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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Apr 2006 7:03    Onderwerp: 3 April Reageer met quote

April 3

1918 Ferdinand Foch becomes supreme Allied commander

On April 3, 1918, the Allied Supreme War Council formally confers the post of commander in chief on the Western Front to General Ferdinand Foch.

By March 23, 1918, two days after the start of the German army’s great spring offensive near the Somme River and the crucial railway junction at Amiens, France, the Allied mood was black. Paris was being shelled, and there were suggestions that the French government abandon the city. On March 26, French President Raymond Poincare arrived in Douellens to preside over a meeting attended by Alexander Haig and Philippe Petain, the top commanders of the British and French armies; the French prime minister, Georges Clemenceau; Lord Alfred Milner from the British War Cabinet; and Henry Wilson, Britain’s representative on the newly created Supreme War Council.

Unlike Haig, Wilson and Milner both enjoyed the support of British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and both had become convinced that a united Anglo-French command should be created to strengthen Allied military strategy going forward, especially in the face of the powerful German offensive on the Western Front. Upon arriving in Douellens, Wilson had met privately with his friend Ferdinand Foch, a decorated French commander who had returned from relative obscurity on the Italian front (where he had been banished after the Allied failure on the Somme in 1916) to become the chief of the French general staff. At the subsequent meetings at Douellens on March 26, Wilson and Foch persuaded their political superiors, Milner and Clemenceau, that Foch was the logical choice to head a joint Allied command.

The appointment was consolidated at Beauvais on April 3, as Foch was formally invested with control of “the strategic direction” of all the Allied armies, including that of the United States. Some, like Clemenceau, doubted Foch’s mental acuity and distrusted his strong Jesuit faith, but no one questioned his conviction, or his dedication to the pursuit of an Allied victory in World War I. “I shall fight without ceasing,” the newly appointed supreme Allied commander was reported to have said to a group of officers. “I shall fight in front of Amiens. I shall fight in Amiens. I shall fight behind Amiens. I shall fight all the time.”

For his part, David Lloyd George defended the decision to name an Allied generalissimo as a matter of necessity. In a statement issued on April 9, the prime minister held that “I have always felt that we are losing value and efficiency in the Allied Armies through lack of coordination and concentration. We have sustained many disasters already through that, and we shall encounter more unless this defect in our machinery is put right.”
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Apr 2006 6:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 3 April



Births
1 03 Apr 1888 Conrad Lally
2 03 Apr 1898 Geoffrey Hemming
3 03 Apr 1899 Charles Allen
4 03 Apr 1899 Cyril Sawyer



Deaths
None for 3 April



Claims
1 03 Apr 1916 Maurice Scott #1
2 03 Apr 1916 Jean Navarre #8
3 03 Apr 1917 Harold Balfour #2
4 03 Apr 1917 Edmund Nathanael #7
5 03 Apr 1917 Paul von Osterroht #2
6 03 Apr 1917 Manfred von Richthofen #34
7 03 Apr 1917 Karl Schäfer #9
8 03 Apr 1917 Adolf Schulte #6 u/c
9 03 Apr 1917 Hans Schüz #7
10 03 Apr 1918 Eugen Bönsch #7
11 03 Apr 1918 William Alexander #18
12 03 Apr 1918 William Brown #9
13 03 Apr 1918 Jack Cunningham #9
14 03 Apr 1918 Maurice Freehill #2
15 03 Apr 1918 Robert Grosvenor #6 #7
16 03 Apr 1918 Walter Hinchliffe #3
17 03 Apr 1918 Cecil King #9
18 03 Apr 1918 Cecil Marchant #5
19 03 Apr 1918 Paul Petit #1
20 03 Apr 1918 Karl Bolle #6
21 03 Apr 1918 Walter Böning #14
22 03 Apr 1918 Theodor Cammann #3
23 03 Apr 1918 Heinrich Geigl #12
24 03 Apr 1918 Alfred Lenz #2
25 03 Apr 1918 Viktor von Pressentin von Rautter #2
26 03 Apr 1918 Fritz Pütter #16
27 03 Apr 1918 Karl Schattauer #5
28 03 Apr 1918 Konrad Schwartz #2 #3
29 03 Apr 1918 Flavio Baracchini u/c
30 03 Apr 1918 Alessandro Resch u/c
31 03 Apr 1918 Silvio Scaroni u/c
32 03 Apr 1918 Hugh Saunders #3
33 03 Apr 1918 Jens Larsen #7 #8



Losses
1 03 Apr 1916 Franz Büchnerwounded in action

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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het vrachtschip ss. 'Albergen' 1912 (ex- 'Saltburn') van Furness Scheepvaart- en Agentuur Mij. te Rotterdam, op weg van Newport News naar Trinidad, wordt vermist.
Vermoedelijk moet het schip op 3 april met man en muis zijn vergaan in een orkaan nabij Cape Hatteras.

Bron: scheepsrampen koopvaardij 1855 - 1991
http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/04/2-april-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 3 April 1915.

Borkel en Schaft. Nu de winterlessen van de landbouwcursus zijn geëindigd zal weleer bij het aanstaande seizoen eene boerinnen-cursus worden geopend. Ongetwijfeld zullen een groot aantal boerinnen van deze nuttige gelegenheid willen profiteeren om zich beter in hun stand te bekwamen. Een woord van lof aan den heer van der Heiden hoofd der school en landbouwleeraar alhier die zich geen moeite ontziet onze boeren met zijn kundig advies bij te staan. Door de leeraren van den landbouwcursus werd dan ook uit dank en erkentelijkheid den heer van der Heiden een welverdiend fraai geschenk aangeboden. ’t Behoeft geen betoog dat onze landbouwers trots zijn zulk een kundig leeraar in hun midden te hebben.

Borkel en Schaft. Smokkelen. Dat het smokkelen alhier aan de grens niettegenstaande de strenge bewaking der militairen en ambtenaren op groote schaal wordt doorgezet bewijst, dat er dagelijks een groote kwantum meel petroleum en andere artikelen worden aangehouden. Daar vele smokkelaars geen gevolg geven aan ’t halt werda hoort men menigmaal geweerschoten knallen waarbij een tweetal personen uit Neerpelt en Achel in de beenen werden getroffen.

Op de Kluis. De bezetting op de kluis blijft nog steeds gehandhaafd en wel heden door een 12-tal Duitsche landstormers. Deze week zijn in Achel 150 Uhlanen ingekwartierd die even als hun voorgangers die naar het oostelijk front zijn vertrokken, rust komen genieten.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enemy diversionary attacks around the Ypres Salient: the action of St Eloi craters, 27 March - 16 April 1916

Eyewitness account: "Imagine my surprise and horror when I saw a whole crowd of armed Boches! I stood there for a moment feeling a bit sort of shy, and then I levelled my revolver at the nearest Boche and shouted 'Hands up, all the lot of you!' A few went up at once, then a few more and then the lot; and I felt the proudest fellow in the world as I cursed them".

A note by then Captain Billy Congreve, Brigade-Major of 76th Brigade, who captured 5 officers and 77 men at Crater No 5 on 3 April 1916. Billy was awarded the DSO for this brave act. Later in the year, he was awarded the Victoria Cross while on the Somme. He died of wounds on 20 July 1916 and is buried in Corbie Communal Cemetery.

The quote is from "Armageddon Road: a VCs diary 1914-16 ", edited by Terry Norman and published by William Kimber in 1982.
http://www.1914-1918.net/bat14.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTALION WAR DIARY FOR 22nd (SERVICE) BATTALION ROYAL FUSILIERS

3 April 1917 - The Battalion remained at FIEFS. 2/Lt D W WRIGHT this day rejoined from hospital and 2/Lt S F JEFFCOAT joined for duty. 2/Lt F W PALMER was awarded the V.C. in the London Gazette of this date.

http://ww1research.wetpaint.com/page/22nd+Bn+Royal+Fusiliers+April+1917

Sergeant (now 2nd Lieutenant) F.W. Palmer VC

2nd Lieutenant Palmer won this honour for most conspicuous bravery and determination. All the officers of his Company having been shot don he assumed command cut his way under point-blank machine gun fire through wire entanglements, and rushed the enemy's trench with six men, dislodged the hostile machine gun, and established a block.

http://www.s-upton.com/vc/series8/pages/182-Palmer.htm

Lance Sergeant Frederick Palmer, 22nd ( Kensington ) Bn, Royal Fusiliers

On Thursday, 1st June 2006, a ceremony took place at the Royal Fusiliers Museum, Tower of London, where the Victoria Cross and campaign medals awarded to Lance Sergeant Frederick Palmer were placed on permanent loan to the regimental museum of the Royal Fusiliers by members of the Palmer family.

On the 28 January 1917 the 22nd Royal Fusiliers moved into Wolfe Huts on the Albert-Bapaume road in support of the 23rd Royal Fusiliers. The area in which the battalion found itself was part of the battlefield that had been taken from the enemy during the battle of the Somme the previous year. The landscape was described as being 'desolate, treeless, a mass of mine craters, shell holes and wire entaglements', with a few repaired roads and beaten tracks to link up with the front area.

On 17 February 1917 the 22nd and 23rd Royal Fusiliers were both involved in the fighting. 'A' Company, Frederick Palmer's company, and 'B' Company beginning the atttack at 5.45 am. The enemy were very alert having had an early warning of the attack and it was at this point that Sergeant Palmer took a hand as all the officers in his company had become casualties.

[ London Gazette, 3 April 1917 ], Near Courcelette, France, 17 February 1917, Lance Sergeant Frederick William Palmer, 22nd Bn, Royal Fusiliers.

For most conspicuous bravery, control and determination.
During the progress of certain operations, all the Officers of his Company having been shot down, Sjt. Palmer assumed command, and, having cut his way under point blank machine gun fire, through the wire entanglements, he rushed the enemy’s trench with six of his men, dislodged the hostile machine gun which had been hampering our advance, and established a block. He then collected men detached from other regiments, and held the barricade for nearly three hours against seven determined counter-attacks, under an incessant barrage of bombs and rifle grenades from his flank and front.

During his temporary absence in search of more bombs an eighth counter-attack was delivered by the enemy, who succeeded in driving in his party, and threatened the defences of the whole flank. At this critical moment, although he had been blown off his feet by a bomb, and was greatly exhausted, he rallied his men, drove back the enemy and maintained his position.

The very conspicuous bravery displayed by this Non-commissioned Officer cannot be overstated, and his splendid determination and devotion to duty undoubtedly averted what might have proved a serious disaster in this sector of the line.


Frederick Palmer was invested with his Victoria Cross, and presented with his Military Medal, by King George V in Hyde Park, London, on the 2nd June 1917.

