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11 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2006 5:38    Onderwerp: 11 April Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Sehr schwere Verluste der Franzosen zwischen Maas und Mosel

Großes Hauptquartier, 11. April.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Am Yserkanal bei Poesele südlich von Drie Grachten nahmen wir drei von Belgiern besetzte Gehöfte und machten dabei 1 Offizier und 40 Mann zu Gefangenen.
Bei kleinen Vorstößen gegen den Ancrebach bei Albert nahmen wir 50 Franzosen gefangen.
Im Westteil der Argonnen mißglückte ein französischer Angriff.
Die Kämpfe zwischen Maas und Mosel nahmen erst gegen Abend an Heftigkeit zu. Im Waldgelände nördlich der Combres-Höhe versammelten die Franzosen starke Kräfte zu einem neuen Versuch, unsere Höhenstellung zu nehmen. Der Angriff kam erst heute früh zur Ausführung und scheiterte gänzlich. Die Höhenstellung ist ganz in unserem Besitz. Südöstlich von Ailly fanden die Nacht hindurch heftige Nahkämpfe statt, die zu unseren Gunsten entschieden wurden. Bei einem starken, aber erfolglosen französischen Angriff nördlich Flirey hatten die Franzosen sehr schwere Verluste. In den gestrigen Kämpfen im Priesterwalde nahmen wir dem Feinde vier Maschinengewehre ab, die anschließenden sehr erbitterten Nachtkämpfe blieben für uns erfolgreich. Die sehr schweren Verluste der Franzosen in den Kämpfen zwischen Maas und Mosel lassen sich noch nicht annähernd schätzen; allein zwischen Selouse- und Lamorvillewald zählten unsere Truppen 700
an einer kleinen Stelle nördlich Regniéville über 500 französische Leichen. Wir machten 11 französische Offiziere und 804 Mann zu Gefangenen und erbeuteten 7 Maschinengewehre. - Ein infolge zerschossener Trosse abgetriebener deutscher Fesselballon ist nicht, wie die Franzosen angeben, in ihre Linien vertrieben, sondern wohlbehalten bei Mörchingen gelandet und geborgen.
In den Vogesen schloß Schneesturm eine größere Gefechtstätigkeit aus.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Mariampol und Kalwarja sowie bei Klimki an der Szkwa wurden russische Angriffe abgeschlagen.
Aus einem Ort bei Bromierz westlich von Plonsk wurden die Russen hinausgeworfen, dabei 80 Mann gefangengenommen und 3 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
In Polen südlich der Weichsel unterhielten die Russen die ganze Nacht hindurch ein lebhaftes Infanterie- und Artilleriefeuer.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Weitere Erfolge am Uzsoker Paß

Wien, 11. April.
Amtlich wird aus Wien verlautbart:
In den Beskiden hat sich nichts ereignet.
Im Waldgebirge dauern die Kämpfe in einzelnen Abschnitten noch fort. Östlich des Uzsoker Passes wurden bei Ausnutzung der Erfolge vom 9. April weitere 9 Offiziere und 713 Mann gefangen, 2 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
An der Front in Südostgalizien nur Geschützkampf und kleinere nächtliche Unternehmungen.
In Westgalizien und Russisch-Polen herrscht Ruhe.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)


Eine deutsche Note an Amerika

London, 11. April.
Das Reutersche Bureau meldet:
Deutschland hat an die Vereinigten Staaten eine Note gerichtet, in der es sich besagt, daß die Vorstellungen Amerikas an die Alliierten bezüglich der Zufuhr von Lebensmitteln für die bürgerliche Bevölkerung der kriegführenden Länder keine Wirkung erzielt hätten. Amerika lege auf dieses Recht lange nicht so viel Nachdruck, wie auf das Recht, den Alliierten Waffen zu liefern. Die Note dringt darauf, daß die Vereinigten Staaten die Neutralität sorgfältiger einhalten mögen. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2006 6:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 11 April



Births
1 1892 John Aspinall
2 1895 Percy Wilson
3 1898 John Umney



Deaths
1 1918 Kelvin Crawford
2 1929 Edmond Thieffry



Claims
1 1917 Lloyd Breadner #2 #3
2 1917 Joseph Fall #2 #3 #4
3 1917 A.G. Riley #2 #3 #4
4 1917 Fritz Bernert #18 #19
5 1917 Rudolf Berthold #11
6 1917 Albert Dossenbach #11
7 1917 Sebastian Festner #8
8 1917 Hermann Frommherz #1
9 1917 Hans Klein #4 #5
10 1917 Lothar von Richthofen #2 #3
11 1917 Manfred von Richthofen #40
12 1917 Karl Schäfer #15 #16
13 1917 Adolf Schulte #7 #8
14 1917 Kurt Wolff #9
15 1917 David Tidmarsh #6 #7
16 1917 Vladimir Strizhesky #2
17 1918 Roderic Dallas #24
18 1918 Robert Little #43
19 1918 William Alexander #19
20 1918 Arthur Brown #8
21 1918 James Glen #15
22 1918 William Harrison #12
23 1918 William Hubbard #2
24 1918 Kenneth Junor #7
25 1918 John Manuel #8 #9
26 1918 Jack Sorsoleil #6
27 1918 Arthur Whealy #15
28 1918 Orlando Bridgeman #2
29 1918 Leslie Capel #3
30 1918 Peter Carpenter #14
31 1918 Robert Chandler #2
32 1918 Trevor Durrant #5
33 1918 Adrian Franklyn #2
34 1918 Louis Jarvis #5
35 1918 Gwilym Lewis #6
36 1918 Ian McDonald #7
37 1918 E.H. Peverell #5
38 1918 Oliver Redgate #12
39 1918 Joseph Siddall #2
40 1918 Bernard Artigau #5
41 1918 Walter Böning #15
42 1918 Albert Dietlen #8
43 1918 Gustav Dörr #2
44 1918 Rudolf Francke #10
45 1918 Fritz Höhn #2
46 1918 Josef Jacobs #13
47 1918 Otto Könnecke #17
48 1918 Karl Menckhoff #24
49 1918 Fritz Pütter #20
50 1918 Hans Viebig #3
51 1918 Rudolf Windisch #15
52 1918 Walter Tyrrell #9
53 1918 Douglas Bell #16
54 1918 Gerald Pilditch #3
55 1918 John Tudhope #10
56 1918 John Gilmour #14
57 1918 Frank Baylies #4
58 1918 Lloyd Hamilton #1



Losses
1 1917 James Smithwounded in action
2 1917 David Tidmarshcaptured; shot down by Kurt Wolff
3 1918 Kelvin Crawfordkilled in action; shot down
4 1918 James Scaramangawounded in action
5 1918 Harold Walkerdinewounded in action



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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2010 9:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Germans repulsed at Les Eparges.

Severe fighting near Albert.

Eastern Front

Germans bombard Osovyets.

Russians capture Wysocko Nizhne, near the Uzsok Pass.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks attack British at Kurna (Mesopotamia) and Ahwaz (Persian Gulf).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Harrison liner "Wayfarer" torpedoed.

"Kronprinz Wilhelm" arrives at Newport News.

Political, etc.

Count Bernstorff publishes the German Note to U.S.A.

German reprisals announced re: British treatment of captured submarine crews: 39 British officer prisoners under arrest.

Bulgaria agrees to mixed Serbian and Bulgarian commission on frontier incidents in Macedonia.

1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: German attack on Douaumont-Vaux sector fails.

German losses since beginning of war 2,730,917.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Kionga (East Africa) captured by Portuguese troops.

Political, etc.

Portuguese Cabinet resigns.

1917
Western Front

Repulse of British east of Bellicourt (St. Quentin).

British capture village of Monchy-le-Preux (5.5 miles east-south-east of Arras).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British defeat Turks near Ghaliya (north-east of Deltawa, north of Baghdad).

Political, etc.

Note of Argentina to U.S.A. deciding on benevolent neutrality to U.S.A. in war.

1918
Western Front

Fighting general on whole battle-front.

British forced back beyond Ploegsteert and Steenwercke to south of Neuve Eglise and Bailleul.

At Hollebeke and Messines attacks repulsed.

Enemy captures Merville.

Strong local attacks repulsed south of Arras.

Germans claim 20,000 prisoners in Northern fighting.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Palestine: Turks attack near El Ghoraniya (East Jordan): defeated and pursued by cavalry six miles towards Es Salt. Further attack astride Jericho-Shechem road repulsed.

Naval and Overseas Operations

East Africa: British columns from coast and Lake Nyassa in touch with enemy forces at Medu and Msalu river.

