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26 Februari

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2006 10:26    Onderwerp: 26 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 26. Februar

1914

1915
Elf Generale in Masuren gefangen
Erstürmung einer Höhe in Südostgalizien
Erneutes Bombardement der Dardanellen
Sir Edward Grey über die Dardanellenfrage
Das Eiserne Kreuz für Enver Pascha
Ein französischer Torpedobootszerstörer gesunken
Generalfeldmarschall Radko Dimitrijew
Die Unruhen in Singapur

1916

Zusammenbruch des feindlichen Widerstandes auf der Woëvrefront
Der Kaiser bei den Kämpfen vor Verdun

Kuropatkin Befehlshaber an der russischen Nordfront

1917
Vergeblicher russischer Angriff am Tataren-Paß
Die siegreichen Luftkämpfe des 25. Februar
Erfolgreiches Gefecht zwischen Calais und Dover
Die Kämpfe an der küstenländischen Front
Der Cunard-Dampfer "Laconia" torpediert
Wilson fordert kriegerische Vollmachten

1918
Einnahme von Reval und Pleskau
Die Beute des Hilfskreuzers "Wolf"
Die deutschen Friedensbedingungen für Russland

www.stahlgewitter.com
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 26 Feb 2006 11:16, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2006 10:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 26

1917 President Wilson learns of Zimmermann Telegram

In a crucial step toward U.S. entry into World War I, President Woodrow Wilson learns of the so-called Zimmermann Telegram, a message from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to the German ambassador to Mexico proposing a Mexican-German alliance in the event of a war between the U.S. and Germany.

On February 24, 1917, British authorities gave Walter Hines Page, the U.S. ambassador to Britain, a copy of the Zimmermann Telegram, a coded message from Zimmermann to Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to Mexico. In the telegram, intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence in late January, Zimmermann instructed his ambassador, in the event of a German war with the United States, to offer significant financial aid to Mexico if it agreed to enter the conflict as a German ally. Germany also promised to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

The State Department promptly sent a copy of the Zimmermann Telegram to President Wilson, who was shocked by the note’s content and the next day proposed to Congress that the U.S. should start arming its ships against possible German attacks. Wilson also authorized the State Department to publish the telegram; it appeared on the front pages of American newspapers on March 1. Many Americans were horrified and declared the note a forgery; two days later, however, Zimmermann himself announced that it was genuine.

The Zimmermann Telegram helped turn the U.S. public, already angered by repeated German attacks on U.S. ships, firmly against Germany. On April 2, President Wilson, who had initially sought a peaceful resolution to World War I, urged immediate U.S. entrance into the war. Four days later, Congress formally declared war against Germany.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 February 1914 → Commons Sitting

Grounding of Steamship "Lusitania."


HC Deb 26 February 1914 vol 58 cc1937-8 1937

Mr. MULDOON asked the Postmaster-General whether his attention has been directed to the fact that the alleged grounding of the "Lusitania" in Queenstown Harbour on the 29th of December, 1907, was found on inquiry to have been caused by the default of a pilot named Martin; whether Martin was a special pilot specially assigned to the company at their request; and whether the company, in a letter dated 22nd February, 1908, informed the Cork Harbour authority that, in consideration of Martin's long service, they did not wish to do more than censure him for an error of judgment?

Captain NORTON I am informed that the facts generally are as stated by the hon. Member, but I have no actual knowledge of the letter referred to.

Mr. WILLIAM O'BRIEN Why is it that the Postmaster-General does not reply to a question of this importance?

Captain NORTON Because the Post-master-General happens to be temporarily absent, and I am taking his place.

Mr. MULDOON Was not this incident put down by the chairman of the Cunard Company, in his letter to the Postmaster-General of 19th June, to the difficulties of the harbour, and is it clear now that it was owing to the fault of the pilot, and what does the hon. and gallant Gentleman think of the chairman of the Cunard Company after that?

Captain NORTON I should be sorry to give my opinion of the chairman of that or any other company.

Captain DONELAN Why have the Cunard Company only recently discovered that their larger steamers cannot anchor safely at Queenstown?

Captain NORTON The hon. and gallant-Gentleman had better give notice.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/feb/26/grounding-of-steamship-lusitania
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 13:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMHS Britannic



The Britannic was the sister ship to the Olympic and Titanic, although it never ran on the North Atlantic. There is a story that it was originally to have been named Gigantic. The White Star Line always denied it but the legend has never been definitely proved or disproved Its completion was delayed pending the outcome of the court enquiry into the Titanic disaster. As a result of this extra safety features were added.

It was finally launched on 26 February 1914 as the Britannic. White Star announced that it would begin sailing the Southampton-New York route in the spring of 1915. The outbreak of World War One changed this and it was converted into a hospital ship with over 3,300 beds.

http://www.ocean-liners.com/ships/britannic.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 13:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ben Brodsky & the real dawn of Hong Kong cinema
By Frank Bren and Law Kar (HK Edition)


Ben Brodsky surrounded by nine Chinese co-directors
of China Cinema Company Ltd formed in November 1914
.

(...) According to his own testimony in The Moving Picture World (New York, 25 July, 1914), Van Velzer spent months generating Hong Kong's first home-grown fiction films from the new studio, using well-educated Chinese actors from Hong Kong Island's "Mirror" drama club. The studio initially produced news and human-interest films that, with hindsight, were a film school for these actors, some destined for recognition as motion picture pioneers of both Hong Kong and Shanghai. On 26 February 1914, Brodsky previewed those films to unanimous praise from the Hong Kong press, especially over The Sport of Kings, a first film record of the annual horse racing carnival in Happy Valley. Variety, said China Mail (February 27), intended "'doing' the whole of China, and for a start a Chinese drama with native actors will shortly be taken". (...)

Lees verder op http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hkedition/2010-03/13/content_9583826.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

26 February 1915 - Between 26 February and 3 March detachments of Royal Marines were landed at Turkish forts at Kum Kale on the mainland and at Sedd-el-Bahr on Gallipoli. They put many of the Turkish guns out of action.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-february-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Albion (1898)



(...) Albion transferred to the Mediterranean in January 1915 to participate in the Dardanelles campaign. She took part in the bombardment of the Ottomam Turkish forts guarding the outer entrance to the Dardanelles on 18 February 1915 and 19 February 1915. Albion, Majestic, and Triumph became the first Allied battleships to enter the Turkish Straits during the Dardanelles campaign on 26 February 1915 when they made the initial attack on the inner forts. Albion then supported the first Allied landings in late February 1915 and early March 1915. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Albion_(1898)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vlammenwerper

26 februari 1915 - De Duitsers maken voor het eerst tijdens de oorlog gebruik van Vlammenwerpers, namelijk tegen de Franse eenheden die gestationeerd zijn in Verdun.

Uit eigen huis... http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Februari
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles

26 February 1915 near the Orkanieh Battery, Kum Kale: Lt Commander E G Robinson RN: Gazetted 16 August 1915

Robinson displayed great bravery and leadership during the operation to complete the destruction of the Orkanieh battery. He also played a leading part in the successful operation to destroy the submarine E 15 which had gone aground near the dardanos battery near Kephez Point on the night of 18/19 April.