After demobilization Palmer lived in Singapore and became a director of several companies. In 1942 the family home was destroyed when Singapore fell to the Japanese; his Chinese wife, a magistrate's daughter who had worked as a nurse in Singapore, and the Palmer's two young children were driven north and placed in a refugee camp for four years. During this time Palmer had no news of them, but when the war was over the family was reunited and they moved to Hordle in Hampshire.

Frederick Palmer died in Lymington Hospital on 10the September 1955, aged 63, was cremated at Bournemouth Crematorium, and his ashes buried in St Michael's Churchyard, Hordle.

http://www.victoriacross.org.uk/bbpalmef.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Een man van weinig woorden...

Percy Allsup's Diary

April 3rd [1917] - Same Routines.
April 4th - Same Routines.
April 5th - Batt Orderly Sergeant.
April 6th - Parade 8.45AM. Drilling all morning.
April 7th - Same Routines.

http://www.pals.org.uk/allsup_diary05.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema (1917-2007)

Hazelhoff Roelfzema werd geboren op 3 april 1917 in Surabaya. Hij is een van de meest besproken en beschreven oorlogshelden: hij was Engelandvaarder, geheim agent, piloot van een bommenwerper met als doelwit Duitsland, adjudant van koningin Wilhelmina en drager van de Militaire Willemsorde.

Hij studeerde rechten aan de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden toen de Tweede Wereldoorlog uitbrak. Hij werd in 1939 oorlogscorrespondent. In april 1941 zat hij een week gevangen in het 'Oranjehotel' te Scheveningen. De student dook onder, deed zijn doctoraalexamen en vertrok als Engelandvaarder naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Hazelhoff Roelfzema voerde landingen uit op de Nederlandse kust om zendapparatuur voor het verzet af te leveren en personen op te halen die vanuit bezet Nederland in het Verenigd Koninkrijk gewenst waren.

http://spannings.blogspot.com/2007/09/erik-hazelhoff-roelfzema-1917-2007.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WORLD WAR 1 at SEA
ROYAL NAVY - AWARDS of the VICTORIA CROSS including Royal Marines


3 April 1917 – Major Frederick LUMSDEN RMA, France

The London Gazette 8 June 1917 (from the War Office)

His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men (including): —

Maj. Frederick William Lumsden, D.S.O., R.M.A.
For most conspicuous bravery, determination and devotion to duty. Six enemy field guns having been captured, it was necessary to leave them in dug-in positions, 300 yards in advance of the position held by our troops. The enemy kept the captured guns under heavy fire. Maj. Lumsden undertook the duty of bringing the guns into our lines. In order to effect this, he personally led four artillery teams and a party of infantry through the hostile barrage. As one of these teams sustained casualties, he left the remaining teams in a covered position, and, through very heavy rifle, machine gun and shrapnel fire, led the infantry to the guns. By force of example and inspiring energy he succeeded in sending back two teams with guns, going through the barrage with the teams of the third gun. He then returned to the guns to await further teams, and these he succeeded in attaching to two of the three remaining guns, despite rifle fire, which had become intense at short range, and removed the guns to safety. By this time the enemy, in considerable strength, had driven through the infantry covering points, and blown up the breach of the remaining gun. Maj. Lumsden then returned, drove off the enemy, attached the gun to a team and got it away.


http://www.naval-history.net/WW1MedalsBr-VC.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MacKinnon, Ronald - Letter: 1917 April 3rd

France, April 3, 1917
Dear Jeanie,
Just a few lines to let you know I am well and in the pink. I received your two letters this week and glad to hear from you. So Neil is sending me some beef steak and onions. I am anxiously waiting on it coming. He may be sure that I'll make it look small once I get that tin. Thank him very much for me. I may not have a chance to write you many letters now but I'll always try and send a "Whizz-bang" card every week. Well I must close with love to all.
Your affec. brother Ronald

http://www.canadianletters.ca/content/document-19574?position=33&list=R1G0QEyRYjLDelRaMn-Do7eERdc3EMZ2aXXP3CFxrLM
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 03 Apr 2018 12:58, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The battle of Dernancourt, april 1918.

This was a battle fought principally by troops of the 12th Brigade AIF of the 4th Australian Division, in which my Grandfather fought, plus some elements of the 13th Brigade AIF. Some of the battalions contained a high proportion of South Australians along with some West Australians, Tasmanians and Victorians. There were also Battalions raised in N.S.W. and Queensland.

By the 3rd and 4th of April, it was realized that German troops were hiding in the cellars and basements of DERNANCOURT when French civilians signaled to Australians at the embankment. Intelligence also revealed a very large number of German troops moving to the area and artillery being emplaced. Brigadier General Gellibrand of the 14th Brigade and Brig.General Glasgow of the 13th, expected the attack would probably be on the 5th. They warned their outposts to be particularly on the alert.

During the darkness before dawn, several German mortars fired shots that were considered to be ’registering the range’ and the barking of dogs in DERNANCOURT suggested movement of German troops. Various minor skirmishes took place as outposts spotted Storm Troopers creeping up into their jump off positions and some artillery fire was called in. The situation remained quiet at dawn however and at first it seemed as if the Germans would attack another day. Then, suddenly at 7am, just as the Australian troops were eating breakfast, an enormous artillery barrage fell on their rear areas. Artillery and HQ positions were subjected to high explosive and gas rounds. Communications with the Embankment were cut and because of a morning fog, plus smoke and dust from the artillery fire, troops on the high ground could not see what was happening. The bombardment continued for two hours, then switched to a slower fire. In the considerable noise nothing could be heard from the embankment, nor seen, but at 10.35 runners eventually managed to get through and report that close fighting had been going on since about 9am. During the shelling a buried, abandoned Allied ammunition dump blew up causing considerable temporary, panic and confusion to both sides. The worse effect of this was the added smoke and dust which made observation from the high ground even harder.

Lees verer op http://www.histofig.com/The-battle-of-Dernancourt-april.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German attack at St Quentin

1, 2, 3 April 1918
1st and 2nd Dublins remained in position. The 1st Battalion by now had received 200 reinforcements.
On 3rd April they were relieved, and marched via Aubigny to Blangy-Tronville, where the took buses to Saleux on the outskirts of Amiens.

http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/1-batt/campaigns/1918-kaisers.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Germans land in Finland, April 3, 1918.

On April 3, 1918, German troops landed in Hanko in accordance with the invitation of the Finnish government:

The Senate of Finland
has upon the motion of Department of Internal Affairs, delivered the following Declaration:

To the People of Finland.

After German troops, at the request of the Government, have landed on Finnish soil to assist in expelling of Russian troops and Bolsheviks, the Government wishes to make the following generally known among the population of the country:

Although German troops will, whenever possible, to use provisions and other material they have brought with themselves, it might occur that procurement of food and other supplies will turn out to be unavoidable. As Government now urges the population willingly to fulfill the requirements that might this way arise, it will also clearly state that the State of Finland will remunerate all the materials provided for the German troops, as well as all the damages they might cause.

All requisitions for the German troops are communicated through appropriate food staff boards or other municipal authorities. All deliveries are acknowledged with a receipt, of form and content approved by the Finnish government, carrying the due signature and official seal and showing the list of the delivered goods and their values. To illustrate the type of requisitions the German troops might need, the following list is provided:

1) quarters for troops and stables for their horses;
2) food for troops and fodder for their horses;
3) all kinds of carriages and harnesses and assistant personnel to work as coachmen, guides, messangers, oars- and ferrymen, as well as for construction work on roads, railways, bridges or in fortifications, and to blockade rivers and harbours;
4) disposal of houses and buildings for military operations and for road, railway and bridge construction, allotting materials for camps and resting places and fortifications and for blockading of rivers and harbours;
5) supplying of fuel and straw for camps and resting places;
6) providing other assistance and material, which in unusual cases might be needed for military purposes, especially material for clothing and fortifications, medicines and bandaging material insofar there are suitable persons and available supplies in the municipality.

If there is no food otherwise accessible for the troops, they can make requisitions for livestock, grain, oats, hay and straw. The amount of foodstuff thus delivered in form of a purchase or requisition to the military, will be at due time returned in nature by the German High Command.

Owners of ships or boats are obliged, whenever required, to set them at disposal of the military command for war purposes. The owners are compensated for the loss of their earnings or loss of the vehicle.

To fulfill the need of horses for troops, all horse owners are at war times obliged to yield up suitable horses for war purposes. They will be remunerated with a full compensation assessed by a person with expertise on the matter. The following persons are, however, exempted:

a) state official insofar horses are needed for their official duties, as well as doctors and veterinarians in case the horses are necessary for carrying out their professions
b) mail carriers and innkeepers isofar they need horses to regular mail transportation and stagecoach service;
c) city fire brigades.

The railway administration is obliged to:

1) to furnish necessary fittings into the railway cars for transportation of troops and horses;
2) arrange transportation for troops and the material;
3) set its personnel and supplies for use in construction and operating on the railways.

The railway administration is also obliged to follow the orders of the military command in arranging, continuing, interrupting or resuming operating on the railways.

In case these orders are not obeyed, the military command is authorized to carry them out on their own decision.

In Vaasa, on April the 5th, 1918.

On behalf of the Finnish Senate:
P. E. Svinhufvud.

http://www.histdoc.net/history/65_44.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 21:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

3 April 1919, Written Answers

SOLDIER'S GRAVE (PHOTOGRAPH).


HC Deb 03 April 1919 vol 114 cc1413-4W 1413W

Viscount WOLMER asked the Secretary of State for War whether he is aware that the Graves Commission have twice invited subscription from Miss Doris Lasky, of 198, Union Road, Leytonstone, for the purpose of defraying the cost of a photograph of a grave; whether they have re- 1414W ceived from her the sum of 2s. 6d.; whether he is aware that they have omitted to send her the photograph or to pay any attention to her communications on the subject, except to inform her six times that a further communication will be addressed to her on the matter; and whether he will have inquiry made into the circumstances of the case?

Mr. CHURCHILL I am informed by the Director of Graves Registration and Inquiries that his Department has never invited any subscription from Miss Doris Lasky. I understand the facts are as follow: In her first letter of 8th October, 1918, asking on behalf of the parents for a photograph of the grave of Bombardier A. Joan, Royal Field Artillery, she offered to send a small subscription and asked to whom it should be sent. She was informed in reply that any donation she was kind enough to give should be forwarded to the British Red Cross Society, by whom funds for the work of photography are supplied. No subscriptions or payments for photographs are invited from the public, but frequently small donations are sent and these are paid over to the Red Cross Society. As regards the delay in supplying the photograph, the staff of photographers available will not permit of requests being met immediately. There are many thousands of requests now on hand and some time must necessarily elapse before the photographs asked for can all be supplied.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/apr/03/soldiers-grave-photograph
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Habsburg Law

The so-called Habsburg Law concerned the rights of the family Habsburg-Lorraine in Austria after the First World War.

