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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2006 7:25    Onderwerp: 27 Maart Reageer met quote

March 27

1918 Bessarabia annexed by Romania

On March 27, 1918, in the wake of Russia’s withdrawal from World War I and its acceptance of the humiliating peace terms set by the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk, the Balkan republic of Romania annexes Bessarabia, a strategically important area of land located on its eastern border and bounded on the south by the Danube River and the mouth of the Black Sea.

Ruled by Ottoman Turks from the 16th century, Bessarabia (which today corresponds to the republic of Moldova and part of Ukraine) was annexed by the Russians in 1812 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War. The collapse of the Russian empire and the triumph of Bolshevism in 1917 inspired new stirrings of nationalism in Bessarabia, particularly among its large populations of Romanians and Ukrainians.

Despite its historical alliance with the Central Powers, especially Austria-Hungary, Romania had entered World War I on the side of the Allies in August 1916 with the hope of winning Transylvania, then part of Hungary, and expanding its strength in the Balkans. Within six months, however, Austro-German and Bulgarian forces had crushed Romania, effectively overrunning most of the country and ending its participation in the war by early 1917. (It signed a treaty with the Central Powers on May 7, 1918.) With the fall of the Russian empire, however, Romania saw its chance to reestablish its claims over Bessarabia.

For its part, Ukraine saw the end of czarist Russia as an opportunity. Immediately following the overthrow of the czar in February 1917, Ukraine set up a provisional government and proclaimed itself a republic within the structure of a federated Russia. In January 1918, it declared its complete independence. The Ukrainian government immediately sought control of Bessarabia, or at least its northernmost and southernmost sections, where the majority of the population was Ukrainian.

In January 1918, Romania sent troops to Bessarabia; on March 27, after Russia formally exited the war in early March at Brest-Litovsk, it annexed the region. Ukraine’s national council strongly protested, urging self-determination for the Ukrainian population of Bessarabia. Over the next year, however, turmoil and ultimately civil war in Ukraine made taking any decisive action impossible. On November 10, a day before the armistice ending World War I was signed—and with an Allied victory assured—Romania reentered the war, occupying Transylvania.

At the Versailles peace conference in 1919, the Romanian delegation, headed by Prime Minister Ion Bratianu, included Bessarabia in a long list of territorial demands that also included the former Austro-Hungarian properties of Transylvania and the Bukovina and Banat regions, all of which they claimed were historically and ethnically Romanian. Though the Supreme Council at Versailles—made up of the leaders of Britain, France, the U.S., Italy and Japan—found Romania’s demands excessive, they eventually gave in on most counts, including cession of Bessarabia. Thus, in the post-war period, Romania’s size and population nearly doubled, making it by far the greatest winner of territory to come out of World War I.

Neither the new Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) nor its member republic, Ukraine—which fell to the Bolsheviks in 1919—accepted Romanian control of Bessarabia. During World War II, Bessarabia was occupied by Soviet troops in June 1940, retaken by Romania a year later, and then reoccupied by the Soviets in 1944. After the war ended, the majority of Bessarabia was joined to the soviet republic of Moldavia; the northernmost area and the coastal strip to the south along the Black Sea became part of Ukraine. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moldavia changed its name to Moldova and, along with Ukraine, joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), an association of 12 former republics of the USSR.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2006 16:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 27 March

Births
1 1891 Paul BillikGermany
2 1894 René FonckFrance
3 1897 Francis SymondsonEngland
4 1898 Sydney PopeIreland
5 1899 Earl CrabbCanada

Deaths
1 1918 Robert KirkmanEngland
2 1945 Roy DrummondAustralia
3 1977 Oliver BrysonEngland
4 1979 William ElliottCanada
5 1987 Hans-Georg von der OstenGermany

Claims
1 1918 Roy DrummondAustralia #6 #7 #8
2 1918 Garfield FinlayAustralia #2
3 1918 Eustace HeadlamAustralia #2 #3
4 1918 Walter KirkAustralia #1 #2
5 1918 John PughCanada #2
6 1918 Thomas WilliamsCanada #8
7 1918 Charles BartlettEngland #5
8 1918 Frank JohnsonEngland #14
9 1918 Hugh NangleEngland #1 #2 #3
10 1918 Walter NaylorEngland #11
11 1918 Tom NoelEngland #2
12 1918 Frank RansleyEngland #2
13 1918 Henry WoollettEngland #14 #15
14 1918 Hermann HabichGermany #1
15 1918 Alfred HübnerGermany #1
16 1918 Johann JanzenGermany #4
17 1918 Hans MüllerGermany #4
18 1918 Karl PechGermany #2
19 1918 Richard PlangeGermany #5 #6
20 1918 Franz RayGermany #10 #11
21 1918 Edgar ScholtzGermany #5
22 1918 Lewis CollinsScotland #2
23 1918 Josiah MorganWales #9 #10
24 1918 Samuel ParryWales #1 #2 #3

Losses
1 1918 Francis QuigleyCanadawounded in action
2 1918 Robert KirkmanEnglandkilled in action; shot down by Carl GallwitzGermany
3 1918 Thomas SharpeEnglandwounded in action; shot down and captured
4 1918 Franz SchleiffGermanywounded in action

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Mrt 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The first successful non-direct blood transfusion is performed by Belgian doctor Albert Hustin

On 27 March 1914, Belgian doctor Albert Hustin conducted the first non-direct transfusion, using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. Initially, blood transfusions needed to be made directly from the donor to the receiver before coagulation occurred. However, in the 1910s, it was discovered that adding anticoagulant to blood and refrigerating it allowed for longer storage times, which lead to the establishment of blood banks.
The first recorded attempt of a blood transfusion was described by the 15th-century chronicler Stefano Infessura. In 1492, Infessura noted that the blood of three boys was given to Pope Innocent VIII, who had fallen into a coma. Following orders from a physician, the blood was transferred to the pontiff through the mouth, as the concept of intravenous circulation had not yet been discovered. The three young blood donors, all ten years old, had undertaken this experiment after being promised a ducat each. Unfortunately, the Pope and all three boys died.

After the discovery of intravenous circulation by William Harvey in 1628, more sophisticated research into blood transfusion began in the 17th century, and successful transfusion experiments were conducted on animals. However, transfusion attempts on humans continued to fail.

The first fully-documented human blood transfusion occurred on 15 June 1667, administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denis. A physician to King Louis XIV of France, Denis transfused the blood of a sheep into a 15-year old boy. Although the boy recovered, the transfusion was not entirely successful and the boy died at a later stage.

It was only in the 19th century that the existence of different blood types was discovered, and therefore the reason for past transfusion failures. It was found that a mixture of blood from the donor and the receiver was more successful in a transfusion.

Dr. James Blundell, a British obstetrician, performed the first successful human blood transfusion of human blood in 1818, which was used to treat a postpartum haemorrhage. The patient’s husband was the donor, and gave four ounces of blood from his arm to his wife. From 1825 to 1830, Blundell conducted 10 blood transfusions, of which five were successful. Blundell went on to publish his results and invent several instruments to use in blood transfusions.

On 1 January 1916, the first blood transfusion that utilized blood that had been stored and refrigerated was performed by Oswald Hope Robertson, a medical researcher and U.S. Army officer. Robertson is generally credited with establishing the first blood bank while serving in France during World War I.

Source:
1.Blood Transfusion, a history [online], available at: onpedia.com/encyclopedia [accessed on 19 March 2009]
2.Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.
3.William Harvey Short Biography [online] Available at: sjsu.edu [Accessed 19 March 2009]


http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/thisday/1914-03-27.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Mrt 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTLESHIP TEXAS - HISTORY

Preliminary: 24 June 1910 to 17 April 1911
One of the first actions after President Taft's 24 June 1910 approval of the US Navy appropriation bill was creating the design plans. The 29 September 1910 contract plans were the first images of what she would become. (...)

