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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2006 7:16    Onderwerp: 4 Maart Reageer met quote

March 4

1913 Woodrow Wilson’s first inaugural address

With trouble brewing between the great nations of Europe, Thomas Woodrow Wilson takes office as the 28th president of the United States on this day in 1913, in Washington, D.C.

The Virginia-born son of a Presbyterian minister, Wilson became president of Princeton University in 1902; he resigned the post in 1910 to run successfully for the governorship of New Jersey. Two years later, he won a tight race for the Democratic nomination for president, aided by a split in the Republican Party and the third-party candidacy of former president Theodore Roosevelt. After a vigorous campaign on a reformist platform dubbed New Freedom, Wilson outpolled both Roosevelt and the Republican incumbent, William Howard Taft, though he failed to capture a majority of the popular vote.

At his inauguration ceremony on March 4, 1913, Wilson made clear his vision of the United States and its people as an exemplary moral force: “Nowhere else in the world have noble men and women exhibited in more striking forms the beauty and the energy of sympathy and helpfulness and counsel in their efforts to rectify wrong, alleviate suffering, and set the weak in the way of strength and hope.” Wilson’s first term as president would be dedicated to pushing through ambitious domestic programs—including the Federal Reserve Act and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission; his second, which began in 1916, would be marked irrevocably by the First World War.

Though Wilson won reelection in 1916 on a platform of strict neutrality, he would soon give himself over completely to his vision of the United States as a powerful moral force that should play an important role in shaping international affairs. German aggression—best exemplified by its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare—provided an impetus for this vision, pushing the president and his country towards entrance into the war. Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war on April 2, 1917; the U.S. formally entered the war four days later.

Wilson’s famous Fourteen Points—presented in a speech to Congress in January 1918—and his plan for an international organization dedicated to regulating conflicts and preserving peace between nations became the basis, after the armistice, for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. In the face of tough opposition from conservative opponents in Congress, Wilson was unable to push through ratification of either the treaty or the League in his own country, which greatly lessened its efficacy in the post-war era. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1920, an exhausted Wilson suffered a stroke soon after that nearly killed him. He left office in 1921 and died three years later.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2006 11:35    Onderwerp: The Bluff, 4 maart 1916 Reageer met quote

4 Maart 1916. Britse troepen (17e en 3e divisie) heroveren 'The Bluff', een kunstmatige heuvel aan de zijkant van het kanaal Ieper-Komen, op slechts enkele hoinderden meters van Hill 60. The Bluff was enkele weken voordien, na de ontploffing van drie dieptemijnen, door de Duitsers veroverd. De nieuwe frontlijn van de Duitsers werd wekenlang door aanhoudend Brits artillerievuur van de steunloopgraven afgesneden. Op 4 maart voeren de Britten zonder artillerievoorbereiding een verrassingsaanval uit, en drijven ze de murwmgeslagen Duitsers uit hun stellingen. In twee weken tijd zijn aan beide zijden bijna 3000 slachtoffers gevallen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 0:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 March 1914, Lords Sitting

THE ARMY.


HL Deb 04 March 1914 vol 15 cc373-6 373

THE EARL OF PORTSMOUTH My Lords, I beg to ask His Majesty's Government the following Questions—

§ I. Regular Army—

1. What is the present establishment.
2. What is the actual strength at present.

374
§ II. Special Reserve—

1. What is the present establishment.
2. What is the actual strength at present.
3. How many men in the Special Reserve at present are under 20 years of age.

§ III. Territorial Force—

1. What is the present establishment.
2. What is the actual strength at present.
3. How many men in the Territorial Force at present are under 20 years of age.
4. How many attended camp training for 15 days or over in 1913.
5. How many men were tested in musketry in the year ended 30th September, 1913; how many qualified, and how many failed.
6. How many battalions carried out field firing.
7. What was the number of horses in camp with the Yeomanry. Of these, how many were—
(a) The property of officers, noncommissioned officers, and men;
(b Hired;
(c) The property of Government;
(d) The property of the Associations.

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES (LORD LUCAS) My Lords, the answers to the noble Earl's Questions are as follow: The establishment of the Regular Army is 10,547 officers and 233,218 non-commissioned officers and men, making a total of 243,765; the strength on February 1 was 10,431 officers and 223,995 non-commissioned officers and men, making a total of 234,426. The present establishment of the Special Reserve is 2,882 officers and 75,832 non-commissioned officers and men—total, 78,714; the strength on February 1 was 2,422 officers and 62,133 non-commissioned officers and' men, totaling 64,555. The number of non-commissioned officers and men in the Special Reserve under twenty years of age on October 1 last was 16,820.

I now come to the Territorial Force. The establishment on January 1 was 11,233 officers and 301,167 non-commissioned officers and men, making a total of 312,400; the strength on January 1 was 9,366 officers and 239,819 non-commissioned officers and men, making a total of 249,185. The number of non-commissioned officers and men under twenty years of age on October 1 last was 79,322. The numbers attending camp for fifteen days or over in 1913 were 7,099 officers and 157,827 non-commissioned officers and men. As to musketry, there were tested in the standard test 51,724 recruits and 112,987 trained men—total, 164,711. Of those, there qualified 42,213 recruits and 105,413 trained men, making a total of 147,626; and there failed 9,511 recruits and 7,574 trained men—total 17,085. The answer to the next Question is that 196 Infantry battalions carried out field firing during the musketry year 1912–13. The number of horses in camp with the Yeomanry in 1913 was 20,430. Of these 7,899 were the property of officers, non - commissioned officers, and men; 12,432 were hired; 11 were the property of Government; and 88 were the property of County Associations.

THE EARL OF PORTSMOUTH Did the noble Lord say that only eleven of these horses belonged to Government?

LORD LUCAS Yes; horses belonging to the Regular Army that were lent for the purpose.

VISCOUNT MIDLETON Can the noble Lord tell us how many of the hired horses were hired more than once by different regiments?

LORD LUCAS No, I cannot.

LORD CLIFFORD OF CHUDLEIGH Did I understand the noble Lord to say that only 88 horses were the property of County Associations?

LORD LUCAS Yes, only 88 of the horses that went out to camp with the Yeomanry. Most of the horses belonging to County Associations are draft horses, which usually go to camp with Artillery or the Army Service Corps.

THE EARL of PORTSMOUTH Might I ask whether the Government will do in this case what they have done before with regard to other Questions which I have put to them—namely, issue the reply to the Questions as a White Paper. It would be very valuable if that could be done.

LORD LUCAS Yes, we will issue the figures as a White Paper.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1914/mar/04/the-army
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 0:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Border Regiment - Battalions of the Regular Army

2/4th (Cumberland and Westmorland) Battalion
Formed at Kendal in September 1914 as a home service ("second line") unit. Moved to billets in Blackpool.
4 March 1915 : sailed from Avonmouth for India. Remained in India throughout the war. Attached on arrival to Poona Brigade in 6th (Poona) Divisional Area.

http://www.1914-1918.net/border.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 0:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New Zealand Military Nursing

New Zealand Army Nursing Service - Royal New Zealand Nursing Corps

1913 – District Matrons Appointed
There was some movement in 1913 with the appointment of four district matrons with each to have 16 nurses under their authority. Although nurses were willing to enrol they could not as regulations had not been approved and again no further progress was made. Maclean* had been working on new Regulations for a New Zealand Army Nursing Service Reserve (NZANSR) since shortly after she became MIC in 1911.

1914 – Regulations for NZANSR Submitted
On 4 March Maclean is informed by Lt Col Collins that the proposed regulations she had submitted appeared suitable subject to a few minor changes. Having made the changes, Maclean forwarded the proposed regulations to Lt Col Collins who was to make the request for the formation of the NZANSR. On 11 June Lt. Col. Collins informed Maclean that the draft regulations were suitable with only queries on uniform and pay to be resolved.

* Hester Maclean: Born Australia 25 Feb 1863; trained Royal Prince Alfred Sydney 1893; Matron Kogarah Hospital 1894 -97; Matron Womens Hospital Melbourne 1900-04; Assistant Inspector of Hospitals New Zealand 1906; established, published and edited the New Zealand Nurses Journal "Kia Tiaki" from 1908; died Wellington 22 August 1932.

http://nzans.org/NZANS%20History/NZANSHistory-1911-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 0:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events in the Gallipoli Campaign: March 1915

4 March 1915 - Royal Marines sent ashore at Sedd-el-Bahr met strong resistance and have to be taken off. The battleship HMS Majestic shelled the village and, as was reported by one British naval officer, ‘in a few minutes there was in place of a village a smoking ruin’.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/march-1915.html

Gallipoli Campaign

On 19 February, the first attack on the Dardanelles began when a strong Anglo-French task force, including the British battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth, bombarded Turkish artillery along the coast. Many believed victory to be inevitable. Admiral Carden sent a cable to Churchill on 4 March, stating that the fleet could expect to arrive in Istanbul within fourteen days.[10] A sense of impending victory was heightened by the interception of a German wireless message which revealed the Ottoman Dardanelle forts were close to running out of ammunition.[10] When the message was relayed to Carden, it was agreed a main attack would be launched on or around 17 March.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 0:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Constantinople Agreement

From 4 March to 10 April 1915, the Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia) secretly discussed how to divide up the lands of the Ottoman Empire, obviously without any consideration for the wishes of the inhabitants of these lands. Britain got to control an even larger zone in Iran while Russia would get the Ottoman capital, Istanbul. The Dardanelles were also promised to Russia. Even though the British never wanted the Russians to control Istanbul or the Dardanelles, the felt they needed to make this agreement as an initiative for Russia staying in the First World War. With the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, Russia dropped out of the war and thus the agreement was never put into effect regarding Russian control over former Ottoman lands.