After Emperor Charles I's declaration of 11 November, "relinquish[ing] every participation in the administration of the State", and the proclamation of the republic on 12 November, 1918, he was given three choices: (1) abdicate formally and remain in Austria as a citizen of the republic; (2) not abdicating but leaving the country; (3) or being interned.

He departed for Switzerland, with which he revoked his waiver on 24 March, 1919, in the Feldkircher Manifest. The parliament of the state German Austria (German: Deutschösterreich) then enacted the Law concerning the Expulsion and the Takeover of the Assets of the House Habsburg-Lorraine of 3 April, 1919, on the initiative of the state chancellor at that time, Dr. Karl Renner.

The former bearer of the crown was permanently expelled from the country; the other members of the family were only expelled if they did not renounce their affiliation to the House of Habsburg with its ruling claims, and accept citizenship in the republic. Those assets of the state that had been under the administration of the imperial court were placed under the state's management. The so-called private funds and family funds of the House of Habsburg, mostly common family property administered by the respective head of the house, were expropriated and transferred to the state property. Personal private property was preserved.

Also on 3 April, the nobility was abolished in German Austria, with the Law on the Abolition of Nobility.

The family demanded that various endowments and funds be placed at their disposal as personal private property; in response to this, and to clear up ambiguities related to this, the Habsburg Law was amended on 30 October, 1919, retroactively from 3 April, expressly recording which of the claimed funds or endowments in particular were to count as expropriated.

When the Austrian Constitution came into force in 1920, the Habsburg Law was made a constitutional law. However, the provisions of the Habsburg Law concerning expropriation were expressly not brought into force in Burgenland in 1922 (as well as the Law on the Abolition of Nobility) when it became part of Austria. This was intended to turn the Burgenland aristocrats (who included members of the Habsburg family) more pro-Austrian, for pragmatic reasons. Hence, it is debatable whether the expropriation provisions (as a constitutional law which does not apply uniformly in the whole national territory) are legally valid since this time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habsburg_Law
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2010 22:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

North Irish Horse Casualties in World War One - Attached 9th (NIH) Bn. Royal Irish Fusiliers

Private WILLIAM BIGGART
Died of Wounds (while a prisoner of war) age 23, Wednesday, 3rd April 1918, received when the British 5th Army was driven back across the former Somme battlefields - German "Operation Michael."
Place of Enlistment: Ballymoney.
Service Number: 41388.
Birthplace: Ballymoney.
Son of John and Mary Anne Biggart, Bendooragh, Ballymoney, County Antrim.
Having no known grave, his name is inscribed on Panels 76 and 77, Pozieres Memorial, Somme, France.
Commemorated in Ballymoney Parish Church.

Relevant: His name is listed with others in Robert Thompson's 'Ballymoney Heroes':

Additional information about the six men from Ballymoney, who gave their
lives during World War One, may be found on the pages of
Robert Thompson's book Ballymoney Heroes, 1914-1918.

Lieutenant JAMES KENNETH MACGREGOR GREER, MC - Irish Guards
Private WILLIAM BIGGART - 9th Bn Royal Irish Fusiliers
Private ALEXANDER BLAIR - 5th (North Irish Horse) V Army Cyclists Corps
Rifleman NEASON HENRY HALE - Royal Irish Rifles
Private GEORGE KILLOUGH - 1st Bn Royal Irish Regiment
Private WILLIAM McKEE MURPHY - North Irish Horse
Private WILLIAM THOMPSON - 9th Bn Royal Irish Fusiliers

http://northirishhorse.net/ww1/casualties/Ballymoney-2.html & http://northirishhorse.net/ww1/casualties/RIF.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Apr 2010 8:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Politiek, Rusland
3 april 1917
De Russische revolutionair Vladimir Iljitsj Lenin keert uit ballingschap terug naar Petrograd. Hij wil de voorlogpige regering omverwerpen en een staat oprichten geleid door bolsjewisten. Eerst moet hij echter afrekenen met diverse sowjets (arbeidersraden). Daarmee is hij klaar rond oktober.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Apr 2010 8:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Politiek, Finland
3 april 1918
Als antwoord op een vraag om militaire hulp van de pas afgezette president, Pehr Svinhufvud, schiet de Duitse Baltische divisie onder generaal Rüdger von der Goltz te hulp in de strijd tegen de nieuwe pro-bolsjewistische regering en haar militie, de "Rode Garde".
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Apr 2010 8:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

French take Regnieville (Woevre).

Eastern Front

Russian attacks repulsed in the Carpathians.

Severe fighting north of Czernowitz.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

French expeditionary force begins to land at Alexandria.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Turkish cruiser "Medjidia" sunk by a mine off Odessa; Russian Black Sea fleet engages the "Goeben" and "Breslau".

South African forces occupy Warmbad (German south-west Africa).

Political, etc.

Greece: Publication of a memorandum of 24 January 1915 by M. Venizelos to King Constantine on Greek foreign policy.

American military mission, attached to the German Staff, recalled.

1916
Western Front

Verdun: French re-occupy west part of Vaux village.

German salient captured, British line advanced on 600 yards front at St. Eloi.

Harmless Zeppelin raid on Norfolk.

Eastern Front

Germans repulsed at bridgehead of Uxkull (Dvina).

Southern Front

Greeks refuse overland route - Corfu-Salonika to Serbian army.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British retirement at Alawad (near Aden).

Political, etc.

Bulgaria informs Greece that Bulgarian troops have been ordered to withdraw across frontier

1917
Western Front

British capture Henin-sur-Cojeul (south-east of Arras), and Maissemy (St. Quentin), and occupy Ronssoy Wood (north of Templeux).

German night attack west of St. Quentin fails.

South-west and south of St. Quentin French take four villages.

Eastern Front

German success on the Stokhod (Volhynia).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russian cavalry occupy Kasr-i-Shirin and Khanikin.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Brazilian steamer, "Parana", torpedoed by German submarine in Channel.

Political, etc.

Barrow strike over.

Russian Provisional Government forms War Committee, and repeals anti-Jewish legislation.

Kaiser and Emperor Charles meet at Homburg.

1918
Western Front

Local fighting in Scarpe river region and at Hebuterne.

Heavy air fighting and bombing.

One long-range gun reported blown up.

Eastern Front

Indications of coalition between local authorities and Entente to safeguard Murman railway.

German troops (30,000?) land at Hango in Finland; White Guards capture Tammefors with 1,000 prisoners.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Baluchistan: Successful progress of operations against the Marris.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Seven British submarines blown up in Baltic (between 3rd and 8th April) to save them from German hands.

Political, etc.

British Shipping output for first quarter 320,280 tons.

Austria: Count Czernin speaks on international situation and declares he has received peace offer from France (M. Clemenceau denies this).

Cape Town: General Botha appeals to "Fellow South Africans" for recruits.

Allied Blockade Committee meets.

1919
Aftermath of War

General Smuts' Mission to Budapest a failure (2-6 April).
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME III: The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Russia (Francis)

[Telegram]
Washington, April 3, 1917, 6 p.m.
Secretary of Treasury requests that you confer immediately with Minister of Finance and ascertain if financial aid or credit is desired by the Russian Government, and if so, probable amount and over what period of time it should be available, and as to what is the most effective way in which such aid or credit can be extended. You may discuss tentatively the idea that the United States Government might extend such credit by purchasing for the United States Treasury obligations of the Russian Government bearing the same rate of interest that the Government of the United States would have to pay for the money with which to purchase the obligations of the Russian Government. Ascertain, also, whether or not any credit extended by the United States in the circumstances would be used for the purchase of supplies in the United States, and what amount of credit would likely be required over a period of six months. The fullest expression of views of the Russian Government on the whole question of financial aid or credit by the United States Government is desired. Secretary of Treasury requests reply as soon as possible.
Lansing

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1918Russiav03/d1
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Cecil Malthus to Hazel, 3 April [1915]

Ga naar http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Heritage/Digitised/WarsandConflicts/WorldWarI/Malthus/Malthus-1915-04-03-p01.asp
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 03 Apr 2018 12:48, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rest in Peace: Milton Wright, November 17, 1828-April 3, 1917

One hundred years ago today, Milton Wright, father of Wilbur and Orville Wright, died in his sleep at Hawthorn Hill, the family home he shared with his son Orville and daughter Katharine. He was 88. Milton’s passing was described in a letter written by his oldest son, Reuchlin, shortly after his death.

Dear Cousin Estelle.
I suppose you have learned of the death of my father, your Uncle Milton. It occurred some time early Tuesday morning April 3rd. He was about the evening before as usual seemingly feeling as well as usual. He read the evening paper, wrote at his desk, was back and forth in Katharine’s room talking to her and went to bed as usual. In the morning, he not coming down to breakfast as usual they went to his room and found him lying seemingly asleep in one of his favorite positions and covered. Touching him they found he was dead but the body not yet quite rigid. He must have died while yet asleep, there being no indication of suffering or struggle. A more peaceful death could hardly been imagined, and we are grateful for that. He was buried Thursday P.M. at the Woodland Cemetery beside Mother and Wilbur.
Your Cousin,
Reuchlin


We’ve been sharing Milton’s diaries with you since 2013. His diaries are part of the Wright Brothers Collection and span the years 1857 until his death in 1917. They provide a detailed chronicle of Milton Wright’s dynamic and sometimes controversial ministry and leadership in the United Brethren Church, and his role as a father, husband, uncle, grandfather, grandson, and brother. The diaries demonstrate Milton Wright’s awareness of local, national, and world events, as well as his political allegiance and support of progressive movements. Probably the most important contribution the diaries make to scholarship on the Wright Brothers is the greater knowledge we gain about the dynamics of the Wright Family on a day to day basis and we are able to get a glimpse into the past, of generations gone by, and learn how they shaped the future of this family.
Special Collections and Archives is currently working with the WSU Libraries’ Digital Initiatives and Repository Services to digitize the original diaries and place them in CORE, the Campus Online Repository. We hope to have them online later this year.
Milton Wright was an also avid genealogist. He wrote many letters in an effort to find out as much as he could about his ancestors. There are hundreds of letters in the collection to friends, family members, and even strangers, in an attempt to learn as much as possible. Mixed in with the exchange of genealogical information are scattered reflections and memories of family gatherings, impressions of people, events, and life in general. We’ll be sharing some of his writings with you in the months ahead.


https://www.libraries.wright.edu/community/outofthebox/2017/04/03/rest-in-peace-milton-wright-november-17-1828-april-3-1917/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 03 Apr 2018 12:58, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Non-Resistance and the Present War—A Reply to Mr. Russell
Ralph Barton Perry, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 25 No. 3 (April, 1915). 307–316.

