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27 februari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2006 8:08    Onderwerp: 27 februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 27. Februar

1914

1915
Französische Angriffe in der Champagne abgewiesen
Hindenburg Chef des 2. Masurischen Infanterieregiments Nr. 147
Schwere russische Verluste in den Karpathen
Das Bombardement der Dardanellen
Mißglückter französischer Landungsversuch in Akaba
Salandra über das marschierende Italien
Verurteilung der sozialistischen Dumaabgeordneten

1916
Erstürmung der Befestigungen von Hardaumont
Vordringen gegen die Côtes Lorraines
Bisher 15000 Gefangene vor Verdun
Durazzo von k. u. k. Truppen besetzt

1917
Die englischen Vorstöße zwischen Ypern und der Somme
Der U-Boot-Angriff auf die Adour-Mündung
Bombenangriff auf einen feindlichen Transportdampfer
Der Reichskanzler über den U-Boot-Krieg
Kut-el-Amara von den Engländern besetzt
Die Botschaft Wilsons an den Kongreß
Die Amerikaner auf der "Laconia"

1918
Berditschew erreicht
Die Kreuzfahrt des "Wolf"
Erhöhte Artillerietätigkeit zwischen Etsch und Brenta
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2006 8:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 27

1916 Austrians occupy Durazzo in Albania

After completing their conquest of Serbia and Montenegro, the Austro-Hungarian army turns its attentions toward Albania, occupying the coastal city of Durazzo on the Adriatic Sea on February 27, 1916.

Durazzo, also known as Durres, had served as an important port in the region since the 5th century, when it was part of the Roman empire. After an invasion by the Ottomans at the end of the 14th century, many Albanians immigrated to Italy; a majority of those who stayed behind converted to Islam. The end of the 19th century saw an explosion of nationalist fervor in Albania and a number of revolts against Ottoman rule. The country’s neighbors, Serbia and Greece, were poised to divide up Albania between them after the withdrawal of the Turks. Not wanting this to happen, the Great Powers of Europe—Germany, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary and Russia—appointed a special commission to set the boundaries of post-Ottoman Albania, in the process stripping the country of 40 percent of its population and more than half its territory, including Kosovo (which became part of Serbia) and Cameria (which went to Greece).

Despite having previously recognized Albanian independence, the Great Powers also appointed a German prince, Wilhelm of Wied, as the country’s ruler. Just months after Prince Wilhelm’s arrival, in March 1914, World War I broke out in Europe, and the prince was forced to flee Albania in the face of strong local opposition.

Albania soon became a battleground for the Allies and Central Powers in the Great War. In 1915, Durres was occupied by the Italians, who called it Durazzo. As the armies of the Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary, stormed through the Balkans, taking control of both Serbia and Montenegro, thousands of Serbs sought escape through Albania, where the Italians and other Allies helped them evacuate to the island of Corfu, in the Adriatic Sea, where the Serbian provisional government was established.

On the verge of the Austrian invasion of Durazzo, Italian forces killed some 900 mules and donkeys before evacuating the town; Durazzo’s Albanian inhabitants fled en masse as well. The leader of Albania, Essad Pasha, moved to Naples and set up a provisional Albanian government. Austria would occupy Durazzo until the end of the war, in late 1918.

At Versailles, the country’s fate was again in the hands of other European powers. Albania appealed to the victorious Allies, especially the United States, to preserve their independence in the face of claims from Serbia, Montenegro, Italy and Greece. After much haggling, Albania was admitted to the newly formed League of Nations in 1920 as an independent state, with its borders virtually the same as they had been before the war.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Things They Took To War, 1915 [Official-issue Pocket Contents]

The 27 Feb 1915 issue of The Illustrated London News is remarkable. A few pages into the issue shows a series of pictures describing the regulation issue for an enlisted man headed into combat—simple, scary, and heartrending. And of course a true measure of the courage and fortitude of these millions of men who marched to the Front with all what today looks to be not-adequate material. It is hard for me to imagine going off to conquer your enemy and your own fear with these sorts of supplies, marching along with all of these slight bits jangling and clanging to each of my steps.

Lees de rest en bekijk de afbeeldingen: http://longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/2010/01/things-they-took-to-war-1915-officialissue-pocket-contents.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Captain Edward Brittain to his sister, Vera Brittain

11th Sherwood Foresters, France, 27 February 1916

… most of the communication trenches are full of water and so we have to use emergency road across the open when rifle and machine gun fire may open on us at any moment; there are many danger spots but they continually change and so we just take our chance; we shall do the same tonight. Also when we are in the front line itself there are various danger places where the trench is open to enfilade fire . . .
Ordinary risks of stray shots or ricochets off a sandbag or the chance of getting hit when you look over the parapet in the night time – your hardly ever do in the day time but use periscopes – are daily to be encountered. But far the most dangerous thing is going out on patrol in No Man’s Land. You take bombs in case you should meet a hostile patrol, but you might be surrounded, you might be seen especially if you are very close to their line and anyhow Very lights are always being sent up and they make night into day so have to keep down and quite still, and you might get almost on top of their listening post if you are not sure where it is. I was out with my Sergt. and 2 men last Monday night about midnight for about 1˝ hours…

http://hbcreative.net/teach/portfolio/pdfs/assessment.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 22:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AN AMBASSADOR'S MEMOIRS

By Maurice Paléologue

Sunday, February 27, 1916.
If health is nothing but the smooth working of all the functions, the harmonious co-operation of all the organs and the co-ordination of action of the vital forces, it must be admitted that the Russian colossus is very sick, for the body politic is revealing enormous dissonances and incongruities.

One of the most alarming symptoms is the gulf, a regular abyss, which separates the upper classes and the rural masses. The break between the two groups is complete; it is as if there were a gap of several centuries. This fact is particularly observable in the relations between officialdom and the peasants. I will give a few examples:

In 1897 the Government started on a general census of the population, in accordance with the highly detailed rules of modern statistics. It was the first time that so vast and methodical an operation had been undertaken. Hitherto the authorities had confined their efforts to certain local, summary and merely approximate censuses. The census officials everywhere met with profound distrust and frequently open resistance. Strange rumours spread abroad and alarmist myths gained a firm hold: the tchinovniks were bent on an increase of military obligations, a requisition of corn, additional taxation, agrarian revision for the benefit of landlords, perhaps even the restoration of serfdom. In all quarters the moujiks exchanged anxious glances and muttered: "It's an omen of great evils. . . . Nothing good can come of it. . . . It's the work of the devil!" Of course the tchinovniks did not fail to prey upon these childish fears with a view to extorting bribes. The abyss between the two castes was deeper than ever.

One of Korolenko's novels, The Eclipse, gives us a vivid description of the attitude of fierce, sly suspicion which the Russian peasant adopts towards the representatives of the upper classes, and all who are above him by virtue of official authority, wealth, knowledge or education. The scene is laid in a small town on the Volga. Astronomers have come to observe an eclipse of the sun. The presence of these strangers, their mysterious preparations and curious instruments, immediately alarm the little place. A rumour spreads at once that they are sorcerers, agents of the devil, emissaries of Antichrist. A suspicious and murmuring crowd gathers round them and they have great difficulty in protecting their telescopes. Suddenly the eclipse begins and the sun hides itself. The fury of the crowd then breaks forth. Some of them cry out against the impiety of the astronomers in daring to question Heaven: "God will give them their answer by thunder!" Others shriek out like maniacs: "It's the end of the world! We're all about to die! Lord, have mercy on us! "

But the sun soon reappears. The agitation dies down. The spectators congratulate each other on having escaped so dire a peril "Let us thank God that we are still alive! . . ."