British naval forces bombard Ostend and aircraft bomb Zeebrugge.

American S.S. "Lakemoor" sunk by submarine.

Political, etc.

Major-General Hon. C. Sackville-West succeeds Sir Henry Rawlinson (to the front) at Versailles.

Report issued of Government Committee on treatment of prisoners of war behind lines.

Food riots in Holland.

1919
Aftermath of War

Bolsheviks retire on Ural front.

Bavarian Soviet Republic overthrown.

Sir Douglas Haig's final despatch of 21 March 1919 (11 November-31 December 1918) published.

Romanians withdraw temporarily from Hungarian territory.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2010 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

With the great German offensives of Spring 1918 underway - and which almost won the war for Germany before U.S. manpower could reach the Western Front in sufficient numbers - the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, Sir Douglas Haig, issued his famous 'Special Order of the Day' commonly referred to as his 'Backs to the Wall' communiqué.

In his Special Order Haig urged the British Army to 'fight it out' to the end, and stated that the war's victor would be "the side which holds out the longest".

Click here to view an enlarged copy of Sir Douglas Haig's Special Order of the Day (opens in new window, 58KB). Click here to read German Army Chief of Staff Paul von Hindenburg's summary of the Lys offensive which prompted Haig's Order of the Day. Click here to read Currie's appeal to the Canadian Corps for courage shortly before they entered fighting during the Lys offensive.

SPECIAL ORDER OF THE DAY
By FIELD-MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS HAIG
K.T., G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E.
Commander-in-Chief, British Armies in France
To ALL RANKS OF THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE AND FLANDERS
Three weeks ago to-day the enemy began his terrific attacks against us on a fifty-mile front. His objects are to separate us from the French, to take the Channel Ports and destroy the British Army.

In spite of throwing already 106 Divisions into the battle and enduring the most reckless sacrifice of human life, he has as yet made little progress towards his goals.

We owe this to the determined fighting and self-sacrifice of our troops. Words fail me to express the admiration which I feel for the splendid resistance offered by all ranks of our Army under the most trying circumstances.

Many amongst us now are tired. To those I would say that Victory will belong to the side which holds out the longest. The French Army is moving rapidly and in great force to our support.

There is no other course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause each one of us must fight on to the end. The safety of our homes and the Freedom of mankind alike depend upon the conduct of each one of us at this critical moment.

(Signed) D. Haig F.M.
Commander-in-Chief
British Armies in France

General Headquarters
Tuesday, April 11th, 1918
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/backstothewall.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2010 10:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11. April 1915


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Comment: This is the draft of an Italian convention telling Austria-Hungary what territories Italy wants to incorporate into her State to stay neutral. This was done parallel to the negotiations with the Allies. Austria-Hungary refused and the Italians further negotiated with the Allies. Therefore the late ‘Patto di Londra/London convention' is very similar regarding territorial matters.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Gruner, Ferdinand; Der Treubruch Italiens - unter Benuetzung amtlicher Quellen, München 1916.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Artikel 1. Österreich-Ungarn tritt an Italien das Trentino ab mit den dem Regno Italico im Jahre 1811, das heißt nach dem Pariser Vertrag vom 28. Februar 1810, zugesprochenen Grenzen. Folgt eine genaue Beschreibung der neuen Grenzziehung.



Artikel 2. Eine die Städte Görz und Gradisca einschließende Grenzberichtigung der Ostgrenze Italiens wird zu dessen Gunsten von Österreich-Ungarn zugestanden. Folgt eine genaue Beschreibung der neuen Grenzziehung.



Artikel 3. Die Stadt Triest samt ihrem Gebiete, welches nach Norden bis einschließlich Nabresina ausgedehnt wird und es so an die neue italienische Grenze (Art. 2) angrenzen läßt, und welches im Süden die gegenwärtigen Gerichtsbezirke von Capodistria und Pirano einschließt, wird als autonomer und vom politischen, internationalen, militärischen, gesetzgeberischen, finanziellen und administrativen Gesichtspunkte unabhängiger Staat konstituiert. Österreich-Ungarn wird auf alle Souveränitätsrechte über diesen Staat verzichten, der ein Freihafen bleiben wird. Die österreichisch-ungarischen und die italienischen Truppen werden sein Gebiet nicht betreten. Der neue Staat wird einen Teil der gegenwärtigen österreichischen Staatsschuld, die im Verhältnisse zu seiner Bevölkerungszahl steht, übernehmen.



Artikel 4. Die Inselgruppe Curzolari, umfassend Lissa (mit den benachbarten Eilanden Sant'Andrea und Torcola), Curzola, Lagosta (mit den benachbarten Eilanden und Riffen), Cazza und Meleda sowie Pelagosa werden von Österreich-Ungarn an Italien abgetreten.



Artikel 5. Die von Österreich-Ungarn abgetretenen Gebiete werden von Italien sogleich besetzt (Art. 1, 2 und 3). Die österreichisch-ungarischen Behörden und Truppen werden ihrerseits Triest und sein Gebiet (Art. 3) räumen und die diesen Gebieten entstammenden Land- und Seetruppen werden sofort aus dem Dienste entlassen.



Artikel 6. Österreich-Ungarn anerkennt die volle Souveränität Italiens über Valona und seine Bucht, Saseno inbegriffen, mit soviel von dem Gebiet des Hinterlandes, als deren Verteidigung erfordert.



Artikel 7. Österreich-Ungarn desinteressiert sich völlig an Albanien innerhalb der von der Londoner Réunion gezogenen Grenzen.Artikel 8. Österreich-Ungarn gesteht allen Personen, die den abgetretenen (Art. 1, 2 und 4) oder den geräumten (Art. 3) Gebieten entstammen und aus militärischen oder politischen Gründen verurteilt oder in einen Prozeß verwickelt sind, eine vollständige Amnestie und sofortige Enthaftung zu.



Artikel 9. Zum Zwecke der Befreiung der abgetretenen Gebiete (Art. 1, 2 und 4) von ihrem Anteil an der österreichischen und österreichisch-ungarischen Staatsschuld sowie an der Verpflichtung für Pensionszahlung an ehemalige k.k. Funktionäre, als Ersatz des sofortigen und ungeschmälerten Überganges des gesamten beweglichen und unbeweglichen Staatseigentums, mit Ausschluß der sich in den Gebieten selbst befindlichen Waffen, in italienischen Besitz, und um die erforderlichen Rechte des Staates hinsichtlich der in Frage stehenden Gebiete, soweit sie sich darauf beziehen, sowohl für die Gegenwart als auch für die Zukunft ausnahmslos zu kompensieren, wird der Betrag von zweihundert Millionen italienischer Lire in Gold von Italien an Österreich-Ungarn gezahlt.



Artikel 10. Italien übernimmt die Verpflichtung, während des ganzen gegenwärtigen Krieges eine vollkommene Neutralität Österreich-Ungarn und Deutschland gegenüber zu beobachten.



Artikel 11. Italien verzichtet für die ganze Dauer des gegenwärtigen Krieges auf das Recht, die Bestimmungen des Artikel VII des Dreibundvertrages zu seinen Gunsten weiter anzusprechen und Österreich-Ungarn wird den gleichen Verzicht hinsichtlich der von Italien erfolgten Besetzung des Dodekanes aussprechen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2010 12:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11 april 1916
Balkan, Korfoe
Het Servische leger vertrekt om de steeds groeiende troepenmacht in het Griekse Thessaloniki te versterken.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2010 12:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11 april 1917
Westfront, Frankrijk
De Britten zetten de Slag bij Arras voort onder groeiend verzet van het versterkte Duitse zesde leger onder generaal Ludwig von Falkenhausen. De Britse zevendertigste divisie verovert de stad Monchy le Preux en eenheden van generaal sir Hugh Goughs vijfde leger doorbreken de volgende dag de Hindenburglinie bij Bullecourt. De aanval loopt echter vast. De Britse opperbevelhebber, veldmaarschalk sir Douglas Haig, besluit het Arras-offensief voort te zetten halverwege mei, en het gevecht concentreert zich op Bullecourt. Haig neemt dat besluit deels om de aandacht van het Duitse leger af te leiden van de sectoren op het westfront die bezet worden door de Franse troepen. In de Franse gelederen heerst chaos als gevolg van zich uitbreidende muiterij.
Tegen het eind van het offensief zijn er aan Britse zijde 150.000 doden, gewonden of gevangenen. De Duitsers verliezen 100.000 manschappen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 7:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - April 1915

Telegram. Telegraph Office 152. 11 April, 1915.