Is een reactie op deze: http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=3085

Mr. Russell's recent article on “The Ethics of War” is characteristically high-minded and courageous. Admirable for its detachment, it may well serve as a model for the philosophical discussion of those great issues of life and death that are now hanging in the balance. Since the article is distinguished by its dispassionateness, and since, I venture to say, that dispassionateness is its principal merit and justification, it is remarkable that the author should refer to it as an expression of his ““feelings.”” Even had the article been no more than this I would nevertheless have read on, from interest in the author himself--having cheerfully resigned my first hope of learning something of ““The Ethics of War.”” But in that case I should certainly not have dreamed of throwing my own feelings into the scales. As a matter of fact, however, Mr. Russell formulates judgments, which he supports by inference and appeal to experience. In questioning the truth of these judgments, I may therefore regard my feelings as no more relevant than they would be if I were questioning Mr. Russell's ““Theory of Types.”” If what I say shall prove worth the saying it will be owing to the facts and truths that have argued for me.

Since I disagree with almost every specific opinion which this article contains, let me first express my agreement with Mr. Russell's general and underlying opinion that ““the way of mercy is the way of happiness for all.”” This opinion is abundantly verified by human experience, past and present, and is rapidly coming to be a common premise from which all philosophically-minded persons argue. War is an unmitigated calamity. It is not to be praised, but denounced; it is not even to be tolerated and idealized as a natural necessity, but is rather to be hunted to its sources and eradicated like a loathsome and destructive disease. Granting this, what is the reasonable attitude towards the present war and towards its principal actors? It is here that Mr. Russell seems to me to be mistaken in his facts and in his inferences.

There is in this country, and, I judge, to some extent in England, a disposition to take international treaties and conventions seriously, and to condemn as ““lawless”” a nation which violates them. Mr. Russell regards this disposition as groundless because treaties are in practice ““only observed when it is convenient to do so.”” They lack the sanction which enforces law, and serve only ““to afford the sort of pretext which is considered respectable for engaging in war with another Power.”” Now I am willing to assume for the sake of argument the doubtful thesis that nations do in practice universally disregard treaties at the dictation of selfish expediency. There remains the important fact, conceded by Mr. Russell, that such action is judged to be disreputable and ““unscrupulous.”” How is that judgment, which already impels governments to seek a ““pretext,”” to be so strengthened as to act as a deterrent? The analogy of law, to which Mr. Russell appeals, would suggest a resort to force. But the enforcement of international law predicates an international organization resolved to substitute arbitration for war. How is such an international organization to be brought about? Only, it would appear, by the cultivation of opinion and habit. In short, before the present sentiment for the observance of international law shall be convertible into a sanction, it must be strengthened and attain to something like unanimity. To this end it is important that no breach of such conventions as are already in existence shall be condoned. It is not by a passive admission of past and present lawlessness, but by a counsel of perfection and a stern condemnation of the common fault, that usage is to be improved. A cynical violation of treaties should to-day be denounced with a severity exceeding any judgment in the past, so that tomorrow this thing may become so damnable that no government shall dare to be found guilty.

The disputes of private citizens are not settled, as Mr. Russell says, ““by the force of the police,”” but by legal process resting on habit and intelligence. The police do not enforce law, but prevent its occasional infraction. The great majority of persons, and all persons for the greater part of their lives are ““law-abiding.”” If international law is to be similarly sanctioned, its observance must likewise rest on habit and intelligence. Nations must become ““law-abiding,”” before any international police can undertake to constrain law-breaking nations. ““If the facts were understood,”” says Mr. Russell, ““wars amongst civilized nations would cease, owing to their inherent absurdity.”” How is such a general understanding to be brought about, and how is the reasonable practice to become the normal practice? Only, it seems to me, by an unflagging effort to promote every instrument such as international law, treaties, courts of arbitration, that provide a substitute for the absurdity of war; and by the emphatic and unambiguous censure of every act that destroys these instrumentalities or renders them ineffective.

To many minds it doubtless seems paradoxical to war for the sake of peace. It is precisely as paradoxical, no more and no less, to labor for the sake of rest, or to make sacrifices in order that one may live more abundantly. Indeed I am inclined to go so far as to say that the one cause for which one may properly make war is the cause of peace. To be willing to fight for a thing simply means to be unwilling to give it up, however seriously it may be threatened. The one thing that is certainly worth the price of war is peace. This is simply because war means the destruction, and peace the security of all human values. The only justification of destruction is the hope of safety and preservation. This holds, whatever be one's values, provided only that they be human and earthly values. There is only one philosophy of non-resistance that can be justified, and that is other-worldliness. If no value attaches to the things of this world, then there is no motive for resistance; although in that case it is equally indifferent whether one resists or not, since the enemy's life is worth no more than one's own. The moment any human achievement of body, mind or character is taken to be good, then war of self-preservation is in principle justified. Even though humility be the supreme good, then one should resist the aggression of an enemy who threatens to destroy one's life before one has cultivated that virtue, or proposes the extermination of the humble to spread a propaganda of pride.

But Mr. Russell bases his claims for non-resistance on no such philosophy of renunciation. It is evident that he holds life, happiness, intellectual contemplation, self-government, and many other things to be good. He suggests nothing better worth struggling for than these characteristic benefits of the secular civilized life. He would propose to secure these things by peaceful means, but he must of course add, ““if possible.”” What, then if some enemy determines to destroy these things, and begins to destroy them? Suppose that enemy to be prompted by the motive of destruction. There are then only two alternatives: To yield, with the expectation that those good things will be destroyed, or to resist in the hope that they may be preserved, albeit at great cost and in diminished measure. In the former case one's action cannot be justified at all because one can expect no good from it. One cannot even hope to avoid evil, because it may be the determination of the enemy to perpetrate that which one holds to be evil. The latter course alone is then the only course that will be dictated by love of good. To try out this principle of non-resistance one must imagine the greatest conceivable good to be attacked with a deliberate intent to destroy it; or the greatest conceivable evil to be threatened with a deliberate and implacable intent to perpetrate it. One must suppose the success of the enemy to be probable if he is not resisted, and doubtful or capable of being retarded, if he is resisted. To test the principle rigorously one should conceive the good or evil at stake in such terms as to arouse one's deepest sentiments. It is life, or character, or social welfare, or the soul's salvation that is attacked; it is tyranny, or rape, or child-murder, or hell-fire that is threatened. What, then, shall one do? To yield, not to resist to the utmost, is to abandon the best or permit the worst. There is by definition no higher ground, either the promotion of good or the avoidance of evil, on which such a course may be justified. It is true that in any given case one's judgment may be in error. But this proves only that one should be sure that one's fears are well-grounded, and that's one enemy is really one's enemy. This argues for the need of light. But it does not in the least argue against the principle of defensive warfare.

So much for the principle. Let us consider his applications. ““The Duchy of Luxemburg, which was not in a position to offer resistance, has escaped the fate of the other regions occupied by hostile troops.”” I am willing to waive the doubtful considerations of ““honor”” and ““prestige,”” and stake the argument altogether on other considerations. First, Luxemburg through non-resistance has decreased the respect for the independence of small powers in general, and for her own independence in particular. Secondly, though she may have escaped the fate of the other regions occupied by hostile troops thus far, it is as well to remember that the war is not yet over. If the tide turns, the inhabitants of this Duchy may yet be visited with all the horrors of war, with no friend on either side, and incapable of protecting themselves. Thirdly, if Germany wins, Luxemburg becomes, as she is virtually now, a German dependency. If Germany loses, Luxemburg has small claim for the recognition of her sovereignty even from those who are in this war the champions of smaller states, on the principle that those deserve political autonomy who care enough for it to defend it. Finally Luxemburg does not in any case offer an analogy from which to argue for the non-resistance of Belgium or England, because she ““was not in a position to offer resistance,”” and therefore was under no such recognized obligation to defend her neutrality as was the case of Belgium.

But Mr. Russell is evidently willing to contemplate, as preferable to warlike resistance, even loss of political independence. He evidently believes that what is valuable in national life may be preserved even though one put oneself utterly at the disposal of the enemy. Here again I prefer to waive the more doubtful matters. Whether humiliating submission to alien arrogance accompanied by a vivid memory of lost freedom, would be a tolerable form of existence, I will not attempt to argue--I should fear that I might lapse into an expression of feeling. Most men would, I think, prefer to die; and they would be entitled to the choice. But Mr. Russell proposes somehow to combine with non-resistance ““English civilization, the English language, English manufactures,”” and English constitutionalism or democracy; all this, though the English navy were sunk and London occupied by the Prussians.

Now what can Mr. Russell mean? He knows better than I that not only manufactures, but bare existence in England depends on commerce. They depend not only on the actual freedom of the sea, but on the guarantee of that freedom. He knows that if the Prussians occupied London and it suited their purpose they could undertake the suppression of the English language as they have undertaken the suppression of the Polish language. He knows that should the German monarchy fear the effect of the example of English democracy, it would have a strong motive for emulating the policy of the ““Holy Alliance”” of 1815. Having the motive there is on the principle of non-resistance not the least reason why Germany should not accomplish these things. Mr. Russell thinks that England may nevertheless be saved from oppression by ““public opinion in Germany,”” which is somehow suddenly to be inspired with magnanimity by the spectacle of the voluntary submission of its rival. Germany's treatment of a non-resistant China would afford small encouragement for this desperate hope, even were it not a general fact that arrogance is only inflated and encouraged by submission. The last remaining vestige of hope would then be based on Mr. Russell's contention that England herself has not found it possible to refuse self-government to her colonies. But England has found it necessary or politic to concede self-government to her colonies because they were English colonies, composed of high-spirited men of English blood who could be counted upon sooner or later to assert their independence, and to make it respected if necessary by force. England has not found it necessary to grant self-government to conquered races. An England occupied by Prussians would not be a colony, but a conquered race. And by the express terms of a philosophy of non-resistance such an England would have lost its high spirit, and would have renounced forever any ultimate appeal to force.

Mr. Russell holds ““that no single one of the combatants is justified in the present war.”” What he means is not perfectly clear. That no nation whatsoever has clean hands and an unbiased record is doubtless true. But at least two of the warring nations, Servia and Belgium, were wantonly attacked. It is now generally admitted that Austria's ultimatum to Servia was intended to provoke war in order that Servia might be ““chastised.”” Belgium was deliberately sacrificed to Germany's military convenience. So far as these nations are concerned, there was no alternative to war save non-resistance. Both of these nations belong to the side of the Allies. The other allied nations were at least in part moved by a desire to save these two smaller nations from subjection. They may be said therefore to be fighting for the principle of national security, and for the principle of adjudicating international disputes by conference, agreement and treaty. They were or are no doubtless actuated by other and less commendable motives. But that does not in the least annul their justification on the first ground. For a man may rightly save a weak neighbor from assault, even though the assailant be one's private enemy, and even though his punishment afford one private satisfaction or advantage.