Robinson retired as a Rear Admiral in 1933, returned to service in 1939 and served as a convoy Commodore until forced to retire again in 1941 due to ill health. He died in 1965 and is buried in st John ’s churchyard, Langriosh, Hants.

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42

Artist’s impression of Lieutenant Commander Eric Robinson placing charges to demolish the Turkish guns at Kumkale, 26 February 1915.



http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/2visiting/tourasia4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harold Chapin, letter to Alice Chapin (26th February, 1915)

My news is - I have done my second week as Hospital Orderly (We do one in three). A fearful field day covering 30 miles and lasting (without a meal) from 6.45 a.m. till 8.25 p.m. The last four hours in soaking rain through which we (a small detached band of Stretcher Bearers - not the whole 6th) marched the ten miles home at a pace which left the shorter legged several paces in the rear, until a staff-officer overtaking us blew the Lieutenant in charge of us up severely. The Lieutenant in question had been previously thrown from his horse and was covered with mud. We had to march down a road - a bad side lane really - along which all the Artillery of the Division had preceded us. It was a muddy road at best and flooded in places. You can only faintly imagine the foot deep surface of clay we had to splash through for over a mile. Every footstep flung mud higher than our waists. Some times higher than our heads. It was a creamy job. The whole day - wet and muddy and tiring, (we were in full marching order all the time) was most fascinating though. It ended by the stretcher bearers, of whom I was one being marched straight into the sergeant's mess and there served with dinner (rabbit stew) and a glass each of the sergeants' beer, the Sergeant Major himself presiding and forcibly preventing any of the over weariest of us from turning from the food and slipping off to his billet and turning in unfed, and the rest of the Sergeants acting as waiters and bar keepers. I believe our little party did as hard a day's work, as has been done in this part of the country, and not one fell out. Of course it was an accident that landed such a task upon us. We should have either gone to the concentration point by train as the Battalion did or returned from St. Albans by train and motor as the rest of the Field Ambulance did, but - true to the conditions of actual warfare - (by chance) - we went out as a Field Ambulance Stretcher bearers sub division and returned as auxiliary stretcher bearers to a battalion of infantry, a change of character which may easily occur in a real engagement if the S.B. sub div. follows the Batt. reserves until they become supports and still further until they become first line and the rest of the Field Amb. being threatened or otherwise compelled to move off, the communications between S. B.s and Tent sub divisions are broken.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWstretcher.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter sent home by Frank Miller Bingham, 26th February 1915



Lees verder op http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9591/8407
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Agagia, 26 February 1916

The battle of Agagia (or Aqqaqia), 26 February 1916, saw the defeat of the Senussi Uprising along the Egyptian coast. The original three-pronged plan for the uprising had involved attacks on the narrow coastal strip west of the Nile, on the line of oases in the Western Desert and a revolt in Darfur aimed at Khartoum. The Turks and the Germans hoped to inspire a wider revolt in Egypt at a time when the British garrison of Egypt was particularly weak. In the event the two attacks on Egypt were separated by four months. The attack along the coast began in November 1915, that on the oases in February 1916.

The Senussi army on the coast consisted of a core of 5,000 troops that had received a limited amount of training as regular infantry, a larger number of irregular tribesmen, and a small number of Turkish manned mountain guns and machine guns. The force was commanded by Jaafar Pasha, an Arab officer in the Turkish army.

The British had responded to the Senussi attacks by evacuating the coastal settlements and concentrating their Western Frontier Force around Mersa Matruh. A series of small scale encounters in later 1915 reduced the threat, but the final clash did not come until February 1916. The Western Frontier Force was now commanded by Major General W.E. Peyton, and had been reinforced by the South African Brigade under Brigadier-General H. T. Lukin.

Lukin was sent west to reoccupy Sollum, close to the western border of Egypt. His force contained two regiments of South African infantry, the Dorset Yeomanry, detachments from the Hussars and the Royal Scots and a battery from the Nottinghamshire Royal Horse Artillery.

The clash came at Aqaqia, east of Sidi Barrani, in an area that would earn more fame during the Second World War. The South Africans captured the Sennusites’ main position, forcing them into an orderly retreat. The Dorset Yeomanry then charged the retreating troops, and broke up the retreat. This charge, across 1,000 yards of open ground and under heavy fire, cost the Yeomanry 32 dead and 28 wounded, 58 casualties out of the total of 184 men who took part in the charge.

The Yeomanry captured Jaafar Pasha and broke up the Sennusi army. Sollum was reoccupied on 14 March. This did not end the threat from the Sennusi, whose attack on the western oases started in the same month, but did allow the British to concentrate on one threat at a time. Jaafar Pasha was held captive in Cairo until the outbreak of the Arab Revolt. He then volunteered to join the forces under Feisal, became commander of the Arab regulars during the revolt and then served as Minister of War and Prime Minister of Iraq under the then king Feisal.

Rickard, J (9 September 2007), Battles of Agagia, 26 February 1916 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_agagia.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: "Unemployment in Ireland"
Workers’ Republic, 26 February 1916.

The mass meeting in the Mansion House of Dublin, under the auspices of the Trades and Labour Council, to protest against the restriction upon Irish importation of paper materials, though not attended as well as it might have been, served nevertheless to draw attention to a great evil. That evil, the war made by the British Government upon every form of employment in Ireland that does not directly subserve the interests of the Empire, is taking on daily more and more significance. For months not only the Government but also all the subsidiary Boards and Commissions by which it governs Ireland have set their faces against any form of activity that might serve to give employment to Irishmen of military age and capabilities. In the building trade every kind of public work has been held up by the orders of the Government, and within the past week notice has been given that the War Office has power to forbid any building operations in Great Britain and Ireland, whether such operations be public works or purely private enterprises. We are all aware that such power will be most drastically enforced in Ireland, even if loosely applied in England. The whole trend of the Government’s policy at present is to force into the army through stress of unemployment all Irishmen capable of bearing arms, and to seduce out of Ireland into England all Irish men and girls whom it can persuade to accept war work in the latter country.

Within the past week a number of young Irish girls have been deported out of the County Kerry to take up munition work in England. These girls are being sent off among strangers out of their own country, away from all who could counsel and advise them, and left subject to a thousand temptations. No indignant protests against these deportations have been heard of from the people who raised such outcries in Dublin when homes in England were being provided for some of the children of the starving strikers. [1] No AOH rowdies have attempted to prevent these young Irish maidens being sold into slavery. Although every trade union in England protests that the Munitions Act binds the workers hand in foot in galling bondage, the vile crew that shrieked out their lies against us in 1913 are now openly conniving at the deportation of young Irish girls to England to serve in that bondage, without a trade union, without a counsellor, without a friend to help them should they repent the bargain they have made in their innocence and ignorance.