Mooi artikel... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople_Agreement
Zie ook http://muqtafi2.birzeit.edu/en/InterDocs/images/280.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 0:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 March 1915

$300,000 funding is passed by the United States Congress for the development of army aviation in 1916.

http://www.warbirds-online.org/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lord Northcliff on Verdun - 4 March 1916

What is the secret motive underlying the German attempt to break the French line at Verdun, in which the Crown Prince's army is incurring such appalling losses? Is it financial, in view of the coming war loan? Is it dynastic? Or is it intended to influence doubting neutrals? From the evidence of German deserters it is known that the attack was originally intended to take place a month or two hence, when the ground was dry. Premature spring caused the Germans to accelerate their plans. There were two final delays owing to bad weather, and then came the colossal onslaught of February 21st.

The Germans made a good many of the mistakes we made at Gallipoli. They announced that something large was pending by closing the Swiss frontier. The French who were not ready, were also warned by their own astute Intelligence Department. Their avions were not idle, and, if confirmation were needed, it was given by deserters, who, surmising the horrors that were to come, crept out of the trenches at night, lay down by the edge of the Meuse till the morning, and then gave themselves up, together with information that has since proved to be accurate.

Lees verder op http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Lord_Northcliff_on_Verdun
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Notes on the Front
Tightening the Grip 4 March 1916


In our editorial last week we pointed out that the pressure of economic forces were being brought to bear upon this country in order to compel the young manhood of Ireland to enlist in the British Army.

We also pointed out that this was also an astute move in the interests of the great capitalists. This latter point is so important, and so little understood in this country, that we feel moved to again revert to it in our Notes this week.

The first point scarcely needs any stressing. The Military Service Act now being applied to England has not been enforced in Ireland because, as has been confessed in the House of Commons by Mr Bonar Law, it could not be put in operation without the use of a 'considerable amount of force'. The armed manhood of Ireland whom Messrs Redmond and Devlin failed to betray into the ranks of England's army forbade the attempt being made to force them in.

Lees verder: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/E900002-063/text001.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

President Woodrow Wilson's Inauguration Address, 4 March 1917

Sitting President Woodrow Wilson secured re-election in the U.S. presidential elections of 1916 on a platform of continued peace (and therefore neutrality) for America. On 2 April 1917 - he addressed the U.S. Congress to request permission to declare war upon Germany; war was duly declared four days later.

My Fellow Citizens:

The four years which have elapsed since last I stood in this place have been crowded with counsel and action of the most vital interest and consequence. Perhaps no equal period in our history has been so fruitful of important reforms in our economic and industrial life or so full of significant changes in the spirit and purpose of our political action.

We have sought very thoughtfully to set our house in order, correct the grosser errors and abuses of our industrial life, liberate and quicken the processes of our national genius and energy, and lift our politics to a broader view of the people's essential interests.

It is a record of singular variety and singular distinction. But I shall not attempt to review it. It speaks for itself and will be of increasing influence as the years go by. This is not the time for retrospect. It is time rather to speak our thoughts and purposes concerning the present and the immediate future.

Although we have centred counsel and action with such unusual concentration and success upon the great problems of domestic legislation to which we addressed ourselves four years ago, other matters have more and more forced themselves upon our attention - matters lying outside our own life as a nation and over which we had no control, but which, despite our wish to keep free of them, have drawn us more and more irresistibly into their own current and influence.

It has been impossible to avoid them. They have affected the life of the whole world. They have shaken men everywhere with a passion and an apprehension they never knew before. It has been hard to preserve calm counsel while the thought of our own people swayed this way and that under their influence. We are a composite and cosmopolitan people. We are of the blood of all the nations that are at war.

The currents of our thoughts as well as the currents of our trade run quick at all seasons back and forth between us and them. The war inevitably set its mark from the first alike upon our minds, our industries, our commerce, our politics and our social action. To be indifferent to it, or independent of it, was out of the question.

And yet all the while we have been conscious that we were not part of it. In that consciousness, despite many divisions, we have drawn closer together. We have been deeply wronged upon the seas, but we have not wished to wrong or injure in return; have retained throughout the consciousness of standing in some sort apart, intent upon an interest that transcended the immediate issues of the war itself.

As some of the injuries done us have become intolerable we have still been clear that we wished nothing for ourselves that we were not ready to demand for all mankind - fair dealing, justice, the freedom to live and to be at ease against organized wrong.

It is in this spirit and with this thought that we have grown more and more aware, more and more certain that the part we wished to play was the part of those who mean to vindicate and fortify peace. We have been obliged to arm ourselves to make good our claim to a certain minimum of right and of freedom of action.

We stand firm in armed neutrality since it seems that in no other way we can demonstrate what it is we insist upon and cannot forget. We may even be drawn on, by circumstances, not by our own purpose or desire, to a more active assertion of our rights as we see them and a more immediate association with the great struggle itself. But nothing will alter our thought or our purpose. They are too clear to be obscured. They are too deeply rooted in the principles of our national life to be altered.

We desire neither conquest nor advantage. We wish nothing that can be had only at the cost of another people. We always professed unselfish purpose and we covet the opportunity to prove our professions are sincere.

There are many things still to be done at home, to clarify our own politics and add new vitality to the industrial processes of our own life, and we shall do them as time and opportunity serve, but we realize that the greatest things that remain to be done must be done with the whole world for stage and in cooperation with the wide and universal forces of mankind, and we are making our spirits ready for those things.

We are provincials no longer. The tragic events of the thirty months of vital turmoil through which we have just passed have made us citizens of the world. There can be no turning back. Our own fortunes as a nation are involved whether we would have it so or not.

And yet we are not the less Americans on that account. We shall be the more American if we but remain true to the principles in which we have been bred. They are not the principles of a province or of a single continent. We have known and boasted all along that they were the principles of a liberated mankind. These, therefore, are the things we shall stand for, whether in war or in peace:

That all nations are equally interested in the peace of the world and in the political stability of free peoples, and equally responsible for their maintenance; that the essential principle of peace is the actual equality of nations in all matters of right or privilege; that peace cannot securely or justly rest upon an armed balance of power; that governments derive all their just powers from the consent of the governed and that no other powers should be supported by the common thought, purpose or power of the family of nations; that the seas should be equally free and safe for the use of all peoples, under rules set up by common agreement and consent, and that, so far as practicable, they should be accessible to all upon equal terms; that national armaments shall be limited to the necessities of national order and domestic safety; that the community of interest and of power upon which peace must henceforth depend imposes upon each nation the duty of seeing to it that all influences proceeding from its own citizens meant to encourage or assist revolution in other states should be sternly and effectually suppressed and prevented.

I need not argue these principles to you, my fellow countrymen; they are your own part and parcel of your own thinking and your own motives in affairs. They spring up native amongst us. Upon this as a platform of purpose and of action we can stand together. And it is imperative that we should stand together. We are being forged into a new unity amidst the fires that now blaze throughout the world.

In their ardent heat we shall, in God's Providence, let us hope, be purged of faction and division, purified of the errant humours of party and of private interest, and shall stand forth in the days to come with a new dignity of national pride and spirit. Let each man see to it that the dedication is in his own heart, the high purpose of the nation in his own mind, ruler of his own will and desire.

I stand here and have taken the high and solemn oath to which you have been audience because the people of the United States have chosen me for this august delegation of power and have by their gracious judgment named me their leader in affairs.

I know now what the task means. I realize to the full the responsibility which it involves. I pray God I may be given the wisdom and the prudence to do my duty in the true spirit of this great people. I am their servant and can succeed only as they sustain and guide me by their confidence and their counsel.

The thing I shall count upon, the thing without which neither counsel nor action will avail, is the unity of America - an America united in feeling, in purpose and in its vision of duty, of opportunity and of service.

We are to beware of all men who would turn the tasks and the necessities of the nation to their own private profit or use them for the building up of private power.

United alike in the conception of our duty and in the high resolve to perform it in the face of all men, let us dedicate ourselves to the great task to which we must now set our hand. For myself I beg your tolerance, your countenance and your united aid.

The shadows that now lie dark upon our path will soon be dispelled, and we shall walk with the light all about us if we be but true to ourselves - to ourselves as we have wished to be known in the counsels of the world and in the thought of all those who love liberty and justice and the right exalted.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/wilson1917inauguration.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Influenza Epidemic of 1918

The influenza epidemic came in two waves. The first wave, in the spring of 1918, took
far fewer victims than the second. The disease was first observed at Fort Riley, Kansas, on
March 4, 1918, and Queens, New York, on March 11, 1918.8 This first wave did not receive
much public attention. One reason for this is that for the most part, America’s public health
system ignored it. Generally, public health departments did not receive reports of influenza. Most
doctors simply cited pneumonia on the death certificates of those killed, since the flu came first
and weakened the resistance so that pneumonia followed. At that time there was not a sufficient
network of federal, state, and local public health departments. Another factor helping to explain
why this spring wave of the flu epidemic received so little public attention was that it occurred at
the time that American soldiers were getting into the war effort in Europe. In March 1918, a total
of 84,000 American soldiers left for Europe. In April, another 118,000 followed.

http://www.co.seneca.ny.us/history/The%20Influenza%20Pandemic%20of%201918.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

TOM DENKER' S WORLD WAR I REMINISCENCE

"March 4, 1918, I reported at 165 Depot Brigrade, San Antonio, Texas, where I was issued army clothes, had a physical examination, was vaccinated and ..."

Lees verder op http://www.wogwoe.com/Family/0cd_TomDenkerWW1.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

President Warren G Harding's Inauguration Address, 4 March 1921

Replacing President Woodrow Wilson following his election in November 1920 - Wilson had served two terms as president and had completed his second term a sick man - Warren G. Harding addressed the American people in 1921 in giving his inauguration speech.