The needed openings and gun directors would be installed in the New York Navy Yard, 27 March to 13 May 1914. Commissioned on 12 March 1914, she was the most powerful ship in existence being the first ship to have 14inch guns. The New York Times described the 14"/ 45 caliber guns as "Monster Guns" and cost $777 to fire each of the 10 guns.

Lees en bekijk hoe de "TEXAS" is gebouwd... http://www.bb35library.usstexasbb35.com/history/1910-1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Mrt 2010 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Österreichischer Vorschlag für Gebietsabtretungen - 27. März 1915

The Austrian proposal for handing over territories according to Italian desires.
Source: Gruner, Ferdinand; Der Treubruch Italiens - unter Benützung amtlicher Quellen, München 1916

Italien würde sich verpflichten, bis zum Ende des gegenwärtigen Krieges Österreich-Ungarn und seinen Verbündeten gegenüber eine wohlwollende Neutralität in politischer, militärischer und wirtschaftlicher Hinsicht zu beobachten.

In diesem Sinne würde es sich überdies verpflichten, Österreich-Ungarn während der ganzen Dauer des gegenwärtigen Krieges volle und ganze Aktionsfreiheit auf dem Balkan zu gewähren und im voraus auf jede neue Kompensation für territoriale oder andere Vorteile zu verzichten, die sich für Österreich-Ungarn allenfalls aus dieser Aktionsfreiheit ergeben würden. Diese Abmachung würde sich aber nicht auf Albanien erstrecken, hinsichtlich dessen das zwischen Österreich-Ungarn und Italien bestehende Übereinkommen sowie die Beschlüsse der Londoner Botschafter-Réunion in Kraft bleiben würden.

Österreich-Ungarn seinerseits wäre zu einer Gebietsabtretung in Südtirol - die Stadt Trient inbegriffen - bereit. Die detaillierte Abgrenzung würde in der Weise festgestellt werden, daß die strategischen Erfordernisse, die sich aus einer neuen Grenze ergeben, sowie die wirtschaftlichen Bedürfnisse der Bevölkerung berücksichtigt seien.

Diese Gebietsabtretung Österreich-Ungarns hätte für Italien die Verpflichtung zur Folge, die auf das fragliche Gebiet entfallende Quote der österreichischen Staatsschuld sowie der Provinzial-, Gemeinde- und anderen Schulden, soweit letztere eine staatliche Garantie genießen, zu übernehmen. Italien würde weiters sich zur Zahlung einer Globalsumme an Österreich-Ungarn verpflichten zur Entschädigung für alle vom Staate in dem abzutretenden Gebiete vorgenommenen Investitionen, unbeschadet des Ankaufes der auf diesem Gebiete befindlichen Eisenbahnlinien und der kollektiven wie individuellen Vergütungen (Eigentum der Kirche, Majorate, Pensionen der ehemaligen öffentlichen Funktionäre usw.).

Sobald das Übereinkommen auf der oberwähnten Grundlage im Prinzip hergestellt sein wird, würden Österreich-Ungarn und Italien in die Besprechung der Details eingehen. Das aus diesen Besprechungen sich ergebende endgültige Einvernehmen würde in einer zwischen Österreich-Ungarn und Italien abzuschließenden geheimen Konvention niedergelegt werden.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/%C3%96sterreichischer_Vorschlag_f%C3%BCr_Gebietsabtretungen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Mrt 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

aviation timeline 1915

27 March - Mancia, a kite balloon ship, sails for the Dardanelles, equipped with a kite balloon for use as an observation platform.

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/aviation%20timeline/1915.htm

HMS Manica

HMS Manica was a kite balloon ship of the British Royal Navy which saw active service in the Dardanelles Campaign in 1915 providing fire-control at Anzac Cove. Ships of the similar type included HMS Canning and HMS Hector.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Manica

The kite balloon ship HMS Manica (1915)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Manica doesn’t give more information than the ship was used in the Dardanelles campaign in 1915, mainly at the Anzac Cove to direct the gunfire. This source mentioned two comparable ships, namely the HMS Canning and the Hector. The most interesting of this website is the picture of the launching of a kite balloon from this ship while off Gallipoli in 1915; No. HU 66626 from the Imperial War Museum collection No. 9504-06.

At www.royalnavy.mod.uk you can upload a small document titled Fly Navy 100 which mentioned that the Manica was a tramp steamer fitted out by the RNAS Balloon section to be used as a kite balloon ship. She was sent towards the Dardanelles and used to give instructions through a telephone cable connected with the Manica, to direct the fire against the Turkish.

http://warshipsresearch.web-log.nl/warships/2010/03/the-kite-balloo.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 13:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 March 1917, Commons Sitting

WET CANTEENS (CANADIAN CAMPS).


HC Deb 27 March 1917 vol 92 cc206-7 206

Mr. TIMOTHY DAVIES asked the Prime Minister if his attention has been drawn to the inquest held as to the cause of death of Private John Farrell Mitchell, twenty, a young Canadian, who was in training in a camp near Godalming, whose death was due to alcoholic poisoning; whether he is aware that hundreds of young men coming from dry areas in the Dominions and subjected to the temptation of drink in the canteens and surrounding public-houses have succumbed to it and their services been lost to the Army; is he aware of the feeling in the Dominions, against the practice of allowing these temptations to exist; and whether he will consider the advisability of the prohibition of the sale of intoxicants inside or outside near such camps?

Mr. MACPHERSON My right hon. Friend has asked me to answer this question. Inquiries are being made in this particular case, and my hon. Friend will be informed of the result. As regards the latter part of the question, I understand that wet canteens were first introduced 207 in the Canadian camps in this country at the request of the Canadian military authorities.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/mar/27/wet-canteens-canadian-camps
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 13:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Herbert Cherry

Percy Herbert Cherry VC, MC (4 June 1895 – 27 March 1917) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces. The award was granted posthumously for Cherry's actions during an attack on the French village of Lagnicourt which was strongly defended by German forces. (...)

In the afternoon of the 27 March 1917, a shell burst in a sunken road to the east of Lagnicourt, killing Cherry and several other men. He was buried in Quéant Road Cemetery, Buissy, Plot VIII, Row C, Grave 10.[12] The full citation for Cherry's posthumous award of the Victoria Cross appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 11 May 1917, reading:

War Office, 11th May, 1917
His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Officers and Man:—
2nd Lt. (temp. Capt.) Percy Herbert Cherry, M.C., late Aus. Imp. Force.
For most conspicuous bravery, determination and leadership when in command of a company detailed to storm and clear a village.
After all the officers of his company had become casualties he carried on with care and determination, in the face of fierce opposition, and cleared the village of the enemy.
He sent frequent reports of progress made, and when held up for some time by an enemy strong point he organised machine gun and bomb parties and captured the position. His leadership, coolness and bravery set a wonderful example to his men.
Having cleared the village, he took charge of the situation and beat off the most resolute and heavy counter-attacks made by the enemy.
Wounded about 6.30 a.m., he refused to leave his post, and there remained, encouraging all to hold out at all costs, until, about 4.30 p.m., this very gallant officer was killed by an enemy shell.


Lees het hele artikel op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy_Herbert_Cherry
Zie ook: http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4139
Zie ook: http://eyewitnesstours.com/captain-percy-herbert-cherry-died-27-march-1917/
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 27 Mrt 2018 9:05, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 13:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Florence R. Sabin Papers

In this letter to Sabin's good friend Ella Denison, she details her plans for service during World War I. Sabin became friends with Denison and her children when she tutored the children in science during summer of 1895.