Even were one to grant that Russia and France should have permitted the subjection of Servia by Austria, and that England should have permitted the subjection of Belgium by Germany, there remains an independent and much less debatable question. Which of the warring parties is most deserving of censure, and whose victory is more desirable? In other words whom should one's moral judgment most severely condemn, and what outcome would be most conducive to the general good? This is a question which no lover of mankind, however detached and dispassionate, can ignore. The present war is an event of prodigious human significance, and its consequences will be lasting and far-reaching. If there be any just decision or verdict in these matters, it is important to reach it, lest one lapse into helpless and confused passivity, and play no part now that the hour of trial has come. There is a widespread conviction among those who have observed the war at some distance from the heat of action, that Germany and Austria are chiefly culpable and that their defeat is desirable. It seems probable, more from what Mr. Russell has omitted to say than from what he has said, that he does not share that conviction. His independence and honesty of opinion are to be respected. But I believe his opinion to be mistaken.

Mr. Russell himself acknowledges that ““democracy in the western nations would suffer from the victory of Germany.”” He protests, however, that democracy can never be ““imposed”” on Germany; overlooking the fact that a decline of Prussian military prestige would not only remove a threat that seriously retards the natural growth of democracy in England in France, but might put new heart into the millions of German Social-democrats who (contrary to Mr. Russell's assertion) do not enjoy ““the form of government which they desire.”” Nothing that has developed during the last month of the war, and nothing that Mr. Russell has said, has tended to disprove the verdict that Germany and Austria are the principal offenders on whom may justly be visited whatever penalty be appropriate to the crime of war. The paramount fact is that one of these powers, abetted by the other, first made war. Germany, at least thus far, has practised war least humanely, has done least to mitigate its horrors, and has shown least respect for the conventions which have been intended to regulate and limit war. The dominant party in Germany, the Prussian military class, most perfectly embodies the aggrandizing and arrogant spirit of aggressive war, and constitutes the greatest obstacle in the way of the achievement of future and perpetual peace. If these judgments be well founded it is essential that they should be made and that they should not readily be forgotten. They may only too easily be confused by an over-scrupulous regard for the guilt of the less guilty. There is a curious inversion of emphasis in Mr. Russell's article. It is not impossible that a distrust of vulgar opinion should lead a nicely analytical and cautiously reflective mind to exaggerate whatever is contrary to the general prejudice. It may even lead one to dwell at length upon the immoderate indignation of the victim, while the fury of the assailant rages unrebuked. It is doubtless the principal task of the philosopher to offset the bias of the multitude and resist the current that sweeps by him. But it sometimes happens that the common opinion is correct, and that even such blind passions as patriotism and righteous indignation will be found working for the general good.

http://fair-use.org/international-journal-of-ethics/1915/04/non-resistance-and-the-present-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Piet de Jong (politicus)

Petrus Jozef Sietze (Piet) de Jong (Apeldoorn, 3 april 1915) is een Nederlands oud-politicus. Van 5 april 1967 tot 6 juli 1971 was hij minister-president van Nederland. Eerder was hij ook staatssecretaris van Defensie (27 juni 1959 - 24 juli 1963) en minister van Defensie (24 juli 1963 - 5 april 1967).

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_de_jong

Goedgekeurd door de Toplis-clan om de volgende citaten:

Bij zijn beëdiging tot staatssecretaris zei hij tegen Koningin Juliana: "Majesteit, zo ziet u maar hoe een mens aan lager wal kan raken."

Als minister-president, in antwoord op een delicate vraag van een radioverslaggever wat hij vond van pornografie: "Voor zover ik weet is pornografie het enige werkzame middel tegen zeeziekte." Toen een Belgisch minister daarop afkeurend sprak over de libertijnse omgang met pornografie in Nederland, reageerde hij: "De Belgen zijn geen zeevarend volk, hè."

Op het CDA-congres dat in 2010 (!) vergaderde over regeringsdeelname: „Dat ik dat op mijn oude dag moet meemaken, dat de hand wordt gelicht met de godsdienstvrijheid. Dat kan niet.”
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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The Irish Revolution - NOT IN THE NEWS: APRIL 3 – 9, 1916

Monday, April 3, 1916: Patrick Pearse, as director of organisation of the Irish Volunteers, issued the order for what was secretly intended to be the mobilisation for the Rising.
“The object of the manoeuvres is to test mobilisation with equipment,” he wrote in the order that was published in the following Saturday’s issue of The Irish Volunteer. The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) Military Council, of which Pearse was one of seven members, planned for Volunteers in Dublin to seize key positions in the capital on Easter Sunday evening when guns were also to land in Kerry, to be distributed to Volunteers in the south and west.
Meetings of national and regional Irish Volunteers leaders were held at head office in Dublin. Kerry Brigade commandant Austin Stack and Paddy Hughes of Dundalk met Thomas MacDonagh and Michael Joseph O’Rahilly (another Kerryman) after the other two met earlier with Cork Brigade vice-commandant Terence MacSwiney, along with Eimar O’Duffy, JJ O’Connell, Michael O’Hanrahan, Éamon de Valera, and Constance Markievicz.
Sharing a 3pm train from Dublin as far as Mallow, Stack and MacSwiney realised something more serious was about to happen than the gun-running operation both knew about for some months. Stack later wrote: “The hope of getting material help from Germany… loomed largely before us, as this was bound to have a very great effect on the prospects of the Insurrection.”

Years later, Austin Stack recalls the journey:

‘Early in 1916, probably about March, I was summoned to Dublin to discuss some of the arrangements with regard to the contemplated Rising, which was to come off about the end of the following month. After discussing my business, I met Terence MacSwiney and we travelled from Dublin to Mallow together. The same railway route took us for about 150 miles before I had to change at Mallow into the Kerry train. In the course of the journey it transpired that we had been in Dublin, both of us, on the same errand – he to make arrangements for the Cork Brigade, whilst I was acting similarly, with regard to Kerry. We discussed the situation, of course, at great length – the hope of getting material help from Germany being a matter which loomed largely before us, as this was bound to have a very great effect on the prospects of the Insurrection.’

Austin Stack ‘Landing of Casement, The Authentic Narrative’ in The Kerry Champion newspaper Saturday, August 31, 1929 – the article was published posthmously based on an article he had written, possibly for one of MacSwiney’s intended biographers.

http://theirishrevolution.ie/1916-diary-not-news-april-3-9/#.WsNtHYhubIU
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary
Edward P. Cox

Friday Apr 2nd (Good Friday)

Off day, but I had to
sit on D.C.M. 9 am to 5.30 pm.
& then adjourned to 9 am. Sat.
Proceeded with this D.C Martial
today as early move is expected
& it could not be held over.

This evening about 6 pm a
riot occurred in Cairo & lasted
for an hour or two. This is
most unfortunate especially
on eve of our departure. At the
moment I am told that mostly
Australians with a few Tommies
were the principals but expect
a few N.Z. men were there.

The trouble occurred in a
very illfamed quarter but just
off one of the main streets. I
was not in town but understand
that some Australians (probably
half drunk & under provocation)
began knocking things about in
certain premises. This was followed
by furniture being thrown out
of the upstairs windows and set
fire to in the street. Several
small outbreaks of fire also
occurred inside. Natives were
not concerned & mostly cleared
from the scene but many of
their premises were wrecked
in the scuffle. Military police
arrived & was soon followed
by strong forces assembled
by officers in the town.

Cavalry & Infantry picquets
were called out with rifles
& ammunition & some little
firing took place besides
which bottles etc were flying.

Several men wounded, perhaps
some killed, difficulty being
to sort out rioters from
those assisting, as all were in
uniform. Otherwise soldiers
on duty could have cleared
the place in ten minutes.

Finally all soldiers were
ordered back to camps and
barracks and town cleared.

This evening orders state
all leave is stopped from noon
on Sunday & all on leave
from camps etc must be
immediately recalled. This
is in anticipation of a very
early departure and we will
not be sorry to go at last.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d7.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A flavour of what was in the Cork Examiner this week 100 years ago - Monday, April 3, 1916

INTERESTING BOVRIL ACTION - In the High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, Mr. Justice Eve granted Bovril (Limited) an injunction against the Bodega Company (Limited) restraining them from passing off as Bovril, or in response to orders for Bovril, any other meat preparation.
The Plaintiff Company complained that in response to orders for Bovril, Oxo had on numerous occasions been substituted by the defendant company without comment or explanation. This, the defendant company denied. An injunction was granted, as stated, and the Bodega Company was ordered, to pay the costs of the action.

NEW INVENTIONS - Patent No. 23,420. Toys. T. Crawford, Wilton House, Stapleton place, Dundalk. This invention relates to a top which comprises two soldiers or other figures mounted on bases, through the ends of which cords are passed in an inclined direction. At one end, the cords are attached to the table by means of a yoke and hook. The other ends of the cords are jerked alternately by the operator, thereby causing the figures to approach one another until, on impact, one figure forces the other in the reverse direction.

https://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/a-1916-diary-in-the-news-april-3--9-390887.html
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RUHLEBEN P.O.W. CAMP STAMPS

On 4 August 1914 Britain declared war on Germany. At that time some 7000 civilian British subjects were either living in or visiting Germany, and in November all the males between the ages of 17 and 55 were interned as prisoners-of-war. They were from the beginning gathered in Ruhleben, then a village 10 km west of the centre of Berlin, near Spandau. By spring 1915 4 400 men were kept at this former horse racecourse.

The monotony resulted in the invention of all kinds of organisations or enterprises, and on 19 July 1915 Albert Kamps started the Ruhleben Express Delivery, RXD, and issued the first postage stamp. Albert's brother was in charge of the production. A lot of different postal stationery was also made (also to private order of camp organisations). There were 25 letter boxes in the camp. Roughly 6000 pieces of mail of all kinds (much of it postal stationery) were handled each month. Postal rates for letters and cards up to 50 grams was 1/3 d and 1/2 d above 50 grams. The currency is English pence.