Last night I received the ikon, letter and photograph. I am very grateful. Am going to look over the fortifications (or defences]. After lunch back to Lvov, and thence in the evening to Brody. The weather is splendid. Everything is bursting into bud...

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/april15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 7:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maria Swanenburg, alias Leidse Gifmengster, overleden

11 april 1915 - De vrouw werd verdacht van het plegen van 90 moorden. Na het stelselmatig vergiftigen van buurtbewoners werd ze schuldig bevonden en bracht ze tot haar dood haar leven door in een tuchthuis.
Maria Catharina Swanenburg bracht haar leven vooral door in arme Leidse wijken, waar ze ouderen en zieken verzorgde. Terwijl ze hen onder haar vleugels nam, sloot ze ook begrafenisfondsen en verzekeringen af op hun levens.

Rond 1879 begon ze met het stelselmatig vergiftigen van buurtbewoners. Hiermee kon zij ongeveer vier jaar ongestoord doorgaan, totdat ze probeerde het hele gezin Groothuyzen en een buurmeisje te vermoorden. Niet allen overleden en het meisje klaagde bij de politie over de melk die Maria had gegeven.

Hierop volgde een grondig onderzoek en Maria werd gearresteerd. Meer dan vijftien lichamen werden opgegraven en allen vertoonden sporen van arsenicumvergiftiging. Ze bleek na iedere dood de uitkering van de verzekeringen opgestreken te hebben.

Slechts drie moorden werden bewezen en ze bracht na het proces in 1885 de rest van haar leven door in een tuchthuis.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1915-04-11/Maria+Swanenburg,+alias+Leidse+Gifmengster,+overleden
Zie ook http://www.dodenakkers.nl/artikelen/moord/155-gifmengster.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 8:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The raid on Jifjafa -- April 1916

From 11-14 April 1916 a small British Imperial force, the main combat element of which was drawn from the 9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, conducted a long-range raid against the Turkish post at Jifjafa. Jifjafa, located in the Sinai Desert 84 kilometres (52 miles) east of Ismailia on the Suez Canal was the site of drilling for water by the Turkish Army. In this operation, the first offensive action by the Australian Light Horse in the Sinai campaign, the raiding force covered some 260 kilometres (160 miles) in three and a half days over largely unknown territory much of it by night; fought a sharp action in which it overwhelmed the Turkish post, killed or captured the entire garrison, destroyed the bores and drilling equipment, secured valuable documents; and on their return to base endured a fierce sand storm and narrowly avoided a mass drowning when the wadi in which troops were resting was flooded in a sudden spate. During this `stunt' most of the force managed less than twelve hours sleep!

Lees verder op http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+raid+on+Jifjafa+--+April+1916+(Part+1)-a083516776
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 8:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eerste Slag om Bullecourt, 11 april 1917

De Eerste Slag om Bullecourt werd in de lente van 1917 als onderdeel van het Britse offensief ten noorden en zuiden van Arras gestreden. Deze acties werden ondernomen om een grote zuidelijkere aanval door de Fransen onder generaal Robert Nivelle te ondersteunen.

Het was gebruikelijk om voorbereidende artilleriebeschietingen te gebruiken om het vijandelijke prikkeldraad te doorbreken voordat de infanterie een aanval deed. Deze keer werd echter besloten om twaalf Britse tanks te gebruiken om de Australische infanterie de weg te leiden.

Op 11 april 1917 bevonden soldaten van de Vierde Divisie zich op stellingen ten oosten van Bullecourt, maar tegen 4u.30 hadden slechts drie tanks hun stellingen bereikt. Sommige Australische eenheden rukten nu op terwijl andere op de tanks wachtten. Het oude model tank was langzamer dan een lopende man, het staal ervan was dun en het dodelijke vuren door de Duitse artillerie betekende dat geen enkele het prikkeldraad voor de Australische infanterie bereikte. Slechts één tank bereikte de eerste loopgraaf die door de Australiërs veroverd was en alle tanks waren tegen 7u.00 vernietigd.

Ondanks het fiasco van de tanks werden de Duitse frontlinie en aanvoerloopgraven binnengevallen en werd er een opmars gemaakt in de richting van Riencourt. Om 7u.15 zond kapitein Harry Murray van het 13de Bataljon (New South Wales) een bericht terug met de mededeling ‘met ondersteuning van de artillerie kunnen we de stelling tot sint-juttemis behouden’. Vijf minuten later vuurde Murray het SOS-signaal af voor ondersteuning van de artillerie, toen hij Duitse troepen nabij Riencourt zag bewegen. Het signaal werd gedurende de ochtend 17 keer herhaald, maar er kwam geen spervuur als antwoord.

Vanwege overdreven rapporten over Australische successen, voornamelijk van lucht- en artilleriewaarnemers, geloofden stafleden van de hogere rangen dat de opmars vooruitgang maakte en niet tegengehouden werd. Daarom kreeg de artillerie geen toestemming om te schieten en konden de Duitsers ongestraft tegenaanvallen doen. Tezelfdertijd veegden Duitse machinegeweren de open vlaktes voor en achter de Australische stellingen schoon.

De Australische voorraad granaten was spoedig uitgeput en van de poging om loopgraven die door verschillende bataljons werden bezet op elkaar aan te sluiten werd afgezien. De Duitsers dreven de Australiërs geleidelijk aan terug en tegen 11u.30 was het duidelijk dat de ingenomen loopgraven niet behouden konden blijven. Terwijl Duits geschut over de ontsnappingsroute schoot zei Harry Murray tegen zijn mannen: ‘Als we niet gevangen genomen willen worden moeten we er doorheen’. Velen probeerden het maar slechts een paar keerden terug. Murray was één van de weinigen.

Een uur later trokken de laatste Australiërs zich terug. Deze mannen werden geholpen door de artillerie die eindelijk toestemming had gekregen om als ondersteuning te vuren. De troepen van het 48ste Bataljon (Zuid-Australië en West-Australië) in de Hindenburglinie stonden onder het bevel van kapitein Allan Leane, een neef van de opperbevelhebber van het 48ste Bataljon, luitenant-kolonel Ray Leane. Veel bataljonleiders kwamen uit zijn familie en het bataljon stond bekend als het ‘Joan of Arc’ Bataljon (‘Made of all Leanes’). Bij het prikkeldraad werd kapitein Leane door zijn mannen gemist en soldaat John Robert Knight rapporteerde later dat hij kapitein Leane dood in een granaattrechter had zien liggen met een kogel door zijn hoofd. Zijn lichaam werd niet geborgen.

Bij de Eerste Slag om Bullecourt was de Australische infanterie erin geslaagd om zonder enige normale ondersteuning van de artillerie een zwaar versterkte sectie van de Duitse linie in beslag te nemen en tijdelijk in handen te houden. Deze vroegtijdige aanval kostte echter 3289 slachtoffers en maakte de Australische infanterie uitermate sceptisch wat betreft de waarde van tanks op het slagveld.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/bullecourt-11-april-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 8:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

7th King's Royal Rifle Corps: War Diary: April 1917

11th April 1917.
1a.m. The night passed quite quietly. About 1 a.m. the Brigadier came up & talked over the situation. He agreed that it was quite impossible to push on until Hill 90 had been taken by the 56th Divn & that all we could do was to remain on the defensive. Any advance up the valley was sheer madness until the Machine Guns on HILL 90 which enfiladed the whole valley had been put out of action.
4.30a.m. The attached orders arrived and in spite of all protests we were ordered to carry them out. There was no time to copy them out & the originals had to be sent up to the forward Coys. B & C Companies supported by the 8th R.B. were to advance up the valley & to try & push on to WANCOURT. The 56th Division never left their trenches or made any attempt to take HILL 90.

B Coy under WHITLEY made a most gallant attempt to push forward but from the start it was an impossible task & the Staff who had ordered the attack, if they had ever come near enough to have looked at the ground would have realized it too & would never have ordered the attack. WHITLEY was alas killed, gallant soldier that he was, & his body was found nearest to the German wire which was totally uncut. The artillery preparation which had been ordered in a great hurry never materialised – in fact the orders in many cases never arrived in time & the whole show was a complete failure from want of preparation & organisation on the part of the staff. The rest of the day was spent in our original positions & towards evening heavy snowstorms set in & before long there were two inches of snow on the ground. It was impossible to get in the wounded until after dark so that their sufferings were very much aggravated by the cold. That night we had were relieved by the 8th K.R.R. & moved back to the old COJEUL SWITCH line, where a bitterly cold night was spent in the open, without any dugouts & with fresh snow showers all night.

http://www.resthepast.co.uk/army/wardiaries/krrc/7btn/7krrc_apr17.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 11:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Arthur Currie on the Lys Offensive, April 1918

Reproduced below is the text of an appeal issued by Sir Arthur Currie to the Canadian Corps he commanded in April 1918. In his appeal Currie stated that the fate of the British Empire was currently in the balance on account of the German-launched offensive along the Lys valley; consequently he called upon his men - about to enter the battle - to fight ever harder to defeat German forces presently in the ascendant.