As a consequence of the events of World War One Harding revealed during the inauguration address his intention to return American foreign policy to its former stance of international isolation.


My Countrymen:

When one surveys the world about him after the great storm, noting the marks of destruction and yet rejoicing in the ruggedness of the things which withstood it, if he is an American he breathes the clarified atmosphere with a strange mingling of regret and new hope.

We have seen a world passion spend its fury, but we contemplate our Republic unshaken, and hold our civilization secure. Liberty - liberty within the law - and civilization are inseparable, and though both were threatened we find them now secure; and there comes to Americans the profound assurance that our representative government is the highest expression and surest guaranty of both.

Lees verder... http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/harding1921inauguration.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2010 1:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 March 1919, Commons Sitting

DEMOBILISED MAN ARRESTED AS ABSENTEE.


HC Deb 04 March 1919 vol 113 c196 196

Colonel ASHLEY asked the Secretary of State for War whether his attention has been drawn in the case of Private James Cullen, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, stationed at Galashiels, who, through an error on the part of his commanding officer, was demobilised, and was afterwards arrested as an absentee and brought before the West Riding magistrate at Wakefield; and whether he will see that this man is not penalised for his commanding officer's mistake?

Mr. CHURCHILL I am not aware of this occurrence, but will make inquiries into the case, and inform my hon. and gallant Friend of the result as early as possible.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/mar/04/demobilised-man-arrested-as-absentee
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Historische momenten aangaande het Twenthe-kanaal:

Eind negentiende eeuw werden er door de minister van Verkeer en Waterstaat al plannen gemaakt voor de twee Twenthe-kanalen. In 1891 werd het plan gelanceerd voor een scheepvaartkanaal van Twenthe naar de Boven Rijn en een vertakking naar de IJssel bij Zutphen.

Tussen 1907 en 1915 verschenen er van verschillende zijden plannen om nieuwe kanalen aan te leggen en/of bestaande kanalen te verbeteren.

In deze periode werden talrijke plannen ingediend om een verbinding van Twenthe met de grote waterwegen in Nederland te bewerkstelligen.

Aangezien het voor de regering uiterst moeilijk bleek om uit die veelheid van plannen een verantwoorde keuze te maken, stelde zij bij Koninklijk Besluit van 4 maart 1914 een uit 11 leden bestaande Staatscommissie bij Koninklijk Besluit onder voorzitterschap van de Inspecteur-Generaal van den Rijkswaterstaat, de heer ir. C.A. Jolles.

Deze commissie kreeg als opdracht te onderzoeken welk tracé uit technisch en economisch oogpunt het meest in aanmerking kwam voor het aan te leggen kanaal.

Op 19 mei 1917 verscheen haar rapport.

http://www.e-w-v.nl/kanaalhistorie.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geschiedenis Bataljon Limburgse Jagers

De geschiedenis van het regiment. Het Regiment Limburgse Jagers werd opgericht bij Koninklijk Besluit van 1 juli 1950. Het is dan ook vanwege dit feit dat wij in het jaar 2000 het vijftig-jarig bestaan vieren van het Regiment. In dit besluit werd niet alleen de oprichting van het Regiment aangekondigd, ook werd door Koningin Juliana bepaald dat het ‘nieuwe’ Regiment de tradities zou voortzetten van het 2e, 6e en 11e regiment Infanterie. We gaan kort beschrijven wat deze oude tradities eigenlijk zijn. Daarvoor gaan we terug in de tijd.

We beginnen in het jaar 1813 en richten ons hierbij eerst op het 2e Regiment Infanterie.

Toen vormde de kolonel J. Phaff een vrijwilligerskorps om te helpen de troepen van Napoleon Bonaparte uit Nederland te verdrijven. Dit korps kreeg uiteindelijk de naam "2e Bataljon Infanterie van Linie" en nam in 1814 deel aan de verovering van Breda en de vesting Naarden. In 1815 streed het bataljon bij Quatre Bras en Waterloo, weer tegen Napoleon. Sinds die tijd voerde dit bataljon dan ook in zijn vaandel het opschrift "Quatre Bras en Waterloo 1815". Daarnaast heeft dit bataljon ook nog gevochten bij de Belgische opstand van 1830, de Tiendaagse Veldtocht in 1831 en de verdediging van de Citadel van Antwerpen in 1832.

De basis van het 6e Regiment Infanterie was het "Zuid-Nederlands Regiment Jagers nummer 2". Deze eenheid werd opgericht op 4 maart 1914 en naam ook deel aan dezelfde operaties en veldslagen als het hierboven beschreven 2e Regiment Infanterie. Was dit laatste regiment het oudste stamonderdeel van het Regiment Limburgse Jagers, het 6e Regiment Infanterie wordt vaak beschreven als "het meest roemruchte".

http://www.flj89.nl/index.php?page=geschiedenis_blj
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1914
door Cees Pot

4 maart 1914 - Een vrouw die op de Weteringschans bij de Vijzelgracht van een rijdende tram wil springen, komt te vallen, en moet wegens een hoofdwond in het Binnengasthuis behandeld worden.
De rechtbank doet uitspraak in een zaak tegen een 47-jarige metaalarbeider in dienst van de gemeente, die op 20 juli 1913 als tijdelijk wagenbestuurder bij de tram dienstdeed. Die dag is hij met een tram van lijn 4 op de Ceintuurbaan bij de 2e Sweelinckstraat achterop een rijdende tram van lijn 3 gebotst, waardoor een passagier op het achterbalkon een hersenschudding opliep waarvoor hij in een sanatorium in Zeist verpleegd moest worden, en enige weken niet kon werken. Het Openbaar Ministerie vindt dat er sprake is van roekeloos gedrag, en eist een maand gevangenisstraf, maar de rechter spreekt de trambestuurder vrij, omdat hij roekeloosheid niet bewezen acht en er geen sprake is van overtreding van de rij-instructies.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Een massagraf te Avekapelle - 4 maart 1915
Herman Declerck

Op 4 maart 1915 hielden soldaten van het 9°/29° Linieregiment wacht in de loopgraven te Pervijze nabij het station.

Tijdens een beschieting in de loop van de dag viel een obus in één van die loopgraven waarbij 6 soldaten op slag werden gedood. De lichamen werden verwijderd en overgebracht enkele kilometers achter de frontlinie tot in Avekapelle waar er nog een priester aanwezig was.

Na een korte plechtigheid werden de gesneuvelden begraven in een massagraf nabij de kerk. De pastoor noteerde het volgende in zijn begraafboek :



Wat meer bijzonderheden over deze 6 :

- Desauw Edgard van Tielt, ligt nu begraven te Houthulst - graf 602
- Gerard Charles van Bomal sur Ourthe, ligt nu begraven te Steenkerke - graf 323
- Hayez Stephane van Hornu, ligt nu begraven te Steenkerke - graf 120
- Joris Charles van Zichem, ligt nu begraven te Ronse op het gemeentelijk kerkhof
- Neyens Josue van Ichtegem, ligt nu begraven te Steenkerke - graf 314
- Potoms Jan van Mechelen, ligt nu begraven te Mechelen op het stedelijk kerkhof

Tijdens de rampzalige ontploffing kort voordien was er nog een strijdmakker van hen zwaar gewond geraakt. In allerijl werd hij overgebracht naar het hospitaal Cabour te Adinkerke waar hij echter dezelfde dag ook de geest gaf.

Zijn doodsprentje :



http://pervijze.skynetblogs.be/archive/2008/01/25/een-massagraf-te-avekapelle-4-maart-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10th Bavarian Infantry Division (German Empire)

The 10th Bavarian Infantry Division (10. Bayerische Infanterie-Division) was a unit of the Royal Bavarian Army, part of the Imperial German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on March 3, 1915 and organized over the next few weeks. It was part of a wave of new infantry divisions formed in the spring of 1915. The division was disbanded in August 1918 and its assets distributed to other units.

(...) The 10th Bavarian Infantry Division was formed as a triangular division. The order of battle of the division on March 4, 1915 was as follows:

20. bayerische Infanterie-Brigade
Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 6
Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 8
Kgl. Bayerisches 16. Infanterie-Regiment Großherzog Ferdinand von Toskana
Kgl. Bayerische Radfahrer-Kompanie Nr. 10

3.Eskadron/Kgl. Bayerisches 5. Chevaulegers-Regiment Erzherzog Friedrich von Österreich

10. bayerische Feldartillerie-Brigade
Kgl. Bayerisches 19. Feldartillerie-Regiment
Kgl. Bayerisches 20. Feldartillerie-Regiment
Kgl. Bayerisches 10. Fußartillerie-Bataillon

Kgl. Bayerische Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 19

Kgl. Bayerische Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 20


http://wally.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/10th_Bavarian_Infantry_Division_%28German_Empire%29
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Life Magazine – March 4, 1915



Cover : Circus family playing with their small child, “The Big Act”

http://2neat.com/magazines/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=1063
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Butte Vauquois

De heuvel van Vauquois is de hoogste in het gebied ten westen van de Argonnen en biedt een onbelemmerd uitzicht naar alle richtingen Vanaf 24 september 1914 bezetten de Duitsers deze Heuvel en maakte het een vesting.
Op 4 maart 1915 nemen de Fransen de heuvel na meerder pogingen weer in. Hiermee is de stelling oorlog om de Butte Vauquois begonnen. De Soldaten graven zich in en graven kilometers lange gangen en zijlinies om in het vijandelijke netwerk te kunnen infiltreren en de vijand zoveel mogelijk uit te schakelen met enorme hoeveelheden explosieven. De Heuvel veranderd in een waar mierennest. Meer dan 17 km gangen, putten en zijlinies.

http://www.spijks.com/index.php?pagina=Verdun%20Dag%201
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Eemlander, 4 maart 1915

Een drieling. De landweerman G.T. van Os te Erica heeft op de secretarie aangifte gedaan van de geboorte van een drieling, 2 jongens en 1 meisje.

http://www.b-zwart.nl/ericapagina/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brief gericht tot den Belgischen gezant te Buenos Ayres verschenen in de "Courrier de la Plata," en in de "Argentina " van 4 Maart 1915.