From the same district a number of labourers also recently left for government work in England. One of the number who came back since the Conscription Act was passed has just received a notice from the War Office informing him that he is called up under the Military Service Act. The notice reads:

I beg to give you notice that under the Military Service Act (1916) all single men are now considered to be in Army Reserve whether attested or not. You are therefore liable to be called up any time after the 2nd March.

Thus the traps are being set everywhere for the Irish. The armed men of Ireland cannot be conscripted. They have resolved that if they must fight they will themselves decide where they will fight. No government can take that power out of their hands. But if they cannot be conscripted by force then their weaker or more foolish brothers can be conscripted by hunger and trickery.

And the brave Irish girls can be deluded into trusting themselves into the service of a government which will visit upon their heads in England vengeance and spite for every manly stand made in Ireland.

The Printing Trades are now marked out for the next open blow. They also must furnish their quota to the army of England. Unemployment is the whip that is to lash them into the ranks. Perhaps no trade union in Ireland has so consistently shown itself to be so subservient to its masters, so ready to abandon the ranks of the fighters as have the printers under the rule of the present governing body. For that very reason it is probable that they have been chosen as the first trade body in Ireland to be openly attacked. They failed to learn that their greatest safety lay in audacity, that the capitalist cannot be conciliated. Attempt to conciliate the capitalist and, like all bullies, he assumes that your peacefulness is cowardice, and immediately forces the fight upon you. On the other hand if you force the fight upon him he whines for mercy immediately.

It is in vain that the printers will call upon the employers in the printing trade to resist this new move of the Government. The employers have recently planned the formation of a Scab Union for Printers. They will welcome a period of restriction which will increase the number of members on the Unemployment Benefit of the bona-fide Union. Such drain upon its funds will soon destroy its resources, and a little judicious (?) management will pave the way for all the further attacks the employers have planned upon the status of the employees in the Printing Trade. Restrictions upon apprentices, girl labour, division of labour, and all the other questions the employers want re-opened are at the back of the minds of the Employers in the Printing Trade when they consider the effects of the restriction order. If it means bad trade for a while, they argue, it also means an opportunity of smashing the printers’ trade union. They will bear with the bad trade for the sake of the greater freedom it will give them to exploit the workers.

Nor is that all they see in the effect of the order. They also see in it an opportunity to still further concentrate the industry. Time was when Dublin was as full of small bakeries as it is now of small printing establishments. Nowadays the baking trade is concentrated in the hands of a few firms. The hope of the great guns of the Master Printers Association is that the restrictions upon the importation of paper materials will before long bankrupt the small printers by the score, and all their trade will fall into the hands of the great firms who alone have capital enough to tide them over the crisis. Then when the restrictions are removed the ground will be cleared for a few firms to monopolise the business in the printing trade as completely as a few firms monopolise it in the bakery trade.

Thus the capitalist class use governmental power to develop the power of the great capitalists.

Thus the British government of British capitalists use their power to aid their fellow thieves in Ireland in return for help in holding Ireland for the British Empire.

Note
1. During the 1913 lockout
.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1916/02/unemploy.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A HERO FROM HALLING: Sgt. Thomas Harris VC, MM
by Tony Grant



He was awarded his Military Medal on the 9th April 1918, possibly for actions in the period 25th - 28th March 1918 near Authuille, Somme. He was confirmed in the rank of Sergeant on 24th June 1918 and was posthumously awarded his V.C. for his actions during an attack on 9th August 1918. During the period 26th February 1916 and 2nd July 1916 he was wounded on two occasions. Following the first occasion on 26th February 1916 he was admitted to hospital from 27th February to 4th March and returned to duty on 12th March 1916 (no further details are available).

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/othercemeteries/sergeant_harris-vc.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - February 1917

Stavka. 26 February. 1917.

MY BELOVED,

The trains are all mixed up again. Your letter came after 5 o'clock yesterday, but No. 647 arrived just before lunch. 'Many kisses for it. Please do not overtire yourself, running about among the sick ones.

See as much as you can of Lily Dehn - she is a good sensible friend.

Yesterday I visited the ikon of the Holy Virgin and prayed fervently for you, my love, for the dear children, for our country, and also for Ania. Tell her that I have seen her brooch, pinned to the ikon, and touched it with my nose when kissing the image.

Last evening I went to church. An old woman - the Prelate's wife - thanked me for the money which we have given. This morning, during the service, I felt an excruciating pain in the chest, which lasted for a quarter of an hour. I could hardly stand the service out, and my forehead was covered with drops of perspiration. I cannot understand what it could have been, because I had no palpitation of the heart; but later it disappeared, vanishing suddenly when I knelt before the image of the Holy Virgin.

If this occurs again I shall tell Feodorov. I hope Chabalov will be able to stop these street disorders. Protopopov must give him clear and definite instructions. If only old Golytzin does not lose his head!

Tell Alexey that Kulic and Glina are well and remember him.

May God bless you, my treasure, and the children, and her! Eternally your

NICKY.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/february17.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdun: The battlefield between 26 February and 12 July 1916



http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/battleverdun/battleverdun55/index.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Numbers and nationalities of the internees at the Jasper, Alberta internment camp, 26 February 1916



http://www.infoukes.com/history/internment/gallery/page-009.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: "The Slums and the Trenches"
From Workers’ Republic, 26 February 1916.

A speaker at a recent recruiting meeting in Dublin declared that the Dublin slums were more unhealthy than the trenches in Flanders, and the same ‘bright saying’ has been repeated in a circular issued by the recruiting authorities.

It is the English idea of wit. Consider it, my friends, consider it well. The trenches in Flanders have been the graves of scores of thousands of young Irishmen, scores of thousands of the physically strongest of the Irish race have met their death there in desperate battle with a brave enemy who bore them no malice and only wished well for their country.

A very large proportion of these young Irishmen were born and reared in the slums and tenement houses of Dublin. These same slums are notorious the world over for their disease-breeding unhealthy character. All the world over it is known that the poor of Dublin are housed under conditions worse than those of any civilised people on God’s earth.

From out of those slums these poor misguided brothers of ours have been tricked and deluded into giving battle for England – into waging war upon the German nation which does not permit anywhere within its boundaries such slums and fever dens as the majority of Dublin’s poor must live in.

When at last the common-sense of the people of Dublin reasserts itself, and men and women begin to protest against this suicidal destruction of the Irish race in a war that is not of their making, and for an Empire that they abhor, the cheap wits of the recruiters sneeringly tell them that there is more danger of death in a Dublin slum than in a trench in the line of battle.

But you can die honourably in a Dublin slum. If you die of fever, or even of want, because you preferred to face fever and want, rather than sell your soul to the enemies of your class and country, such death is an honourable death, a thousand times more honourable than if you won a V.C. committing murder at the bidding of your country’s enemies.

These are war times. In times of war the value of the individual life is but little, but the estimate set upon honour is even higher than in times of peace. True, the conception of honour is often all wrong, but the community and the individual in time of war do esteem highly the individual who sets his own conception of honour higher than his regard for his own life.