Intended by Erich Ludendorff as a means of weakening and confusing the Allies the German attack along the Lys valley, launched on 9 April 1918, attained such startlingly effective initial results that Ludendorff took the decision to convert the effort into a full-scale offensive against British forces stationed there. The German offensive very nearly succeeded in breaking through the British lines, opening an artillery path to the Channel Ports; however French reinforcements prevented a German breakthrough, prompting a German return to a defensive posture.

Sir Arthur Currie's Appeal to the Canadian Corps

Looking back with pride on the unbroken record of your glorious achievements, asking you to realize that today the fate of the British Empire hangs in the balance, I place my trust in the Canadian Corps, knowing that where Canadians are engaged there can be no giving way.

Under the orders of your devoted officers in the coming battle you will advance or fall where you stand facing the enemy.

To those who fall I say, "You will not die, but step into immortality. Your mothers will not lament your fate, but will have been proud to have borne such sons. Your names will be revered for ever and ever by your grateful country, and God will take you unto Himself."

Canadians, in this fateful hour I command you and I trust you to fight as you have ever fought, with all your strength, with all your determination, with all your tranquil courage. On many a hard-fought field of battle you have overcome this enemy. With God's help you shall achieve victory once more.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lys_currie.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 11:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Accrington Pals - Battle of the Lys (Hazebrouck), 11th-13th April 1918

After the fierce engagement in front of Ayette on 27th March, the 11th Bn. East Lancashire Regt. (Accrington Pals) was reorganising and training at Bailleul-aux-Cornailles when on 10th April it received orders to embus. At 5am on the following day - the day on which Haig issued his famous "backs to the wall" order - the battalion debussed near the village of Vieux Berquin, alongside its sister battalions from 92nd and 93rd Brigades (31st Division). In the early afternoon of the 11th, the two brigades were pushed forward to consolidate on a line behind the village of Doulieu. The East Lancashires were kept in reserve, 1,000 yards (900m) behind the forward positions of 92nd Brigade held by the 10th and 11th East Yorkshires (Hull Commercials and Hull Tradesmen). To the left of 92nd Brigade, the 93rd Brigade line was held by the 13th York and Lancasters (1st Barnsley Pals) and 18th Durham Light Infantry (Durham Pals) with the 15th West Yorkshires (Leeds Pals) in reserve.

Mooi artikel op http://www.pals.org.uk/lys.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 11:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11 April 1918, Commons Sitting

DUTCH SUBJECT (DEPORTATION).


HC Deb 11 April 1918 vol 104 c1629 1629

Mr. SNOWDEN asked the Home Secretary whether an Order has been issued for the deportation of Mr. C. Boecke. a Dutch subject, who has recently been imprisoned under the Defence of the Realm Act; whether it is intended to carry out this Order; and whether representations have been received by him against this Order being carried into effect?

Sir G. CAVE The answer to the first and third parts of the question is in the affirmative. As regards the second, the Order was carried out at the beginning of this week.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/11/dutch-subject-deportation
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zeebrugge 1918: Prelude to St Nazaire

By April 1918, the preparations for the raid had been completed, the men trained for their tasks and the shipping collected for the operation. Three block ships were to be sunk in the Zeebrugge canal entrance, HMS Thetis, HMS Intrepid and HMS Iphegenia. The first time the force sailed, 11 April 1918, the weather conditions changed as they neared Zeebrugge, which forced a postponement, but on the eve of St George's Day, 22 April 1918 the force sailed and during the passage, Admiral Keyes signalled "St George for England". Commander Carpenter on the Vindictive replied, "May we give the dragon's tail a damned good twist."

Lees verder op http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_zeebrugge.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 11:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of the First World War - Spring Offensive 1918

James Forbes-Robertson

James Forbes-Robertson (VC, DSO & Bar, MC) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Educated at Cheltenham College, he was 33 years old, and an Acting Lieutenant Colonel in the 1st Bn., The Border Regiment, British Army, Commander during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 11/12 April 1918 near Vieux Berquin, France, four times Lieutenant Colonel Forbes-Robertson saved the line from breaking and averted a most serious situation. On one occasion, having made a reconnaissance on horseback in full view of the enemy under heavy fire, he led a counter-attack which was completely successful in establishing our line. When his horse was shot under him he continued on foot, steadying the men and inspiring confidence by his disregard for personal danger. On the second day he lost another horse and again continued on foot until he had established a line to which his own troops could withdraw.

He later achieved the rank of Brigadier General.

http://en.allexperts.com/e/j/ja/james_forbes-robertson.htm

Thomas Tannatt Pryce

Thomas Tannatt Pryce (VC, MC & Bar) was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 32 years old, and an Acting Captain in the 4th Bn., Grenadier Guards, British Army, (S.R.) during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 11 April 1918 at Vieux Berquin, France, Captain Pryce led two platoons in a successful attack on a village. Early next day he was occupying a position with some 40 men, the rest having become casualties. He beat off four attacks during the day, but by evening the enemy were within 60 yards of his trench. A bayonet charge led by Captain Pryce drove them back some 100 yards, but he had only 17 men left with no ammunition when yet another attack came. He again led a bayonet charge and was last seen engaged in a fierce hand-to-hand struggle against overwhelming odds.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Guards Regimental Headquarters (Grenadier Guards RHQ) (London, England).

Pryce's name is recorded on the Ploegsteert Memorial to the Missing in Berks Cemetery Extension near Ploegsteert in Hainaut, Belgium.

http://en.allexperts.com/e/t/th/thomas_tannatt_pryce.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 12:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1919

11 april 1919 - In een tram van lijn 4 is iemand een tas met daarin ƒ 200 kwijtgeraakt.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1919.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 12:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Today in History - 11 April 1919 : Prohibition defeated

On 11 April 1919 a vote for prohibition was defeated. A referendum held the day before gave prohibition a 13,000 majority, but the result was overturned when the votes of 32,000 troops still overseas or in camp were counted.
Over time New Zealanders have had several chances to vote for national prohibition. In 1911 a referendum was held but to succeed 60% of the voting public had to vote in favour of prohibition. The poll mustered 55.8%, but it wasn't enough.
The temperance community was a powerful lobby group and despite the lost vote for prohibition they continued lobbying Members of Parliament.

When the First World War broke out in August 1914, the question of temperance seemed to loose importance and in the general election that December support for prohibition dropped to 49%. However lobbying continued and the temperance community demanded government ban liquor sales for the duration of the war in the interests of ‘national efficiency'. Following the presentation of several petitions to Parliament and the government's National Efficiency Board – set up in 1917 – also recommended an end to liquor sales. The government responded by instituting the 6 o’clock swill, closing all bars at 6 p.m. every evening. This was initially intended as a temporary wartime measure but six o'clock clock closing became a permanent measure in 1918 and wasn’t abolished until 1967.

In 1918 the government agreed to hold a special nationwide licensing referendum in April 1919. The threshold was dropped to 50% of voters and similar polls would be held alongside each succeeding general election. Prohibition was again missed, this time by a whisker, with 49% of the vote. Victory for the temperance community had seemed assured until the votes of 32,000 troops still overseas, on ships and in camps were counted.

Alcohol controls and limits will always be contentious issues. In parliament any alcohol related issues are normally considered matters of conscience and result in conscience voting rather than along party lines. The matter in the public arena at present is what the blood alcohol level should be for driving.

http://roy.org.nz/royters/today-in-history-11-april-1919-prohibition-defeated
Submitted by Heather Roy on Sun, 11/04/2010 - 1:20pm Royters
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 12:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Laffe moord te St. Oedenrode

De daders zijn de 28-jarige koopman in ongeregeld goed Isaac B. uit Amsterdam, de 34-jarige Amsterdamse veedrijver en bloemenkoopman Salomon L. en Piet van de W. een 19-jarige koopman uit Gestel. Laatstgenoemde had eerder als assistent-directeur gewerkt op de betreffende fabriek. Daar was hij ontslagen toen ontdekt werd dat hij zich met botersmokkel bezighield. Het was hem bekend dat er om de 14 dagen een flinke som geld -tot wel meer dan 10.000 gulden aan melkgeld- vrijdags aanwezig was in de brandkast van de melkfabriek. Dat geld werd dan daags daarop, zaterdags, uitbetaald aan de boeren.