De Marteling Van Leuven

Naar een neutralen ooggetuige.

"De Voorhoede van het leger van Von Kluck bezette Leuven zonder slag of stoot, den 10den Augustus 's middags. Eerste verkeerde voorstelling die moet worden te niet gedaan: Leuven werd niet beschoten. Gevechten hadden enkel plaats in de omgeving van Thienen en van Diest, ten Noorden en ten Oosten van Leuven. De verwoesting van deze stad werd op uitdrukkelijk bevel voltrokken door een brandstichterskorps, zeven dagen na hare bezetting. De plaatselijke bevelhebber welke ertoe liet overgaan heette Manteuffel en het is het 52e infanterie-regiment dat er gedurende deze eerste dagen legerde.

"De brand nam aanvang om halfacht 's avonds, op 25 Augustus. Terwijl de stad allerwegen brandde, schoten de Duitschers de ongelukkigen neer welke hunne vlammende woningen ontvluchtten. Het was een nacht vol ondenkbaar afgrijzen. Het meerendeel van de inwoners slaagden er nochtans in te ontkomen langs de achterplaatsen en de hoven. Zulks deed ik eveneens, wanneer rond middernacht de huizen begonnen te branden in de nabijheid van de woning welke ik betrok in de Justus Lipsiusstraat.

"'s Anderendaags 's morgens werd ik gevangen genomen en rond 10 uur naar het station gevoerd.

"Bij mij was er een Spanjaard, Pater Catala, onder-consul van Spanje, sinds weinigen tijd, en overste van een college in de Stationstraat dat in brand werd gestoken ondanks de Spaansche vlag welke boven de deur uitstak. Tot deze eerste gevangenen-groep ten getale van zeventig tot tachtig, behoorden zeer achtbare lieden, advocaten, geneesheeren e.a. Wij waren met ons vijven vreemdelingen: Pater Catala, drie Spaansche jongelingen en ik. Men stelde ons op rijen van vier tusschen soldaten welke ons hoonden en onbeschoft bejegenden. Bij den ingang van de Stationstraat, lag er een gedeeltelijk verkoold lijk, in de gangen van het station lagen vijftien of twintig lijken van neergeschoten burgers. En vooral in die wijk van de stad sloeg rook en vlammen op. Dagen van onbeschrijflijke ontsteltenis!

"Ik hield in de hand mijn paspoort dat mijn hoedanigheid als vreemdeling bewees. Ik trachtte op welke wijze ook te ontkomen aan den dood, welken ik dreigend wist, want de Duitschers, zoo soldaten als officieren waren op dat oogenblik geen menschen meer, maar wilde dieren. God alleen, door een wonder, vermocht ons te redden. Men wilde van mijn pas niets af weten. Telkenmale ik het beproefde mijne onschuld te bewijzen en mijne Amerikaansche nationaliteit, bedreigden en sloegen mij de officieren. Toen ik zag dat alles nutteloos was, berustte ik in mijn lot en bereidde me voor tot den dood; mijne gezellen deden dit ook.

"Rond elf uur stelde men ons op weg naar Mechelen, waar in den omtrek, Belgen en Duitschers streden. Rechts en links van de baan, stond alles in laai. Te Herent, vijf kilometer van Leuven, zag ik in een muurhoek het lijk van een twaalf-of dertienjarig meisje, levend verbrand. Al den tijd dat wij op weg waren, mishandelde men ons wreed. Men gebood ons te loopen, te staan, te stappen, onder de sabel-, kolf en lansstooten. We werden gestampt en bespuwd. En wat al beleedigingen, o mijn God! Ik ondersteunde een kranken ouderling, die voort kroop aan mijn arm om aan den dood te ontsnappen, want men zou hem hebben doorstoken met een bajonnet of met een kogel doorboord, was hij blijven stilstaan. En allen bekeken we mekaar van tijd tot tijd verbaasd over dergelijke barbaarschheid. Eindelijk, kwamen wij bij een veld, negen of tien kilometer van Leuven. Men hield halt en een officier zegde ons dat men ons ging neerschieten. Hem herhaald hebbende dat ik een Zuid-Amerikaan was, zooals bleek uit mijn paspoort, riep hij uit met vlammenden blik, dat ik eerst van al zou neergeschoten worden, "omdat ik in mijne kerk geweren, mitrailleurs en andere wapenen had verborgen gehouden," en hij legde mij het zwijgen op. Vervolgens bond men ons de handen op den rug met onze eigen zakdoeken; de soldaten stelden zich op rij en men bracht alles in gereedheid voor de terechtstelling; zoo liet men ons gedurende een kwartuurs in doodsangst.

"Vervolgens werden we in groepen verdeeld altijd met gebonden handen, vóór de soldaten welke vooruitrukten in verspreide linie en men deed ons alzoo voortgaan langs de akkers van dorp tot dorp, naar de Belgische linies.

"Bij het vallen van den nacht kwamen we aan te Campenhout, waar we den nacht doorbrachten, opgesloten in de kerk, terwijl rondom gestreden werd. Den volgenden dag werden wij, Pater Catala, de drie jonge Spanjaarden en ik, vrijgelaten. Na duizend moeilijkheden konden we Brussel den 27sten Augustus 's middags bereiken. Wat betreft de andere gevangenen, allen Belgen, zij moesten steeds voor de vechtende linie vooruit tot bij Mechelen waar men hen eindelijk op vrije voeten stelde.

"De andere inwoners van Leuven werden niet beter behandeld. Vele werden gevankelijk gevoerd naar 't hartje van Duitschland (Munsterlager); vele duizenden werden naar Thienen gesleept, duizende anderen verbleven een heele week in de bosschen, met als voedsel alleen de aardappelen welke zij in de velden gingen uittrekken. Op 27, 28 en 29 Augustus was Leuven verlaten en de Duitschers maakten daarvan gebruik om geregeld te plunderen huis voor huis, wat niet verbrand werd, zoodanig dat de familiën die nadien terugkwamen en wier woningen nog recht stonden enkel daar nog de muren vonden.

"Wat de Duitschers hebben gedaan te Leuven en gansch België door, is onnoembaar. Het verhaal daarvan zou bundels vullen. Wat mij aangaat, wijl God mijn leven redde, ben ik tevreden in de gelegenheid gesteld te zijn geweest zoovele onrechtvaardige daden te zien en na te gaan, welke het Duitsche militarisme met schande overladen en van dewelke trouwens getuigen waren, zoo zij zelf ervan niet de slachtoffers zijn geweest, zoovele vreemdelingen onder anderen Zuid-Amerikanen, Urugeezen, Brazilianen, Colombiërs, enz., welke eveneens voor de waarheid ervan kunnen instaan.

"MANUEL GAMARRA

"Parageesch priester, student te Leuven."

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Atrocity/Davignon_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CURASAO'S EEUWFEEST, 1816—4 Maart—1916
DOOR P. A. EUWENS O. P.
Redacteur van Amigoe di Curacao, Rector van liet St. Elisabeth's Gasthuis
.

Curacao en Holland zijn één.

Die eenheid of liever die band gelegd tusschen de Curacaosche
Eilanden en het Moederland dagteekent reeds van het jaar
1634, toen deze eilanden door de Hollanders op Spanje veroverd
werden.
Toch is die eenheid in den loop der eeuwen voor een korten
tijd verbroken geweest. Dat was van 1807 tot 1816 toen Curacao
onder Engelsch Bestuur stond. Van dien terugkeer onder de
Hollandsche vlag herdacht Curasao den 4den Maart 1916 het
eerste eeuwfeest.

Meer op http://www.kitlv-journals.nl/index.php/nwig/article/viewFile/3734/4501
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Groningen, Oostersingel, 4 maart 1916: begrafenis McLeod, Engels geinterneerde



http://news.webshots.com/photo/2936261880027251524CGJcTw
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 4th March, 1916
Rise again at five to five, this time an hour late. Dress hurriedly and rush off with Hoyland, without breakfast. It is snowing and beginning to get light, so we trot the three miles without a stop and ride right up to the trench. On hurriedly climbing the hill through the snow, Hoyland loses his way and we wander about the hillside in the open for about 15 minutes, and finally see some people laying a wire on our right and make for them. It is Lee Warner and his telephonists, and Hoyland at last finds the OB, and we spent a very cold day in the damp dugout, as it snows most of the day. When it finally clears at four, there is a splendid view, but it is too cold to admire it for long.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/03/diary-entry-4th-march-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Franz Marc



4 maart 1916 - Nadat de Duitse expressionist zich als vrijwilliger had aangemeld tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog, stierf hij bij de slag om Verdun.

Franz Marc werd geboren 8 februari 1880 in München, als zoon van de schilder Wilhelm Marc. Franz Marc had de droom theoloog te worden, maar koos er voor om filosofie te gaan studeren. Na een jaar dienst besloot hij echter naar de kunstacedemie in München te gaan.

Aanvankelijk werkte Marc in een naturalistische stijl. Door de loop der jaren versimpelde hij zijn vormen. Kleur ging een belangrijke plaats innemen. Het hele, niet al te omvangrijke oeuvre van Franz Marc bestond uit ontroerende samenklanken van dier en natuur.