Not less significant are the popular outbreaks which habitually accompany the famines and epidemics which are so frequent in Russia. Whenever there is a famine the same charge is spread abroad "It's the officials and landlords cornering the grain!." Or else: "The tchinovniks and barins have arranged the extermination of the people in order to seize their land."

When there are epidemics the suspicions of the peasants are invariably turned against the doctor, who in their eyes is the agent of the authorities: "Why does he use incomprehensible words? Why these unfathomable looks and strange actions? Who can doubt that it is he who spreads cholera; he is poisoning the poor moujiks by order of the Government!" And away they go and burn ,the hospital, smash up the laboratory, and insult or beat the doctor, sometimes even kill him!

In this respect the novelist Veressaiev, always a model of accuracy in his descriptions of Russian life, has not exaggerated in the least in his story of the heartbreaking experiences of Dr. Tchekianov. The doctor, a youthful enthusiast, who is obsessed by a desire to be of service to the poor, exhausts himself in prodigies of self-sacrifice during an epidemic of cholera. But that does not prevent him being regarded as a poisoner by the ignorant brutes he is sent to help; insulted, abused and ultimately half beaten to death. On his bed of pain he reflects bitterly. But instead of bearing his torturers any ill-will he feels infinite pity for them and writes in his diary: "I have been beaten! Beaten like a mad dog because I came to help them and devoted all my knowledge and strength to them. Only to-day I realize how much I loved them. I have not succeeded in winning their confidence. I had almost brought them to believe in me; a few glasses of vodka were enough to thrust them back in to their mental darkness and reawaken their primitive savage instincts. And now I feel I am going to die. But why have I struggled? In what cause am I dying? Obviously all this was inevitable. The moujiks have always regarded us simply as strangers. We despised and avoided them. We never tried to know them. A terrifying abyss separated us from them. . ."

http://www.gwpda.org/memoir/FrAmbRus/pal2-07.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 22:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Verdun, 21 February- 18 December 1916

As French resistance east of the Meuse stiffened, German casualties began to rise. From 27 February the advance stalled. Accordingly, the Germans decided to launch a new attack west of the river.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_verdun.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 February 1917, Written Answers (Commons)

VENEREAL DISEASE.


HC Deb 27 February 1917 vol 90 cc1860-1W 1860W

§ Mr. KING asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether, in order to facilitate proposals for legislation now before the House, he can give any figures of cases of venereal disease in the Army; and whether there has been any increase in the percentage of such cases on the figures last published by the War Office?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON The present admission ratio for troops in the United Kingdom is 43.5 per 1,000 per annum. This figure is a reduction on that furnished on the 16th November to the hon. Member for the West Toxteth Division. In France the proportion is 24 per 1,000.

§ Mr. KING asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether he has noted the figures of cases of venereal diseases which have been published since the War by the German military authorities; whether corresponding figures have been published of any of the Allied armies; if so, whether 1861W they show similar results as to the increase of venereal diseases in war time; and if any statement can be made of precautionary preventive measures being taken in respect of our troops?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON I have no information as to the points raised in this question about the Allied or German armies. The last part of the question does not lend itself readily to treatment by way of question and answer.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1917/feb/27/venereal-disease
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 23:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur Balfour on President Wilson's Addendum to the Fourteen Points, 27 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of a speech given by British Foreign Secretary (and former Prime Minister) Arthur Balfour to the British Parliament on 27 February 1918.

In his speech Balfour addressed himself to a speech given by Woodrow Wilson to the U.S. Congress on 11 February in which the U.S. President expanded upon his earlier Fourteen Points speech of 8 January 1918. In his new address Wilson had set out the terms upon which belligerent nations were to discuss any potential peace settlement.

Balfour unsurprisingly came out in support of President Wilson's policy, and took the opportunity to critique the German Chancellor Count Hertling's "lip service" support for the U.S. position

Arthur Balfour's Speech to Parliament in Response to Woodrow Wilson's 11 February Speech to U.S. Congress, 27 February 1918

Many questions must be settled at the peace conference, but the question of Belgium is the best touchstone of the honesty of purpose of Central European diplomacy, and especially of German diplomacy.

There is only one course for the offending nation in this case, namely, unconditional restoration and reparation.

When was Belgium the jumping-off ground of enemy machinations and why should Germany suppose it is going to be? Belgium has been the victim, not the author, of these crimes, and why should she be punished because Germany is guilty?

Germany always had in mind new territorial, commercial or military conditions which would prevent Belgium from taking an independent place among the nations, which Germany and ourselves were pledged to preserve.

What we have to consider is how far von Hertling's lip service to President Wilson's four propositions really is exemplified by German practice.

I could understand a German taking a different view from the view of the French, British, Italian, or American Government, but not a German discussing the principles of essential justice and saying: "There is no question of Alsace-Lorraine to go before a peace conference."

Regarding President Wilson's second proposition, we have had within the last few weeks a specimen of how von Hertling interprets in action the principle he so glibly approves in theory. To take one instance only, there is the cession of Polish territory to the Ukraine. We would like to know how the Germans came to make this gross violation of their principle.

Coming to the third proposition, von Hertling says, with justice, that the doctrine of the balance of power is a more or less antiquated doctrine. He further accuses England of being the upholder of that doctrine for purposes of aggrandizement.

That is a profoundly unhistorical method of looking at the question. Great Britain has fought time and again for the balance of power, because only by fighting could Europe be saved from the domination of one over-bearing and aggressive nation.

If von Hertling wants to make the balance of power antiquated, he can do it by inducing his countrymen to abandon that policy of ambitious domination which overshadows the world at this moment.

As to President Wilson's third and fourth principles: Consider for a moment how von Hertling desires to apply the principle that the interest and benefit of the populations concerned should be considered in peace arrangements. He mentions three countries he wishes to see restored to Turkey, namely, Armenia, Palestine, and Mesopotamia.

Does any one think that this would be to the interest and benefit of the populations concerned? Von Hertling accuses us of being animated with purely ambitious designs when we invaded Mesopotamia and captured Jerusalem.

I suppose he would say that Russia was similarly moved when she occupied Armenia. But when Turkey went to war she picked a quarrel with us for purely ambitious purposes. She was promised by Germany the possession of Egypt. Would the interest and happiness of the population of Egypt be best conserved by Turkish conquest of Egypt?

The Germans in the search for the greatest happiness of these populations would have restored Egypt to the worst rule the world has ever known. They would have destroyed Arab independence and abandoned Palestine to those who had rendered it sterile all these centuries.

How could any one preach seriously a profession of faith about the interests of populations after this evidence of the manner in which von Hertling desires to see it carried out?

If the Reichstag had any sense of humour it must surely have smiled when it heard the Chancellor dealing in that spirit with the dominating doctrine of every important German statesman, soldier, and thinker for two generations at least.

So much for the four principles which Mr. Holt says von Hertling accepts, and which he thinks the British Government is backward in not accepting. I hope my short analysis may have convinced him that there are two sides to that question.

I cannot, however, leave von Hertling without making some observation upon the Russian policy which he defines. That also is a demonstration of German methods. He tells us the recent arrangements with Russia were made on the urgent appeal of the populations for protection against the Red Guard and other bands, and, therefore, undertaken in the name of humanity.

We know that the East is the East and the West is the West and that the German policy of the West is entirely different from the German policy of the East.