The boy or man who has a soul strong enough to resist all blandishments to betray the cause of freedom as he sees it, who is strong enough in his own mind and purpose to face the prospect of long unemployment and its consequent misery and want, who can see day by day his strength wasting and his body shrinking for want of nourishment, who knows that that nourishment will be his for a time if he is prepared to sell himself into the service of the age-long enemy, and who in face of all this is yet man enough to hold out to the last, should he die in his Dublin slum is nevertheless a hero and a martyr fit to be ranked with and honoured alongside of the greatest heroes and noblest martyrs this island has produced.

“The trenches healthier than the slums of Dublin.” Ay, my masters, but death in a slum may be the noblest of all deaths if it is the death of a man who preferred to die rather than dirty his soul by accepting the gold of England, and death in the trenches fighting for the Empire is that kind of death spoken of by the poet who lashes with his scorn the recreant who

“doubly dying shall go down
To the vile dust from which he sprung,
Unwept, unhonoured, and unsung.”


In the times of the wars at the end of the eighteenth century when all that was best in Ireland eagerly, passionately awaited the coming of the French, the armies of England were at least two-thirds composed of Irishmen. Are these poor deluded fools remembered or honoured today? Where in all Ireland could a popular demonstration be organised in their honour. Not in any one part of Ireland would any body of Irish men or women spontaneously turn out to do tribute to their memory. Nor yet could all the gold of the British Empire induce any popular body or trade union in nationalist Ireland to walk in a procession to pay the tribute of respect to their record.

But in the same period there were men and women in Ireland who with all the wealth, power, and influence of the country against them, took their stand on the side of England’s enemies, and held by that faith to the last, despite poverty, hunger and want, despite imprisonment, torture and exile, despite death by the bullet, the bayonet and the hangman. These men and women held to the creed that England has no right in Ireland, never had any right in Ireland, never can have any right in Ireland, and so holding they believed that whilst England so holds Ireland – whilst England is here at all – every enemy whose blows hurt England is a natural ally to Ireland, every blow which weakens England, loosens a link of the chain that binds Ireland in slavery.

These men and women, who were they? In what estimation are they held in Ireland today? They are the heroes and the heroines of the popular mind – the demigods of modern Irish history. Scarcely more than a century is gone and already they are enshrined in the memories of the Irish race, whilst all who fought for England are forgotten, or repudiated when remembered.

Did you ever hear an Irish man or woman say, “my grandfather fought for England in ’98 ?” and expect to get popular approval or respect because of that fact? You did not. But if ever you met a man or woman who could say that their grandfather or great grandfather, fought against England in ’98, were you not proud to meet them, and did not you and all your friends look upon them with respect because of what their ancestor had done against England? You did. And you were quite right, too.

But some people in Ireland do honour the men who fought for England in ’98, or pretend to honour them. Who are these people? They are the people whose ancestors were the greatest enemies of the Irish race, the evictors, the floggers the pitchcappers, the exterminators of the Irish people. The descendants of the landlords who “enforced their rights with a rod of iron and renounced their duties with a front of brass.”

And some people there are who pretend to honour the men who fight for England in our day. Who are they who in press and on platform pour their praises on the heroism of our poor brothers whom they have driven or coaxed to the front?

Who are they? Why, they are the men who locked us out in 1913, the men who solemnly swore that they would starve three-fourths of the workers of Dublin in order to compel them to give up their civil rights – the right to organise. The recruiters in Dublin and in Ireland generally are the men who pledged themselves together in an unholy alliance to smash trade unionism, by bringing hunger, destitution and misery in fiercest guise into the homes of Dublin’s poor.

On every recruiting platform in Dublin you will see the faces of the men who in 1913-14 met together day by day to tell of their plans to murder our women and children by starvation, and are now appealing to the men of those women and children to fight in order to save the precious skins of the gangs that conspired to starve and outrage them.

Who are the recruiters in Dublin? Who is it that sits on every recruiting committee, that spouts for recruits from every recruiting platform?

Who are they? They are the men who set the police upon the unarmed people in O’Connell Street, who filled the jails with our young working class girls, who batoned and imprisoned hundreds of Dublin workers, who racked and pillaged the poor rooms of the poorest of our class, who plied policemen with drink, suborned and hired perjurers to give false evidence, murdered John Byrne and James Nolan and Alice Brady, and in the midst of a Dublin reeking with horror and reeling with suffering and pain publicly gloated over our misery and exulted in their power to get ‘three square meals per day’ for their own overfed stomachs.

These are the recruiters. Every Irish man or boy who joins at their call gives these carrion a fresh victory over the Dublin working class – over the working class of all Ireland.

The trenches safer than the Dublin slums! We may yet see the day that the trenches will be safer for these gentry than any part of Dublin.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1916/02/slums.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"My Boy Jack"

(...) "My Boy Jack" came to the attention of the great contralto Clara Butt. She invited Edward German to her home and ‘read the lines aloud to him, giving him her reading of the poem. He perfectly grasped her idea, and brought her in a day or to a setting which perfectly expressed it’ (Winifred Ponder, Clara Butt: Her Life Story, 1928, p.189). He was a good choice. With Kipling’s approval, in The Just-So Song Book (1903), German had already provided well-known and popular settings for twelve poems from the Just So Stories (1903) and later for "Big Steamers" and "Dane-geld" (both 1911).

German set "My Boy Jack" both for solo voice and piano and also the accompaniment of full orchestra; and on 26 February 1916, described as ‘a new song’, with the title ‘Have you news of My Boy Jack’, it was performed by Clara Butt at a Royal Philharmonic concert conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham. In February/March 1917, under Beecham, it was recorded by Clara Butt. Later that year, she performed the song at ‘The Pageant of Fair Women’, a patriotic entertainment held at the Queen’s Hall and several times repeated at other venues. (...)

http://www.kipling.org.uk/rg_jack1.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henri-Philippe Petain

Germany's initial successes at Verdun led Joffre, the Commander-in-Chief, to appoint Petain in direct command of the defence of Verdun on 26 February 1916. Ordered to hold the sector at all costs, Petain delivered upon his famous pledge "Ils ne passeront pas!" ('They shall not pass!'), earning acclaim for his policy of artillery-based defence backed by expert organisation of supplies and manpower.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/petain.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 14:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sigmund Freud to Sándor Ferenczi, February 26, 1916

Vienna, February 26, 1916

Dear friend,

(...) An essay with preliminary communications about the war neuroses will be very welcome to the Zeitschrift. I assume that you will still keep your nice theoretical points of view there to yourself and only broaden the material in order to draw the next conlusions from it. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.026.0115b
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexandra Fyodorovna, letter to Nicholas II (26th February, 1917)

The whole trouble comes from these idlers, well-dressed people, wounded soldiers, high-school girls, etc. who are inciting others. Lily spoke to some cab-drivers to find out things. They told her that the students came to them and told them if they appeared in the streets in the morning, they should be shot to death. What corrupt minds! Of course the cabdrivers and the motormen are now on strike. But they say that it is all different from 1905, because they all worship you and only want bread.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Michael Rodzianko, President of the Duma, telegram to Nicholas II (26th February, 1917)

The situation is serious. The capital is in a state of anarchy. The government is paralyzed; the transport service has broken down; the food and fuel supplies are completely disorganized. Discontent is general and on the increase. There is wild shooting in the streets; troops are firing at each other. It is urgent that someone enjoying the confidence of the country be entrusted with the formation of a new government. There must be no delay. Hesitation is fatal.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Nahr-al-Kalek, 1917

The Battle of Nahr-al-Kalek was fought in the immediate aftermath of the British recapture of Kut in February 1917 by Sir Frederick Maude, and largely destroyed the effectiveness of Turkish river forces on the Tigris River.