Gedurende zijn schilderperiode bracht hij vaak bezoeken aan Frankrijk. De indrukken die hij daar opdeed, lieten grote sporen achter bij hem, die ook in zijn werk terug te vinden zijn.

Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog schreef hij zich in als vrijwilliger voor het Duitse leger. Hij vocht mee aan de slag om Verdun, wat zijn visie over oorlog compleet deed veranderen. Nog geen twee weken na de start van de Duitse aanval, sneuvelde Franz Marc.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1916-03-04/Franz+Marc+overleden


Turm der blauen Pferde

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Franz_Marc_028.jpg

Zie ook http://www.everypainting.com/franz-marc-complete-collectie voor mooie schilderijen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Plosjtsjad 1905 goda (Jekaterinenburg)

Plosjtsjad 1905 goda (Russisch: Площадь 1905 года; "Plein van 1905") is het belangrijkste plein in de Russische stad Jekaterinenburg. Het bevindt zich in het centrum van de stad, in het district Verch-Isetski. In de volksmond wordt het meestal gewoon 'plosjtsjad' genoemd.

(...) Op 4 maart 1917 vond hier de eerste bijeenkomst van de Februarirevolutie in de stad plaats, alsook de 1 mei-manifestatie. Op 26 oktober 1917 verklaarden de bolsjewieken hier de victorie van de Oktoberrevolutie. De stad zou echter eerst nog worden bezet door het Witte Leger. Vanaf het plein vertrokken ook de eerste Rode Legersoldaten naar het front in de oorlogsjaren.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plosjtsjad_1905_goda_(Jekaterinenburg)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PERCY JUDD'S WORLD WAR ONE DIARY, March 4th 1917



http://www.mardenhistory.org.uk/2lev_diary040317.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 23:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Petit Bois

Petit Bois is een klein bos in Wijtschate, West-Vlaanderen, en vooral bekend om de eerste graafmachine die tijdens de Wereldoorlog werd ingezet om ondergrondse tunnels naar en onder de vijandelijke stellingen te boren.

(...) Bij Petit Bois werd op 4 maart 1917 voor het eerst een graafmachine getest op een diepte van 24 meter, echter door de zuigende kracht van de natte blue bastard clay liep de machine vast. Ook had de graafmachine de neiging om naar beneden te graven en niet voorwaarts. Maanden later werd, na 64 meter graven bij een snelheid van 6,1 centimeter per uur, werd de 7,5 ton zware graafmachine uitgeschakeld. Sindsdien werden de tunnels weer met pure mankracht gegraven.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Petit_Bois
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William Slim

Veldmaarschalk William Joseph "Bill" Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (Bristol, 6 augustus 1891 – Londen, 14 december 1970) was een Britse militaire commandant en de 13de Gouverneur-generaal van Australië. Hij vocht zowel in de Eerste Wereldoorlog als de Tweede Wereldoorlog en raakte drie keer gewond. (...)

In 1912 ging hij bij het officierenkorps van de Birmingham University en werd op 22 augustus 1914 als tijdelijk tweede luitenant bij de Royal Warwickshire Regiment gevoegd. Slim nam deel aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Tijdens de Slag om Gallipoli raakte Slim gewond en keerde terug naar Groot-Brittannië en kreeg een vaste aanstelling als tweede luitenant bij de West India Regiment. In oktober 1916 keerde hij terug naar zijn regiment in Mesopotamië en werd op 4 maart 1917 gepromoveerd tot luitenant.

Lees verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Slim
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Auto accident, No. 1042 Bloor Street West near Walmer Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4 March 1918



http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Auto_accident_on_Bloor_Street_West_in_1918.jpg
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Trench art ashtray Soissons March 4, 1918



Wonderful piece of history, a trench art ashtray, or coin and key tray if you don't smoke, made during WWI from a shell casing. I am not good with camera, so could not get a detailed shot, but the shell was marked FN in a circle, Marz, HL, 27, 1917, and 98. The piece was inscribed by its creator "Soissons March 4, 1918. It is 1 1/8 high, and 4 3/4 inches across. Not all tricked out, but still very cool and this stuff is getting very scarce. A nice gift for a collector of WWI memorabilia, and pretty handy as you can put it on top of a dresser or end table and actually get some use out of it, as opposed to just looking at it. no reserve, and good luck.

http://www.petpeoplesplace.com/petstore/Trench-art-ashtray-Soissons-March-4-1918_190505548483.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 23:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Orde van het Vrijheidskruis (Finland)

De Orde van het Vrijheidskruis (Fins: "Vapaudenristin ritarikunta") is een op 4 maart 1918 door de Finse regent Carl Gustav Mannerheim ingestelde ridderorde. Het motto van de orde is "Isänmaan puolesta" (Fins: "Voor het vaderland"). De orde heeft een groot aantal rangen en wordt verleend voor civiele of militaire verdienste voor de verdediging van Finland. De orde wordt ook "met zwaarden" verleend voor dapperheid aan het front.

Lees en kijk verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orde_van_het_Vrijheidskruis_(Finland)
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De Bermuda Driehoek

(...) De eerste vreemde verdwijning van een schip in de driehoek in de vorige eeuw was die van de Cyclops. Het was een geavanceerd schip in die tijd en voorzag andere schepen van kolen op zee. Op 4 maart 1918 voer de Cyclops van Barbados in West-Indië naar Norfolk in de Amerikaanse staat Virginia.

Aan boord was een lading waardevolle mangaanerts. Ook waren er 57 passagiers en een bemanning van 221 mannen. Het weer was kalm. De Cyclops had uitstekende radio-apparatuur aan boord, maar niet één bericht was ontvangen noch is ooit enig spoor teruggevonden van het schip.

De Eerste Wereldoorlog raasde nog voort en men concludeerde dat het Amerikaanse schip op een mijn was beland of misschien gezonken door een vijandig Duits onderzeeboot. Maar toen de Duitse archieven werden doorzocht na de oorlog werd het duidelijk dat er geen mijnen in dat gebied waren geplaatst en ook geen onderzeeboten waren geweest.

Er was een andere theorie over de kapitein van de Cyclops die van Duitse komaf was. Hij had zijn Duitse naam laten veranderen van Wichmann naar Warley. Hij had zijn huis in Norfolk verkocht voordat hij zich inscheepte voor zijn laatste reis. Er werd gesuggereerd dat hij de Cyclops met de waardevolle lading aan boord naar een neutrale haven had gestuurd of - in het ergste geval - naar Duitsland was gevaren. Deze theorie werd ondersteund door het feit dat de Cyclops naar het zuiden was gedraaid in plaats van naar het noorden toen het Barbados verliet.

Een andere mogelijkheid was dat de bemanning in opstand was gekomen tegen de kapitein. Warley zou zich altijd eigenaardig hebben gedragen. Zo werd bv verteld dat hij de vreemde gewoonte had in lang ondergoed en een hoed op rond te lopen.

Een meer aannemelijke theorie was dat het schip was gezonken vanwege de hoge opbouw ervan. Toen de lading schoof zou het schip omgeslagen kunnen zijn en bijna direcht gezonken.

Een onderzoekscommissie verwierp deze theorie echter en verklaarde dat de Cyclops gedurende acht jaar had gevaren en haar zeewaardigheid had bewezen. En de lading kon alleen zijn geschoven bij noodweer. Volgens de commissie was het weer goed geweest en stond er bijna geen wind.

'De verdwijning van het schip,' concludeerde het rapport, 'is een van de meest raadselachtige verdwijningen in de annalen van de marine. Alle pogingen om haar te vinden zijn op niets uitgelopen... Er zijn vele theorieën naar voren gebracht maar geen enkele bevat een bevredigende verklaring voor de verdwijning.'

Maar dat is niet helemaal waar. De Amerikaanse marine voerde indertijd oorlog en er was geen tijd voor grondig onderzoek. Later onderzoek wees uit dat er wel nabij Norfolk een hevige storm had gewoed op 8 mei 1918. De Cyclops werd in Norfolk verwacht rond 10 mei. In 1974 werd een onbekende wrak ontdekt in de buurt van Norfolk dat de vorm heeft van de Cyclops. Maar tot nu toe zijn er geen pogingen ondernomen om de herkomst ervan te bepalen. (...)

http://sadya.mijneigenpagina.nl/homepage/show/pagina.php?paginaid=164577
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 23:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOCIALISTISCHE PARTIJ - BEGINSELVERKLARING

De volgende beginselverklaring is in de algemeene vergadering van 4 Maart 1918 door
de Socialistische Partij aangenomen:

De Socialistische Partij (S. P.) constateert:

1e. dat in de tegenwoordige samenleving groote maatschappelijke ongelijkheid
tusschen de menschen bestaat, onafhankelijk van hun willen en kunnen; dat zich
materieele en geestelijke ellende openbaart naast weelde en overvloed op elk gebied;

2e. dat die maatschappelijke ongelijkheid het noodzakelijk gevolg is van de
tegenwoordige inrichting der menschelijke samenleving, alsmede van de grondslagen,
waarop zij berust;

3e. dat de oorsprong dezer ongelijkheid gezocht moet worden in het privaateigendom
van de voortbrengingsmiddelen, waardoor de groote meerderheid der menschen, de
arbeidende klasse, gedwongen is in loonarbeid de goederen en rijkdommen der
maatschappij voort te brengen, of hare voortbrenging mogelijk te maken, terwijl een
kleine minderheid, de bezittende klasse daarover kan beschikken;

