one place, now in another. You have seen the formation of the Soviet Republic of Hungary, of Soviet Bavaria and of the Third, Communist International; and soon you will see the formation of the World Federative Republic of Soviets.

“Long live the World Federative Republic of Soviets!
“Long live the Red Army!
“Long live our Red Commanders!”
(Stormy applause.)

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/apr/15a.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Timeline of the Irish War of Independence

15-19 April 1919: The "Limerick Soviet", was a general strike called by the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the declaration of a "Special Military Area" under the Defence of the Realm Act. This covered of most of Limerick city and a part of the County. Special permits were to be issued by the Royal Irish Constabulary, and would have been required to enter the city. The response was a general strike and boycott of the troops. A special Strike Committee was set up to print money, control food prices and publish newspapers. However, by April 27, 1919 the Strike Committee issued a proclamation that the strike was at an end.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Timeline_of_the_Irish_War_of_Independence#2.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 19:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 April 1920, Commons Sitting

GERMAN ARMED FORCES.


HC Deb 15 April 1920 vol 127 cc1826-7 1826

Colonel CLAUDE LOWTHER asked the Prime Minister whether he is satisfied that Germany does not possess to-day an army of over 1,000,000 men, either under the guise of Lands Reich, Cadetten Corps, Reds, police, or other synonyms?

Mr. BONAR LAW We have no exact figures, but the question of numbers and its relation to the Peace Treaty is being dealt with by the Inter-Allied Military Commission of Control in Berlin.

Colonel LOWTHER Have the Government not even an approximate idea of the number of men under arms in Germany to-day, no matter under what guise they fight?

Mr. BONAR LAW We have no absolutely reliable figures, but, of course, if constables and others are included the numbers are very large.

Colonel LOWTHER Does the action of France surprise the British Government?

Mr. BILLING Having regard to the various rumours preyalent, both as regards the military forces in Germany and as to whether Germany is starving or not, will the Government appoint a Commission to visit Germany and to give an intelligent report on the actual position?

Mr. BONAR LAW We already have a Commission, which will give all the information that it is possible to get.

Brigadier-General CROFT Is it not the case that all the police and other bodies to which the right hon. Gentleman refers are, in fact, trained soldiers?

Mr. BONAR LAW I cannot say how many of them are, but it is precisely a point to be decided as to which of them are to be included.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/15/german-armed-forces
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bomwerpers en mortieren van het Nederlandse leger 1914-1918
De improvisaties

Op 15 april 1915 wees de inspecteur der vestingartillerie de kapitein der artillerie K.E.
Oudendijk, commandant van de compagnie aanspanbaar geschut, aan om de proefnemingen
in samenwerking met de artillerie inrichtingen voort te zetten. Door schietproeven met
oefeningsbrisantgranaten van 10 cm Mr. en oefeningsgranaten van 10 cm Mr. dienden de
nodige gegevens te worden verzameld voor het opstellen van een schootstafel voor het
verschieten van mijngranaten. Voorts moesten schietproeven worden genomen met
brisantgranaten met tijdbuizen en verkleinde ladingen bij elevaties tot 70° en tot slot met
granaten en brisantgranaten met schokbuizen en verkleinde ladingen bij elevaties beneden
45°. De schietproeven werden in de loop van de zomer 1915 op het strand bij Scheveningen
gehouden.

http://www.collectie.legermuseum.nl/sites/strategion/contents/i004557/arma23%20bomwerpers%20en%20mortieren.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Apr 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 15, 1912: 'God Himself Could Not Sink This Ship'

1912: Man’s technological hubris hits an iceberg and sinks, literally, as the RMS Titanic founders on its maiden voyage.

The liner, in many ways state of the art for the day and trumpeted by her owners, the press and others as "practically unsinkable," struck an iceberg south of the Grand Banks and went down in 2 hours, 40 minutes, taking more than 1,500 people with it.

Titanic was built with a double bottom but not a double hull. It had watertight bulkheads, but they didn't all go all the way to the top of the hull. These omissions doomed the ship after a 200-foot gash was torn in its starboard side below the waterline by a spur projecting from the iceberg. Or perhaps, new research suggests, the gash was not that big, but substandard rivets caused the Titanic's hull plates to buckle.

Whatever the means of destruction, the ship's five forward compartments quickly flooded, making Titanic’s sinking a mathematical certainty.

Problems with Titanic's maneuverability have also been cited as a cause for the collision. Whether the ship was fitted with a rudder that was too small, as has been suggested, or whether an officer on the bridge rang the engine room with the wrong maneuvering instructions, the ship was unable to avoid the spur at her speed of 23 knots.

There were not nearly enough lifeboats aboard to accommodate the 2,228 passengers and crew – although Titanic actually carried more boats than required for a ship of its tonnage. With the water temperature a frigid 34 degrees, a high death toll was inevitable.

The last hope was the ability of Titanic's wireless operators to summon help before the ship went down. Tragically, the only vessel within reasonable steaming distance, the Californian, carried a single operator and had already shut down its wireless for the evening before the SOS was sent.

As a result of the disaster, changes were made in maritime regulations and shipbuilding practices. Round-the-clock wireless operation went into effect, and the International Ice Patrol was created to monitor the location of icebergs near major shipping lanes. Lifeboat requirements were now based on the number of people aboard, not a ship's tonnage. Titanic’s sister ship, Olympic, was reconfigured with a double hull, and the practice became standard in the industry.

Titanic slid down the rails at a time when blind faith in technology was peaking, and its sinking became the 20th-century metaphor for the futile conceit that humans can ever conquer nature.

http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/04/dayintech_0415#ixzz0l6rmIOAk

The Sinking of the LusitaniaTitanic Survivor Faces Death Again
New York Times, Tuesday 15 April 1913


GALESBURG, Ill., Apr 14---Frank Karoun, one of the survivors of the Titanic disaster, narrowly escaped death again last night, just a year after surviving that shipwreck. The Lindel Hotel, of which Karoun is the proprietor, collapsed, and the walls of his roon fell in heaps on either side of him as he lay in bed. He was uninjured.

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/titanic-survivor-faces-death-again.html

Zie ook http://www.euronet.nl/users/keesree/night.htm & http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/titanic.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Apr 2011 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

To Lenin’s Mother
Written: 15 April, 1914. Letter sent from Krakow

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova,
Samarin’S House, Apt. 3,
Moskovskaya Street, Vologda,
Russia

April 15

Dear MarIa Alexandrovna,

The compliments of the season; we wish you health and everything else of bite best. It is summer here. Yesterday it was as hot as Africa. All the leaves are out. We are all well.

I embrace you and Manyasha fondly.

Nadya

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1914/apr/15lm.htm
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