Met een tramrit van Eindhoven naar Den Bosch, over Sint Oedenrode, verkende hij de omgeving op 11 april [1919] met de hem vanuit de boterhandel bekende Isaac B. en diens handlanger. Op het laatste moment wordt op die dag een eerste overvalpoging verijdeld door de plotselinge verschijning van een botercontroleur in de roomboterfabriek.

Lees beslist verder op http://www.cubra.nl/sjep/feestvanvroeger/feestvanvroeger4/feest4105stoedenrodeBartBeex.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 17:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pygmalion, London, April 11 1914
Bernard Shaw is appalled by the shallow audiences for Pygmalion, at His Majesty's, London, April 11 1914


Herbert Beerbohm Tree and George Bernard Shaw were not obviously compatible men. Tree was the actor-manager who brought Shakespeare to the West End, supported playwrights, founded Rada and specialised in outrageous bombast, trowelled-on greasepaint and practical jokes. Shaw was teetotal, vegetarian, passionately political and had switched from being a starstruck critic to a painstaking playwright, taking eight long years to produce his "first and worst" play, Widower's Houses. He wrote Pygmalion as a gift for Stella Patrick Campbell, a capricious, raven-haired, bewitching star he loved "violently and exquisitely". On reading the play, she wrote thanking him "for thinking I can play your pretty little slut"; she was flattered, too, as Eliza was 30 years her junior. Tree would play Higgins and also direct.

Rehearsals were stormy. Shaw yelled at Tree for being "so damned treacly!" and wrote irate letters. Tree scribbled in his notebook, "I will not go so far as to say that all people who write letters of more than eight pages are mad, but it is a curious fact that all madmen write letters of more than eight pages." Just before the dress rehearsal, Campbell disappeared to get married secretly.

The press swarmed about the theatre, and Tree gave an impromptu press conference, lying that he had known all about the wedding. He also had to contend with questions on the play; all London knew that Eliza was scripted to cry out: "Not bloody likely!" The Daily Sketch speculated on the "forbidden word... Will Mrs Patrick Campbell speak it? Has the censor stepped in, or will the word spread? If he does not forbid it then anything might happen!" When Campbell did pronounce the "incarnadine adverb" (as the Daily Mail fastidiously put it), the audience laughed for a full 75 seconds. Appalled by the shallow response, Shaw stormed off.

The word was denounced by preachers, politicians and by a genuine flowergirl the Daily Express took to the play and then bribed with several pints of milk stout to say that the language was shocking. Campbell, on the other hand, was "just luvly - but she was not altogether what you might call true ter life. As for Bernard Shaw, well, he thinks a blooming sight too much of himself, he does." Another audience member wrote to the Sandwich Gazette to lament: "Ever since Mr Shaw flung his unprintable word at the play-going public, my wife, who is a refined and educated woman, has regarded it as a huge joke to use this expletive... May I ask whether one's sense of humour is likely to be still further strained?"

The critics were less prurient. The Daily Sketch judged the word "absolutely appropriate... and Mrs Patrick Campbell's consummate comedy acting robs the phrase of all offensiveness". Other critics speculated on whether Tree was lampooning someone famous, "Sir Herbert is made up to an astonishing likeness to Lord Northcliffe," asserted the Times, while the Northern Echo observed that "Sir Herbert contrives to resemble Mr Asquith" and the Observer thought he looked "exactly like Mr Winston Churchill". Overall, though, the verdict was that Pygmalion - the first of Shaw's plays to become a popular hit - was, as the Daily Telegraph put it, "the jolliest stuff".

Mollified, Shaw returned for the play's 100th performance, but was horrified to find that Tree had changed the ending; Higgins now threw Eliza a bouquet as the curtain fell, presaging their marriage. Now that his affair with Campbell was over, the romantic ending was particularly galling. "My ending makes money; you ought to be grateful," scrawled Tree. "Your ending is damnable; you ought to be shot," snarled Shaw. Tree would have been pleased to know that the musical, My Fair Lady, retained and extended his ending. Shaw might well have been horrified at seeing his argument for social mobility reduced to what may have been his secret subtext: a love-letter to the woman who spurned him.

The Guardian, Wednesday 11 February 2004, http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2004/feb/11/theatre
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 17:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cavalier weekly magazine - 11 Apr 1914



http://www.flickr.com/photos/old_time_images/3524699170/
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James Connolly: "The Exclusion of Ulster" (1914)
From Forward, 11 April 1914.

Socialists and Labour people generally in Great Britain have had good reason to deplore the existence of the Irish question and to realise how disastrous upon the chances of their candidates has been the fact of the existence in the constituences of a large mass of organised voters whose political activities were not influenced solely or even largely by the domestic issues before the electors. Our British comrades have had long and sore experience of contests in which all the arguments and all the local feeling were on the side of the Socialist or Labour candidate, and yet that local candidate was ignominiously defeated because there existed in the constituency a large Irish vote – a large mass of voters who supported the Liberal, not because they were opposed to Labour, but because they wanted Ireland to have Home Rule.

Our British comrades have learned that the existence of that Irish vote and the knowledge that it would be cast for the Home Rule official candidate, irrespective of his record on or his stand upon Labour matters, caused hundreds of thousands who otherwise would have voted Labour to vote Liberal in dread that the Irish defection would “let the Tory in.” For a generation now the Labour movement in Great Britain has been paralysed politically by this fear; and all hands have looked forward eagerly to the time when the granting of Home Rule would remove their fear and allow free expression to all the forces that make for a political Labour movement in that country. Even many of the actions and votes of the Labour party in the House of Commons which have been strenuously complained of have been justified by that Party on the plea that it was necessary to keep in power the government that would get Home Rule out of the way. Now, in view of this experience of the Socialist movement in Great Britain, we can surely not view with any complacency a proposal chat will keep that question to the front as a live issue at British elections for six years longer or rather for a totally indefinite period. We know that this “six years period” so glibly spoken of by politicians has no background of reality to justify the belief that that term can be considered as more than a mere figure of speech.

In the Daily News and Leader of 6th April, Mr. H.W. Massingham, writing of the Ulster Limit, says, and the saying is valuable as indicative of the trend of Liberal thought:

“Should we, therefore, make an absolutely dead halt at the six years– milestone? Both parties implicity admit that that is impossible, for one Parliament cannot bind another.”

And in the previous week the Liberal Solicitor General declared in Parliament that if within the six years– period

“the other side brought in a Bill to exclude Ulster, it would have a royal and triumphant procession to the foot of the throne.”

Thus we have it clearly foreshadowed that there is no such thing as a six years’ limit which can be binding upon future Parliaments and that therefore the question of Home Rule for the Ulster Counties will be a test question at future elections in Great Britain, and will then play there the same disastrous role for the Labour movement as the question of Home Rule does now. The political organisation of the Home Rule party will be kept alive in every industrial constituency on the pretext of working for a ‘United Ireland,’ and in the same manner the Unionist Party will also keep up its special organisations, Orange Lodges, etc., in order to keep alive the sectarian appeal to the voters from Ireland who will be asked to “vote against driving Ulster under the heels of the Papish Dublin Parliament.” Labour men in and out of Ireland have often declared that if Home Rule was wanted for no other purpose, it was necessary in order to allow of the solidifying of the Labour vote in Great Britain, and the rescue of the Irish voters in that country from their thraldom to the Liberal caucus. It might not be far from the truth to surmise that the Liberal Party managers have seen the same point as clearly as we did ourselves, and have quietly resolved that such a good weapon as the Nationalist Party sentiment should not be entirely withdrawn from their armoury. The reader will also see that with a perfectly Mephistophelian subtlety the question of exclusion is not suggested to be voted upon by any large area where the chances for or against might be fairly equal, where exclusion might be defeated as it might be if all Ulster were the venue of the poll, and all Ulster had to stay out or come in as a result of the verdict of the ballot box. No, the counties to be voted on the question are the counties where the Unionists are in an overwhelming majority, and where therefore the vote is a mere farce – a subterfuge to hide the grossness of the betrayal of the Home Rule electors. Then again each county or borough enters or remains outside according to its own vote, and quite independent of the vote of its neighbours in Ulster. Thus the Home Rule question as far as Ulster is concerned, may be indefinitely prolonged and kept alive as an issue to divide and disrupt the Labour vote in Great Britain.