The German policy in the East recently has been directed toward preventing atrocities and devastation in the interest of humanity, while German policy in the West is occupied entirely in performing atrocities and devastations.

Why this difference of treatment of Belgium on one side and other populations on the other? I know of no explanation, except that Germany pursues her methods with remorseless insistency and alters or varies the excuse she gives for her policy.

If she invades Belgium, it is military necessity; if Courland, it is in the interest of humanity. It is impossible to rate very high the professions of humanity, international righteousness and equity in regard to those populations which figure so largely in the speeches. I am quite unable to understand how anybody can get up in the Reichstag and claim that Germany is waging a defensive war.

I am convinced that to begin negotiations, unless you see your way to carry them through successfully, would be to commit the greatest crime against the future peace of the world, and, therefore, while I long for the day when negotiations may really begin, negotiations which must have preparations for the bringing of ideas closer together, I do believe I should be doing an injury to the cause of peace if I encourage the idea that there is any use in beginning these verbal negotiations until something like a general agreement is apparent in the distance and until the statesmen of all the countries see their way to that broad settlement, which, it is my hope, will bring peace to this sorely troubled world.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/fourteenpoints_balfour.htm
Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 23:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 27 FEBRUARY 1919

Page 16
HOGAN, Lance Corporal George Beaumont, son of George Hogan of Mangawai, has been awarded the Croix de Guerre. He left NZ with the 21st Reinforcements and was wounded the second time in August 1918 at Bapaume.

LAURENT, Sgt Henry John has been awarded the Victoria Cross for acts of conspicuous bravery, skill and enterprise.

Page 47
The first war memorial erected in Onehunga was unveiled on Monday. The memorial consists of a drinking fountain presented by Mrs Matthew FRIAR in memory of her son William Robert FRIAR who was killed in France. It is erected in front of the Presbyterian Church, Queen Street, and bears the following inscription: “Erected in memory of William Robert FRIAR, 3rd Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade, who died 5 November 1917 at Boulogne, France, of wounds received at Passchendaele, aged 24 years. Pro Patria

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn27feb1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2010 23:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Germany and the Political Situation

The Arraignment of the Kaiser
If the attitude of the new Assembly is a factor indisputable to the formation of any sound judgment as to the future relations of the German people with the rest of the world scarcely less can be said of the arraignment before a court of criminal jurisdiction of the Kaiser and others primarily responsible for the war. As regards the first point, it is essential that the new National Assembly should once for all proclaim the determination of the German people no longer to be governed by an oligarchy of nobles and military men, and as an earnest of this determination at once abolish the institution of a standing army on the basis of compulsory military service. This, coupled with the constitution of the new Republic on a loosely federal basis, with a large measure of autonomy for each State and no centralised power in military matters, ought to afford a sufficient primary guarantee to other nations of the unaggressive character of the new Germany.

Lees verder op http://www.marxists.org/archive/bax/1919/02/germany.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 17:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn liefste lief. Brieven van Jean-Louis Pisuisse aan Fie Carelsen

Wiesbaden, 27 Februari 1914.
Der Nassauer Hof

Mijn allerliefste Schat,

We staan alweer op 't punt, van hier te vertrekken, maar toch wil ik nu nog maar even 'n kort briefje schrijven, omdat er anders misschien weer in geen twee dagen iets van komt - met al dat gereis. - toen we den 25en 's avonds om halfacht hier aankwamen had ik om te beginnen 'n barstende koppijn, die ik eerst aan honger toeschreef, maar die niet wegging, ňňk toen ik gegeten had, zoodat ik om halfelf als 'n lijk op m'n bed kwam. Ik slikte toen 'n lading aspirine en stopte m'n ooren vol met carbolglycerine en den volgenden dag was de hoofdpijn weg. We gingen toen onze zaal ontdekken en de Wiesbadensche ‘Alsbach en Doyer’ 'n zekere meneer Heinrich Wolff, 'n genoeglijk jodenmannetje, dat er erg over klaagde dat hij van Guttmann haast geen instructies had gehad, niets omtrent 'n vleugel, niets omtrent aanplakbiljetten, geen bliksem. Toch had hij in de couranten en in de hotels nog 'n aardige reclame met onze programma's gemaakt, maar hij verwachtte geen kip. Nčt zooals ik 't al tegen Guttmann had gezegd: na carneval (dat Dinsdag eindigde) zijn de menschen natuurlijk arm en uitgefuifd. Enfin, hij had zwaar met vrijbiljetten gewerkt en er zaten per slot nog 'n kleine tweehonderd menschen in de zaal. Maar als er twintig betalenden bij waren, zal 't mooi zijn! Ik zelf was den dood nabij. De hoofdpijn was weer 's middags komen opzetten en ik kon letterlijk niet kijken. 't Werk zal dan ook wel niet erg best zijn geweest, maar 't publiek was zeer enthousiast. Stel je voor: toen we weggingen stonden er wel 'n dertig jongelui, hoofdzakelijk meisjes, onder aan de trap en brachten ons juichend naar ons rijtuig, waar ze allemaal handjes moesten hebben. Meschugge! Maar dat schijnt er in Duitschland zoo bij te hooren! In elk geval kunnen we hier in 't Hoch-Saison, d.i. in Mei rustig terugkomen, zoo werd ons voorspeld. 't Succes was onaanvechtbaar geweest.

Ik, met al die nieuwe Wiesbadensche lauweren om m'n hoofd, kwam intusschen meer dood dan levend in 't Hotel terug, probeerde nog even wat te eten, maar moest als 'n haas naar m'n bed. - Ik heb nu geen aspirine ingenomen, alleen Validol. En nu vanochtend is mijn kop weer pijnloos, maar nog niet heelemaal helder. Ik geloof eigenlijk, dat die pijn uit de ooren voortkomt.... Enfin, 't zal wel slijten. - Als 't nu vandaag maar wegblijft.

Van wegblijven gesproken: ik zal nog 'n dag langer moeten wegblijven dan ik dacht. We hebben nl. den 9en Maart in Dresden 'n privé avond gekregen (300 Mark) zoodat nu onze eigen soireé op den 10en verschoven wordt.

Max krijgt tallooze brieven van z'n verschillende ‘kipjes’ en renommeert daar zeer mee. Van ‘Gretchen’ heeft hij al 'n portret in z'n portefeuille, op de plaats waar eens Annie zat (en haar voorgangsters zaten). Uit een briefkaart die hij van ‘Tuddie’ kreeg, merkte ik, dat hij de Von Schmidt's maar kalm in den waan gelaten had, alsof hij nog altijd getrouwd was. Wat 'n malle knul, toch, hč!

‘Liefstetje’, ik moet weg. Heb dit alles dan ook in vliegende haast gekrabbeld. Spoedig meer. Dag groote schat van me. Duizend lieve zoenen van

Je trouwe Mannie

De Max hierboven is Max Blokzijl. Hij schrijft over het bovenstaande:

Ons eerste openbare optreden in Berlijn, in de thans reeds lang niet meer bestaande ‘Choralion’-zaal, beteekende de vuurproef. Berlijnsche critiek was de lastigste ter wereld. Wie de Duitsche hoofdstad niet voldeed, behoefde zich verder geen moeite te geven en deed beter, naar huis te keeren. Wie hier geprezen werd, zag alle contracten voor Europa en Amerika gereed liggen.