In October 1915 a Berlin stamp magazine published an article about this camp post. German philatelists then made complaints – of the use of postage stamps – to the authorities, who on 3 April 1916 closed the RXD. Kamps was sentenced to solitary confinement, although his post had been approved by the Commandant. The remaining stock of stamps and postal stationery was confiscated. RXD was replaced by a stamp-less postal service that never became very popular. Following the armistice of 11 November 1918 most of the restrictions on the movements of the prisoners were abolished and the release started.

http://www.filatelia.fi/forgeries/ruhleben.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Royal Australian Corps of Military Police

The Royal Australian Corps of Military Police is a corps within the Australian Army. Previously known as the Australian Army Provost Corps, it was formed on 3 April 1916 as the ANZAC Provost Corps. It is responsible for battlefield traffic control, security duties, prisoner of war handling, the investigation of service offences, maintaining discipline and the running of military prisons. Its name was changed in 1918 and it was disbanded in 1920. The corps was reformed during World War II and was granted the 'Royal' prefix in 1948, adopting its current name on 4 September 1974.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Royal-Australian-Corps-of-Military-Police/105766786123335
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 3. April 1917

Die Kriegsbotschaft Wilsons an den Kongreß
Amtliche Kriegs-Depeschen nach Berichten des Wolff´schen
Telegr.-Bureaus, Band 6, Nationaler Verlag, Berlin (1917)


Washington, 3. April. (Reuter-Meldung.)
Im Kongreß erklärte Wilson unter anderem: Ich habe den Kongreß zu einer außerordentlichen Tagung einberufen, weil sofort ein ernster politischer Entschluß gefaßt werden muß, wofür ich verfassungsrechtlich die Verantwortung nicht übernehmen kann. Ich unterbreitete Ihnen am 3. Februar eine außerordentliche Anzeige der deutschen Regierung, daß sie beabsichtige, ab 7. Februar alle rechtlichen und humanitären Beschränkungen beiseite zu stellen und alle Schiffe, welche versuchten, die feindlichen Häfen zu erreichen, durch U-Boote zu versenken. Das schien in einer früheren Kriegsphase das Kriegsziel der deutschen U-Boote zu sein, aber seit April 1916 legte die deutsche Regierung den Kommandanten der U-Boote gewisse Beschränkungen auf, gemäß dem uns gegebenen Versprechen. Die neue deutsche Politik ließ jede Beschränkung fallen, Schiffe aller Art wurden skrupellos und ungewarnt versenkt, ohne daß man daran dachte, den an Bord befindlichen Personen zu Hilfe zu kommen, und neutrale und befreundete Schiffe wurden ebenso wie Schiffe von Kriegführenden, selbst Hospitalschiffe, die mit einem Freigeleit von der deutschen Regierung versehen waren, mit derselben Mitleids- und Prinzipienlosigkeit versenkt. Das Völkerrecht hat sich mühsam entwickelt mit Resultaten, die dürftig genug waren, aber die deutsche Regierung hat auch dieses Minimum an Recht unter dem Vorwande der Wiedervergeltung und Notwendigkeit ausgehoben, weil sie keine Waffen besaß, die auf der See verwendet werden können, außer denjenigen, die nicht angewendet werden dürfen, wie Deutschland sie jetzt anwendet, nämlich ohne Berücksichtigung aller Erwägungen der Menschlichkeit oder Abmachungen, auf denen der Weltverkehr begründet ist. Der gegenwärtige deutsche Krieg gegen den Handel ist ein Krieg gegen die Menschlichkeit und gegen alle Nationen. Eine bewaffnete Neutralität erscheint gegenwärtig unnütz. Ohne Zaudern den Geboten meiner konstitutionellen Pflicht gehorchend, rate ich dem Kongreß zu erklären, daß die jüngste Handlung der deutschen Regierung tatsächlich nichts weniger als der Krieg gegen die Regierung und das Volk der Vereinigten Staaten ist, und förmlich den Kriegszustand anzunehmen, der Amerika auferlegt ist, und sofortige Maßregeln zu ergreifen, nicht nur um das Land in den vollständigen Verteidigungszustand zu versetzen, sondern auch seine Hilfsquellen zu verwenden, um Deutschland zu zwingen, die Bedingungen zur Beendigung des Krieges anzunehmen. Der Kriegszustand wird ein enges Zusammenwirken mit den anderen Deutschland bekämpfenden Regierungen herbeiführen, indem wir ihnen liberale Finanzkredite gewähren und ihnen die Organisation zur Mobilisierung aller materiellen Hilfsquellen des Landes zur Verfügung stellen, um Kriegsmaterial zu liefern, und auf die reichlichste, aber sparsamste und wirksamste Art den anderen Bedürfnissen der Nationen zu dienen. Eine weitere Folge des Kriegszustandes wurde die fertige vollständige Ausrüstung der Flotte namentlich mit Mitteln sein, um die feindlichen U-Boote zu bekämpfen und ferner eine fertige Heeresvermehrung um mindestens 500 000 Mann mit der Ermächtigung, die Streitmacht den Bedürfnissen entsprechend weiter zu vermehren. Nach Ansicht des Präsidenten sollten die Soldaten nach dem Grundsatz der allgemeinen Wehrpflicht ausgehoben werden.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_04_03.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur Graeme West (1891 - 1917)

Arthur Graeme West (1891-1917) is known for one remarkable book, The Diary of a Dead Officer (1919), consisting of an introduction by the editor, ’C.J.’ (Cyril Joad), extracts from West’s 1915-17 diary, and a few essays and poems. Joad, later a well-known Oxford don and in 1919 a keen pacifist and atheist, edited the book as pacifist propaganda. It was published jointly by the left-wing Herald newspaper and Francis Meynell’s Pelican Press (Meynell’s other publications had included Sassoon’s protest in 1917).

Graeme West was born in Norfolk, but his parents soon moved to Highgate, London. His father, a former missionary, was a grimly religious man who must have been appalled by the Diary. Graeme became a boarder at Blundell’s School, where load was his contemporary, and in 1910 both young men went up to Oxford as Balliol scholars. Oxford brought out West’s intellectual interests and his quiet charm.

Joad presents West as shy, hopeless at games and completely unsuited to soldiering. This cannot be entirely true: West’s army file reveals that he was in fact a member of the university’s OTC for his four years at Oxford. Soon after beginning a fifth year in October 1914 he decided to apply for a commission, but he was rejected for poor eyesight. Nevertheless he joined up in the ranks of the Public Schools Battalion in February 1915, soon becoming a lance corporal. Sent to France in November, he was repeatedly in action. His poem, ’The Night Patrol’ (March 1916), makes him one of the first poets to write about front-line actualities from direct personal experience:

We crawled on belly and elbows, till we saw,
Instead of lumpish dead before our eyes,
The stakes and crosslines of the German wire.
We lay in shelter of the last dead man,
Ourselves as dead, and heard their shovels ring...


In April 1916 West was accepted for an officer training course in Scotland. There, as the Diary vividly describes, three or four months of being ordered about by bullying, stupid NCOs did more to turn him against war than the trenches had done. In August he became a second lieutenant in the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry. His ’The End of the Second Year’ records his loss of religious faith at this time, a loss that seemed to him more momentous than any battle. He visited Joad, met other pacifists, and wrote to his new battalion refusing to rejoin the army - but he could not bring himself to post the letter. He went back to France, rose to the rank of Acting Captain, and was killed by a sniper’s bullet near Bapaume on 3 April 1917.

The few surviving records of West, apart from the published Diary, show that load’s editing has partly obscured the real man. The Diary gives no hint, for example, that by early 1917 West was deeply in love with a girl he had met in England, and that he had written to Bertrand Russell, promising to help build a new world after the war. He was less pessimistic, less ’dead’, than Joad’s portrait of the ’Dead Officer’ suggests. But by 1916-17 he certainly loathed the war. His 1916 poem, ’God! How I hate you, you young cheerful men!’, has a place in the history of 1914-18 verse as a furious denunciation of the young soldier-poets who were still writing about the war as ’epic days’, a happy game:

In heaven above
A genial umpire, a good judge of sport,
Won’t let us hurt each other! ...
Ah, how good God is
To suffer us be born just now, when youth
That else would rust, can slake his blade in gore,
Where very God Himself does seem to walk
The bloody fields of Flanders He so loves!


http://www.warpoets.org/conflicts/greatwar/west/

The Diary of a Dead Officer is te downloaden via http://www.archive.org/details/diaryofdeadoffic00westrich
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Elmira Advertiser, Tuesday Morning, April 3, 1917, Page 12

NAVY DESIRED 200 FROM THE DISTRICT - Local Station Will Work Hard to Secure Its Quota for Uncle Sam.

The local recruiting station in the Federal building has been assigned the task of recruiting from 150 to 200 men for immediate service, before April 20, according to a telegram received yesterday by H. J. Grube, officer in charge.

A quota of 300 men is asked of the entire district, which comprises station in western New York and northern Pennsylvania. Officer Grube and Assistant Rodemick will devote their entire time to raising Elmira¹s share of the men as quickly as possible.

A telegram sent out by the Navy Department to the recruiting districts says in par:
"There is urgent need for more men and now is the time to show in a practical manner that the people of our district want a powerful navy. Armed guards, composed only of naval officers and American bluejackets, are assigned to every American ship sailing for the war zone, and in any emergency, bluejackets will bear the brunt of the fighting."

http://www.joycetice.com/military/elad0417.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Postcard from Cornelius Kollock to his mother on the 81st "Wildcat" Division, 3 April 1918

Housed at the South Caroliniana Library, the Cornelius Kollock papers describe the experience of Cornelius Kollock, a young soldier preparing for and fighting in World War I. In this postcard dated 3 April 1918, Kollock sends his mother a postcard describing his division. As part of the 81st Division, also known as the “Wildcats,” the postcard briefly discusses where soldiers were from, when they arrived in France, and where they were involved in fighting. This postcard serves as promotional piece for the 81st Division and, by extension, the United States Armed Forces.

Bekijken op http://www.teachingushistory.org/pdfs/1918Kollockpostcard.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ferdinand Foch's Appointment as Allied Supreme Commander, 3 April 1918

Reproduced below is the official Allied order placing overall command of the Allied armies on the Western Front under Ferdinand Foch, dated 3 April 1918.

The decision to transfer overall command to Foch was taken by Allied government representatives at Doullens on 26 March (and formally confirmed on 3 April) in the wake of the onset of the powerful German Spring Offensive which was launched five days earlier and which inflicted serious reverses upon the British Army. It was thus in a period of crisis that Foch was handed his (ultimately highly successful) leading role.

Text of Ferdinand Foch's Appointment as Supreme Allied Commander, 3 April 1918

BEAUVAIS, April 3, 1918

Gen. Foch is charged by the British, French, and American Governments with the coordination of the action of the Allied Armies on the western front; to this end there is conferred on him all the powers necessary for its effective realization. To the same end, the British, French, and American Governments confide in Gen. Foch the strategic direction of military operations.