The effect of such exclusion upon Labour in Ireland will be at least equally, and probably more, disastrous. All hopes of uniting the workers, irrespective of religion or old political battle cries will be shattered, and through North and South the issue of Home Rule will be still used to cover the iniquities of the capitalist and landlord class. I am not speaking without due knowledge of the sentiments of the organised Labour movement in Ireland when I say that we would much rather see the Home Rule Bill defeated than see it carried with Ulster or any part of Ulster left out.

Meanwhile, as a study in political disparity, watch the manoeuvres of the Home Rule Party on this question. The deal is already, I believe, framed up, but when the actual vote is to be taken in the Counties of Down, Antrim, Derry and Armagh and the Boroughs of Belfast and Derry, Messrs. Redmond, Devlin and Co. will tour these counties and boroughs letting loose floods of oratory asking for votes against exclusion and thus will delude the workers into forgetting the real crime, viz., consenting to make the unity of the Irish Nation a subject to be decided by the votes of the most bigoted and passion-blinded reactionaries in these four counties where such reactionaries are in the majority. The betrayal is agreed upon, I repeat, the vote is only a subterfuge to hide the grossness of the betrayal.

It still remains to be seen whether the working class agitation cannot succeed in frightening these vampires from the feast they are promising themselves upon the corpse of a dismembered Ireland.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1914/04/exclsion.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 17:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Egypt - Lemnos Island - Gallipoli: Brief account of my personal experience while on active service proper dating from April 5th 1915

Voyage from Egypt (Alexandria) to Lemnos

10th April 1915 - Left the wharf at 12 noon. Saw the last of Alexandria at 2 pm. Great city and absolutely Eastern in appearance. Splendid shipping accommodation. Contrary to expectations we went straight out of the harbour instead of anchoring in the stream for a day or so. Don't know where we're off to. Think it's the Dardanelles. Beautifully calm. Drew one months pay in advance. Wish I had leave ashore tonight!

11th April 1915 - Had charge of the stable all day. Sea still smooth. Norman on sick list. Have suddenly been transformed into a nurse, making lemon drinks chloriodine doses. Bovril and gruel. Passed some island at 6 pm. Had a bath with a slight colouring of 'Phenol.' Guess the cause for taking such strict measures? Played washer woman gag tonight. Rotten hand at it though. Active service doesn't account for a lot of privileges.

http://www.thekivellfamily.co.nz/family_pages/ralphs_diaries/monthly/01_april_15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 18:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Shaiba, 1915 - Opened 11 April 1915

Following the British successes at Basra in November and Qurna in December 1914, Turkish forces under Colonel Subhi Bey had been driven 13km further north up the Tigris to Ruta. Despite a failed raid by some 3,000 Anglo-Indian troops on 21 January 1915 Subhi's lines remained static pending a planned Turkish offensive in April.

A second Turkish force separately crossed the Tigris into pro-British but neutral Persia. Their target was the British oil pumping station at Ahwaz. To their west, at Nasiriyeh on the River Euphrates, a third force comprising 12,000 men of the Constantinople Fire Brigade (along with 10,000-15,000 Arabs) assembled in readiness for an attack against the British HQ at Basra (the base having been freshly established with its November capture).

The British were themselves reinforcing their presence at Basra via an influx of men from India. However despite possessing numerical supremacy (with a combined force of approximately 30,000 men) the British force suffered, as they did throughout the Mesopotamian campaign, from a want of equipment and supplies (notably of water).

Sir Arthur Barrett, regional Commander-in-Chief, established Basra's main defence 15km south-west of the port, an entrenched position held by around 7,000 professional soldiers.

In due course the Turks initiated their offensive with simultaneous preliminary bombardments of Shaiba and Qurna on 11 April 1915. In the latter case the bombardment of the British 6th (Poona) Division progressed for three days while periodic attempts at piercing the town's defences were unsuccessfully attempted; eventually a counter-attack by the 2nd Dorsets and 24th Punjabis routed the Turks with heavy losses.

However the Turks' main effort was launched at Shaiba.

On 13 April, two days after the bombardment of the town started, Turkish troops attempted to outflank the British across the floods that separated Shaiba from Basra, while Turk cavalry prepared for a frontal assault.

However the timely intervention of two British Infantry battalions served to rapidly disperse the Turk cavalry, resulting in a full withdrawal by the latter into woods nearby. Possession of these were in turn secured by the British following an infantry battle throughout 14 April.

Casualties during the woodland battle were heavy: the Turks incurred around 2,400 casualties, and the British around half that number. Some 5,000 troops on each side were involved in the fighting in all.

While the final stages of the Turkish offensive were being planned a new regional British Commander-in-Chief had arrived at Basra to take command of extended operations, Sir John Nixon, superseding General Barrett.

Nixon, encouraged by this latest British success, and acting under Indian government instructions for a so-called 'forward defence', promptly planned further offensive operations - ultimately with disastrous consequences.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/shaiba.htm
Zie ook http://www.1914-1918.net/mespot.htm
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 10 Apr 2011 18:05, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 18:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Installation of the gas cylinders completed - 11 April 1915



Six days after starting preparations to install gas cylinders (codenamed “F-Batteries”) in the alternative trial sector Oberst Peterson and his special pioneer units had dug 5,730 gas cylinders into position. By night and in bad weather the canisters had been dragged into the front line trenches on a frontage of 6 kilometres. The front of the attack was to start a few hundred metres east of Langemarck and continue to the Yser canal at Steenstraat.

The gas cylinders were installed in groups of twenty cylinders per “battery”. In total 180,000 kilograms of chlorine were to be released here and the flow of gas was to last five minutes. A constant danger to the gas pioneers was that enemy artillery shells might smash the cylinders and release the gas. This would not only injure the German troops nearby but it would probably alert the enemy to what was being prepared.

In order to protect the men from the chlorine gas a protective liquid (“Schutzflüssigkeit”) was distributed to the troops. It was a 30% sodium sulphate solution.(1) It was to be poured onto a pad of cotton waste and pressed against the mouth and nose. The men called the mouth pad a “Riechpäckchen”. According to the regimental history of 210. Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment this primitive gas mask was sufficient at the time because the chlorine gas tended to blow away quickly across open ground.

However, for several days after 11th April when the cylinders were ready to be used the wind did not blow in the right direction here either.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/gas-installed.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Ernest GRAHAM...



... was born in 1880. He died Died of wounds from WW1 on 11 April 1916 in France.

http://www.members.shaw.ca/murray.mitchell/OurAncestry/b64.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Copy of a letter sent to Sergeant Archibold George Fielder by his daughter Alice, 11th April 1916



Lees verder op http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/db/results.php?CISOBOX1=letter&CISOFIELD1=objecb&CISOOP1=exact&CISOROOT=%2Fgwa
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Quionga

The Quionga (German Kionga) triangle was occupied by the Portuguese on 11 April 1916 (acknowledged by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919).

http://www.filatelia.fi/articles/mozambique.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tanks at First Bullecourt 11 April 1917



http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=125216
Zie ook http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/map-bullecourt.pdf
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Letters from Verne



Wandsworth
11/4/17

Dearest Mum,

I hope you didn’t worry about me when I appeared in the casualties. I would appear in the “slightly woundeds”, so I don’t think you’d worry. I got a tiny little piece of shell in my right leg about half way between the knee & ankle. It was a piece only about as big as a pea, & I feel almost ashamed that I had to come to hospital with it. I got wounded on the 2nd inst & arrived in England on 7th. The wound is getting along splendidly, & I think I’ll be able to walk within a week. Then they will keep me probably for another week, and then give me a couple of weeks leave, & then I’ll get back to duty.

I got my wound shortly after an attack which we carried out. We had to capture a village and a wood, & we did it alright. Met with a good deal of opposition in the way of machine gun & rifle fire, but our fellows kept on going steadily, & the Bosche didn’t wait for us to come to close quarters, but cleared out, & took up a position on some high ground in rear of the wood, from where he caused us a good deal of trouble by sniping. About a couple of hours after we captured the wood, I was having a look round to see that everything was going O.K. when a 5.9” dumped itself along side me, & though I managed to escape all the larger fragments, this one little piece got me & bowled me over. So I had to quit & make my way back to the dressing station. From there I was sent thro’ other stations, until finally I got to our base hospital, & after putting in a couple of days there, was sent across here.

Viv & Percy came in to see me the day before yesterday. Viv had just returned from his visit to Trentagh, & Percy had got leave to come & see him; I had wired to Mary telling her I was wounded, & the wire arrived while Viv was over there, so when he got back he found out where I was, & came along. I was jolly pleased to see them both. They are both looking very well. It was a good thing that Viv was over at Trentagh when the wire arrived for he was able to cheer Mary up, & not let her imagine all sorts of dreadful things. The poor little girl was pretty badly worried about me, I think. I told her in the wire that I was only slightly wounded & was quite well, but she thought I only said that to reassure her. But Viv told her that I wouldn’t be allowed wire anything but what was right so that cheered her up.