Having inadvertently outrun their own ground forces on 26 February 1917, the Royal Navy gunboats Mantis, Moth and Tarantula found themselves under fire some 30km north of Kut by four Turkish vessels at Nahr-al-Kalek while pursuing the retreating Turkish force from Kut.

Among the Turkish ships was the originally-British monitor Firefly. In the ensuing gunnery battle the British succeeded in routing the Turks, destroying all three Turkish-built ships while successfully recapturing Firefly.

In addition to trouncing the Turks the British managed to secure several hundred prisoners from Turkish infantry along the shore. But for the fact that the Royal Navy vessels were some distance ahead of their own infantry the damage inflicted upon the Turks could have been markedly more severe.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/nahralkalek.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

26 februari 1917 - “Alle verkoop van varkens, rundvee en paarden alsook het slachten van varkens moet onmiddellijk worden aangegeven ten kantoore van den Toldienst, Molenstraat A88.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; gemeenteraad)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Nlx4b9Lo6dgJ:www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917%26catid%3D90:oorlog%26Itemid%3D118+26+februari+1917&cd=18&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl&source=www.google.nl
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Balfour over de Armeensche gruwelen
Het Centrum, 26 februari 1917
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek


Balfour heeft het volgende telegram aan 't Amerikaansche comité ter ondersteuning van de armeniërs gezonden:

Het lijden van de Armeniërs in het Turksche rijk is bekend, maar het is de vraag, of men een klaar besef heeft van de bedreven gruwelen. Twee jaar geleden waren er 1,800,000 Armeniërs in het Turksche rijk; van hen werden er 1,200,000 vermoord of weggevoerd. Zij, die vermoord zijn, hadden wel afschuwelijke gruwelen te verduren, maar ontkwamen toch aan den langen doodsstrijd van de gedeporteerde mannen, vrouwen en kinderen. Zonder levensmiddelen, zonder bescherming tegen het klimaat, zonder dat men zich om hun leeftijd of zwak gestel bekommerde, werden zij van huis verdreven; zij moesten loopen, zoolang hun krachten het toelieten of tot zij door hun drijvers verdronken of in massa vermoord werden. Sommige stierven van uitputting of vielen bij den weg neer; anderen overleefden den tocht, die drie maanden duurde en bereikte de woestijn en moerassen langs de midden-Euphraat. Daar werden zij aan hun lot overgelaten en kwamen om van de honger of ziekte. Te Abu Herrera waren velen, meerendeels vrouwen, kinderen en oude mannen, zeven dagen zonder voedsel.

De in het Turksche rijk achtergelatenen werden beroofd en onderdrukt. De vrouwen en kinderen dwong men Mohammedaan te worden. Er was in April 1915 minder dan een tiende gedeelte in Turkije achtergebleven. Eenigen van hen wisten naar den Kaukasus of Egypte te vluchten.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/CE-26-2-1917.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Report of the Chief of the Petrograd Okhranka, Major-General Globachev, to the Ministry of Internal Affairs on Events in the Capital, 26 February 1917

26 February 1917

In order to obviate the possibility of revolutionary activists making use of the spontaneous disorders which have broken out in the capital, today, 26 February, around 100 members of revolutionary organisations were arrested before dawn. These included five members of the Petrograd committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party.

Additionally, at a meeting in the evening of 25 February at the premises of the Central War Industries Committee, two members of the workers' group of that committee were arrested. These two had evaded arrest in January, when this criminal group had been liquidated. The other participants at this meeting were asked to disperse.

Today, 26 February, at 3.30 p.m., a crowd gathered near the City Duma. Three blank rounds were fired at this crowd, after which it dispersed.

At the same time live rounds were fired on Ligovskaya Street, resulting in injuries.

Substantial crowds poured out of various sidestreets onto Znamenskaya Square, where they were met with live rounds, resulting in dead and injured.

In addition, live rounds were fired at the corner of Nevsky and Vladimirsky Avenues, where a crowd of about 1000 had gathered, and also at the corner of Nevsky Avenue and Sadovaya Street, where the crowd had reached approximately 5000. No dead or injured were found at the latter place; presumably the crowd had taken them away.

By 4.30, the entire length of Nevsky Avenue had been cleared of crowds, and on Znamenskaya Square the police collected the bodies of about 40 dead and around the same number of injured. At the same time, the dead body of an Ensign in the Life Guard of the Pavlovsky Regiment, with his sabre in his hand, was found at the corner of Ital'yanskaya and Sadovaya Streets. His identity and the circumstances of his death are being investigated.

At 5 o'clock in the afternoon, on the corner of 1st Rozhdestvenskaya Street and Suvorovsky Avenue, troops fired on a crowd which had gathered there. Ten people were killed and several were injured, some of whom, it would seem, were taken away by their comrades.

In the course of today's disorders secondary school pupils appeared at various points in the capital. They were wearing large Red Cross armbands on the coats of their uniforms and white aprons under their outer clothes. They set out in groups to Nevsky Avenue as volunteers to pick up the injured and render them first aid. With the same intentions, students at women's higher education institutions entered the places where the injured were being held. They were extremely insolent to the police officers who tried to get them to leave.

During the disorders the rioting crowds in general behaved extremely provocatively towards the troops. In response to requests to disperse, the crowds threw stones and lumps of snow from the street. When the troops fired over the heads of the crowds as a warning, not only did they not disperse, they responded with laughter. Only when live rounds were fired into their midst was it possible to disperse the mobs. Most of the participants, however, merely took refuge in the courtyards of the nearest buildings, only to reemerge once the shooting had stopped.

It should be mentioned that the dead on Znamenskaya Square included two people in soldiers' uniform, and they were also taken away by the crowd. This circumstance suggests that in all probability those killed were not soldiers, but demonstrators who had put on the uniforms of lower ranking soldiers.

Once the mobs on Znamenskaya Square had been dispersed, the rioters began to congregate on Nevsky Avenue in the area known as Old Nevsky (from Znamenskaya Square to the Aleksandr Nevsky monastery), and on Goncharnaya Street. They then melted away into the buildings on the corners, form where they shot at the troops with revolvers.

According to reports received from our agents, a secret meeting of representatives of revolutionary organisations is scheduled to take place at 8 o' clock this evening in the Eliseev building on Nevsky Avenue. A F Kerensky, the member of the State Duma, and Sokolov, the barrister, will be present. The meeting will consider how best to use the disturbances which have arisen, and how to plan and lead them in future in order to further revolutionary aims. We propose to arrest those present.