The Commander-in-Chief of the British, French, and American Armies will exercise to the fullest extent the tactical direction of their armies. Each Commander-in-Chief will have the right to appeal to his Government, if in his opinion his Army is placed in danger by the instructions received from Gen. Foch.

(Signed)
C. CLEMENCEAU.
PETAIN.
F. FOCH.
LLOYD GEORGE.
D. HAIG, F. M.
HENRY WILSON, General, 3.4.18.
TASKER H. BLISS, General and Chief of Staff.
JOHN J. PERSHING, General, U. S. A.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/foch_order.htm
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William G Sharp on the Paris Gun, 3 April 1918

Reproduced below is an account of the early use of the German Kaiser Wilhelm Geschutz - better known as the Paris Gun, in March 1918.

Written by the U.S. Ambassador to Paris, William G Sharp, his account records how a shell from the enormous gun - capable of firing shells into the stratosphere from locations as far as 131km from Paris - crashed through the roof of the church at St. Gervais during a service on Good Friday, 29 March 1918, killing approximately 100 people.

The Paris Gun was more of a propaganda weapon used by the Germans at home, and inflicted relatively little actual damage to Paris; it's terror capability was initially much feared however. It was first fired on 21 March 1918 to coincide with the opening of the great German Spring Offensive.

William G Sharp on the Paris Gun

Washington, April 3rd

The Secretary of State has received from Ambassador Sharp in Paris a graphic report of his visit to the scene of the horrible tragedy which occurred on the afternoon of Good Friday in a church by the explosion of a German shell projected from far back of the enemy lines a distance of more than seventy miles.

The appalling destruction wrought by this shell is, as the Ambassador remarked, probably not equalled by any single discharge of any hostile gun in the cruelty and horrors of its results.

In no other one spot in Paris, even where poverty had gathered on that holy day to worship, could destruction of life have been so great. Nearly a hundred mangled corpses lying in the morgues, with almost as many seriously wounded, attested to the measure of the toll exacted.

Far up to the high, vaulted arches, between the flying buttresses well to the front of the church, is a great gap in the wall, from which fell upon the heads of the devoted worshipers many tons of solid masonry. It was this that caused such a great loss of life.

As the Ambassador entered the church, where but a few hours before had been gathered the worshipers, he could easily picture the scene that followed the explosion. The amount of debris, remaining just as it fell on the floor, covered the entire space between the lofty columns supporting the arches at each side.

Only a miracle could have saved from death or serious injury those who escaped the falling mass. The scene was that of some horrible shambles, and it was not until well into the night that all the bodies were recovered. Upon the floor in many places could still he seen the blood of the victims among whom were many prominent and well-to-do people.

The Minister was deeply affected as he spoke of the great loss through the Secretary's [NB: Secretary of the Swiss Legation] death. The Secretary was well known in Washington, where he served with the Swiss Legation from 1902 to 1904, and was very highly esteemed by all who knew him.

In conclusion, Mr. Sharp says that the exceptional circumstances under which this tragedy occurred, both as to the sacred character of the day and the place, have greatly aroused the indignation, of the people of Paris toward an enemy who seeks to destroy human life without regard to the immunities prescribed by the laws of civilization and humanity, and, instead of terrorizing the people, shells of the great cannons, as well as the bombs dropped from the German airplanes, only serve to strengthen the resolve of the French to resist, to the last man if necessary, the invasion of such a foe.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/parisgun_sharp.htm
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COURT OBJECTS TO WORD 'FRISCO - Judge Mogan Rebukes Angeleno for Using Slang in His Petition for Divorce.
San Francisco Examiner, 3 April 1918, page 6.

COURT OBJECTS TO WORD 'FRISCO.

Judge Mogan Rebukes Angeleno for Using Slang in His Petition for Divorce.

Because he referred to this city as "Frisco" on four occasions while testifying before Judge Mogan yesterday in his petition for a divorce, Hal R. Hobbs, Los Angeles automobile dealer, was threatened with internment.

"What do you mean by 'Frisco'?" asked Judge Mogan.

"Why, San Francisco, of course," said Hobbs in surprise.

"No one refers to San Francisco by that title except people from Los Angeles," said the court. "I am the chairman of the County Council of Defense, and I warn you that you stand in danger of being interned as an alien enemy. Don't do it again."

ADMITS HIS ERROR.

Hobbs apologized and the case proceeded. He said that when he came home one night after a business trip to the country he found his stepson installed in his room.

"What's the idea?" he asked his wife. "I'm the head of the house."

"Not any more," she answered. "Take your things and get out."

GOT INTO LINE.

He said he decided to get into line "with her other four husbands" and get a divorce. In granting Hobbs a decree Judge Mogan said:

"Some steps should have been taken to limit divorces. Here is a woman who has been married five times. A few days ago a woman who applied for a divorce in my court became indignant when I questioned her about her previous marriages because she 'only had five other husbands.' "

http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hgoe82.htm
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Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLV, Issue 14569, 3 April 1918

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=PBH19180403.2.10.15&e=-------10--1----0--
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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In de loopgraven aan het front, 3 april 1916

Aan het Ijzerfront. In november 1915 werden in het Belgische leger de eerste stalen helmen in gebruik genomen.

Foto... https://www.flickr.com/photos/142575440@N02/31917191594
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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43. Reserve-Division 1914-1918 - Kriegsgliederung/order of battle 3 April 1918

http://www.militaerpass.net/43rd.htm
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Ernst Haberli: Abschaffung des Adels in Österreich (3. April 1919)

Endlich ist es soweit gekommen, dass alle Bürger unseres Landes gleich sind, es gibt kein Vorrecht der Geburt mehr. Diese überholte Ansicht wurde mit dem heutigen Tage revidiert und klargestellt, dass wirklich alle Menschen gleich sind.
Da wird noch so mancher feine Herr seinem Titel hinterher trauern, da er sich nicht mehr mit „Herr Graf“ ansprechen lassen kann, sondern ganz gewöhnlich Herr Schorrenberger oder Herr Grünmeyer genannt wird.


In Österreich wurden im Zusammenhang mit der Republiksgründung am 3. April 1919 alle Adelstitel und Adelsprivilegien per Gesetz abgeschafft, gleichzeitig wurde die weitere Verwendung von Titeln unter Strafe gestellt. Mit dieser Anweisung wurde das Führen von Prädikaten wie zum Beispiel ,Durchlaucht’ und ,Hoheit’ sowie Standesbezeichnungen wie ,Graf’ oder ,Herzog’ untersagt, ebenso betroffen von dieser Regelung war der Namenszusatz ,von’. Außerdem wurden die Habsburger des Landes verwiesen und zum Teil sogar mit einem Einreiseverbot belegt, da in Österreich befürchtet wurde, dass das Haus Habsburg versuchen würde, die Monarchie im Land an der Donau erneut zu installieren, wie es der ehemalige Kaiser Karl im benachbarten Ungarn versucht hatte.
1920 wurde dieses Gesetz schließlich in den Verfassungsrang erhoben und ist bis heute in Kraft. Heute ist der Adel in Österreich trotz zum Teil intensiven Widerstandes gegen dieses Adelsabschaffungsgesetzes nur noch ein gesellschaftliches Phänomen, das besonders in der österreichischen Regenbogenpresse gerne behandelt wird, politisch und rechtlich hat der Adel der Alpenrepublik aber keine Bedeutung mehr.
Gewissermaßen als Kompensation für die verbotenen Adelstitel wird in Österreich sehr viel Wert auf akademische Grade und Berufstitel gelegt.

http://www.another-view-on-history.de/2008/04/03/ernst-haberli-abschaffung-des-adels-in-osterreich-3-april-1919/
Sehe auch http://www.twschwarzer.de/habsburgerg.htm und http://oesta.gv.at/site/6385/default.aspx
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Letters between Sylvester and Eva, April 1919

Le Havre
3 April, 1919

Dearest,

We thoughtfully ordered the car for 11:30 this morning so that we could have plenty of sleep after our late arrival from our long trip. We drove in on Taylor and Spalding in our grandest style, and they seemed glad to see us, as we were to see them. We listened to all the latest gossip and then took the officers down to our hotel to dinner and to my room where I could explain in detail the purpose of my visit, and the business which had to be done.

Thru the afternoon we got the business going, shook hands with our old acquaintances up there, both those with whom we used to get along well and otherwise, and I did some inquiring around to find how much longer my A, E, and F companies were likely to be held at Le Havre. I don't figure that it will be more than 3 or 4 weeks.

We have had dinner tonight at one of our old rendezvous downtown, and a good quiet sociable time together.

It's very springlike here in Le Havre, and somewhat different than when I left. It used to be mud but now it's dust.

Jim Greene started for Nevers with the other half of B Co. a week ago, so probably is up there by now. I am looking forward to having him with us again.

Well, there is nothing in this town to write you several pages about. Good night dear. With all my love,

Sylvester.

http://www.cromwellbutlers.com/sbel0419.htm
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Policy of the British High Commissioner - THE DEPORTEES OF MALTA AND THE ARMENIAN ALLEGATIONS

Mr. Ryan wrote: "It was decided when Ferid Pasha came into power to suspend fulfillment of our instructions to demand the arrest and surrender of various classes of criminals, and to continue, except in the case of persons guilty of ill-treatment to prisoners of war, to confine ourselves to suggesting to the Turks the names of people whose arrest and trial would be useful. It was understood, I think, that we were not in ordinary cases to make categorical demands or to assume responsibility for arrests, but rather to assist the Turkish Government with all information in our power. In pursuance of this policy, I have given certain lists to the Turks. I have refrained in general from appearing to urge officially that arrests should be made. As a matter of fact the arrests made have been numerous and I believe they include most of our suggestions".

Acting British High Commissioner Admiral Webb telegraphed to the Foreign Office on 11th March the following:

"I pointed out in earlier telegrams it had been practically impossible for us to discover and seize accused persons without concurrence of Turkish authorities -and we have now obtained this- I am anxious lest we overdrive a willing horse and make him lib by at the same time pressing for surrender to us. Were I to do so, the new Cabinet might find its position impossible and there is no prospect of getting a better or more friendly one...

"I propose for the present to be content with arrests so long as they proceed in a satisfactory manner and arrested are kept in secure detention."

"It must be borne in mind that degrees of guilt of the accused vary very greatly and that in regard to massacres the question of evidence will be extremely difficult." (28)

A despatch of the British High Commission on March 22nd forwarded a list, as published in the local papers, of the persons included in the last batch of arrests, with short notes showing who they were. (29)

On 3rd April 1919, the policy followed was outlined in a telegram of Admiral Webb to the Foreign Office; "I have only officially demanded arrests and the surrender of persons guilty of brutality to prisoners and of two deputies of Diyarbakir who were implicated in massacres.

