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25 Februari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2006 8:37    Onderwerp: 25 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 25. Februar

1914

1915
Prasznysz im Sturm genommen
Die Kämpfe bei Wirballen
Fortschreitender Angriff südlich des Dnjestr
Die Kämpfe in Südwestafrika

1916
Sechs weitere Ortschaften bei Verdun genommen
Der Kaiser in Wilhelmshaven
Beschießung der Hafenanlagen von Durazzo
Die Beschlagnahme der deutschen Schiffe in Portugal
Die Versenkung des Dampfers "Westburn"
Die "sogenannte" "Möwe"

1917
Vorstoß in die feindlichen Stellungen bei Liévin
Ein französisches Luftschiff abgeschossen
Die U-Boot-Beute im Januar: 439500 Tonnen
Heftige Kämpfe bei Görz

1918
Dorpat genommen
Shitomir erreicht
Reval und Pleskau genommen
Die russische Delegation zur Unterzeichnung des Friedens
Bekanntgabe der Friedensbedingungen des Vierbundes an Rumänien

www.stahlgewiter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2006 8:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 25

1915 German troops capture Fort Douaumont (Verdun)

On February 25, 1915, German troops seize Fort Douaumont, the most formidable of the forts guarding the walled city of Verdun, France, four days after launching their initial attack. The Battle of Verdun will become the longest and bloodiest conflict of World War I, lasting 10 months and resulting in over 700,000 total casualties.

In February 1915, the walls of Verdun were defended by some 500,000 men stationed in two principal fortresses, Fort Douaumont and Fort Vaux. The Germans, commanded by Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn, sent 1 million men against the city, hoping for a decisive victory on the Western Front that would push the Allies towards an armistice. The first shot was fired on the morning of February 21. By the end of that first day, the Germans had captured only the front-line trenches, much less progress than they had hoped to make. They pushed on, however, and by February 23 had advanced two miles and captured 3,000 French soldiers with the help of a lethal new weapon, the flammenwerfer, or flamethrower. By February 24, the Germans had overrun the second line of French trenches and taken another 10,000 prisoners, forcing the French defenders to within eight kilometers of the city itself. Forts Douaumont and Vaux, however, had managed to hold out.

Douaumont was a massive structure, protected by two layers of concrete over a meter thick, and surrounded by a seven-meter-deep moat and 30 meters of barbed wire. When it fell on February 25 to the German 24th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment with the kaiser on hand to deliver his personal congratulations, German jubilation was matched only by the French army’s shock and sadness.

From that point on, Verdun became a cause the French command could not abandon: public sentiment demanded the recapture of the symbolic stronghold. If the German army under Falkenhayn was committed to “bleed the French white,” with little thought to minimizing its own losses, the French army, under Phillipe Petain, was equally determined that the enemy would not pass at Verdun.

The battle stretched on and on, with devastating casualties on both sides. As German resources were diverted to fight the British at the Somme and the Russians on the Eastern Front, French forces gradually regained much of the ground they had lost. Fort Douaumont was recaptured on November 2, 1916. Barely six weeks later, on December 18, German commander Paul von Hindenburg (who had replaced Falkenhayn in July) finally called a halt to the German attacks, ending the Battle of Verdun after 10 months and a total of over 200,000 lives lost.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2008 9:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 Februar 1918
Die russische Delegation zur Unterzeichnung des Friedens

Petersburg, 25. Februar. (Meldung der Petersburger Telegraphenagentur.)
Auf Anordnung des Rates der Volksbeauftragten ist eine Abordnung nach Brest-Litowsk gesandt worden, um den von der deutschen Regierung vorgeschlagenen und in der Sitzung vom 24. Februar, 4 Uhr morgens vom Ausführenden Hauptausschuß angenommenen Frieden zu unterzeichnen. Mitglieder der Friedendelegation sind: Trotzki, Volksbeauftragter für auswärtige Angelegenheiten, Tschitscherin, Sokolikow, Petrowski und Alexejew, Mitglieder der Partei der Sozialrevolutionäre der Linken, ferner Delegationssekretär Karachan, Joffe und militärische Sachverständige. 1)

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/18_02_25.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 15:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sikorsky Ilya Muromets



The Ilya Muromets (Russian: Илья Муромец) model S-23 V was a four-engine bomber used during World War I by the Russian Empire. (...) During World War I it became the first four-engine bomber and dedicated strategic bombing unit. This heavy bomber was unrivaled in the early stages of the war, as the Central Powers had no aircraft capable enough to challenge it until much later. (...)

On 10 December 1913, the Ilya Muromets was tested in the air for the first time, and on 25 February 1914, took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikorsky_Ilya_Muromets
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 15:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armeense genocide

Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog koos het Ottomaanse Rijk de kant van de Centrale Mogendheden (Duitsland, Oostenrijk-Hongarije en Bulgarije) waardoor het in oorlog raakte met de Entente (Rusland, het Verenigd Koninkrijk en Frankrijk).