Major-General Globachev

http://www.korolevperevody.co.uk/korolev/okhrana.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 15:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

You was not here – the 18th Battalion at Malt Trench

On 26 February, the 18th Battalion’s efforts to move forward against Malt Trench continued. Supporting Australian artillery was still in the process of being moved forward, and gave what one Australian observer described as a ‘scattered, ineffective sort of bombardment’ against the enemy trench, failing to cut the wire entanglements in front of it for the infantry. As the men of the 18th tried to move forward to an assembly position about 100 metres from Malt Trench, more were hit. Moreover, further artillery firing again failed to cut the wire, so they were forced to lie low until dark, when bombing parties were able to move unobserved along the main road and the road to Le Barque.

The party on the southern side of the main road, under Captain John Hill, were crawling under wire when a party of Germans threatened to cut them off. Lance Corporal Eric Allsopp, although badly wounded in the eye, and with the rest of his Lewis machine–gun crew out of action, kept the Germans at bay while Hill’s company crawled back under 12 metres of wire, assailed by enemy grenades. Allsopp was assisted by Corporal Edwin Nipperess and Corporal William Patterson, who threw grenades back at the Germans. Nipperess also recovered three wounded men and brought them to safety under machine–gun fire. Then, yet again, he went back to pull out two of the dead, lest their badges of identity and other papers fall into enemy hands and thereby allow their unit to be identified. Allsopp, Nipperess and Patterson were all awarded Military Medals for their bravery, although Nipperess had been recommended for the Victoria Cross.

At 5.30 am on 27 February 1917, Australian trench mortars pounded the German positions on either side of the Bapaume road. Lewis machine–guns also kept up a concentrated fire. However, all efforts to rush the German wire were strongly resisted. Then, at 6 am, it was noticed that the Germans had fallen silent. The 17th Battalion (New South Wales), which had relieved the 18th, rushed forward along the road and through the wire. The Germans were seen hurrying away along a communication trench. Sergeant Abraham Vandenberg, 18th Battalion, crept on beside the main road and into a deserted enemy support trench, where, according to the official history, he found the following notice:

If we not will that you here, you was not here.

The English might not have been of the best but the meaning was clear!

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/warlencourt/18th-battalion-at-malt-trench.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kerknieuws
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 26 februari 1918
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek


Vrijdag a.s. heeft te Amsterdam eene openbare samenkomst plaats, georganiseerd door een plaatselijk comité, bestaande uit de heeren S.P. van Eeghen, prof. Ph. Kohnstamm, prof. P. scholten, Prof D.P.D. Fabius, dr. J.F. Hoekstra, E. Sillam, ds. H. Koffyberg, dr. L. Heldring en mej. L.C.A. van Eeghen, tot hulp van het Armenischen volk. Als sprekers zullen optreden prof. dr. J.W. pont uit Bussum, ds. H. Koffyberg uit Muiderberg en de heer Mihrtadianz uit Armenië met het onderwerp Gemartelde Armeniërs. Het doel is, belangstelling te wekken voor de onderdrukte Christen-Armeniërs.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-26-2-1918.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 19:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Mariner (SP-1136)


Tug Jack T. Scully, later USS Mariner (SP-1136), of the Neptune Line pictured in front of a Pennsylvania Railroad ferry, c. 1917.

USS Mariner (SP-1136) was a wooden-hulled tugboat for the United States Navy in World War I. She had previously been the Jack T. Scully of the Neptune Line of New York before her acquisition by the Navy. She foundered and sank in a gale on 26 February 1918 while part of a convoy steaming to Bermuda.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Mariner_(SP-1136)
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 26 Februari 1918.

Valkenswaard.

- 25 Febr. Gisteren hield de R. K. Drankbestrijdersvereeniging St. Nicolaas eene vergadering in de zaal van den heer Fr. van Dooren alhier, die tamelijk bezocht was. De contributie werd geďnd; en tevens werd bekend gemaakt dat de heeren J. Hendriks en A. Stoeldraaijers als bestuursleden bedankt hebben, zoodat in eene eerstvolgende vergadering bestuursverkiezing zal plaats hebben. Hierna werd door den Eerw. adviseur kap. v. Vroonhoven eene leerzame rede gehouden betreffende het alcoholvraagstuk, welke door den Voorzitter met een woord van dank werd beantwoord. Hierna sluiting der vergadering.

- Zaterdagavond werd bij den winkelier J. een kaas medegenomen. Naar wij vernemen moet de dief bekend zijn.

- Inbraak. Zaterdagavond werd bij de stoomschoenfabriek der Gebr. Bots alhier inbraak gepleegd. Op verschillende plaatsen werd getracht binnen te komen, totdat de dief (dieven) blijkbaar gestoord ijlings de vlucht namen. Van de daders geen spoor.

- Gisteren had alhier een ernstig opstootje plaats als gevolg van de beslissing der huur-commissie. Zekere J. huurde een woning van v. H. alhier, welke volgens de huurcommissie te hoog in huurwaarde was. Hiermede nam v. H. geen genoegen, doch J. hierdoor in woede ontstoken, ging ten huize van v. H. en bracht hem verschillende gevoelige klappen toe. De Rijkspolitie kwam opdagen en nam J. in arrest. Dit muisje zal wel een staartje krijgen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LIST OF HOSPITAL SHIPS DESTROYED BY SUBMARINES OR MINES

H.S. " GLENART CASTLE." - Mined at 11.30 p.m. 1st March, 1917, on route from Havre to Southampton; 520 sick and wounded on board, including 300 cot cases; all patients and crew saved by destroyers tugs and trawlers; ship cleared of invalids by 12.50 a.m. ; the weather was unusually mild, and the sea practically a dead calm; the ship was towed into Portsmouth. She was mined a second time on 26th February, 1918, and sunk.

http://www.vlib.us/medical/hospships.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chemical Agents Vapors and Aerosols

Wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation, terrain contours, and surface cover influence the field behavior of vapors and aerosols.

For example, in a chemical attack on US forces (1st Division) 26 February 1918 in the Ansauville section, extremely stable conditions, calm winds, and heavy underbrush in the target area contributed to the overall effectiveness of a chemical attack. Several additional casualties resulted due to the increased chemical agent persistency caused by the favorable weather conditions.

If a chemical cloud is to be placed directly on an occupied area, the best possible weather conditions are calm winds with a strong, stable temperature gradient. Under these conditions, the cloud diffuses over the target with minimum dilution and does not move away. Such conditions are most apt to occur on a calm, clear night. If a small amount of air movement is required to spread the cloud evenly over the target area, a low wind speed and stable or neutral conditions are most favorable. These conditions most often occur on a clear night, a cloudy night, or a cloudy day.

When the desired effect is for the chemical cloud to travel, the most favorable conditions are stable or neutral conditions with a low to medium wind speed of 3 to 7 knots. These conditions may be present on a clear night, a cloudy night, or a cloudy day. The presence of low to medium wind speeds keeps the cloud traveling over the area without too much diffusion, and the stable or neutral conditions keep the agent concentration high and the cloud close to the ground.