March 27, 1917

My dear Mrs. Denison,
I have just finished signing up my card of registry for service in the war. The University [Johns Hopkins] as I understand it has offered its entire equipment and each member of the staff is asked to say what he will do. I have put down:
1. Teaching in the medical school
2. Working in a clinical laboratory
3. Making supplies and dressings
4. Cooking
I put down that I had had training as a physician and a chauffeur [ambulance driver] and could speak German. Ouch, I should hate to be sent to Germany as a spy--I said to someone that I should be afraid that I should talk against the Germans--and the reply was I should only need to "look." The Hopkins will be made a base hospital and I think that the laboratory may be used for teaching part of the time and for making serums and supplies the rest of the time.
I have gotten over thinking that the end is in sight. One of our men who has just come back from England says that the English have become so efficient that they don't need us.
I am enclosing a poem by one of the most distinguished of the English doctors, a neurologist, which seems to me quite thrilling. He has probably given us our very best analysis of the sensory side of the nervous system and has done a lot of medical work in the war, and this was probably written on one of his days of respite for the terrible strain. This week's New York Times has a very fine account from the medical standpoint of the nervous wrecks of the war.
A letter from Carla [Denison] sounds as if everything was really all right out there. I was sorry that I told you about Edith for it seems that it wasn't anything serious. I was myself much worried over what Mary had written. Carla's letter would make me long to go to California to see the roses if we weren't having such exciting times right here.
The kimono is a beauty. It was a great surprise, I couldn't imagine what the box was that I found on the stairs one day. If the Mexicans and the Germans don't march right through this summer what good times we shall have--unless the last two lines of Head's [?] poem come true for us.
The German retreat is very puzzling. I feared that they might have mined the whole zone, but everyone here says that it would be too expensive.
Mrs. Horace Rilly [?] has just been here. She says that Baker, the Secretary of War, is an ardent pacifist and Dr. Weed says that he bankrupted Cleveland, so it may be well if he resigns. Dr. Cowdry is going to China with the new Rockefeller medical school [Peking Union] He is the Canadian who has been assisting me of whom we were talking. It's a fine opportunity for him and we are all glad for him. Our staff will probably be cut down one half next year.
I wish you were here now to hear all the discussion about the war.
Very affectionately,
Florence Sabin

http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/RR/B/B/F/L/#transcript
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 13:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Werner Voss

The Cross of the Order of the House of Hohenzollern
Awarded on or about: 27 March 1917


The House of Hohenzollern was a Prussian order bestowed on officers for bravery in combat. It normally was awarded if the recipient had already received the EK1. Among Jasta pilots, it was typically awarded somewhere between their twelfth and fifteenth victory but this was not always the case.

Voss was credited with his fifteenth victory on 11 March 1917 and managed to increase his score by seven additional victories in less than two weeks. He had actually passed the mark for the Pour LeMérite within one week of when he should have received the Hohenzollern! Because of his quickness in the air, Voss received the Hohenzollern after achieving 22 aerial victories. While some authors have used this as proof that there was a conspiracy against the working class Voss, it most likely was due to the fact that he could shoot planes down faster than German Staff Officers could process paperwork!

To the credit of Voss's superiors they insured that he received the Order of the House of Hohenzollern before receiving the Pour LeMérite.

http://blindkat.hegewisch.net/voss/gefreiter.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 13:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Amstelstroom

SS Amstelstroom; built 1910 by My voor Scheeps- & Werktuigbouw, Rotterdam;879 net tons; 86x11,3x5,6m; Triple expansion engines; 1.700hp; 13knots; Cargo and passenger ship for 12 1st class passengers; SS Amstelstroom was en route from Amsterdam to London, when on March 23rd 1917, she was attacked by German torpedoboats V-44, G-86 and G-87, 40 miles NW from IJmuiden. 3 people died in the attack. Heavily damaged, she continued floating for 4 days, when on March 27th, she was found by UB-10, 20 miles ESE from lightship Noordhinder. UB-10 subsequently torpedoed her.

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?5038
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 14:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Dick's Diary"- The 1916 war diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard T C Willis Fleming

27 March 1916 - A real scorcher again. This morning we went out to the guns and practiced in cooperation with aircraft: an aeroplane went up and dropped smoke balls over various targets for us to get on to. I saw a caravan of several hundred camels going out to one of our posts about twenty miles out in the desert the other side of the canal, with forage, etc. I bathed about four o'clock this afternoon; the major for a bet swam the canal smoking a pipe, and got across with it still alight.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/entries/1916/03/monday-27-march-1916.html

Capt. P C D Mundy

March 27, 1916 - On 27th, co-operation of artillery with air-craft was practised. The Divisional Band, consisting of brass band and pipers, played in the vicinity of the camp twice weekly. During the latter days of the month, gun drill was at 6.30 a.m. owing to the heat. The sand was so hot that it was impossible to walk on it with bare feet when bathing. Sandstorms were frequent. Scorpions and centipedes began to make an unwelcome appearance, in blankets and between sandbags.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/entries/1916/03/monday-27-march-1916.html#comment-11
(This project presents as a weblog two manuscript diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard Willis Fleming, which were written during the seven months of his overseas service during the Great War. The diaries start on 24 February 1916 and follow the 162 days until his death in Egypt on 4 August.)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 14:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31st Bn - Auckland Mounted Rifles Camp Near Duntroon Plateau, Egypt - Front Lines

31st Bn - Ferry Post, Ismailia, Egypt
By Battalion Adjutant on March 27, 1916

0700 to 0730: Running training and bayonet practice.

0900 to 1200: Company Training under OC Companies.

Afternoon: Preparing to move, packing et cetera.

1600: Lieutenant Reginald Kenneth Hibbs and 25 men from "D" Company formed Advance party and left by 1600 train to Rail Head to from an unloading party for Brigade Headquarters and following trains on 28th and 29th inst.

1800: "A" and "C" Company provided outpost 500 degrees east of camp. Withdrawn at daybreak. 28th inst. Major Charles Edward Clements Outpost Commander.

Show detailed State at the end of each month and also at each move.

http://aifhistory.org/1916/03/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 14:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enemy diversionary attacks around the Ypres Salient: the action of St Eloi craters, 27 March - 16 April 1916

St Eloi lies on the road running south from Ypres in the direction of Messines. Here, an awkward trench salient poked into British positions with the enemy on slightly higher ground - including an artificial earth bank called “The Mound” - that gave the Germans excellent observation over British trenches and roads. This had been the scene of almost continuous mine warfare during 1915, with both sides actively engaged. In all some 33 surface mines had been exploded within a small area, of which the Germans had fired the majority. British activity had been more on the defensive, with many camouflet charges being blown in an effort to destroy the enemy’s mine works. However, in summer 1915 three much deeper (60 feet) shafts had been started by the 172nd Tunnelling Company RE, which by now extended to six mines. The central four reached under the German trenches, the two on the outside were terminated under no man’s land, the idea being to create craters that would provide useful cover. Above ground, the churning by mine explosions and shellfire had created a very difficult terrain for infantry assault – added to which it was still waterlogged from the winter.

The assault troops moved up in the late hours of 26 March, and took whatever cover the could on a freezing night, in snow and sleet. By just after 4am on 27th, lanes had been silently cut in the British wire, and the front trenches facing the mine positions evacuated.

At 4.15am the mines blew within a few seconds of each other and the artillery barrage joined in. The infantry barely waited the planned 30 seconds to get going. On the right the 1st Northumberland Fusiliers reached the German wire with the loss of only a single soldier; the 4th Royal Fusiliers were however hit by machine gun fire as they went over the top. German artillery responded very quickly: less than a minute after the last of the Northumberlands left the front line, shellfire began to fall on the British trenches, no man’s land and the new craters. As the depleted Royal Fusiliers advanced into the inferno, they quickly became disorientated as the ground had changed so much – and visibility also so poor – that they simply could not tell whether they were in a crater or an old German trench. Although it was reported that the objective had been captured, they had in fact not advanced to the main line of new craters, but only just beyond the shorter distance to the left-hand mine. Crucially, Crater No 5 remained in enemy hands, although the Mound itself had gone, destroyed in the blast. The support battalions of the brigade – 1st Royal Scots Fusiliers and 12th West Yorkshire - suffered losses from shellfire as they approached through the communication trenches, intending to move forward and consolidate the ground won. To make matters worse, it began to rain heavily, adding to water already rising in trenches, craters and shell holes following the underground destruction of a drainage system that the Germans had created.