4e. dat door dien loonarbeid de arbeidende klasse; waartoe allen behooren die door het
verkoopen van hun arbeidskracht in hun onderhoud moeten voorzien, onverschillig of
die arbeidskracht van geestelijken of stoffelijken aard is, wordt gedoemd tot
economische en politieke onderworpenheid, de bezittende klasse ontaardt en tot
gewetenloosheid vervalt, terwijl de geheele menschheid erdoor vervalt tot
karakterloosheid;

5e. dat de maatschappij zoodanig moet worden hervormd dat daaruit de groepen met
verschillende en tegengestelde belangen verdwijnen, om plaats te maken voor één
enkele gemeenschap, waarvan alle leden gelijkelijk belang hebben bij elkanders
welvaart en gelijkberechtigdheid;

6e. dat daarvoor noodig is, dat de voortbrengingsmiddelen tot gemeenschappelijk bezit
worden gemaakt en op systematische wijze worden aangewend in het algemeen belang;

7e. dat in den strijd, die daarvoor noodzakelijk moet worden gevoerd, de arbeidende
klasse zich tot een zelfstandige economische, politieke, geestelijke en ethische macht
moet vormen, ten einde op elk gebied tegen de bezittende klasse te kunnen strijden,
omdat de geschiedenis bewijst, dat nog nooit een heerschende klasse vrijwillig afstand
van hare macht heeft gedaan;

8e. dat in dien strijd de hervormingen en verbeteringen van den toestand der arbeidende
klasse, bij handhaving van het privaat-eigendom van de voortbrengingsmiddelen,
slechts van tijdelijke waarde zijn en alleen aanvaard kunnen worden als middelen om de
arbeidende klasse strijdvaardiger te maken;

9e. dat de arbeidende klasse zich in dien strijd moet bedienen van alle middelen, welke
aan de bereiking van haar doel bevorderlijk kunnen zijn, doch dat die strijd allereerst is
een economische, waaraan de strijd om politieke rechten ondergeschikt is, omdat de
politieke macht eener maatschappelijke klasse in wezen nooit iets anders is dan een
afspiegeling van hare economische en geestelijke macht;

10e. dat in dezen strijd van de arbeidende klasse de arbeiders der geheele wereld zich
solidair moeten gevoelen.

Uit: J.A. Jungman en F.K. van Iterson, red., Parlement en kiezer. Jaarboekje 1918 –
1919, Den Haag, 1918, 135-136, http://dnpp.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/root/Beginselprogrammas/SP/SP1.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vlaardingen Band van het Leger des Heils

1907-1918 - In 1907 vormde een zestal hoofdzakelijk bekeerde dronkaards de eerste Vlaardingen Band. Zij begonnen moeizaam het notenschrift en het bespelen van hun instrument te leren. Na maanden van ingespannen studie, in hun spaarzame vrije tijd, waren ze in staat om tijdens kerkdiensten de liederen van samenzang te begeleiden. Hermanus van Kapel werd de eerste officiële dirigent van de band en al spoedig groeide de band uit tot 20 muzikanten. Verder is er niet veel bekend over deze beginperiode; er werd geen geschiedenisboek bijgehouden en er zijn geen muzikanten uit die tijd die het nog kunnen navertellen. Eén anekdote is echter wel bekend. Jarenlang trok de kleine groep muzikanten regelmatig van straat tot straat om te musiceren. Tijdens deze ‘straatmuziek’ belandden zij op de stoep voor de woning van één van de notabelen van de stad. Vol enthousiasme werden enkele bekende melodieën gespeeld. Op het moment dat zij aan de toegift wilden beginnen kwam de dienstbode naar buiten en zei: “heren, de complimenten van meneer. Alstublieft, een rijksdaalder en wilt u zo vriendelijk zijn een straat verder te gaan spelen”. ‘t Was een teleurstelling, maar ach, die rijksdaalder was een vorstelijke gift.

1918-1940 - De eerste wereldoorlog veroorzaakte een terugslag omdat veel muzikanten opgeroepen werden voor militaire dienst. Op 4 maart 1918, na een kortstondige ziekte, stierf bovendien dirigent Van Kapel aan de zogenaamde ‘Spaanse Griep’, die als een epidemie duizenden slachtoffers maakte onder de slecht gevoede en verzwakte Nederlanders.

http://www.vldsaband.nl/geschiedenis.htm
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Vlaamsch-Belgisch Verbond

Op de landdag van 4 maart 1918 formuleert het Vlaamsch-Belgisch Verbond een politiek programma. Centraal staan de vernederlandsing van het onderwijs, de openbare besturen en het rechtswezen, de indeling van het leger in Vlaamse en Waalse eenheden, en de aanpassing van de centrale besturen. Deze eisen vormen de kern van wat na de oorlog door Frans van Cauwelaert als minimumprogramma naar voren wordt geschoven.

http://blog.seniorennet.be/angeltjes/archief.php?ID=459472
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Mrt 2011 23:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Komintern

Op 4 maart 1919 wordt in Moskou op aandringen van Lenin de Derde Communistische Internationale of Comintern opgericht, waarvan Grigori Jevsejevitsj Zinovjev (1883-1936) de eerste voorzitter wordt.

http://www.masterandmargarita.eu/nl/09context/geschiedenis.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spanish Flu

4 March 1918: First recorded case of Spanish flu at Funston Army Camp, Kanas (...)

https://forums.hardwarezone.com.sg/eat-drink-man-woman-16/4th-march-1918-spanish-flu-100-years-ago-5785591.html
Voor de geinteresseerde: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_Funston

4 March 1918: ‘Spanish’ flu strikes and kills 100 million

When Private Albert Gitchell awoke on Monday 4 March 1918, he felt awful. A company cook at Fort Riley, Kansas, Gitchell was supposed to be serving breakfast to hundreds of young American recruits, who were waiting to be shipped off to the battlefields of France. But when the doctors had a look at him, they realised that, with a temperature of more than 103, Gitchell was in no state to work in the mess.
A few hours later, another man, Corporal Lee Drake, appeared at the infirmary with similar symptoms. Then another, Sergeant Adolph Hurby. Still the men kept coming: there were 107 by lunchtime and more than 500 by the end of the week. By the end of the month, no fewer than 1,127 men at Fort Riley had come down with flu – and 46 of them had died.
In the next few months, as American soldiers flooded into Europe, they brought the deadly influenza with them. With vast armies surging across an exhausted continent, the conditions were perfect for a pandemic. This was one of history’s deadliest disasters. Across the world, some 500 million people had been struck down by flu by the end of 1920, perhaps 100 million of them fatally.
Many governments banned public gatherings or buried the victims in mass graves. Reporting restrictions in the combatant nations meant that the disease’s progress in neutral Spain drew disproportionate attention: hence its nickname, Spanish flu. Only one populated part of the world reported no cases at all: the island of Marajo, at the mouth of the Amazon.

https://www.historyextra.com/period/second-world-war/8-historical-events-that-happened-in-march/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Solihull Life

4th March 1917 - Two local men died on 4th March 1917 as a result of their war service. Private Ernest William Clifford, 1st Battalion Coldstream Guards, and Private Walter James Painting, 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment.

Although Soldiers Died in the Great War gives Ernest William Clifford‘s birthplace as Bath, records show he was actually born in Birmingham in 1896. He was the second child of parents, William (a general labourer from Bath) and Nellie (née Snow) who had married at Bath Register Office in June 1892. The couple’s eldest child, Leila Helena (1892-1903), was born in Solihull and died as a child. Ernest’s four other siblings – Barbara Janet (born 1900), Sydney George (born 1904), Dora Beatrice (born 1906) and Joan (born 1909) – were all born in Solihull. At the time of Leila’s burial in 1903, the family was living in Elmdon Heath.

By the time of the 1911 census, Ernest was 14 years old and working as a grocer’s errand boy. He was living in Warwick Road, Solihull with his parents and siblings. Ernest’s service record seems not to have survived, so we don’t know when he enlisted, although he does not appear to have served overseas prior to 1916.

Ernest’s father, William, enlisted in the Army in June 1915, giving his age as 44, the same age that he gave on the 1911 census! Prior to enlistment, William was working as a horse driver for furniture remover and haulage contractor, R. Neale, Solihull High Street. The firm gave him a testimonial, commending him to the Army as suitable to take charge of horses, and as a competent driver with a single or pair of horses. William joined the Army Service Corps, and served overseas with the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force from November 1915, returning home in May 1917, two months after the death of his son, Ernest.

Ernest was killed in action in France and is buried at Sailly-Saillisel British Cemetery. He is also commemorated locally on the Solihull war memorial.

Walter James Painting was born in Bentley Heath in 1878 and was baptised at St Alphege Church, Solihull on 3rd November 1878. He was the youngest of the ten children (seven sons, three daughters) of parents, James (an agricultural labourer) and Louisa (née Barnes) who were both from Hook Norton, Oxfordshire. The couple seem to have moved to Warwickshire from Oxfordshire sometime between 1868-1871, and were living in Hockley Heath at the time of the 1871 census, moving to Bentley Heath by 1873, Stechford by 1881, and Acocks Green by 1901.

James died in 1902, aged 65, and Louisa died in 1910, aged 73, so both were spared the knowledge of the death in action of their youngest son.

Walter became an annealer at a wire works in Birmingham, and married Rose Finch at SS Peter and Paul’s Church, Aston in 1899. The couple went on to have five children: Walter James (1899-1959); Sidney Alfred (1900-1966); Leonard (1902-1954); Winifred Rose (1906-1960) and Eva Emily Louisa (1912-1992).

We don’t know when Walter joined the Army, but it appears that he didn’t serve overseas before 1916, as his medal index card shows no entitlement to a 1914 or 1914/15 Star. Walter was killed in action in France on 4th March 1917 and has no known grave. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, as well as locally on the memorial in the Soldiers’ Chapel at Knowle parish church.