Pisuisse was dien avond in de kleedkamer zoo nerveus, dat ik het ergste vreesde. En ik voelde me eerlijk gezegd ook niet zoo zeker als anders. En toch had men ons uiterst vriendelijk ontvangen. Verschillende dagbladen hadden portretten van ons afgedrukt, en het ‘Berliner Tageblatt’ bracht zelfs eenige dagen tevoren een feuilleton van mijn hand, waarin ik onder den titel ‘Zwei Abende’ een voordrachtavond bij het Atjeh-leger met een soirée aan het hof van Koningin Elisabeth van Roemenië vergeleek.

Men had dus al het een en ander over ons gelezen.

Onze vreemde namen trokken; de ongewone combinatie ‘journalisten-chansonniers’ nog meer.

Maar het publiek en vooral de critiek was nu eenmaal meer dan verwend. Men kende in ons genre reeds Yvette Guilbert en Sven Scholander, Marc Henry en Maria Delvard, Jean Moreau en andere zangers van internationale reputatie.

Desondanks werd het een succes als Berlijn slechts zelden beleefd heeft. Soms spreek ik hier nog wel eens bekende muziekmenschen als prof. Max Friedlaender, en dan gaat het gesprek dadelijk weer naar ons debuut in de Choralionzaal. Een debuut, dat door tal van uitverkochte avonden zou gevolgd worden. De menschen waren door het dolle heen, en ten slotte, nadat we meer dan dertig maal teruggeroepen waren en acht toegiften hadden moeten geven, bestormden jonge meisjes en oude vrijsters onze kleedkamer, ofschoon we al ‘en profond négligé’ aan de waschtafel stonden. In de zaal had men de menschen door het uitdraaien van alle lichten met geweld moeten verjagen. En in de kleedkamer waren we voor omarmingen niet veilig meer.

M'n goeie Swiep straalde! En hij had 't waarachtig verdiend. Want hij had kostelijk prestaties gegeven. ‘Aber, meine Damen!’ hoor 'k 'm nňg zeggen, ‘das geht doch nicht. Wir müssen uns ganz umziehen; verstehen sie ganz! Da werden Sie uns doch wohl einen Augenblick alleine müssen....’

‘Ach, wie interessant!’ ‘Ja, interessant vieleicht? Aber es geht doch wirklicht nicht!’ ‘Aber warum nicht! Es ist doch so interessant....’

Toen namen we een badhanddoek, de kleedkamerbediende en ik, en achter dat scherm verkleedde Swiep zich. Daarop eenzelfde vertooning te mijnen behoeve.

Twaalf jonge meisjes en acht oude vrijsters trachtten met alle geweld iets van die verkleedpartij waar te nemen, en haar monden stonden niet stil. Buiten op straat wachtten nog eenige tientallen. Den volgenden ochtend om acht uur waren ze al aan onze hotelkamer.

Zoo ging het in heel Duitschland!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/pisu001mijn01_01/pisu001mijn01_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 17:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Even een antieke...

Oprichting van de ‘voorlopige marechaussee’ in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden (27 februari 1814)


Marechaussee van het voorlopige bewind van België,
februari-oktober 1814, reproductie van prent van Knötel


Na het vertrek van de troepen van Napoleon uit Nederland valt de teruggekeerde Prins van Oranje terug op de inrichting van de politie ten tijde van de Bataafse Republiek (1795-1806) en het Koninkrijk Holland (1806-1810). In de beide Nederlanden vinden de leden van de gewezen Gendarmerie hun emplooi bij de diverse politiekorpsen. Zowel de politie in de steden als de veldwacht keren terug.

De oprichting

In de Zuidelijke Nederlanden wordt ondertussen bij besluit van 27 februari 1814 een korps marechaussee opgericht. Het besluit komt van de hand van het voorlopig bestuur over de Zuidelijke Nederlanden: de bondgenoten Pruisen, Oostenrijk, Rusland en Engeland. De Prins van Oranje krijgt pas op 31 juli 1814 het bestuur over de Zuidelijke Nederlanden, nadat op 26 juni van dat jaar het Protocol van Londen (dat voorziet in de vereniging van de Nederlanden) is getekend.

Ontbinding van de 'tijdelijke marechaussee'

De ‘Provisore Marechaussee’ (voorlopige Marechaussee) blijft bij gebrek aan middelen ineffectief. De organisatie en structuur komen niet of nauwelijks van de grond. De voorlopige marechaussee wordt op 26 oktober 1814 ontbonden.

http://www.defensie.nl/nimh/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814-1914/oprichting_van_de_voorlopige_marechaussee_in_de_zuidelijke_nederlanden_(27_februari_1814)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Illustrated London News 1915 February 27th



http://www.iln.org.uk/iln_years/year/1915feb27.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 17:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French Naval Operations, Engagements and Ship Losses in the Adriatic in World War One
by Erwin Sieche

On 27 February 1915 the U 12 (Lerch) was unsuccessfully attacked off Cape Menders [Rat Mendra] by a French BRUMAIRE-type sub with two torpedoes.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/fadri.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 17:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maud Mary Beckett

(...) Within a few months war broke out (1914) and Dad promptly joined the AIF, married Mum at St Clement’s, Mossman, on 27th February 1915, sailed overseas with the 1st battalion and lost his right arm at Gallipoli in May 1915. (...)

http://203.147.135.214/marymaudbeckett.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 17:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 27, 1915: The Valley of Fear is published

On this day in 1915, The Valley of Fear by Arthur Conan Doyle is published in novel form.

Sherlock Holmes had been a popular character since he first appeared in the story "A Study in Scarlet," published in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887. The thin, highly strung detective with extraordinary deductive powers was modeled partly on Dr. Joseph Bell, a medical school teacher at the University of Edinburgh, where Holmes' creator studied.

Conan Doyle created Holmes while practicing medicine in London, where his shortage of patients left him ample free time to write. Starting in 1891, a series of Holmes stories appeared in The Strand magazine. Holmes' success enabled Doyle to leave his medical practice in 1891 and devote himself to writing, but the author soon grew weary of his creation. In The Final Problem, he appeared to kill off both Holmes and his nemesis, Dr. Moriarty, only to resuscitate Holmes later due to popular demand. In 1902, Doyle was knighted for his work with a field hospital in South Africa. In addition to dozens of Sherlock Holmes stories and several novels, Doyle wrote history, pursued whaling, and engaged in many adventures and athletic endeavors. After his son died in World War I, Doyle became a dedicated spiritualist. He died in 1930.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-valley-of-fear-is-published
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Valley_of_Fear
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Feb 2011 18:02, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 27, 1922: Supreme Court defends women's voting rights

In Washington, D.C., the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, providing for female suffrage, is unanimously declared constitutional by the eight members of the U.S. Supreme Court. The 19th Amendment, which stated that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex," was the product of over seven decades of meetings, petitions, and protests by women suffragists and their supporters.

In 1916, the Democratic and Republican parties endorsed female enfranchisement, and on June 4, 1919, the 19th Amendment was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification. On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment, achieving the required three-fourths majority of state ratification, and on August 26 the 19th Amendment officially took effect.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/supreme-court-defends-womens-voting-rights
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'Ghost' turned out to be homeless Scot
From The Gazette of Feb 27, 1915.

Policemen in the performance of their duty are called upon to officiate in many unusual cases, but it is seldom that they are turned out upon a ghost hunt. Such, however, was the diversion afforded Constable Taillion and Turcot, of the Chenneville street police station, they being successful in laying a "spirit" which had threatened to disrupt the Polish boarding establishment of Nick Iranoff, at 91 Vitre street west.