She wants to come across, & I would give anything to have her here, but I don’t think we can afford the expense. It would be fine to have her here, for she’d be able to visit me each afternoon, & then when I can walk, I’d be able to go out from 12 till 7 each day. But I guess I’ll just have to bottle my longing, & wait till I get my leave, & then go across to her. They all liked Viv very much but were sorry he could only spend such a little time with them. He got there on Wednesday morning & left on Saturday afternoon. Mary thought he was very nice indeed.

He came out again yesterday afternoon to see me, & brought the very good news that he has been awarded the Military Cross. Good old Viv! I’m jolly glad, & from what I can hear he has deserved it a dozen times over, though he himself assures me that he doesn’t know what it has been given to him for! I’m so glad he has got it, & I hope he gets his third star quickly.

He is going back to France tonight.
Mrs Morgan is going to call out here to see me this afternoon, so I suppose she will be in at any minute now.

I see by the papers that our “big push” has commenced at last, and that so far it has been gloriously successful. I hope these successes keep up on the present scale, & that the Bosche gets smashed badly. The push is only started, & one cannot guage how far it will go, but at anyrate it has started very successfully & that is a lot. Lets hope it keeps on as it has begun.

Must close now Mum dear. Don’t worry about me. I’m as right as rain, & will very soon be about again. My fondest love to all at home. Tell Dad I’m still going strong.

Your loving son Vernie

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/v_7.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British tank captured by German troops at Bullecourt (11 April 1917)



http://www.remembrancetrails-northernfrance.com/learn-more/battles/the-two-battles-of-bullecourt-april-and-may-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alf Williamson



Alfred "Alf" Williamson (6 October 1893 – 11 April 1917) is a former Australian rules footballer who played with Carlton and Melbourne in the Victorian Football League (VFL). Born in Toongabbie, to Reuben and Annie Williamson, he was taught at Melbourne High School during his playing career. Considered a natural leader, he was given the position of captain in the 1st Australian Imperial Force during World War I, and was regarded as one of Australias best officers. Williamson received the Commander in Chiefs Congratulatory Card for showing "bravery and initiative". He was killed in action at Bullecourt in France in 1917.

http://www.blueseum.org/tiki-index.php?page=Alf+Williamson & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alf_Williamson
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Black, Percy Charles Herbert (1877 - 1917)



(...) Black enlisted as a private in the 16th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, on 13 September 1914 and sailed for Egypt in December. He first saw action at the Gallipoli landing on 25 April 1915 when his unit took over the Pope's Hill zone. Within a week Lance Corporal Black, who headed one of the machine-gun crews, had been highly commended by his commanding officer. Though wounded in the hand and the ear he refused to leave his post until his weapon had been smashed by Turkish bullets. On 2 May he mounted a machine-gun beyond Gully Ridge; his only companion was shot dead but Black, surrounded by Turks and without any assistance, fired into the enemy lines until his ammunition was exhausted. For this action he received the Distinguished Conduct Medal and five days later was commissioned second lieutenant in the field. He was mentioned in dispatches on 5 August, promoted temporary captain four days later, and remained at Gallipoli until the evacuation. Charles Bean later described Black and his No. 2 gunner H. W. Murray as 'men of no ordinary determination' and their 'magnificent' machine-gun section as 'possibly the finest unit that ever existed in the A.I.F.'.

Black was promoted major on 27 April 1916. His unit was posted to the Western Front in June and suffered severe casualties in the battle of Pozières. On 28 August it returned to the front line and two days later Black's 'B' Company was detailed to capture Mouquet Farm. In the attack Black immobilized a machine-gun, killing the gunner, before being wounded in the neck and evacuated. He was later awarded the Distinguish Service Order and the French Croix de Guerre for gallantry at Pozières and Mouquet Farm; he was also mentioned in dispatches twice. His next engagement was the first battle of Bullecourt on 11 April 1917. Tanks, sent in to clear a passage through the wire, failed to reach their objective and the infantry found themselves facing intense machine-gun fire along an unbroken entanglement. Black, commanding the battalion's right flank, led his men through a 'hurricane fusillade', captured the first trenches and pressed on towards the support-line, but was then shot through the head; he was one of 640 casualties in the 16th Battalion that day. His comrade Harry Murray made an impassioned search for his body; however, he has no known grave and his name is commemorated on the Villers-Bretonneux Memorial, France. The action in which he died is depicted in a diorama in the Australian War Memorial; a near-by painting by Charles Wheeler is entitled 'Death of Major Black'.



Of splendid physique, quiet and unassuming in manner, Black was 'a born leader of men and a natural soldier' and his courage was a byword. Bean once described him as 'the greatest fighting soldier in the A.I.F.'.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070311b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany: Guiding Principles (April 1917)

The growth of grassroots labor protest accompanied the split of the Social Democratic party. In March 1916, the majority of the Socialists in the Reichstag, who had lost their patience with the lack of discipline within their own ranks, voted to expel eighteen of their own members who had voted against another round of war loans. The banished Socialists reconstituted themselves and, after the Russian upheaval in March of 1917, formally founded their own party, called the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD).

Berlin, April 9-11, 1917 - In the interest of the working class, the opposition within the Social Democratic Party of Germany wishes to pursue an independent and autonomous policy, which will be guided by the basic principles and demands of the party program, the resolutions of the party congresses, and the resolutions of international congresses. The opposition stands in fundamental opposition to the existing system of government, to the war policy of the federal government, and to the policy that the executive committee of the nominal [Social Democratic] party has pursued in the tow of the government. To distinguish itself from this party, the new opposition organization takes the name: Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany. The program and organization of the party are to be shaped by the lessons won during the war, which will only be completely possible when party comrades have returned from military service and the bases of the party have been restored in free discussion. Until then, just as the party program provides the basis for policy, so do the organizational statutes of the Social Democratic Party of Germany provide the basis for organizing the opposition. Party comrades are obligated to apply the statutes in a democratic spirit and especially to strive to make all important decisions on a democratic foundation. Now that the [Social Democratic] leadership has used the state of war violently to deprive members of the opposition party of their rights and to expel these members from the party illegally, the opposition has formed an independent organization.

Source: USPD Grundlinien [Guiding Principles of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany] (April 1917), in Karl Wippermann, et al., ed., Deutscher Geschichtskalender [German Historical Almanac] 33 (1917), p. 782.
http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=969
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Britische Feldartillerie an der Straße von Monchy-le-Preux während der Schlacht bei Arras - Aufnahme vom 11. April 1917



http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_04_11.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 152, April 11, 1917



THE UNITED STATES OF GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA.

John Bull (to President Wilson). "BRAVO, SIR! DELIGHTED TO HAVE YOU ON OUR SIDE."

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14769/14769-h/14769-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Douglas Haig's "Backs to the Wall" Order: Special Order of the Day



http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/graphics/backstothewall.jpg via http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/1918_Documents
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Omslag van De Nieuwe Amsterdammer van april 1918.



Ook in Nederland was de reactie er een van afschuw [op de Duitse bombardementen op Parijs], zoals weergegeven in een tekening uit De Nieuwe Amsterdammer nadat op 11 april 1918 de kraamafdeling van een ziekenhuis was geraakt. Verschillende jonge moeders die hun baby's de borst gaven kwamen daarbij om. De tekst onder de tekening luidt: "Een der Ueber-apen: Als de Heer helpt, treffen we ook nog wel ’n kinderziekenhuis."

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/kanonnen-parijs/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Memorial card of Bertie Woodrow





Lancelot Woodrow was not officially recorded by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission as he enlisted under his brother's name Bertie Woodrow. I have managed to establish that he now has been listed under his right name which took some time via e-mails to the Commission. I have been informed that his name will be added to the memorial when they next engrave there.

Editor's Comment:
Card from memorial service giving details of the fallen. Front inscription: 'He hath fought the good fight'. Poem to inside cover, begining 'Some day we hope to meet him'.

Pte. 11107 Lancelot Sydney Woodrow (served as Bertie Reginald Woodrow), 1st Bn. King's Own Scottish Borderers, killed in action 16th August 1917, is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial. The 1st Bn., as part of the 29th Division, took part in the Battle of Langemarck, 16th-18th April 1917, the second phase of the Third Battle of Ypres (Battle of Passchendaele).