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/bat14.htm

Sir Douglas Haig's 1st Despatch (St Eloi), 19 May 1916

Reproduced is the text of Sir Douglas Haig's first First World War despatch as British Army Commander-in-Chief, dated 19 May 1916. It summarises details of local operations at St. Eloi. This despatch was the first since Haig's replacement of Sir John French in December 1915.

6. On the 27th March our troops (9th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Division) made an attack with the object of straightening out the line at St. Eloi, and cutting away the small German salient which encroached on the semicircle of our line in the Ypres salient to a depth of about 100 yards over a front of some 600 yards.

The operation was begun by the firing of six very large mines; the charge was so heavy that the explosion was felt in towns several miles behind the lines, and large numbers of the enemy were killed. Half a minute after the explosion our infantry attack was launched aiming at the German Second Line.

The right attack (1st Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers) met with little opposition, and captured its assigned objective; but the left attack (4th Battalion Royal Fusiliers) was not so successful, and a gap was left in possession of the Germans, through which they entered one of the craters.

The following days were spent by both sides in heavy bombardment and in unsuccessful attacks, intended on our part to capture the remaining trenches, and on the part of the Germans to drive us from the positions we had occupied. In the very early morning of April 3rd troops of the 76th Infantry Brigade succeeded in recapturing the crater and the trenches still held by the enemy, thereby securing the whole of our original objective.

We had, moreover, captured five officers and 195 men in the first attack on March 27th, and five officers and 80 men in the attack on April 3rd. The work of consolidating our new position, however, proved extremely difficult, owing to the wet soil, heavy shelling and mine explosions; though pumps were brought up and efforts at draining were instituted, the result achieved was comparatively small.

By dint of much heavy work the brigade holding these trenches (6th Canadian Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Major-General R. E. W. Turner commanding the division) succeeded in reducing the water in the trenches by two feet by the morning of the 5th. This state of affairs could not, even so, be regarded as satisfactory; and during the 5th the enemy's bombardment increased in intensity, and the new trenches practically ceased to exist.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/haigsteloidespatch.htm
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Edward Mellish

Edward Noel Mellish VC MC (24 December 1880 – 8 July 1962) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 35 years old, and a Chaplain in the Army Chaplains' Department, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC:

During the period 27 - 29 March 1916 at St. Eloi, Belgium, Captain The Reverend Noel Mellish went backwards and forwards under continuous and very heavy shell and machine-gun fire between our original trenches and those captured from the enemy, in order to tend and rescue wounded men. He brought in 10 badly wounded men on the first day from ground swept by machine-gun fire. He went back on the second day and brought in 12 more and on the night of the third day he took charge of a party of volunteers and once more returned to the trenches to rescue the remaining wounded.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Mellish
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 14:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fourth Army (Rawlinson)

Lieut-General Sir Hubert Gough was relieved of command of Fifth Army between 5-6pm on 27 March 1918. He was replaced by Sir Henry Rawlinson, hurriedly recalled from his position as British Permanent Military Representative to the Supreme War Council. Sir Henry brought in his own staff and the command became Fourth Army.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat22.htm

Ook genoemd in The fifth army in March 1918 (1921)
Free download: http://www.archive.org/details/fiftharmyinmarch00spar
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Morlancourt, March–May 1918

On 27 March 1918, elements of the Australian Third Division relieved exhausted British infantry in the triangle between the Somme and the Ancre. They quickly established an emergency line about three kilometres west of the village of Morlancourt. The French villagers reacted very positively to the appearance of Australian soldiers many of whom had been billeted hereabouts during the Battle of the Somme in 1916:

In the French villages whenever in those weeks these hearty, stalwart battalions marched in they were met with striking demonstrations of affection and trust … ‘Fini retreat, Madame’, said a digger to a village woman as he sat grimly cleaning his rifle while the Third Division halted in Heilly on its way to the triangle between Ancre and Somme. ‘Fini retreat – beaucoup Australiens ici’.
(Charles Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Canberra, 1948, p.415)

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields/morlancourt-1918.html
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DOMESTIC ANNOUNCEMENTS - Transcribed from South Africa Magazine 27 March 1915

CLARKE-Killed in action, on March 6, in France, Rifleman Basil Heathcote CLARKE, 1st Batt. Queen Victoria's Rifles, aged 21.
REID-On March 9, killed in action in East Africa, Guy E. H. Reid, Lieutenant, King's African Rifles.
SISSISON-On February 15, at Wynberg, Major Joseph SISSISON, J.P.
THOMPSON-Killed in action in East Africa on March 9, Lieutenant A. D. THOMPSON, 4th King's African Rifles, aged 27.
VINER-JOHNSON-Killed in action, March 14, Captain P. J. V. VINER-JOHNSON, 1st Battalion Wiltshire Regiment.

http://newsarch.rootsweb.com/th/read/SOUTH-AFRICA-IMMIGRANTS-BRITISH/2004-08/1093464622
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British Military Aviation in 1918

27 March - The Victoria Cross is awarded to 2nd Lieutenant A.A. McLeod of No.2 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. At 19 years old, he is the youngest airman to receive this award during the First World War, for action during a bombing mission over Bray-sur-Somme in France and for saving the life of his observer, Lieutenant A.W. Hammond, after being shot down in an Armstrong Whitworth FK8 (B5773).

http://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/milestones-of-flight/british_military/1918.cfm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 15:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 March 1919, Written Answers

PRISONERS OF WAR (DEATHS).


HC Deb 27 March 1919 vol 114 cc622-3W

Major Sir BERTRAM FALLE asked the Secretary of State for War if he can give any indication of what is being done in the case of British officers who have died in German camps under circumstances which suggest manslaughter or worse; and if, in particular, he can give information as to the case of Lieutenant Victor Edward Osborne, 3rd Battalion Oxford and Bucks 623W Light Infantry, reported shot dead whilst prisoner of war at Rastatt, Baden, on the 7th April, 1918?

Captain GUEST All such cases are being investigated by the Committee appointed to inquire into Breaches of the Laws of War. I am informed that further particulars have now been received of the death of Lieutenant Victor Edward Osborne, from which it appears that this officer was observed to be interfering with the barbed wire enclosing the camp, and was shot by a sentry after he had been three times called upon to halt. He was hit in the neck and died almost immediately. This case is among those under investigation by the Committee referred to.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/mar/27/prisoners-of-war-deaths
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 15:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 27 MARCH 1919

SOLDIERS’ LAND BALLOT - Mangateparu Settlement
A ballot, confined to discharged soldiers, for 43 sections totalling 3390 acres on the Mangateparu Settlement near Morrinsville, has been conducted by the Auckland Land Board. Fifteen of the sections were reserved for married men and married and single men competed on equal terms for the remaining 28 sections. There were about 180 applicants. The main road, between Morrinsville and Tahuna, runs through the centre of the property, which was formerly owned by Mr Alexander Bell. Provision has been made for a small township in the centre of the block and certain other sections are being retained, with a view to being offered to soldiers later.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn27mar1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2010 15:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bomwerpers en mortieren van het Nederlandse leger 1914-1918
De improvisaties