Favorable terrain conditions for a chemical cloud are smooth or gently rolling contours or wooded areas. Unfavorable conditions for chemical clouds (usually found on clear days) are extreme or marked turbulence, wind speeds above 10 knots, an unstable dispersion category, rain, and rough terrain.

Wind

High wind speeds cause rapid dispersion of vapors or aerosols, thereby decreasing effective coverage of the target area and time of exposure to the agent. In high winds, larger quantities of munitions are required to ensure effective concentrations. Agent clouds are most effective when wind speeds are less than 4 knots and steady in direction. The clouds move with the prevailing wind as altered by terrain and vegetation. Steady, low wind speeds of 3 to 7 knots enhance area coverage unless an unstable condition exists. With high winds, chemical agents cannot be economically employed to achieve casualties.

Unstable conditions (such as many rising and falling air currents and great turbulence) quickly disperse chemical agents. Unstable is the least favorable condition for chemical agent use because it results in a lower concentration, thereby reducing the area affected by the agent. Many more munitions are required to attain the commander’s objectives under unstable conditions than under stable or neutral conditions.

Stable conditions (such as low wind speeds and slight turbulence) produce the highest concentrations. Chemical agents remain near the ground and may travel for long distances before being dissipated. Stable conditions encourage the agent cloud to remain intact, thus allowing it to cover extremely large areas without diffusion. However, the direction and extent of cloud travel under stable conditions are not predictable if there are no dependable local wind data. A very stable condition is the most favorable condition for achieving a high concentration from a chemical cloud being dispersed.

Neutral conditions are moderately favorable. With low wind speed and smooth terrain, large areas may be effectively covered. The neutral condition occurs at dawn and sunset and generally is the most predictable. For this reason, a neutral dispersion category is often best from a military standpoint.

Temperature

There will be increased vaporization with higher temperatures. Also, the rate of evaporation of any remaining liquid agent from an exploding munition can vary with temperature. Generally, the rate of evaporation increases as the temperature increases. See FM 3-9/AFR 355-7 for specific information on chemical agents, such as their boiling and freezing points and vapor density.

Humidity

Humidity is the measure of the water vapor content of the air. Hydrolysis is a process in which compounds react with water resulting in a chemical change. Chemical agents with high hydrolysis rates are less effective under conditions of high humidity.

Humidity has little effect on most chemical agent clouds. Some agents (phosgene and lewisite) hydrolyze quite readily. Hydrolysis causes these chemical agents to break down and change their chemical characteristics. If the relative humidity exceeds 70 percent, phosgene and lewisite can not be employed effectively except for a surprise time-on-target (TOT) attack because of rapid hydrolysis. Lewisite hydrolysis by-products are not dangerous to the skin; however, they are toxic if taken internally because of the arsenic content. Riot control agent CS also hydrolyzes, although slowly, in high humidities. High humidity combined with high temperatures may increase the effectiveness of some agents because of body perspiration that will absorb the agents and allow for better transfer.

Precipitation

The overall effect of precipitation is unfavorable because it is extremely effective in washing chemical vapors and aerosols from the air, vegetation, and material. Weather forecasts or observations indicating the presence of or potential for precipitation present an unfavorable environment for employment of chemical agents.

Terrain Contours

Terrain contours influence the flow of chemical clouds the same as they influence airflow. Chemical clouds tend to flow over low rolling terrain and down valleys and settle in hollows and depressions and on low ground. Local winds coming down valleys at night or up valleys during the day may deflect the cloud or reverse its flow. On the other hand, they may produce conditions favorable for chemical cloud travel when general area forecasts predict a calm.

A chemical cloud released in a narrow valley subjected to a mountain breeze retains a high concentration of agent as it flows down the valley. This is because of minimal lateral spread. Hence, high dosages are obtained in narrow valleys or depressions. High dosages are difficult to obtain on crests or the sides of ridges or hills. After a heavy rain, the formation of local mountain or valley winds is sharply reduced. In areas of adjacent land and water, daytime breezes from the water and nighttime breezes from the land control chemical cloud travel.
Surface Cover

Ground covered with tall grass or brush retards flow. Obstacles, such as buildings or trees, set up eddies that tend to break up the cloud and cause it to dissipate more rapidly. However, street canyons or spaces between buildings may have pockets of high concentrations. Flat country (during a neutral or inversion condition) or open water promotes an even, steady cloud flow.

The amount and type of vegetation in the area of the chemical operation also influence the travel of a chemical cloud. Vegetation, as it relates to meteorology or diffusion, is called vegetative canopy or just canopy. The effects of canopies are considered below.

Woods are considered to be trees in full leaf (coniferous or deciduous forests). The term “heavily wooded canopy” denotes jungles or forests with canopies of sufficient density to shade more than 90 percent of the ground surface beneath. For chemical operations, areas containing scattered trees or clumps of bushes are considered to be open terrain although drag is somewhat increased. In wooded areas where trees are not in full leaf or where foliage has been destroyed by previous attack so that sunlight strikes the ground, the diffusion (stability) category will be similar to those in the open.

When bombs are dropped into a wooded area, some may be expected to burst in the treetops. Although the released aerosol and vapor settle toward the ground, some of the agent is lost, depending upon the thickness and height of the foliage. The initial burst and pancake areas of chemical clouds released within woods or jungles are smaller than those released in the open. However, concentrations within the initial clouds are higher in wooded areas, sometimes three times that of bursts in the open. The magnitude of concentration from ground bursts depends upon the density of undergrowth and trees.

Generally, when conditions in the open are most favorable for the use of chemical agents, conditions also are favorable in heavily wooded areas if dispersion occurs below the canopy. Low wind speeds under the canopies spread agent clouds slowly in a downwind and downslope direction. Areas of dense vegetation also increase the potential surface area for the deposition of chemical agents. If there are gullies and stream beds within the woods, clouds tend to follow these features. This flow may be halted or diverted by upslope winds.

Vegetation absorbs some agents. However, for an attack against troops poorly trained in NBC defense (where lethal dosages may be obtained in 30 seconds or less), the amount of agent absorbed by foliage will have little or no effect on the success of the attack. High concentrations of chemical agents may destroy vegetation, since the leaves absorb some of the agent. In some instances, the absorbed agent may be released or desorbed when the vegetation is disturbed or crushed, creating a secondary toxic hazard.

http://www.survivalx.com/nbcsurvival/chemical-agents-vapors-and-aerosols
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 February 1919 → Written Answers (Commons)

GERMAN PRISONERS
.

HC Deb 26 February 1919 vol 112 cc1776-7W 1776W

Colonel WEDGWOOD asked the Secretary of State for War how many German prisoners we now hold of the grade of 1777W sergeant or under in France; and how many died in the months of December and January respectively?

Mr. CHURCHILL Inquiry is being made, and I will let my hon. and gallant Friend know the result as soon as possible.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/feb/26/german-prisoners
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Breckenridge Long Diary Excerpts , January-June 1919

Sunday, January 26, 1919

Passport applications - and supplications - are the pest of these days. Everybody wants to go over. They write in; - wire in; come in; bore me to death and take up an unwarranted amount of time.