Walter’s widow, Rose, died in 1966, aged 89.

https://solihulllife.wordpress.com/2017/03/04/4th-mar-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - March 1917

Telegram. Stavka. 4 March, 1917.

Thanks, my dear. Have at last received your telegram to-night. Despair is passing away. May God bless you all! Tender love.

NICKY.

Telegram. Stavka, 4 March, 1917.

Hearty thanks for telegram. Mother has arrived for two days; it is so cosy and nice; we are dining together in her train. Another snowstorm. In thought and prayer I am with you.

NICKY.

NOTES: The Dowager Empress hastened from Kiev on hearing what had happened at Pskov, in order that she might be with her son in the hour of his trial. The ex-Tsar, in the Imperial train, had now returned to Mogilev.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/march17.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Salonika Campaign Society, 1915-1918

4th March 1917 : Air Raid!

As General Milne, for his part, began his preparations [for a major spring offensive] he was plagued by the German bombing squadron at Hudova. The RFC [Royal Flying Corps] dropped bombs on its aerodrome at dawn on 4th March [1917], but that did not prevent the German bombers from carrying out an attack against the base area later in the day, causing 64 casualties, mostly in No. 29 General Hospital, which had now been twice bombed.
From ‘Official History of the Great War Other Theatres: Military Operations Macedonia – Part 1’ (published 1934, reprinted 1997 and 2011 pp.296-297).

Lembet Road CWGC Cemetery contains the graves of 25 men who died on that day – from a variety of units – who may well have been killed in the air raid. Canada’s McMaster University Library provides a handy online map showing the location of hospitals in Salonika in June 1916, although this shows 29th General Hospital at Mikra, which doesn’t tie-up with burials at Lembet Road. A photograph at the IWM (HU90800) shows a 29th Stationary Hospital in 1918 at Karaissi, north of Salonika. This is not far from Lembet Road and assuming it is the same establishment, makes more sense. The War Diary of 29 General Hospital will probably tell us more, although sadly as with all BSF war diaries it has not been digitised. If you know more we will be pleased to hear from you.

https://salonikacampaignsociety.org.uk/salonika-centenary/march-1917-air-raid/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bedfordshire at War: Roll of Honour - 4th March 1917

Killed in Action

8th Battalion: Loos Defences
- 33500 Private James HAWES, born Harpenden [Hertfordshire], resided Saint Albans [Hertfordshire] (Maroc British Cemetery, Grenay)
- 33501 Private Aubrey Henry Barter MILTON, 21, born Gillingham [Kent] son of Henry Barter and Emma Elizabeth Milton of Maroc, 43 Wentworth Road, New Barnet [Hertfordshire] (Maroc British Cemetery, Grenay)

Died of Wounds

6th Battalion
- 28092 Private Walter Hines ELSEY, 20, born Shelfanger [Norfolk], resided Thetford [Norfolk], son of Phoebe and late John of Tottington Lane, Roydon [Norfolk] (Étaples Military Cemetery)

http://bedsatwar.blogspot.nl/2017/03/roll-of-honour-4th-march-1917.html?m=0
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Ordnance Survey, Trench Map, 4 March 1917

Description: cover of trench map of Roclincourt

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/ordnance-survey-trench-map-4-march-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spencer Kentish – WWI letters - 3rd Light Horse Regiment in Egypt & Palestine 1917-1919

Details Camp
1st LH Training Regiment
Sunday 4 March 1917

Dear Father

We are due in a few minutes for church parade so I’ll just make a start with this now & continue later. A crowd of us were told off for Guard this morning – to be ready at 3.45pm. They change the guards here at 5 o’clock in the afternoon & keep on the same way, 2 hours on & 4 hours off – for 24 hours.

We have been here only 2 days, so have not lost much time in getting guard, but that is reckoned a regular peculiarity of this camp. It’s my first turn in Egypt anyhow – in over two weeks.

On Friday morning up at Isolation Camp we were about early and before brek had packed out kits & rolled our blankets which were loaded on wagons – one for each unit. After breakfast we marched over to Moascar camp headquarters & there parted. Mr Throssell & the WA chaps went to their quarters, the 9th to theirs close to the 10th, but we had to go back a fair distance to our part of the camp & we are now ‘at home’ in what is known as 1st LH Training Regiment – comprised I think of the 1st, 2nd & 3rd Regiment’s details.

After an inspection by a major we had to get to work & put up tents for ourselves & then we we were left alone for the rest of the day. We had to split up to 5 & 6 in each tent (5 tents for the 33) so our old clan held a meeting & decided to draw lots for the 2 who should go out – these fell on Lance Neville & Archie Blue & they are now camped with Camp, Dunk & Murray – 3 NCOs who have lost their stripes as is usually the case when they arrive here. We were sorry to have to cut up our company & especially as Arch has been tent commander right through, but it had to be.

We had several chaps looking round our lines on Friday night for any friends of theirs newly arrived: one who came in was Corporal Billy Gill – an old Kyrian & a friend of Les Williams and Jack Hardwicke. I never have met him before but I’ve heard Mrs Hoolie talk of him – ‘Bullocky’ Gill they called him. His brother left Mitcham in artillery just a bit before we came away & his sister is Hilda Gill whom Dorry knows. Billy is in the 11th Regiment – a Queensland lot & told us a lot of interesting news about this country & the Turks & the fighting & showed us snap shots he had taken of lots of places.

On Saturday morning we had tent shifting job which kept us going till nearly dinner time. A football match was on against the 9th in the afternoon & as the 3rd team was a bit short some of us – new arrivals – were picked. We lost by about 4 goals – though we had a good game of it: the scores were about 4:8 to 8, not sure exactly. I played back 3 quarters & I the ruck in the other & kicked one goal. Seemed like old times having a footie match for Saturday afternoon.

Tea afterwards – bread & jam & cheese. We got stew for midday meal here & cold meat for breakfast. Had porridge too this morning (Monday) & yesterday: hope that will happen often.

Yesterday instead of church parade at 9am we guard-men were fallen in for a bit of unnecessary drill – cos we know the work – & I didn’t get any further with my writing. After dinner we had to clear up our stuff & get dressed up like prize monkeys for guard. At each of two inspections we were complimented by the officer concerned on the fine looking turn out – for my part tho I’d sooner have a spell on Sunday. That is not to say we are worked hard tho on other days. We have had very easy time here so far.

Starting last Monday we did a bit of practice shooting on the ranges starting at 100 yards & working back to the 400 mark. It was interesting work of course & some did pretty well. My scores passed me alright tho the average wobbled a bit low at times. At 100 yards – ‘grouping’ – I scored 4 bulls in 5 shots but scored only 15/25 – a scattered group. At 200 yards ‘application’ ie taking your own time & having your hits signalled each time I scored 19/20 & sane range ‘rapid’ – at which we are given ½ minute to send 5 shots – I sent only 4 & scored 4 hits: not bad.

Next day at 300 yards – application I scored only 12/20 & in the rapid 7 hits out of 10 in a minute. It blew up dusty in the afternoon so we did not go shooting. On Wednesday we fired at same sized targets and bulls at 400 yards. At application I got 13/20 & at rapid I scored 3 hits out of 4 sent going in ½ minute. You have to start to open up your rifle & load etc when the targets appear & it doesn’t take long for them to go again. I was a bit slow too – didn’t have any practice at ‘dummy’ loading & unloading on account of my office job the week previous.

On Wednesday afternoon I was kept in again doing a bit more office work while the rest went shooting. However we had the same practice over again the next morning – so I didn’t miss it altogether. We were each given 10 rounds of ammunition & told off in sections of 12 (one man for each target) & starting at 400 yards & working by signals & orders passed along by a fire-commander in the middle of the line – we ran forwards on the appearance of targets & by order from the leader we had to flop down & bang at the figure ahead of us. They didn’t leave the targets up long & when they dropped we hopped up and ran in closed till at the last we had advanced to about 200 yards from them, sending charges as we went. It was good practice at quick shooting. I got off 9 shots and scored 4 bulls besides other hits on the target which didn’t count.

Herb Groves scored 9 bulls – the record – and one or two others got 6 & away down. That afternoon (Thursday) we had a scratch game of footie – teams picked from the 3 units: I happened to be on the winning side that time. It was a decent finish up to our stay in Isolation Camp which – on the whole- was a holiday: perhaps we will soon need to be soldiers now! It’s about time we started,

Here today – on the main Guard with me are Jack, Herb, Arch & Frank & others while Les, Lance & Phil are on a supply ie forage & stores guard elsewhere. It has not been to bad here: have to salute a fair number of officers in a day & keep moving of course when on our beat. Herb, Arch & I struck 3rd relief which means 9 to 11 & 3 to 5 both day & night. Our 3 to 5pm is the only one left now for us. We slept a bit early last evening & had a good sleep from 11 to 3 am. After 5 this morning we tumbled in but had only been in 1o minutes when all the Guard was turned out for the visiting official round. Then Reveille went at 5.45 so we did not catch up much this morning.

Herb & I were comparing our present states with home & wondering what was doing at various hours: we can guess pretty well what you are doing – I think the time difference is about 6 hours or 8 I’m not sure which – we are later of course: but it would be interesting now & again to let you see what we are doing. You can’t know exactly by just reading a few letters – it’s often pretty good fun, though ll sorts of things are not to your liking & time passes quickly enough without worry. An occasional bit of growling is neither here nor there.

We had a short church parade last Sunday (yesterday week) by Capt Heath at 7am up in Isolation Camp: that’s the only service in 3 Sundays here – but I think probably in this camp there service every Sunday so when we re not on guard we may be able to go. Mr Heath has gone on now for England & may get over to France later on: he hopes to.