Op 27 maart 1915 kreeg de directie der artillerie inrichtingen opdracht proeven te nemen met de mortier van 10 cm, waarna voorlopige schietproeven volgden. Op 14 april 1915 bracht de directie verslag uit over de resultaten daarvan. Bij deze schietproeven was gebruik gemaakt van een mortier van 10 cm op een stoel, waarvan de voorste verbindingsplaat was weggenomen, zodat een elevatie van ongeveer 70° gegeven kon worden. De mortier was vervolgens afgevuurd, terwijl de stoel op de bedding stond, doch conform de richtlijnen van de opperbevelhebber van land- en zeemacht omtrent de noodzaak van de gewichtsbesparing was zulks eveneens uitgevoerd terwijl de stoel direct op de grond was opgesteld, slechts ondersteund door twee lichte planken. De eerste resultaten waren in eerste instantie niet geheel onbevredigend. Het bleek dat:
- zeer kleine schootsafstanden konden worden bereikt, terwijl de spreiding binnen acceptabele grenzen bleef;
- met een lading van 100 gr. en minder bij elevaties van ongeveer 70° niet op de werking van de organieke schokbuis kon worden gerekend, zodat deze moest worden gewijzigd of tijdbuizen moesten worden toegepast;
- met een lading van 100 gr. en minder bij elevaties van ongeveer 42° zowel schokbuizen, als tijdbuizen met succes konden worden toegepast;
- de mortier met gewijzigde stoel zonder bedding een goed bruikbaar geheel vormde.

http://cultuur.treznet.nl/tn.cultuur/sites/strategion/contents/i004557/arma23%20bomwerpers%20en%20mortieren.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Overlijdensakte van Christiaan Joannes Vaillant, aktedatum 27 maart 1914

Vaillant was de eerste persoon wiens lichaam werd gecremeerd in Nederland.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/gaschiedam/5354914860/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friedrich Christiansen

Friedrich Christiansen (Wyk auf Föhr, 12 december 1879 - Aukrug, 3 december 1972) was General der Flieger, een generaal in nazi-Duitsland. (...)

Christiansen stamde uit een familie van zeevaarders en begon zijn loopbaan zelf ook als kapitein op de handelsvaart. In 1913 werd hij beroepssoldaat en op 27 maart 1914 haalde hij zijn vliegbrevet. De volgende dag wist hij al bijna, op enkele minuten na, het wereldafstandsrecord voor eendekkers te doorbreken. Christiansen vloog die dag vanaf Fuhlsbüttel via Neumünster naar Dresden, waar hij 's avonds ten gevolge van benzinegebrek moest landen. Hij had toen 10 uren en 15 minuten gevlogen.

Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog werd Christiansen vanaf 1915 als marinevlieger aan de Belgische zeekust gestationeerd, waarbij hij vanaf 1917 als commandant van het marinevliegkamp Vlaanderen bij Zeebrugge werd ingezet.
In 1918 werd hem als succesvol zeevlieger de onderscheiding Pour le Mérite uitgereikt en werd hij tot kapitein-luitenant bevorderd. (...)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Christiansen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27-03-1915 - Een storm zorgde ervoor dat een boom omviel tegen een gevel op de Noordermarkt in Amsterdam.

Foto! http://www.nuentoen.nl/fotos/99298/1915-boom-tegen-gevel-noordermarkt.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 March 1915 - Early closing of hotel bars

A state election was held on 27 March 1915 which Labor won comfortably with both the Liberal Premier and Attorney-General losing their seats.

Of major interest also was the referendum, which was held at the same time, to determine the closing hours of liquor bars. This was done partly in response to restrictions placed on the sale of liquor in Britain, France and Russia as an austerity measure during the war. In this instance the concerted efforts of some churchmen and the temperance groups won the day, and the 6 p.m. closing time won the majority of votes.

On the night the legislation came into effect, in March 1916, the president of the Licensed Victuallers Association led a rowdy throng from the Imperial Hotel to the Adelaide Club, which was not affected by the early closing law, where the crowd threatened to besiege the doors. It would be more than 50 years before the legislation on the closing time was changed and liquor bars could again remain open until 10 p.m.

http://www.sahistorians.org.au/175/chronology/march/27-march-1915-early-closing-of-hotel-bars.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sint-Elooi (plaats)

Sint-Elooi is een gehucht in Voormezele, een deelgemeente van de Belgische stad Ieper. Het gehuchtje ligt ruim een kilometer ten zuidoosten van het centrum van Voormezele, op het kruispunt van de Sint-Elooisweg, de Rijselseweg en de Armentierseweg.

(...) Sint-Elooi was onderdeel van het front rond Ieper (de Ieperboog) tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog en een onderdeel van de mijnenoorlog die er gestreden werd. In maart 1915 lieten de Duitsers in Sint-Elooi hun eerst mijn onder de geallieerde posities ontploffen. Het volgende jaar bleven zowel de Britten als Duitsers op deze manier verder strijden. De Britten brachten 13 mijnen en 29 zogenaamde "camouflets" tot ontploffing, de Duitsers 20 mijnen en 2 camouflets.Op 27 maart 1916 ontploften 17 Britse mijnen, wat het begin betekende van de Slag om Sint-Elooi, die bleef duren tot 16 april. Aanvankelijk maakten de geallieerden vooruitgang, maar na 20 dagen werd men teruggedreven tot de positie van 27 maart. De gevechten hadden geen terreinwinst opgeleverd, maar wel 320 doden, 1750 gewonden en 160 vermisten bij de geallieerden en 480 doden, 600 gewonden en 490 krijgsgevangen bij de Duitsers.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sint-Elooi_(plaats)
Zie ook http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/2097/print
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Koningin Wilhelmina in een auto bij het Stadhuis te Utrecht

datering 27/03/1916
beschrijving Afbeelding van Koningin Wilhelmina in een auto bij het Stadhuis (Stadhuisbrug 1) te Utrecht tijdens haar bezoek aan de stad; op de achtergrond, ter verwelkoming, mr.dr. F.A.C. graaf van Lynden van Sandenburg (Commissaris van de Koningin in de provincie Utrecht).
opmerkingen Naast de stad Utrecht werden ook de plaatsen Montfoort, IJsselstein en Jutfaas bezocht.

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/beeldmateriaal/fotografische_documenten/1910-1920/129442
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 17:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edward Noel Mellish, VC, won 27-29 March 1916

Army Chaplain Edward Mellish VC MC aged 35 was attached to the 4th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers. He was the first member of the army chaplaincy to win the VC.

During the period 27 – 29 March 1916 at St. Eloi, Ypres, Belgium, Noel Mellish went backwards and forwards under continuous and very heavy shell and machine-gun fire between our original trenches and those captured from the enemy, in order to tend and rescue wounded men. He brought in 10 badly wounded men on the first day from ground swept by machine-gun fire. He went back on the second day and brought in 12 more and on the night of the third day he took charge of a party of volunteers and once more returned to the trenches to rescue the remaining wounded.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Fusiliers Museum, Tower of London, England.

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/04/23/edward-noel-mellish-vc-won-27-29-march-1916/
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Mellish
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De vernietiging van Coucy-le-Chateau

(...) Bij de Duitse opmars in 1914 viel de burcht binnen het gebied dat door hen was veroverd. Toen het Duitse leger in maart 1917 zich terugtrok op de gefortificeerde Hindenburg-linie om troepen uit te sparen, stond de burcht in het gebied dat door hen werd ontruimd. Zogezegd omdat de toren door de geallieerden als uitkijkpost zou kunnen gebruikt worden, werd besloten om deze op te blazen. (Anderen stellen het echter als een daad van puur vandalisme voor, de toren lag immers te ver van de nieuwe frontlijn om van enig nut als uitkijktoren te zijn en tegen 1917 waren uitkijktorens van niet zoveel belang meer door het gebruik van balonnen en vliegtuigen). Om het nog bonter te maken werd dan in één keer ook maar besloten ook de vier grote hoektorens op te blazen.

Er werd 28 ton hoog explosief (eigenlijk dringend nodig aan het front) in de centrale toren gelegd en 10 ton in ieder van de vier hoektorens. Op 27 maart 1917 was het dan zover: de boel werd opgeblazen en één van de belangrijkste middeleeuwse monumenten was naar de geschiedenis verwezen.