We were "at home" as usual this afternoon and amongst others Maurice Low came to tea. I discussed with him briefly his new book "Woodrow Wilson, An Interpretation" and pointed out to him the Democratic National Platform of 1916 and its clauses on our Foreign Relations, showing that Wilson had in his mind before June 1916 the idea of the League of Nations and the fundamentals of his 14 points.

Sen. & Mrs. Sheppard of Texas, Mrs. Sen. McClean of Conn., Mde Soldivar, Swed Min. Y Mde Ekengen, Winnifred & Ted Walsh, Dexter Tiffany, Mrs. Genl. Wright & a score more were here - and Mrs. Flood at the tea table.

The League of Nations

I think I see so clearly the President's purpose in trying to establish it. The allied and associated governments have been held together by the danger of the common enemy. Now that has ceased to be a binding force. The centripedal forces are exchanged for centrifugal ones. Each nation, except us, has special and in many cases conflicting claims. They are impossible of settlement in detail by the present /// Conference because it will take too long. It must soon (in 2 or 3 months) adjourn. People are tired of war. They all want peace proclaimed. That means public opinion will soon force it to sign a peace and adjourn. That peace can in the nature of things be only a settlement of 1) the guilt of Germany, including the official persons - 2) The indemnities Germany & Austria must pay and the reparation they shall make - 3) General principles each nation can and will subscribe to as fundamental doctrines, the specific applications of which to // certain cases will be determined by sub-committees which will report their findings and recommendations to the next succeeding body, the World Congress, which will receive them and determine the rights, and which will be the League of Nations in Congress assembled. It will be the authoritative body which will work out the details of the matters now before the Peace Conference. He sees the necessity of committing each nation to the general principles but first of having their agreement to the League and their concurrent acceptance of the condition that they shall submit all their /// differences to the court of last resort. Once the League is subscribed to, they are bound. Without that obligation they might not be able to agree to terms of Peace; - one would be trading its desires and claims for the support of another; - combinations, of which special interests of each of the combining parties would be the cement, would jeopardize the successful conclusion of all rights on a just basis. The League, once created, is the solution - & is the prime consideration. He sees it. His critics, who demand 'peace first & then let's consider the League' do not see there can be no peace without it - at least no reasonable prospect of an immediate and proper peace without it.

http://www.ctevans.net/Versailles/Archives/Long.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John S. Clarke, speech at Alice Wheeldon's funeral (26th February, 1919)

She was a socialist and was enemy, particularly, of the deepest incarnation of inhumanity at present in Great Britain - that spirit which is incarnated in the person whose name I shall not insult the dead by mentioning. He was the one, who in the midst of high affairs of State, stepped out of his way to pursue a poor obscure family into the dungeon and into the grave... We are giving to the eternal keeping of Mother Earth, the mortal dust of a poor and innocent victim of a judicial murder.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/CRIwheeldonH.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter written by Lieutenant Colonel Buxton (formerly Major Buxton) to Gracie.

This letter was a prized possession of Alvin's. It is a fitting testimony of Alvin York's Christian example to others- something that will never die, as long as we remember.



"Hq. 82d Div., A.P.O. 742,
American E. F., France
26 February, 1919

Miss Gracie Williams,
Pall Mall, Tenn.

My Dear Miss Williams:

It has come to my attention that you are one of the people at home who, by virtue of friendship, is interested in Sergeant Alvin C. York, Company G, 328th Infantry.

Entirely without any suggestion on the part of my friend, Sergeant York, I should like to tell you and his mother something of the very high esteem in which he is held by the officers and men of this division.

Until the 82nd Division entered the fight in the Argonne, it was my privilege to command the battalion of which Sgt. York's company was a part. During those many trying days Sgt. York grew daily in our esteem as very efficient noncommissioned officer and as an unusual influence for duty and good conduct among his comrades. Not only was this record maintained during the terrible battles in the Argonne, but on the 8th of October, 1918, Sgt. York performed acts of extreme heroism and presence of mind which won him the Distinguished Service Cross and the personal thanks of Major General Duncan, Major General Summerall, and General Pershing himself.

With a little detachment of men from G Company, he faced an entire German Battalion in an isolated ravine, far from any American assistance. Nine Americans were at once shot down, but Sgt. York fought on until the German major and 131 German officers and men surrendered as prisoners. There were only seven Americans left besides Sgt. York, who had himself personally borne the heaviest brunt of the fighting. This achievement on his part came at a very critical time and unquestionably saved the lives of large numbers of his comrades, who would have later been attacked by this captured battalion.

It will be a great satisfaction to Mrs. York and yourself to know of the respect which all of us feel for the manly Christian Character displayed by this splendid American."

http://acacia.pair.com/Acacia.Vignettes/Alvin.York.In.Lions.Den.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Feb 2011 18:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 26th February, 1916 - A big day — one continual rush all through. Captain Buxton comes into the mess at nine thirty, looking for the OC, so I take him down to his billet and come back to finish breakfast. Suttie arrives at about 10, telling us that we are to move at twelve and that I am to go to Marles les Mines, there to meet Buxton and take over. At ten thirty, I, Potter and Sergeant Lamb set out over very slippery roads, and the other two are very nervous and will not give the horses their heads. We cut up through Bois des Dames (a wood) expecting it to be easier going but, before going a mile, are stopped by a sentry because of machine-gun practice, so down we go to the level again and work up into the wood again. There was not much choice either way, as the main roads are very slippery and the wood heavy with snow. We finally arrived at the appointed spot at twelve thirty — the last 2 miles being over very slippery hills coated with ice. Buxton was a few minutes in arriving and very brief with orders on arrival. He drew me a sketch of the town, pointing out a small portion of it, and said, 'You have to find billets for the 36th brigade and get the whole brigade into a slimy field, ' which he showed me, 'and the transports into another small field.' Well, to me it looked a hopeless task, but I was lucky in having Sergeant Lamb, who could speak French quite well, and by five we had billets for over 400 men, two officers' Messes and rooms for all officers. Our battery got in first, then two sections of the 15th and one of the 71st. I was very pleased when everyone was settled down.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/02/diary-entry-26th-february-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jan 2018 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 januari 1916 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Pierre Marquette is op 7 januari 1896 geboren in Doornik. De ongehuwde zoon van Louis en Heloďse Caley treedt in 1914 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

In de nacht van 25 op 26 januari 1916 krijgt hij in Diksmuide een geweerkogel in het achterhoofd en wordt om 1 uur 's nachts met een schedelbreuk geëvacueerd naar het Belgian Field Hospital, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep in Hoogstade. Hij overlijdt nog dezelfde ochtend om 10 uur.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 27 januari 1916 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade. Het stoffelijk overschot is daar clandestien opgegraven en het herbegraven op de stedelijke begraafplaats van Doornik.

Ter nagedachtenis van Pierre Marquette heeft dichter en schrijver Fritz Francken het gedicht "Bij den dood eens makkers" geschreven.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/26-januari-1916
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