"Mr. Policeman, you come, you see, Ghost in house. House haunt Boarders fraid, and run way." These and other incoherent ejaculations were uttered last night by Iranoff when he appeared before Sergeant Corbete of the Chenneville street station.

From the running fire of mutilated English which poured from the lips of the highly-excited visitor, the Sergeant at last gathered that two weeks ago a ghost had taken up residence in a vacant flat situated over the home of the Pole. The spirit at first made its presence known by nocturnal "ramping, which served to key up the boarders to a high state of excitement" One or two gave notice of their departure, while those who remained tried to drown out the sounds of the nightly walking with wild carousals.

Matters came to a crisis in the Polish establishment when each night since Tuesday the bugaboo was heard to settle himself directly over the kitchen-dining-livingbedroom of the Poles. After a series of scrapes and bumps each night all would be quiet for a time, and then the flat would reverberate with unearthly moans and groans which made the blood of the Poles run cold. On Wednesday two boarders found other lodging and other gave notice that if the ghost were not immediately and permanently laid, they would follow.

At midnight on Wednesday, all the boarders, together with the proprietor and his wife, were brought from their beds by a series of sepulchral groans from the ceiling. Lamps were lighted and the Poles conferred. The sounds seems to come from a point near the centre of the room and one of the foreigners conceived a happy solution of the problem. A hammer and a large spike were secured, and standing upon the dining table, one of the Poles proceeded to pound the spike lustily up through the plaster.

The driving home of the spike was followed by violent threshing about, accompanied by grunts and groans. As the frightened Poles watched the effect of their experiment, the spike wriggled a little and then vanished, causing a small shower of plaster and a hole in the ceiling. This was too much for several of the boarders, and although everything was quiet after that, they quit the house as soon as they could collect their clothes.

On Thursday night the proprietor and such of his boarders as were left went through an even more harrowing experience, three nails becoming animated and disappearing through the ceiling. When the ghost was once more in evidence last night, Iranoff, as a last resource, appealed to the police.

Constable Taillion and Turcot went to the place and first inspected the home of the Poles, who pointed out to them the holes through which the nails had made their weird exit. The policemen heard sounds of restless moving above, and with a flock of foreigners following them made their way to the street and entered the vacant flat by its separate entrance at 37 Cote street.

After a short investigation the police found a small door near the ceiling of the vacant flat, which led into the attic about two feet in height over the abode of Iranoff. Constable Taillion, after crawling into the attic a few feet grasped a trousers leg and backed out of the cubby hole to the tune of vociferous expostulations and imprecations delivered with a broad Scotch burr. The "ghost" was uncovered Jock had no job and no "dig."

He had found his way into the vacant house and discovered that a nice warm stovepipe ran through the attic. His movements in reaching the stovepipe and his subsequent snores of contentment had been the terrifying sounds which had disrupted Nick's boarding house. As the soot-covered Scot was hauled through the door, the Poles gave a wild yell in unison and broke for the door. The police, having no charge to make against the Scot, shooed him out of the house, and then did their best to explain the matter to the Poles.

http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/todays-paper/haunting+story+from+Montreal+past/4353057/story.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

Met de levering van tarwe is het nog altijd niet in orde. 't Geen door het Duitse bestuur werd opgeëist leveren de boeren stipt - omdat het moet; maar 't geen door 't comiteit gevraagd wordt - en dienen moet om de eigen bevolking te voederen - is niet los te krijgen omdat het comiteit niet over voldoende ‘uitvoerende macht van straffen’ beschikt!!

Verleden jaar was 't de algemene roep dat de Duitsers ons uithongeren zouden, en nu blijkt het... als we 't van de boeren hebben moesten, dat we al lang boomschors zouden mogen knabbelen. Vandaag werden weer van de kerksteen de gewone dreigementen afgelezen waarmede de ongewilligaards gestraft zullen worden, die hierin bestaan: dat de bevolking van de gemeente uitgesloten wordt door 't hulpcomiteit. Dat wil zeggen dat de hele burgerij geen meel, vet, rijst enz. meer krijgen kan en de behoeftigen hun hulpgeld onttrokken worden en dat is dan de vergeldingsmaatregel waarmede enige onwillige boeren moeten getroffen worden - die geen hulpgelden verlangen en de levering van 't comiteit best missen kunnen, omdat ze tarwe op zolder hebben en vlees in de kuip! - Een andere strafmaatregel zal bestaan in 't uithangen van de namen van de boeren die weigeren te leveren (alsof heel de bevolking die boeren niet kende!)

De ongerijmdheden in die zaak liggen voor 't grijpen b.v. in theorie zou er nergens een graantje in voorraad meer mogen zijn - daar de hele opbrengst aangeslagen werd! - en als ik hier rondkijk zie ik in de vier windstreken alle molens aan 't draaien! Ik vraag me af: wat maalt men op die molens, van waar komt die tarwe en waar gaat dat meel??

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0018.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vera Brittain letter to Edward Brittain (27th February, 1916)

I have just been to see Thurlow at Fishmongers' Hall Hospital, London Bridge. He is only very slightly wounded on the left side of his face; fortunately his eyes, nose and mouth are quite untouched. In fact he says he won't even have a scar left, and the wound is healing with a depressing rapidity. The dressing was only strapped, not even bandaged, on. But he was in bed, and says he had not even been allowed to walk to the bathroom until today, so I think he must be suffering from shock as well, although he says nothing about it. He did not look ill at all, only a little tired. He was apparently wounded in the bombardment, before all the trench fighting began. He thinks hardly any of his battalion are left now.

I don't know whether he was at all pleased to see me. we were both very shy - at any rate I know I was, and shyness always makes me speak quite lightly about things of which I think anything but lightly, and I think it makes him too. we might have been less shy had we been alone, but there was another officer there all the time, a school friend of his who had come to see him too, and it is always slightly embarrassing to carry on a conversation in the presence of a silent third person...

I only stayed with him about half-an-hour; he was very interesting to talk to and I like him very much, as you know, but I felt sure he would much rather talk to the school friend than to me, and visiting hours at a Hospital are of course limited. He thinks he will be off duty about another month, and of course doesn't know whether he will return to the 10th. He might get sent to the 11th just as much.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWthurlow.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charlie Chaplin

On the 27th of February, 1916, Chaplin signed with Mutual Films for $10,000 a week plus a $150,000 signing bonus. He remained with for a little over a year, until June 17, 1917, when he signed with First National Exhibitor's Circuit for $1,075,000 a year. He was still a bachelor - handsome, rich, and famous - when he became infatuated with a sixteen- year-old movie ingenue, Mildred Harris.

http://www.charliechaplin.net/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private James Crozier

Private James Crozier was a Northern Irish born Soldier "Shot at Dawn".

The society visit the grave annually and have a small memorial as it is thought he was wrongly executed.

He was unconscious, blindfolded and tied to an execution post as he was carried out to his punishment for desertion.

He was killed by a shot to the head after the firing squad failed to kill him on the first attempt on 27th February 1916.

This memorial stone is situated in Sucrerie Military Cemetery, Colincamps in France, although he was first buried in a village called Mailly-Maillet.

http://www.blairmayneresearchsociety.com/shotatdawn.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DE CRYNSSENHERDENKING IN 1917
DOOR FRED. OUDSCHANS DENTZ

Op 27 Februari 1917 was het 250 jaren geleden, dat de Zeeuwsche
vlootvoogd Abraham Crynssen Suriname veroverde op de
Engelschen. Het feit van den 250-jarigen band tusschen Nederland
en Suriname werd in Nederland niet gevierd, zooals in 1934
ten aanzien van Curacao het geval was, toen door een plechtige
samenkomst en een tentoonstelling Curacao onder de aandacht
van duizenden kwam; er werd in 1917 zelfs geen commissie in
Nederland opgericht om een herdenking voor te bereiden.