Mooi artikel! Helemaal te lezen op http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/De_vernietiging_van_Coucy-le-Chateau
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 18:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EEN LEVENDE GOD

Op 27 maart 1917 wordt een mooi veulen geboren met een rossige vacht. Aangezien zijn eigenaar als vrijwilliger in Frankrijk vecht, beslist de vrouw des huizes om hem My Man Of War (=mijn man in oorlog) te noemen. Later wordt dat Man o' War.

Die oorlog is ook de reden waarom deze prachtige donkere vos na een jaar verkocht wordt aan Samuel Riddle, die een er een jachtpaard van wil maken. Maar als hij Man o' War's uitzonderlijke talenten ontdekt tijdens de training, verandert hij meteen van gedachten.

Man o' War wordt het beste paard van zijn generatie, en wellicht van de eeuw. Op 21 koersen verloor hij 1 keer, als gevolg van een slechte start. Dat is de enige keer dat hij tweede eindigde.

Maar zijn kracht is ook zijn zwakte, omdat hij veel sneller is dan de andere paarden , draagt hij zware handicaps. Toch blijft hij met duizelingwekkend gemak winnen.

Op leeftijd van 4 jaar besluit zijn eigenaar hem terug te trekken uit de wedstrijden, want er wacht hem een handicap van 75kg, de zwaarste ooit toegepast. Samuel wil zijn fabelachtige kampioen niet kapot maken en zet hem liever op rust. Daarbij komt nog eens de verschillende doodsbedreigingen die hij kreeg en de sabotage op de piste. Er sliep dus voortdurend iemand in de box om het paard te beschermen.

Hij wordt dekhengst en levert 46 kampioenen af.

Bij zijn dood op 1 novenmber 1947, op de leeftijd van 30jaar, wordt Man o' War met nationale eer begraven. Negen commentatoren bespreken de begrafenis en elk jaar bezoeken 700 000 mensen zijn graf.

http://racehorse.maakjestart.nl/man_o_war.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 18:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Compilation and Index of Historical Documents, Photos and Maps of the Battle of Lagnicourt, 26/27 March 1917

http://lagnicourt.netai.net/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 18:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NOEUX-LES-MINES COMMUNAL CEMETERY, Noeux-les-Mines, Pas de Calais, France

Shot at Dawn: Private A. Hamilton, 14th Bn. Durham Light Infantry, executed for desertion 27/03/1917, plot 1. P. 17.

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww1frenchcemeteries/noeuxlesminescommunal.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Defence of Ayette

31st Division, comprising three brigades - the 92nd, 93rd and 4th Guards - had been deployed in the 3rd Army sector within 48 hours of the start of the offensive. Over 24th-26th March, the constant threat of the Division's right wing being turned forced a series of withdrawals. Dawn on 27th March found 92nd Brigade on the right flank of 31st Division in front of the village of Ayette, 9 miles (15km) south of Arras. At the front of the Brigade, the 11th East Yorkshire Regt. (Hull Tradesmen) and the 11th East Lancashire Regt. (Accrington Pals) held the ridge east of the Ablainzevelle-Moyenneville road, while the 10th East Yorkshire Regt. (Hull Commercials) was held in reserve. The situation was already critical; the left flank of the Brigade was under threat from German troops advancing through Moyenneville, no wire was available to protect the line, and the right flank was severely stretched by the need to keep in touch with 126th Brigade to the south. To make matters worse, the Brigade's positions had been hit by short-falling British artillery fire during the previous afternoon and night.

Following an intense artillery bombardment, the German 16th Bavarian Division made its first infantry attack on the 92nd Brigade front at 11.17am. After more than 30 minutes of desperate fighting at close range - during which the 11th East Yorkshires were forced back - the entire Brigade line was restored by a local counter-attack. The attacks were renewed at noon and at 12.20pm. At around this time, the forward sections of 2/Lt. Horsfall's platoon at the centre-left of the East Lancashires' front were driven back from the crest of the ridge. Although Horsfall had been severely wounded in the head, he immediately organised the remainder of his men and successfully counter-attacked to recover the original position. On hearing that of the remaining three officers of his company two had been killed and one wounded, he refused to go to the dressing station. Later his platoon had to fall back to escape very heavy shell fire but, as soon as the shelling lifted, he made a second counter-attack and again recovered the position.

In the early afternoon, considerable German forces were seen to be collecting in Ablainzevelle, posing a serious threat to the right flank of the Brigade. A company of the 10th East Yorkshires was sent forward in support but was stopped short by heavy machine-gun fire from the village.

By 2.40pm the Germans had gained a foothold on the ridge at the junction of the two forward battalions. The remainder of the supporting 10th East Yorkshire Regt. was used up in a successful counter-attack. As late in the afternoon as 3.45pm, hopes remained high that the Brigade's position could be held. Finally, however, the pressure told and both flanks gave way. By 4.25pm, 92nd Brigade's situation finally became untenable; with telephone wires hopelessly cut and with mist rendering signalling impossible, Lt.-Col. Rickman - as the senior officer on the spot - informed Divisional Headquarters by pigeon of his decision to withdraw the Brigade. Horsfall was the last East Lancashire officer to leave his position and, although exhausted, said he could have held on. This gallant officer was killed during the retirement.

In their stubborn defence of Ayette, 350 officers and men of the 11th East Lancashire Regt. were killed, wounded or missing. The casualty list would have been longer still had it not been for the gallantry of Lewis gunners led by 2/Lt. Herbert Laycock who covered the retirement of the wounded and M.O.'s staff.

http://www.pals.org.uk/ayette.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 19:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De strategie van de eerste wereldoorlog: Door gifgas ondersteunde Stormloop bij Armentières in 1918

Op 21 maart 1918 (operatie Michael) namen de Duitsers het voortouw om nog voordat de Amerikanen zouden komen de oorlog te beslissen in hun voordeel. De Stosstruppen gingen in deze aanvallen voorop. De aanval werd uitgevoerd in de sector Cambrai-St. Quentin. De voorbereidende artillerie bestaande uit 6608 stuks geschut en 3534 mijnenwerpers werd kort gehouden omdat men had geleerd dat een langdurige beschieting de grond onbegaanbaar maakt en dus de aanval vertraagd. Na de voorbereidende beschieting gingen de Stosstruppen in kleine eenheden in de aanval met de opdracht punten waar flink verzet werd geboden te laten zitten voor de tweede aanvalsgolf. Niet naar links niet naar rechts niet naar achter maar alleen naar voren kijken om zoveel mogelijk terrein te veroveren. Snelheid ging voor alles. Voor de aanval hadden de Duitsers zo een 1.386.177 man beschikbaar. De Stosstruppen waren massaal uitgerust met lichte en zware machinegeweren en mobiele mijnen- en vlammenwerpers.

Strategisch waren de troepen goed voorbereid. Echter in het moreel van de Duitsers en zelfs in die van de leider was al lang iets gebroken. Dit offensief zou of een definitieve overwinning zijn of een definitieve nederlaag. Het gebrek aan mensen, wapens, munitie, voedsel en uitrusting begonnen hun tol te eisen. De aanval ging voorspoedig totdat de Duitse soldaten de proviand van de vijand ontdekten en massaal aan het vreten en zuipen sloegen. De aanvallen van 1918 zouden hierdoor worden gedomineerd. De Duitsers beschikten over welhaast briljante aanvalstechnieken. Echter de Duitse infanterie viel vaak aan uit honger, zij wisten dat er zich aan de overkant grote hoeveelheden aan voedsel en drank bevonden. De Duitse aanval liep op 27 maart 1918 definitief vast. Later zou nog een zelfde aanval worden ondernomen maar dan in Vlaanderen onder de naam operatie Georgette. Bij de laatste offensieven zouden de Stosstruppen veel successen bereiken. In de tweede wereldoorlog zouden de tactieken van de Stosstruppen weer worden gebruikt wat resulteerde in de "Blitzkrieg".

http://mediatheek.thinkquest.nl/~llc156/woi.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 19:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Hébuterne, France, 27 March to 5 April 1918

Older wire entanglements laid by Germans in previous years form the defensive barrier to the AIF 4th Brigade trenches, 27 March 1918

http://desert-column.phpbb3now.com/viewtopic.php?f=8&p=5337
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sailly–le–Sec, Sommevallei, Frankrijk, maart 1918

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/morlancourt-1918.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2011 19:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 27, 1919 • British Compelled "Mother of the Nile" to Leave Egypt

The civilization on the Nile is one of the most ancient in the world. And yet, a Christian woman of the early twentieth century became known as "The Mother of the Nile." What did Lillian Trasher do to win that accolade?