After dinner last Sunday Frank, Phil, Lance & I strolled out of camp & walked into Ismailia – only 2 miles or so & much less from here – & spent a very interesting afternoon looking round streets, shops, parks & what not. We walked till we were tired – all shops & things were open same as any other day & it’s funny enough to see how the natives keep their places. I’ll write more of them later. We went toa clean looking place, kept by Italians & had a good tea of fried fish & eggs etc & after a bit more wandering & a short look round a YMCA room which we found near the station, we caught the train & went home to our sandy beds in the tent.

My word – I’ve heard a song about the time ‘when the sands of the desert grow cold’ – speaking as if it’s an unheard of thing! That poet should have gone to the desert before writing the song, because if ever ground get cold at night the sand here does & you don’t forget it if by any chance your clothes tumble off – we are cosy enough as a rule with our waterproof sheet & a blanket underneath & two more blankets on top; & if anything more is needed we have our own big overcoats & plenty of clothes. I’ve not needed yet to wear mittens or waistcoat or head muffler tho I guess the vest will be very handy when my issue cardigan jacket wears out.

The socks I have will last me a long time if I can get at them, but we will not be able to take much stuff out to the Regiment with us when we go. We hear that it may not be long. The 3’s are guarding a pipeline (water) at present; don’t know whether they’ll be in the next ‘scrap’ or not. At present we are fixed up A1 & nearly all our chaps are quite well. I’m feeling fine & have done all along – no heart-strain here.

Tell Mrs Tommy & Benny & Alex & all the rest I’m going to write to them some day. I often think of them when I squint at my watch; it has kept good time so far & had met with no more accidents since I had the face cover: it is very bright & plain to read at night – the darker the better.

Mother’s letter sent for me C/- Mrs Gilmour came along on Friday – the day we came over here & I was glad to have it. Must have gone out to the Regt & back – some others did the same trick. There is another mail about due I think – we hear there is a boat in.

Well it’s time I cleaned my rifle so I’ll get at it. We have our own rifles now & can look after them.

Love to you all.

Goodbye.

Spence

https://spencerkentishww1letters.wordpress.com/1917/03/04/sunday-4-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Week-by-week tracing the course of Russia's revolution year of 1917

4 March

Diary entry of Alexander Benois, artist and critic: An outstanding day in my personal life. I've left my 'safe little haven' and 'launched myself into the maelstrom'! I've been dragged into it by Grzhebin, Dobuzhinsky, Petrov-Vodkin and most of all by Gorky. I'd have preferred to remain an onlooker, on the side - everything that's going on makes me feel a little ill, it's all alien to me and I've started to see very clearly the earthly nature of things. But now I have no hope of coming to my senses, and it's too late to go back. On the other hand, the possibilities in front of me are not without a certain grandiosity! A sense of duty is also stirring in me. For it seems that much that can be done now in the specifically cultural sphere can only be done with my close participation and even leadership. I've put my shoulder to the wheel, even though I foresee that all the activity ahead will only lead to total disappointment! Ah, if only Diaghilev were here now! ... A gathering of us returned from Gorky's on this wonderfully keen frosty night .... There were quite a few pickets around burning fires. No cries or swearing anywhere. And absolutely no drunks (over the last few days there have been a lot, despite the prohibition on strong liquor). Generally there's a sense of unreality, as if it's a dream. And the question again arises: can the Russian people really be this wise and responsible? Or is this order just the expression of a general apathy and exhaustion? My own personal unease for some reason won't stop growing, without any real cause. Or am I only now beginning to make the transition from subconscious to conscious perception? Maybe this disquietude is that of the onlooker who has only seen the first act of a tragedy, the introduction, and is tormented by the thought: what will happen next?
(Alexander Benois , Diary 1916-1918 , Moscow 2006)

On Saturday, together with the other Allied Consular representative, I was present at an impressive review on the Red Square where General Gruzinov, President of the Moscow Zemstvo, took the march past of over 30,000 troops. The police had wisely made themselves scarce. The people themselves kept order. Strangers embraced in the streets and shouted ‘Long Live Liberty!’ Many educated Russians who saw these scenes hoped and believed that something spiritual and almost saintly, something inspiringly great, had happened in those days of March 1917. From the defeat of despotism a better and stronger Russia would arise. Apart from the unhappy reactionaries who had been imprisoned, there were in this early period few Russians who realized that the peaceful revolution marked the collapse of all discipline and that defeat – and something worse than defeat – now stared a sorely tried people in the face. In the first 24 hours two things had happened which were soon to destroy the initial unanimity of the revolutionaries. First, the revolution had been made on the streets, for the people had forestalled the cautious Duma composed of landowners, intellectuals and professional men. The revolution had therefore two heads: the Duma and the Soviets. The people had been led mainly by the Socialists. Yet in the new Provisional Government there was only one Socialist, Alexander Kerensky, who was then Minister of Justice. Secondly, in a country of which 80 percent of the people were totally illiterate and which had been ruled autocratically for centuries, all the freedoms were released at once. Among those freed from the jails were not only political prisoners but also the worst criminals.
(Robert Bruce Lockhart, Foreign Affairs journal 1957)

Lees vooral verder op https://www.fontanka.co.uk/twentysixthfebruarytofourthmarch
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The realtime diaries of F.P. Welch 1913-1919

March 1917
Sunday 4
Fine day.
Filled Harley Donalds
20 gallon cask with elder
wine after heating it in the
copper. Spent about 4 hours
attending to it. Mended
lock of pantry door, the
spring being broken & I
got some thin steel & made
a new one.
Sprayed the potatoes with
solution of arsenate of
lead to try & check the
blight which is taking all
the leaves from the stalks.
Bertha rang me up from
G Lauchlans at Seatoun
to hear how we are getting
along & to advise that Leo
left for Dunedin at 7.45
by the Pateena

https://fpwelchdiaries.wordpress.com/2017/03/04/4-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This day in Lettres, 4 March (1916): Dorothy Canfield Fisher to Sarah Cleghorn

Here, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, author, education- and prison-reformer, and literacy advocate, writes to her childhood friend, poet Sarah Cleghorn. She relates her family’s desire to contribute more to the war effort, including her husband John Fisher’s application for a position in the American Ambulance Hospital Corps stationed in France. The family would eventually move to Paris, with John joining the Corps, Dorothy conducting relief work for veterans and refugees, and the children growing up in the city.

March 4, 1916
Arlington, Vermont

Dear Sally:

Let me get over at once the telling of news which I suppose you will think is bad…everybody else seems to think so. I don’t believe it will surprise you to know that John and I have been feeling more and more dissatisfied with what we were doing to help out in the war, and that we have about decided to do further. I don’t know yet exactly in what forms this will come. John has written to the American Ambulance Hospital Corps to see about the need for chauffers for ambulances, and I have written to Céline Sibut and Henry Baray about the need in their respective circles in France. The American Ambulance seems very glad of the application John put in (though of course this binds him to nothing, and he won’t go with them if there seems more need somewhere else) but we can’t hear from the French friends for a month yet. In the meantime everything is as indefinite as could well be…but I wanted you to know as soon as there was anything to know. Some of our vague plans are to this effect. If John goes to France this spring, I may go with him (leaving the children at Halcyon with John’s family) and see for myself what the conditions are over there, and if it would be possible to take the children over and settle somewhere near where John will be employed…you know of course that separation from John is about the desperate last resort in my mind, to be endured only if it cannot possibly be prevented. There are hundreds of thousands of French children who go on living in France of course, and Céline writes that life in Paris is about normal. But if I find the condition such that I think it would be dangerous for the children’s health…why, of course I’ll come back here and take care of them until John can return…This climate would be too severe to try and manage without him, and if we are here, next winter, and John in France, I think I’ll probably go South somewhere; you could help with advice on that. But all this is too entirely vague to talk about. It may be that nothing will come of it at all…they may write from France that John can’t be of help there…that they have plenty of help…but I doubt this. We’ll see. In the meantime, though I face the future with unutterable apprehension, my heart is freed from the somber desolation which filled it when I wrote you last. As you say, now is the time to stick to our principles…and it has made me sick to hear such crowds and crowds of Americans all writing vociferously to the papers that the Allies are fighting the cause of civilization for us, which we stand off in safety and profit by their blood and suffering…and yet nobody has done anything! Even John and I who have felt so keenly that France was standing between our world and all that threatened its permanence, have done nothing but send money, we haven’t been willing to sacrifice our comfort and convenience…for that is practically all we are thinking of sacrificing now. There will be some danger of course, but not more than there always is in doing something worth doing…and it will be something always to remember, that John was able to help somewhat in healing some of the misery caused by the war. I too, if it turns out that I may take the children, may be able to help too.

Of course I needn’t tell you…I couldn’t, if I tried…what depths of prayerful and heart-sick meditation we have put on the question. Nor need I tell you, what the prospect of separation from the children (though I hope not for long…not more than five or six weeks I hope) nor perhaps, from John…means to me. I have spent many sleepless nights conquering the simple animal horror of the idea! But I didn’t think I’d have been proud of my parents if they had given up what they thought right to do, because it might not have been exactly so good for the time being for Jim and me…and I hope when our children grow up, they’ll feel that we did right. Anyhow, whether they do or not, I don’t see anything to do but go ahead and do it…or try to. I hope this won’t seem entirely insane to you…and yet I suppose it will. It seems to, to everybody else! Anyhow, I’m hoping for a word of comfort from you, and I love you very dearly and depend on you a great deal—your own

Dorothy

From Keeping Fires Night and Day: Selected Letters of Dorothy Canfield Fisher. Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, and Mark J. Madigan. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1993.

http://theamericanreader.com/4-march-1916-dorothy-canfield-fisher-to-sarah-cleghorn/
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