Lees verder op http://www.kitlv-journals.nl/index.php/nwig/article/viewFile/4559/5326
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Revolutionary barricades on Liteyny Prospekt, Petrograd, Russia, 27 February 1917.



Revolutionary barricades on Liteyny Prospekt, Petrograd, Russia, 27 February 1917. The February Revolution led to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the collapse of imperial Russia. A provisional government was established which effectively shared power with the Bolshevik Petrograd Soviet. In October the Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional govenment and seized power themselves. Found in the collection of the State Museum of the Political History of Russia, St Petersburg.

http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2481415&pricing=true&licenseType=RM
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Michael Rodzianko, President of the Duma, telegram to Nicholas II (27th February, 1917)

The situation is growing worse. Measures should be taken immediately as tomorrow will be too late. The last hour has struck, when the fate of the country and dynasty is being decided.

The government is powerless to stop the disorders. The troops of the garrison cannot be relied upon. The reserve battalions of the Guard regiments are in the grips of rebellion, their officers are being killed. Having joined the mobs and the revolt of the people, they are marching on the offices of the Ministry of the Interior and the Imperial Duma.

Your Majesty, do not delay. Should the agitation reach the Army, Germany will triumph and the destruction of Russian along with the dynasty is inevitable.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February Revolution of 1917

On 27 February (12 March), an armed rebellion broke out in Petrograd. In the morning, soldiers from the Volynsky Regiment rebelled; they were followed by reserve soldiers from the Litovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments (their barracks were at 37/1 Kirochnaya Street; memorial plaque installed). On 27-28 February 1917, other units from the Petrograd Garrison joined them (on the morning of 27 February, 10,000 soldiers rebelled; during the course of the day, there were over 25,000; by evening, there were over 67,000; on 28 February, there were 127,000). The Main Arsenal, the Telegraph Service, the Central Post Office, and various railway stations, bridges, and governmental buildings all passed into the hands of revolting soldiers and workers. Police stations were looted; the Kresty (Crosses) Prison and the Temporary Confinement Building were captured; the Circuit Court buildings on Liteiny Avenue and the Lithuanian Prison Castle (on Kryukov Canal) were burnt; all prisoners were set free, and arrests began of the Tsar's ministers. General Khabalov and A. P. Balk, the Petrograd Chief of City Administration, together continued their resistance from the city administration building (2 Gorokhovaya Street), but to no avail. On 27 February, they sent a combined detachment headed by Colonel A. P. Kutepov with the purpose of "installing order", only to have the soldiers "disperse" among the rebels. Khabalov and all troops loyal to the government tried to consolidate at the building of the Main Admiralty, but by 28 February (13 March) 1917 the had to surrender. On 27 February (12 March), a new political organ of power was created at Tauride Palace, called the Provisional Committee of the State Duma (headed by M.V. Rodzyanko), which became the revolutionary forces' centre. At the same time, leaders from the State Duma's socialist factions, as well as representatives of soldiers and workers, all proclaimed the creation of a Temporary Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies.

http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804022822
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Bean watches the Australian advance near the Butte de Warlencourt, France, 27 February 1917



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/warlencourt/warlencourt-british-cemetery.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Warlencourt British Cemetery

Just along the road from the Butte de Warlencourt, in the direction of Bapaume, is the Warlencourt British Cemetery. Warlencourt is not well known as an Australian cemetery, but 461 men of the AIF lie here. Most of the dates of death on their graves tell of the fighting north–east of Flers in the dying days of the Somme campaign in 1916, and of the casualties suffered during that long, cold Somme winter of 1916–17. Other dates tell of the lesser known Australian advance of late February and early March 1917, over this countryside lying north–east of the Butte de Warlencourt, across the main Albert–Bapaume road, up the slopes to Warlencourt village and beyond to Bois Loupart (Loupart Wood). German trenches just forward of the wood were stoutly defended by the German rearguard in the period of 27 February to 4 March 1917, and many Australian lives were lost in attacks on these positions. In Warlencourt British Cemetery, dates on individual headstones mark out a chronology of these assaults.

On 27 February, the 17th Battalion (NSW) relieved the 18th Battalion in positions in Malt Trench, a few hundred metres along the road from the cemetery. One of the unit’s machine–gunners was Private Thomas Spillane, ‘Tom’ to his mates, an original in the battalion who had served at Gallipoli, and an employee of the Sydney Tramways Depot. As he was building a position for his gun ‘Tom’ Spillane was killed by a shell burst. He was buried on the spot, on the bank on the left–hand side of the road leading to Bapaume, and a cross was erected, on which were written his details. Everyone travelling along the road after the advance had gone beyond Bapaume would have seen the grave. After the war, Spillane was brought in to Plot IV, Row B, Grave 3.

Lees verder op http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/warlencourt/warlencourt-british-cemetery.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Aircraft Carriers of the First World War

(...) While these seaplane carriers had their uses, the need for bigger ships with proper launching platforms was clear. The first such ship to enter service was HMS Campania, a converted liner that was eventually give a 200 foot flight deck, first used in August 1915. The Campania could be used to launch land or sea planes, but sea planes still had to be retrieved by crane and land planes find somewhere else to land. The basic design was repeated in 1917 in HMS Nairana and HMS Pegasus, both taken over while under construction on 27 February 1917. (...)

Lees het hele artikel op Rickard, J (17 November 2007), British Aircraft Carriers of the First World War, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/lists_carriers_british_WWI.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Boris Kustodiyev. 27 February,1917. Oil on canvas. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia



http://www.abcgallery.com/K/kustodiyev/kustodiyev59.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

[Canadian] War Service Badges

On Tuesday, August 16, 1916, Canada's outgoing Governor General, His Excellency, The Duke of Connaught, enacted Order in Council P.C. 1944. This established three classes of persons entitled to War Badges.

1.Men honourably discharged from the Expeditionary Force
2.Men who offered themselves for active service but were rejected
3.Men who desired to or had offered to enlist who were refused because their services were more valuable in their present employment.

Six months later, on Tuesday, February 27, 1917, Canada's Deputy Governor General, C. Fitzpatrick, approved Order in Council P.C. 275 which superseded P.C. 1944. This established the design of the badges, redefined the classes entitled to them and established a fourth class.

Bekijk ze op http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/sub.cfm?source=collections/cmdp/mainmenu/group08
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Macedonia 1917 (The 11th Battalion Worcestershire)

On the evening of February 27th a hostile air raid had most unhappy results for the Battalion. Three bombs fell in the lines of the Battalion transport, killing or wounding 52 animals and 19 men (37 mules and 1 horse killed, 12 mules and 2 horses wounded, 2 men killed. 2 died of wounds, 15 wounded).

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/h_macedonia_1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 Stem op de Vrije Liberalen

27-02-1918 - Groot bord van de Bond van Vrije Liberalen ter gelegenheid van de verkiezingen van 1918 te Amsterdam. Men wijst tevens op de stemplicht.