Lillian was born in Boston to a Quaker family that moved to Georgia after the US Civil War. Although she left a fine Boston home for a cash-strapped farm, she delighted in the change. Later, when she had to live in Egypt on a coarse diet and hard work, she was used to it. Neighbors told her that she could have a true relationship with Christ and she believed them. As a young girl, she went into the woods and prayed, "Lord, I want to be your little girl." Then she added bold words. "Lord, if ever I can do anything for You, just let me know and I'll do it."

After failing to get a newspaper job that she really wanted (she was hired, but staff mistakenly told her the job had been given to someone else) she served in a North Carolina orphanage that operated on faith principles. She met Tom and felt sure he was to be her husband. Ten days before the planned wedding, she heard a missionary from India speak and knew God meant her to be a missionary. Sobbing bitterly, she abandoned her marriage plans and told Tom she was going to Africa.

The holiness church she attended couldn't support her. So she sold all of her small belongings and raised money to go. A sister used the money to pay a debt, leaving Lillian with only $18--enough to take her as far as Washington, DC. She set out anyway, confident the Lord would provide. He did.

By 1910 she was in Egypt. Then came long years of discouragement. She ate the poorest food, including Besara, a cereal she detested. She even slept in jails as she built credibility with local authorities. Finally she announced that God was going to build a great Christian orphanage in Egypt, one that would operate by faith.

God was going to do just that. But Egypt entered a period of political turmoil. The British ordered Lillian out of the country. On this day, March 27, 1919 she stood at the rail of the boat and wept. "Egypt, I love you!" she said, vowing to return. In the United States, the newly-formed Assemblies of God took her to heart. She returned to Egypt in 1920 and promised the Lord she'd take whoever he sent to her orphanage. It was up to him to provide the food and funds.

She kept her word. And God kept his. Lillian became famous world wide. Which is why she is remembered as the "Mother of the Nile."

http://www.christianhistorytimeline.com/DAILYF/2002/03/daily-03-27-2002.shtml
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 7:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lives lost on SS Aguila - 27 March 1915

Eight lives (7 crew members plus one other) were lost when a U-Boat (UB 28) torpedoed SS Aguila on 27 March 1915 and callously fired on survivors in the water. The same U-Boat is belived to have torpedoed SS Falaba the following day, with the loss of some 104 lives. This community remembers thone who died aboard SS Aguila and some of the survivors.

Meer details op https://livesofthefirstworldwar.org/community/4645
Zie ook hier: https://www.peoplescollection.wales/items/429980
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 7:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archives: A crisis in agrarian history - 27 March 1915

Our great war today has reproduced one of the effects of our great war a century ago. It has raised prices in the pound. But it has also taken off a number of agricultural labourers who are now serving their country in the Flanders mud.

In 1795 there was one question before the governing world: how were the labourers to live? To-day there are two: How are the labourers to live, and how are the farms to be worked? The two questions are bound up together and the answer that is given to them will have consequences no less grave than the answer our fathers gave in their generation.

Two years ago principal members of the present Government [contended] that the position of the agricultural labourer, his low wages, his want of freedom, the bondage of his home and life, were a public scandal, and a scandal that the Government was resolved to bring to an end at all costs as quickly as possible.

These employers have now asked the Government to allow them to take the children from the schools, because they cannot find men to work their farms. The natural answer surely is that they must first of all remove the conditions that make their employment unattractive. What wages do you give your labourers? Do you allow them a Saturday half-holiday? On what terms do they occupy their cottages? Have you let them know that you have no objection to their joining or starting a union?

Until [these questions] are asked and answered satisfactorily any proposal to release children from school for the service of these employers is a proposal for a subsidy from the nation, and a subsidy of a very terrible kind, in aid of sweating, and sweating by a set of employers who are making an uncommonly good profit.

Unhappily, if Mr. Asquith's speech represents the last word of the Government, this is precisely what the Government are doing. Miss Susan Lawrence, writing in the "Labour Woman," reports that the Education Acts are now in abeyance in no less than twenty counties.

We know from the history of Lancashire what happened in the early days of children's employment in the cotton industry. What is there to prevent a Wiltshire farmer from saying to his labourer, "No, I won't give you another 2s. a week, but I will take your boy into my employment, and, what is more, if you don't bring him there will be no work for you either and you will have to leave my cottage"? And where is it going to end?

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/mar/27/from-the-archives
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 27, 1915: Typhoid Mary Imprisoned for Life!

A Brief History - On March 27, 1915 the woman history has come to know as Typhoid Mary was placed into involuntary quarantine for the rest of her life!

Digging Deeper - Mary Mallon born in Ireland and moved to the US at age 15. Mary moved from job to job, mostly as a cook and everywhere she worked people would get sick and sometimes die. In 1906 one of the families sickened with typhoid fever hired a private investigator who discovered the common factor in several typhoid outbreaks. That factor was Mary!

Now that Mary was identified she was asked to provide medical samples for testing but would not cooperate. In 1907, a squad of police officers arrested Mary and took her to jail. Medical samples were forcibly taken, and doctors found her gall bladder to be overrun with salmonella bacteria of the type that causes typhoid. Mary told investigators that as a cook she rarely washed her hands as she felt it served no purpose. She also insisted that she was not infected with a disease and refused to give up working as a cook!

Now called Typhoid Mary, Mary was taken to North Brother Island, New York, and held in quarantine for 3 years. In 1910 after signing a pledge to avoid working as a cook and to engage in rigorous sanitary practices, Mary was released back into society. That, as they say, was a mistake!

Mary changed her name and soon went back to work as a cook and the illnesses started again! For the next five years Mary went from job to job and was hard for investigators to track her down. After causing a typhoid epidemic at a New York hospital she was cooking for, police were hot on her trail and finally caught up with her on Long Island.
Mary was arrested and taken back to North Brother Island where she was held in quarantine for the rest of her life. Being somewhat famous, Mary was visited by reporters but only under stringent standards of hygiene. In 1932, Mary suffered paralysis from a stroke and died at age 69 in 1938. An autopsy confirmed her gall bladder was still infested with the typhoid salmonella bacteria. Not surprisingly, her body was cremated!

Along with the dozens or scores of people sickened by contact with Mary, at least 3 positively died from her proximity. There may well have been over 50 deaths because of her stubborn insistence that she could not possibly be the cause and refusal to maintain proper hygiene.

Researchers have since found other cases of people carrying the typhoid germs inside them without themselves getting any symptoms of illness, but spreading the disease to others. The reason you see all those “Employees Must Wash Hands Before Returning to Work” signs in the bathrooms of restaurants and other businesses is to prevent exactly this sort of disease spreading. Unfortunately, hand washing will not prevent carriers of high blood pressure and tension from spreading it to the rest of us! Do you know any?

Geschreven door iemand met een uitroepteken-fetisj... Jammer!!! https://www.historyandheadlines.com/march-27-1915-typhoid-mary-imprisoned-life/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great War Blog: 27 March 1915 – Hunting Grounds

Nine days ago, Kapitänleutnant Freiherr Georg-Günther von Forstner and the first wartime crew of the U-28 already began making history by becoming the first U-boat crew to capture and sink neutral vessels. (...)