"But I have caused lists of persons of latter category to be communicated to Turkish government and many of these are now in prison..."

"Those arrested appear now to be kept in considerably safer custody than heretofore and this being so I propose subject to your approval not to demand their surrender but to continue instead to obtain more arrests." (30)

(28) PRO-FO. 371/4172/41634: Webb to F.O. Tel. No. 532 of 11.3.1919.
(29) PRO-FO. 371/4173: Webb to Balfour of 22.3.1919.
(30) PRO-FO, 371/4173/53351: Webb to F.O. TH No. 677 of 3.4.1919.


http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/belge/2-7834/policy-of-the-british-high-commissioner.html
De PDF: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/data/DISPOLITIKA/ErmeniIddialari/THEDEPORTEES.pdf
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Women's Trades Unions Council - April 3rd, 1916 - Minutes of Executive Committee held on April 3rd.

Apologies of absence were received from Miss Ashton and Mrs. Withington.

Members present:-Miss Emily Cox (chair), Mrs. Findlay, Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Ashwell Cooke, Mr. G. V. Cox, Mr. Herford, Mr. Dale.

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and adopted.

Arising out of the minutes, and Treasurer was asked to forward the £2.2.0 promised towards the expenses in connection with the Trade Union meeting organised by the Women’s War Interests Committee.

A financial report was given by the Treasurer.

Correspondence:-a letter was read from Miss MacArthur confirming the arrangements made re-the organisation of women in the Engineering trade, and enclosing a cheque for £20.00 for the first three months working, the agreement to date from April 1st 1917. Miss Cox and the members of the Sub-Committee were asked to draw up a memorandum of Agreement, to be signed by Miss MacArthur and the Council.

Miss Quaile reported that Mrs. Pearson had interviewed Messrs. Kenyon’s with regard to obtaining a Leaving Certificate for one of the members of the Tin Box Workers Union, instead of reporting the matter to this office. Mrs. Pearson had explained that the girl had been sent to her by the Munitions Tribunal. Miss Quaile was instructed to see the Clerk to the Tribunal, and point out the girls belonging to our Union should be sent to us.

The Sub-Committee minutes were read. These showed that many meetings had been held in the Tin Box and Woodworking trades. An interview had been held with Kenyon’s Tin Box Works, with regard to an increase in wages, but it was found that the girls were getting fairly paid , and the demand was refused. The question of advances in the Woodworking trade was in abeyance, the matter being still in the hands of the Ministry of Munitions. The Carpenters and Joiners had recommended that a demand for 7d an hour be made.

An interview had been held with Messrs. Dewsnaps, Sheffield, and advances from 9d to 1/6 a week had been granted, the forewoman having been given an advance of 7/6 a week.

With regard to Hans Renolds, the bonus system had been changed to 1/6 a week for all girls in 203 department instead of a few receiving 8/-or 9/-a week.

There was a national demand for an advance of 2d per hour for all women working in the Engineering trade.

It was decided to hold the Sub-Committee meetings on the first Friday in each month at 11.30 am and the E.C. meetings at the usual time.

Emily Cox May 9, 1917

http://www.mswtuc.co.uk/content/april-3rd-1916
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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3 april 1918 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Louis Stroobants is op 24 januari 1886 geboren in Leuven als zoon van Hendrik en Maria Theresia Vandenbergen.

Hij wordt met een grote gesloten rechterarmbreuk, inwendige bloedingen en in diepe shock geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep. Op 3 april 1918 om 13 uur overlijdt hij daar aan de opgelopen verwondingen.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 5 april 1918 om 10 uur 's morgens begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Oeren, grafnummer 579.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/3-april-1918-1
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House honors a patriotic staffer, April 3, 1918

On this day in 1918, James H. Preston, the mayor of Baltimore, presiding at a ceremony in the House Office Building, presented an award to William Tyler Page, a congressional employee, for his authorship of “The American’s Creed.” As part of the ceremony, Page recited his 100-word essay, which earned him a $1,000 award.

The following year, Page was elected clerk of the House. He subsequently served as the emeritus minority clerk, a post he held until his sudden death in 1942 at age 74.

Page was a descendant of Carter Braxton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and of John Tyler, the nation’s 10th president. At age 13, Page came to Washington to serve as a page in the U.S. Capitol — the start of what became a 61-year career in the legislative branch.

In 1916, in the run-up to America’s entry into World War I, Henry Sterling Chapin, the New York State commissioner of education, sponsored a national writing competition to foster civic pride. Of more than 3,000 entries, Page’s winning effort was judged “brief and simple but remarkably comprehensive of the best in American ideals, history and tradition as expressed by the founders of the Republic and its greatest statesmen and writers.”

Page’s essay is still often recited at naturalization ceremonies. He once described it as “a summary of the fundamental principles of American political faith as set forth in its greatest documents, its worthiest traditions and by its greatest leaders.”

Here is Page’s “The American Creed”:

“I believe in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed; a democracy in a republic; a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.

“I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its Constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies.”


Page’s “Creed” drew on passages from the Declaration of Independence, the preamble to the U.S. Constitution, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, and Massachusetts Sen. Daniel Webster’s 1830 reply to South Carolina Sen. Robert Hayne.

For many years, Page had also served as the president general of the United States Flag Association. The night before his death, Page addressed the Daughters of the American Revolution on the 50th anniversary of the writing of the Pledge of Allegiance. The last photograph of him shows him with his hand over his heart, looking at the U.S. flag. The House adjourned on the day following his death in his honor.

There is a bronze tablet bearing “The American’s Creed” in the Capitol.

SOURCE: OFFICE OF HISTORY AND PRESERVATION, CLERK OF THE U.S. HOUSE, via https://www.politico.com/story/2018/04/03/house-honors-a-patriotic-staffer-this-day-in-politics-april-3-1918-492760?tab=most-read
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Mexico, Missouri

A grip (influenza) outbreak has the Mexico, Missouri schools in its grasp. Mexico is thirty-five miles north and east of Columbia, Mo. Sixty-four students are absent from the high school, while the list is growing at the grade schools. The lead story in the newspaper is about the connection of dentistry to good health. There are seven deaths reported from tornadoes near St Louis.

Source: "Grip Epidemic in Mexico Schools," Evening Missourian, Columbia, Missouri, April 3, 1918. Page 4, Column 3, via https://www.prosperoanalyticsllc.com/1918/2018/4/1/april-3-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Apr 2018 12:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1 Red Cross Nurse's Diary: April 3rd, 1918

Amy W Billam was looking after wounded troops at a hospital in Le Havre, northern France.

Te lezen op http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01w6mc7/p01wpr54
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April 3, 1918: Cuba Recognizes the Government of Mexico

In the midst of the diplomatic crisis caused by the disappearance of the diplomatic baggage of Ambassador Isidro Fabela, the government of Cuba officially acknowledged the constitutional Government of Venustiano Carranza.
Federico Jimenez O'Farril presented to the Mexican President the hand-written letter of the Cuban president, General Mario Menocal, in which he granted the recognition.
Despite the diplomatic act, the relationship between the two countries cooled due to the treatment of the Mexican travelers in Havana. For May 24, 1918, the Mexican government withdrew its ambassador in order to not being obliged to protest against the measures taken by Cuba in the face of First World War I.

http://www.mexicoescultura.com/actividad/189244/en/april-3-1918-cuba-recognizes-the-government-of-mexico.html
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A Look Back in Time: April 3, 1918

Now here's Sheridan Media's look back in time, to 100 years ago, by reporter Pat Blair as published in the Sheridan Enterprise newspaper on April 3, 1918.

In the coming Woman's Liberty Loan campaign, all the women of Sheridan and Sheridan county are expected to respond heartily to the call from the government, and invest in at least one bond.
The Philatheas served a banquet Monday evening to the members of the First Baptist church. An April Fool menu was served in four courses, consisting of sand-on-witches, cheese straws, banana-float, Adam's ale and cigarets.

Riley Motor Co. has announced plans for an auction sale of automobiles soon. The date will be announced later.

The SaniDairy Milk and Cream Station has moved to the first building south of Western Hotel.

For more lookbacks and to see the front page of today's Sheridan Enterprise, visit www.sheridanwyoming.com.

https://www.sheridanmedia.com/news/look-back-time-april-3-191898682
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Apr 2018 12:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Newton Trench Howitzer – April 3rd, 1918

Wednesday April 3rd, 1918 - Reveille 6am, breakfast 7am, parade for drill 8:15. Arms; PT; gas; musketry. 2pm kit inspection. Johnny flings old iron over. Canteen opens – current cake and chocolate.

Fatigues & Training - The Battalion is working on improving the defences by making trenches deeper and wiring more robust. The programme of work is such that every four days one company enjoys a day of training. Today it is the turn of Frank and B Company to hone their military skills. Even better news – the Battalion Canteen has reopened and Frank gets his sweet fix in the form of current cake and chocolate. Quite a treat, especially when you recall that chocolate manufacture has been banned in the UK since Christmas.

Placement of Artillery - The author of the Battalion’s Diary yesterday seemed quite sanguine about the proximity of some heavy guns to the camps of the 13th. According to Illtyd Davies this was not always the case. Private Davies had recently been trained to work with the Newton Trench Howitzer. ‘I believe our gun was the first Newton Trench Howitzer to be fired on the Balkan front, thereby introducing to the Bulgar, one of the newest weapons to be used in trench warfare. Bet he wondered where did that one come from. We out-minnied his minnies.’º

His gun crew was initially located on Rockleigh Fort on the Dojran front. However after a couple of weeks they had to move on as the Bulgars had ‘tumbled to our line of fire, and was constantly shelling the area searching for our position.’

‘Our new weapon attracted considerable attention from the nearby infantry units, but more than one company commander suggested that we move to some other part of the line. The infantry did not relish our presence as we attracted retaliatory fire from the enemy.’

They then moved to the head of Torquay ravine. There they were near a company of the South Wales Borderers. ‘They were not exactly keen on us moving into their area. One officer suggested that we move to the other side of Tortoise Hill and not upset the quiet life of Torquay. What a joker he was, Torquay was constantly shelled, and at night the ravine was raked by enemy machine guns.’¹

13th (Service) Battalion War Diary – 3rd April 1918 – Saida
Work and training as described yesterday, companies changed about 10 OR invalided to England on 15-3-18, 3 OR on 21-3-18 and 2 OR on 23-3-18. 11 OR are transferred to Labour Corps with effect from various dates.


http://ayearofwar.com/2018/04/02/www-war-diary-1918-salonika-newton-trench/
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