Mooie foto op http://www.nuentoen.nl/fotos/133307/1918-stem-op-de-vrije-liberalen.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mary Pickford, wearing a kimono, writing at a desk, by Hartsook Photo Studio, San Francisco & Los Angeles, California, 27 February 1918



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flickr_-_%E2%80%A6trialsanderrors_-_Mary_Pickford_by_Hartsook_Photo,_1918_(1).jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jan Kucharzewski



Jan Kucharzewski (Polish pronunciation: [May 27, 1876, Wysokie Mazowieckie - July 4, 1952) was a Polish historian, lawyer, and politician, prime minister of Poland (1917-1918).

In 1898 he graduated from Warsaw University, he was a member of Zet political organizaction, National Democrats (Narodowa Demokracja) movement, and National League (Liga Narodowa) until 1911. In the first years of the World War I he was in Switzerland, where he wrote some articles for the Polish cause. In June 1917 he came back to Warsaw receiving a job in the administration under the Regency Council. Since 26 November 1917 till 27 February 1918 he was the prime minister of the Polish government. After 1920 he dedicated his life to scientific work. Since 1940 (World War II) he was in exile in the USA, where he published many works for the Polish cause, mainly from an anti-communist and anti-Soviet point of view.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Kucharzewski
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN ARMY IN THE UKRAINE: MARCH-NOVEMBER 1918

(...) On 27 February 1918 the 2nd Austro-Hungarian Army received an order to capture the railway line that went eastward via Podwoloczyska and Husiatyn. On the second day, the 2nd Army began moving forward to the north of the Dniester, on the following lines:
- On the first line, the 11th, 30th & 59th Infantry Divisions and the 2nd Cavalry Division joined battle in the first half of the month of March at Slobodka, Birzula and Odessa with sailors of the Black Sea Fleet.
- On the second line, the 54th & 155th Infantry Divisions fought against irregular bands of the population. The 17th & 145th Infantry Brigades had organising missions and were also involved in battles with the Bolsheviks, suffering losses.
- The 34th Infantry Division and the 5th Honved (Hungarian) Cavalry Divisions ensured the safety of the railway lines and found themselves involved in several battles.
- The 15th Infantry Division, as well as the 4th & 7th Cavalry Divisions also had the role of ensuring the safety of the railway lines. (...)

http://membres.multimania.fr/dgrecu/AUtxt.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Forces in the Middle East

(...) Merrylees’s superb diary observations can be supplemented by correspondence written by William Bailey, a member of the London Regiment who frequently documented the deplorable conditions facing many soldiers. In December 1917, for example, Bailey noted that his teeth "are rotting & we can get no attention & have to eat dog biscuits. Similarly, on 27 February 1918, after defeating Turkish forces at Jericho, Bailey informed his mother that "as a reward we are being half starved again. Bully & biscuits that's all & not much water. Still we hope for something better." (...)

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/case-study/british-forces-middle-east
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On 27 February 1919 Commander Alexander Ramsay married princess Patricia of Connaught...



... daughter of prince Artur of the UK, Duke of Connaught and Princess Luise Margaretha of Prussia. The couple married in the Westminster Abbey

http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums/f206/cdr-alexander-ramsay-and-princess-patricia-of-connaught-1919-a-19484.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Lambert: "Gallipoli wild flowers"



Lambert made this painting of the flowers of the ANZAC Cove area in late February 1919. He gathered a bunch of wild flowers on 27 February in case further rain prevented him from painting up at the Nek. His bunch consisted mainly of euphorbias and anemones with sprays of grasses and soft grey succulents. With two days of rain he finished the work on 1 March and wrote: “The flower piece is finished … The flowers are in a biscuit tin sitting on top of a bed for a tent pole. The work is up to standard.” All of these species are still thriving on the peninsula but overall the landscape is much changed from when Lambert saw it. Nature has repaired much of the damage caused in 1915; the lines of trenches are softened and parts of the heights are eroding and crumbling. Importantly, the flora of the area has changed significantly since 1919. Introduced trees have been planted as part of an afforestation program and a massive fire in 1994 has caused substantial regeneration of particular species over others.

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/tag/landscape/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

E. Belfort Bax: "Germany and the Political Situation"
Justice, 27th February 1919, p.2.

The affairs of the Peace Conference do not seem to advance very rapidly. In fact, there seems some colourable pretence for the opinion sometimes heard that the job is being too much “nursed”, as the phrase goes. Banqueting and speechifying there is galore, but the real business seems to lag behind.

The German National Assembly seems at last under way. “Majority” Socialists show certainly a majority over any two of the other parties taken together. It is difficult to say whether we ought to regard this result from the point of view of the actual situation as satisfactory or not. Had the elections been held six weeks earlier, I take it there is no doubt whatever that the “Independents” (the “Minority” Socialists) would have received at least twice as many votes as they have in the recent polling. The events of the Berlin insurrection early last month entirely altered the position. The temporary alliance of the “Minority” men in Berlin with the Spartakist group, which was as regards many of its adherents strongly under Bolshevik influence, has unquestionably for the time being damaged the prestige of the party throughout the country.

The Mistake of the Independents

Socialists, of course, ought to know that the “Independents” have no Bolshevist tendencies, and that any favour they may have shown to the Spartacus insurrection was chiefly due to a desire to throw out of power the sinister figures of Ebert, Scheidemann, and Noske – especially the two latter. In this desire every honest Socialist must share. But the event showed that the tactics pursued were a mistake. The “Majority” Socialists, after having triumphed in arms in Berlin, seem to have triumphed at the voting stations throughout the country. Still we may hope that the more honest men of the Majority may have enough of their old Socialist traditions left to put a spoke in the wheel of reaction, if nothing more. But it is useless speculating on the immediate future of Germany before the National Assembly shows us what we may expect.

Karl Liebknecht

Meanwhile one must not omit to do justice to those who fell in the ill-starred Spartacus rising of the second week in January. The news of the death of Karl Liebknecht will have come as a shock to Socialists all the world over. True to his ideals and convictions from start to finish through good report and evil report this heroic figure cannot fail to evoke both now and in the future, all workers in the cause of Socialism. It may well be that the policy boldly pursued by Liebknecht was a mistaken one. Many of us may be inclined to agree with Bernstein that the Spartacus group, is carrying out a policy of misery, leading to sheer anarchy, yet we can, nevertheless, heartily agree with the expressions of that excellent Socialist, one of the best men in Germany at the present time, Kurt Eisner, of Munich, in admiring the heroism and self-sacrifice of those who perished in the Berlin rising. That Kurt Eisner should have said what he did in a public speech is the more to his credit, since he himself, as head of the Provisional Government of the recently created Bavarian Republic, has had trouble with the exigencies of the Spartacan extremists.

The Arraignment of the Kaiser

If the attitude of the new Assembly is a factor indisputable to the formation of any sound judgment as to the future relations of the German people with the rest of the world scarcely less can be said of the arraignment before a court of criminal jurisdiction of the Kaiser and others primarily responsible for the war. As regards the first point, it is essential that the new National Assembly should once for all proclaim the determination of the German people no longer to be governed by an oligarchy of nobles and military men, and as an earnest of this determination at once abolish the institution of a standing army on the basis of compulsory military service. This, coupled with the constitution of the new Republic on a loosely federal basis, with a large measure of autonomy for each State and no centralised power in military matters, ought to afford a sufficient primary guarantee to other nations of the unaggressive character of the new Germany.