Lees verder op http://ww1blog.osborneink.com/?p=6837
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GALLIPOLI DISPATCHES 1915 - Harry Biles' War Diary

Saturday 27 March, 1915: Arrived Port Said about 10 AM. “Franconia” and other RND Transports already moored up. British ships “Euryalus” and “Philomel” in harbour. Went aboard “Philomel” to get some blank ammunition for firing party, burying man of Anson Batt. Met Harry O’Neil, ship’s steward and Gunner’s Mate Hollanby, on board “Philomel”. Weather rather warm. Port Said not what it was when I was here in 1897. Much enlarged. Quite a city. 2nd RN Brigade Headquarters remaining on board “Royal George” for the present. Mail arrived. Received no letters. Went ashore about 8.30 pm, visited the Khedival Music Hall. Rotten. Returned on board again 11.30 pm.

https://peterhbiles.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/harry-biles-diary-egyptian-encounters-21-27-march-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Three Privates of the Northumberland Fusiliers, 3rd Division, after the attack on St.Eloi, 27th March 1916.

Ontroerende foto... https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205077552
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ON THIS DATE IN THEIR OWN WORDS: MARIA ROMANOV- 27 MARCH, 1916.

From the 1916 diary of Maria Romanov: 27 March. Sunday. Went to Church 5 with Mama, breakfast with same and Isa. Went to our infirmary with A. Rode 4 with Mama and Anya. Went to a concert at Anya’s infirmary 5 with Mama. Rode 2 with Shura. Had dinner 4 and Mama on the sofa. Anya was here.

http://www.theromanovfamily.com/date-words-maria-romanov-27-march-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 March 1916; Monday | The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot

Missed 7 o’clock parade. Paraded with the duties†. at 9 and then dismissed. Usual parades afterwards. Went into town at night with Metgrave. Had hair cut and bought shaving soap and a few things. Called at soldiers’ home last thing and had some supper.

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2016/03/27/27-march-1916-monday/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27th March 1916 - Worcestershire in WW1

Worcestershire Soldier’s Death: Pte. John Henry Potter was an old St. George’s boy, and joined the Army in January, 1915. Prior to enlisting he was an actor. He enlisted under his stage name of Vincent, but letters were found on him, by which he was identified. Capt. Radcliffe writes of him: “Pte. Vincent was killed on the 6th. I had chosen him out as a grenadier, and he, with 11 others, were holding a crater. A rifle grenade burst just above his head, and he was killed instantaneously. As is always the way, the best men go first, and this was so in his case.”

National Egg Collection: Eight hundred and fifty-seven eggs were collected at the Guildhall for the week ending Saturday, as compared to 750 the previous week. Kempsey sent 165, Inkberrow 90, Powick and Callow End 82, Grafton Flyford school children came next with 30. The eggs were sent to London for France.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1916/03/royal-albert-orphanage-holds-annual-meeting/

27th March 1917 - Worcestershire in WW1

Mr. James Worsley has received notice that his son, Sergt. Basil Worsley of the Worcestershire Regt. has been missing since February 26. It will be remembered that he was already a soldier serving in India before the war began (having joined at the age of 16). He was sent, as lance-corporal, to Gallipoli, where he was wounded, but were, by efficiency, he gained the D.C.M. and promotion to the rank of sergeant. He was sent to a hospital in Egypt to recuperate, and was given a short leave at home last May before starting for France.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1917/03/inauguration-of-the-womens-institute-in-worcester/

27th March 1918 - Worcestershire in WW1

Diseased Women and Soldiers: It is now an offence under the Defence of the Realm Act regulations for a woman suffering from venereal disease to commit or suggest acts which may communicate the disease to a soldier or sailor. A woman charged under this regulation has the right to be remanded for medical examination by her own doctor or the prison medical officer.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1918/03/diseased-women-and-soldiers/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 27 Mrt 2018 9:15, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 March 1917 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: End of an era: Militia disbands

A small notice placed in the newspaper this week spoke volumes about a significant change presently underway in the island, and the conclusion of a way of life. In just a few words it spelt the end of hundreds of years of tradition – temporarily at least – as the Jersey Militia disbanded in line with the new Military Service Act.

The notice advertised a sale of furniture from the Sergeant’s mess of the Militia’s 1st (West) Battalion. Under the provisions of the new act, furniture, mess and sergeants are no longer required to defend Jersey. In place of the Militia will be a new military unit formed from men unfit for active service overseas, that will come directly under the British Army rather than have any local control.

The new garrison battalion will not require all of the installations previously used by the Militia, leading to the advertised sale of furniture. While Fort Regent and St Peter’s Barracks remain in military hands, only two of the island’s arsenals, Town and Grouville, are being retained. The remaining four – St Martin, St Mary, St Peter and St Lawrence - will be released for other purposes.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/27-march-1917
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Birmingham Daily Post - Tuesday 27 March 1917

HOW WOMEN ARE HELPING THE ALLIES. REMARKABLE INCREASE IN THE OUTPUT OF MUNITIONS.

The wonderful success of women in engineering work is clearly demonstrated at an exhibition of official Munitions photographs and samples of work which was opened yesterday under the auspices of the Ministry of Munitions at the Royal Colonial Institute. Efforts are being made to increase the employment of women in engineering work, and the exhibition, which illustrates the accurate and responsible character of work undertaken by them, should have a stimulating effect on the process of dilution.

“Nothing comes amiss to them that come within their physical capacity,” remarked an expert engineer of the department to a press representative. “We have women of all classes and standards of education who are doing work which no-one in the pre-war days would have dreamt they would have been capable. Many of them are working from plans on the most accurate class of engineering and upon work which is difficult from the fact that it is not what is known as repetition work. In general engineering the girls are capable of tackling anything the machines can tackle. They set their own tools and machines and work to dimensions given on drawings.”

Referring to voluntary workers, the official said that many women of social position were performing excellent work in munition factories. In one place a lady of title worked a full fifty-four hours week on bombs, beginning each day at 7 a.m. She accepted all the conditions of the ordinary employee. Her coachman was employed in the same factory.

In the aircraft section a remarkable exhibit showing the success of women in producing cylinders for rotary aeroplane engines. The cylinder is produced from block steel originally weighing 90lb., and after twenty or thirty operations the finished article is turned out at one-tenth of that weight. Women are now employed to an increasing extent on wings or other parts of the aeroplane. Another interesting section contains the component parts of engines used in the Tanks, and in the general engineering section may be seen the most recent inventions in shell fuses, hand grenades, bullet-proof helmets, body armour, and aerial torpedoes.

http://www.voicesofwarandpeace.org/2017/03/27/on-this-day-27-march-1917/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2018 8:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 March 1917 letter sent from France from Lawrence Pridham to his Uncle Will in Toronto...

... in which he mentions the death of his grandmother, the sad state of local villages and the miserable weather which has left the trenches very sloppy. Once again you can see the envelopes have been opened and re-sealed by the censor.

Please send to H.A.P and R A.P.
Return this one to Uncle Will

France
March 27/17

Dear Uncle Will,

Received your very welcomed letter, also 50 Players [cigarettes] and a bundle of newspapers for which I thank you.

I am very grieved to hear of Grandma’s death and I send my deepest sympathies to you all. I was hoping that she might be there when I came back as I was so disappointed at not seeing her before I left. I am sure Hal [Lawrence’s brother] and I realize that we owed a lot to dear old Grandma and we will miss her thoughtful letters very much. I am sure you all miss her greatly.

As for my trip here there is nothing to note unless it is hardships, as most of the moving is made at night and we see very little and what we do see is nothing but old fashioned villages, deserted mostly except for troops. The villages themselves are mostly composed of barns. Anyway that is what you would think. They were in a very dilapidated condition at that.

The weather is very miserable and the trenches are sloppy.

Well, I will close and again send my heartfelt regrets for dear old Grandma.

With love to all
I remain as ever,
Lawrie


https://qormuseum.org/soldiers-of-the-queens-own/pridham-lawrence-ducharme/pridham-27-03-1917/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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