Pte. 202136 Bertie Reginald Woodrow, 1st Bn. Northumberland Fusiliers, killed in action 11th April 1918, is commemorated on the Loos Memorial. The 1st Bn, as part of the 3rd Division, took part in the Battle of Estaires, repulsing the German 'Spring Offensive', 9th-11th April 1918 (opening of the Battle of the Lys).

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/db/results.php?CISOBOX1=Norwich+and+Norfolk+Millennium+Library&CISOFIELD1=contra&CISOOP1=exact&CISOROOT=%2Fgwa&CISOSTART=1,81&CISOSORT=title%7Cf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wervik

Het laatste opmerkelijke feit tijdens de Eerste Wereloorlog voor de stad Wervik is het 'bezoek' van keizer Wilhelm. Hij zou op 11 april 1918 doorrijden tot het front. Hij wordt in Wervik evenwel opgehouden door de 'vliegtuigbommen. ' Geen enkele Wervikaan kan getuigen van dit bezoek maar de Kortrijkzaan De Béthune meldt het wel in zijn dagboek.

http://www.ethesis.net/wervik/wervik_hfst_3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Estaires; 9th to 11th April 1918.

...Then occurred what must have been one of the most gallant exploits of that day of gallant deeds: two Lewis-gun sections were placed on the Trou Bayard-Croix du Bac road, in order to cover the withdrawal of the remnants of “C” and “D” Companies.

With splendid bravery, these Lewis gunners held on. One by one they fell dead, until at last only one man remained, then he too dropped to the ground: the two sections had been killed outright, but they had done their duty - grandly, nobly. They had held off the enemy, enabling their comrades of “C” and “D” Companies to withdraw.

Of Battalion H.Q., the Diary records: “Battalion H.Q., consisting of Major Jackson (C.O.), Captain Slack (Adjutant), 2nd Lieutenant Thompson (Intelligence Officer), the R.S.M. and orderly room corporal had been at their headquarters (a shell hole about point 5.L.92.74) all the 9th. and 10th, until about 3 pm. when the enemy had appeared about 50 yards to their front, from which time there was no information concerning them, and they are missing...”

Uit The East Yorkshire Regiment in the Great World War door Everard Wyrall, http://www.greatwar.eril.net/letter36.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 11, 1919: International Labor Organization founded

On this day in 1919, in Paris, France, the International Labor Organization (ILO) is founded as an independent, affiliated agency of the League of Nations.

The call for just and equal labor standards and improved working and living conditions for the world's workers had begun to be heard long before the outbreak of World War I. As the Industrial Revolution swept from France and Britain across the rest of Europe over the course of the 19th century, it completely altered the economic and social landscape of the continent (and eventually the world). Among the early advocates of an international organization to regulate labor were Robert Owen, a Welsh socialist and the founder of the first, short-lived British trade union in 1833; Charles Hindley (1800-1857), a cotton spinner and member of the British parliament from 1853 to 1857; and Daniel Legrand, a French industrialist, philanthropist, and writer.

Though these 19th-century thinkers were ahead of their time, the unparalleled destruction wrought by the Great War of 1914-1918 led to increased support among the world's leaders for just such an organization, not only to regulate labor standards for the steadily growing international population of industrial workers, but also to preserve peace in the volatile atmosphere of the post-war world. For U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, especially, this peace-keeping organization—the League of Nations—was the most important part of the Versailles negotiations.

The creation of an international labor organization as a separate but affiliated agency of the League was seen by its founders as a necessary and vital part of the League itself. The ILO Constitution, written between January and April 1919, by a commission of representatives from nine countries—Belgium, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Japan, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States—and chaired by Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labour (AFL), eventually became Part XIII of the Treaty of Versailles.

Its preamble began with a statement of purpose—The League of Nations has for its object the establishment of universal peace, and such a peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice—and went on to lay out the threefold motivation behind the creation of the ILO. First, there was a necessity to improve the conditions of the average worker, who without regulation was increasingly subject to exploitation by industrial management, including long hours, low wages and harsh treatment. There was also a political motive: if conditions did not improve, the growing discontent among the world's workers threatened to explode into large-scale demonstrations of unrest and possibly revolution, as had occurred in Russia in 1917 and to a lesser extent in Germany and Austria-Hungary near the end of the war. Thirdly, without universal standards of labor that could be enforced across international borders, any country that instituted social reform would find itself at a disadvantage economically.

The ILO as created in April 1919 was a tripartite organization—half the members of its governing body, the executive council, were representatives of various governments, one-fourth were employers' representatives and one-fourth were workers' representatives. The first annual International Labor Conference, which convened in Washington, D.C., in October 1919, issued the organization's first six conventions, which addressed, among other issues, limitations on working hours, unemployment, maternity protection and minimum working age. The following summer, the International Labor Office, the ILO's permanent secretariat, was set up in Geneva, Switzerland.

Though the League of Nations faltered in the post-war years, the ILO flourished, even as its mission expanded from setting universal labor standards to guarding against more general human rights violations worldwide and facilitating technical cooperation to assist developing nations. In 1946, after the Second World War, the ILO became the first specialized agency associated with the League's replacement, the United Nations (UN). The original membership of 45 countries in 1919 grew to 121 in 1971; two years earlier, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of its founding in April 1969, the ILO was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/international-labor-organization-founded
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11 April 1919: Soldiers' votes derail prohibition campaign

A keenly contested national referendum on 10 April initially gave prohibition a majority of 13,000, apparently confirming the hopes of those who had for decades campaigned against the manufacture and sale of alcohol. But the votes of nearly 40,000 troops overseas, aboard ships or in New Zealand camps were still to be counted. Fighting for King and country was clearly thirsty work – more than 32,000 of these soldiers voted to retain the right to drink, overturning the interim result.

A second referendum, held alongside the December 1919 general election, delivered another agonisingly close result that again maintained the status quo. Although the prohibitionist cause remained strong until the mid 1930s, New Zealand would never again come as close to banning the bottle as it did in the twin referenda of 1919.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline&new_date=11/4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 11, 1919 - Murder of Emiliano Zapata



On April 11, 1919, Emiliano Zapata, leader of the Mexican Revolutionary Movement, was murdered. Zapata was a Mexican patriot who started his struggle for acquiring farmers’ rights and giving land to them. Zapata became popular quickly as representative of vast sections of farmers and during one of the farmers’ movements, he confiscated the lands of landowners and divided them among farmers. Zapata’s struggles prompted one of the landowners named Francisco Madero, who had been defeated in elections, to unite with Zapata, and along with Zapata’s 5000 men overthrew the Mexican dictator. But when Zapata urged Madero to be committed to his pledges to divide lands among farmers, he waged a war against Zapata and murdered him in a conspiracy arranged by an infiltrator. Since then Zapata has been known as the symbol of nationalistic and patriotic struggle of the people of Mexico.

http://www.mojahedin.org/pagesen/decorumDetails.aspx?DecorumId=53
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Demobilisation Papers of Private Richard Griffiths, 11th April 1919



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4168?CISOBOX=1&REC=4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rescue of the Imperial family from Yalta 1919: HMS Marlborough Evacuates Members of the Imperial Family, Yalta, April, 1919


Photo-card of the HMS Marlborough, autographed by many of the Imperial passengers who came on board

(...) On 11th April 1919 our promise to Her Majesty The Empress Marie had been fulfilled, the evacuation of Yalta was complete and HMS Marlborough could sail for Constantinople.

We had then on board twenty members of the Imperial family, including two small children, and in addition twenty five ladies and gentlemen of the suites of Her Majesty, the Grand Duchess Xenia and the Grand Dukes Nicholas and Peter. Maids, servants and others added a further thirty six to the number for whom accomodation, of a kind, had been found on board. I estimated that by the time we sailed that day, in addition to our passengers, we were carrying some two hundred tons of luggage.

All that morning the Empress had been receiving they many who came on board to seek her help or to say goodbye; there was no more now that she could do for them, but up to the last moment she was deeply concerned for those who could not accompany her in the Marlborough.

In the afternoon the ship, unheralded and without escort, moved silently from the anchorage off Yalta and headed into the mist of the Black Sea. Our passengers stood for long on deck gazing astern with full hearts as the beautiful coast line of the Crimea faded from their view. We did not know it at the time, but with our departure all members of the Imperial Romanov family then alive had left Russia forever, and the dynasty, which came into power in 1613, was ended.

Mooi artikel... http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/marlborough.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Apr 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lens, France, April 11, 1919--General view of Lens [ruins]...



http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1115742/LENS,-FRANCE,-APRIL-11,-1919--GENERAL-VIEW-OF-LENS-%5BRUINS%5D...
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