Punishment of Those Responsible for This Necessary

As to the second point mentioned, it is to be feared that the bitterness now so largely felt towards the German people on the part of other nations will hardly die down before the general sense of justice has been satisfied by the exemplary punishment of those responsible for the war and the manner in which it has been conducted, chief among whom are the Kaiser and the head men of the General Staff of the army. With this question is further involved that of the confiscation of the enormous wealth of the Hohenzollerns and the Habsburgs to meet the indemnities, and thereby lighten the burden of the German nation, many of whom may claim to be at worst only indirectly responsible for the course of events. For the rest, the future is uncertain enough. With such men as Schiedemann and Noske giving the tone to German politics one cannot help being pessimistic, but, on the other hand, one must not forget that Germany also has her Kurt Eisners, her Rühles, and her Bittmann and others like them.

[Since our comrade Bax wrote the article, Kurt Eisner has been assassinated. – ED. J.]

http://www.marxists.org/archive/bax/1919/02/germany.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fragments from the memories of gen. Radu Rosetti

During WWI he was a major and then a lt. colonel; he resigned from the Romanian army in 1918 and traveled to France where he joined the French army and was assigned to gen. Berthelot's Danube Army.

17 February 1919 - General Berthelot, upon his return from Odessa, told me that the Russians are even less interested than he imagined. "They won't fight". Denikin abuses of his power. Many Russians, of all political colors, told him that they would fight the Bolsheviks, but not under Russian command. They prefer an Entente command. [...]

27 February 1919 - Captain Berthelot has returned from another visit at the Kransov and Denikin armies. He says the situation in Russia is slowly becoming dangerous. The Bolsheviks fight, while Denikin doesn't. His staff continues to draw up plans to conquer Russia. Krasnov fled together with his family. Tsaritsin [Volgograd] is threatened. From what he says the situation of the French troops in Russia isn't one to be envied either.[...]

12 March 1919 - The Franco-Greek detachment at Kherson had to abandon it , after it lost 40% of its men in a terrible fight. The lack of unity in planning the Entente actions in Russia is concerning.[...]

14 March 1919 - In the report on his second mission in Russia, captain Marcel Berthelot concludes that the only strong party in Russia and the only one that can speak in its name are the Bolsheviks.[...]

16 March 1919 - Lt. colonel Germain returned from Odessa. He said: 1). At Kherson the civilians attacked the allied troops from behind with grenades 2). at Odessa martial law has been instituted 3). his opinion is that the allied troops should evacuate Russia and retreat on the right bank of the Dniester River and help us defend Bessarabia. After what Caput told me yesterday, this is necessary as the French troops aren't content. This is because the French government doesn't have a clear policy on the subject and doesn't know that its soldiers don't want to be sacrificed for nothing.[...]

24 March 1919 - General Berthelot retuned from Odessa. He thinks that Odessa should be abandoned, because there are 1,000,000 mouths to be fed instead of allied troops. And they would probably shoot on our troops if the opportunity should arise. According to him, they should be immediately retreated and assigned t odefend the Lower Dniester, while the Romanians defend the Upper Dniester.[...]

26 March 1919 - General d'Anselme (CO of the French forces in Russia) requested that our troops occupy Ribnita to ease up the situation of the Ukrainians. Berthelot disagrees and ordered all the bridges over the Dniester to be destroyed, except the railroad ones, which are only to be prepared for destruction.[...]

2 April 1919 - Lunch at Vintila Bratianu. After, Berthelot told Prezan [general Prezan was the Chief of the Romanian General Staff] in my presence: "It is absurd to remain at Odessa, because we only have food left there for 8 days. We must think about living the city and I will order general d'Anselme to make the necessary preparations. I would like to see you in the afternoon to discuss sectors which will be manned by French, greek and Romanian troops [on the Dniester River]. Polish Division I think should be deployed on the Romanian left, in Polish territory. All the civilians that want to flee from the right bank of the Dniester should be directed to the Chiulia-Ismail area (I'll set up food store houses there) from where they will be taken by ship to Crimea. I will order general d'Anselme to evacuate all railroad material to Bessarabia.[...]

4 April 1919 - The evacuation of Odessa and the retreat to the right bank of the Dniester has begun. [...] Discussion with Ion Antonescu on the military situation. He says that Prezan wants to deploy the forces in the following maner. In Bessarabia: in the first line from right to left: 10th Infantry Division (Dubasari), 4th Infantry Division, 9th Infantry Division and the 2nd Cavalry Division with some infantry. In Bukovina: the 8th Infantry Division. In the second line: 1st Vanatori [Chasseurs] Division in the Dorohoi-Boitosani area, 6th Infantry Division in the Iasi-Sculeni area, 5th Infantry Division in the Husi-Leova area. In the third line: the 7th Infantry Division in the Roman-Pascani area. General Berthelot had told me that he wanted the six French and Greek divisions deployed in the following manner: four in the first line from Dubasari down to the mouth of the Dniester, one in the Chisinau-Husi area and one at Roman.[...]

4 April 1919 - The news from Odessa is unsettling. It seems we won't be able to evacuate all the railroad material we need. [...]

11 April 1919 - Ion Antonescu in a conversation with me says that it would be better if the French and Greek troops in Bessarabia be taken to Galitia to fill up the gap between us and the Poles and to get them out of the country, as they are a bad example of discipline and lack of combat spirit for our own troops. I replied that the Allies will never go that far away from their supply base (the Black Sea). Plus Romania will have to put at their disposal the Galati-Cernauti railroad. Then Antonescu said, that he would then prefer to have no Allied troops at all or at least to have colonials, who are more disciplined. [...] General Patey returned in the evening from Cetatea Alba. He said that the French and Greek troops "sont a\en pagaie" [they are in disarray] and he needs time to discipline them ("les mettre en mains"). He praised the attitude of our [Romanian] troops, frontier-guards and authorities. He and general d'Anselme request that the Romanian troops be kept in the area as they alone can maintain order.[...]

14 April 1919 - Following general Berthelot's intervention, the Romanian General Staff took all necessary measures to insure the transportation of the disarmed Ukrainians from Tighina to Hotin, where they will cross the Dniester River. [...]

17 April 1919 - I talked with Landrot, Berthelot and Petin about the morale state of the French troops in Bessarabia.The first one said that is true that the troops won't fight, that the men were ready t osacrifice their lives once, but won't anymore for a cause that is not theirs. He thinks that once they crossed the Dniester they will stay on the defensive. An officer was sent to evaluate the situation, because general d'Anselme hasn't reported anything yet. The Greek morale status is unknown. Berthelot said that indeed the soldiers and especially the officers don't want to fight anymore. The 58th Regiment, which had been penetrated by Bolshevik propaganda, will be sent to southern Morocco as punishment. He requested from Paris more equipment in order to mobilize all the Romanian forces and man the Dniester front. He also asked for the repatriation of te hFrench forces as soon as possible.
Petin said it is humiliating for them to confess, but so it is. Their troops won't fight. What would our soldier be thinking after seeing two allied armies Bolshevized? In Tighina there were a French unit and a battalion of the 39th Infantry Regiment. The French were having a very good meal, as opposed to the modest rations our troops were receiving. A gentleman asked a sergeant what he thought about this. He replied:"Probably we will have to disarm them too", hinting to the fact that the Russians also had good meals, but eventually had to be disarmed. Ironically the French unit was disarmed by that battalion several days later.[...]

23 April 1919 - Franchet d'Esperey, as usual, is blaming his subordinates and now wants to dismiss d'Anselme for what happened at Odessa.[...]

28 April 1919 - General Patey, freshly returned from Bessarabia, said that general d'Anselme does not deserve to be relieved of command and that now the French troops are again under the control of their officers.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=48839
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