Op 25 februari 1915 beval Enver Pasja alle militaire eenheden om soldaten van Armeense afkomst te demobiliseren en in te zetten in de onbewapende 'Werkbataljons'. Als reden werd angst voor collaboratie van de Armeniërs met de Russen opgegeven. Het kan echter ook een bewuste actie tot inleiding van een genocide zijn geweest, waarbij er nauwelijks sprake zou zijn van gewapend verzet. Dit verzet is er dan ook nauwelijks geweest, een belangrijke uitzondering vormen de gevechten bij de stad Van.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armeense_genocide

The Armenians and Ottoman Military Policy, 1915

On 25 February 1915 the Operations Division of the Ottoman general
staff sent a ciphered cable to the field armies directing them to
take increased security precautions. This directive noted increased
dissident Armenian activity in Bitlis, Aleppo, Dörtyol, and Kayseri, and
furthermore identified Russian and French influence and activities in
these areas (in particular, code keys in French, Russian, and Armenian
were discovered in Armenian homes in the city of Kayseri). The
Operations Division directed that the 3rd and the 4th Armies increase
both surveillance and security measures. Moreover, commanders were
ordered to remove any ethnic Armenian soldiers from important
headquarter staffs and command centres. The final measure was probably
taken in response to a report that the Armenian Patriarchate in
Constantinople was transmitting military secrets and dispositions to the
Russians. The timing of this order corresponded with information
provided to the Russians from the Armenian committee in Zeitoun that
15 000 Armenians there were ready to take up arms and attack Ottoman
lines of communications of the Ottoman army in Erzurum.

http://www.tc-america.org/media/Ericson_militarypolicy1915.pdf
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Feb 2011 16:06, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 February 1915 → Commons Sitting

GERMAN ARMY
.

HC Deb 25 February 1915 vol 70 cc378-9 378

Sir WILLIAM BULL asked the Under-Secretary of State for War what was the estimate in the last edition of the Handbook of the German Army, published before the War, of the total available trained and untrained men in each category, respectively, of the German Army?

Mr. TENNANT The estimate in the last edition of the Handbook of the German Army, published in 1912, of the total available trained and untrained men of the German Army, excluding officers and officials, was as follows:—
Trained Rank and File, including Reserve and Landwehr 3,302,000
Trained Landsturm 623,000
One-year Volunteers 85,000
Non-Commissioned Officers of peace establishment 92,000
Total trained 4,102,000
Partially-trained Ersatz Reserve 113,000
Untrained Ersatz Reserve and Landsturm 5,683,000
Grand total 9,898,000

Sir WILLIAM BULL asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether the Handbook of the German Army is now only circulated for official use; and, if so, seeing that it was formerly on sale to the public, whether he will arrange for it to be again placed on sale to the public?

Mr. TENNANT The Handbook of the German Army, like similar handbooks of other foreign armies, is now only circulated for official use, and it is not considered desirable that any of these handbooks should be placed on sale to the public.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/25/german-army
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Parseval PL25



PL25 (Parseval-Luftschiff 25) was a non-rigid military airship made in 1914/15 by the Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft in Bitterfeld and was the last single-gondola Parseval. At the same time it was one of the largest non-rigid airships before the second world war. Its maiden flight was on 25 February 1915. It had a slim teardrop-shaped hull.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parseval_PL25
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Thursday 25th February 1915

Had breakfast downstairs at 10am.

Admiralty announce outer forts defending entrance to Dardanelles destroyed. Good work. Turks will be feeling queer.

Afternoon, 1.30-4pm, went for stroll with pater. Beautiful day, rather cold. Came back through Roe Wood, going through Southey.

Evening went to Empire. Good piece in which a veteran of Napoleon describes the former glories of France to a Prussian sergeant, ending with fulfilment of promise to Napoleon that would, if needs be, give life for France.

Saw through new house, 101 Burngreave Rd. Much better than one we are in.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New Hem Heath 1915
Researched By John Lumsdon

A disaster occurred on Thursday afternoon 25th February at the New Hem Heath colliery, Chesterton, North Staffordshire, owned by Messrs Hodgkinson Bros. It is feared the eleven lives have been lost. Nine of the workers are known to be dead and two are missing.
The pit is a small one, employing about 120 workmen and at the time of the accident about 21 men were in the colliery. They were engaged in the Red Mine seam loading ironstone, which had been got during the day, when, at about half past three in the afternoon a fire occurred. The fire was believed to have originated in the engine room, a wooden structure, situated near the bottom of the pit and 400 to 500 hundred yards from where the men in the Red Mine seam were working. In this engine house were three compressed air engines. Workmen gallantly endeavoured to subdue the flames, but they spread rapidly burning the supporting timber resulting in falls of roof that hindered operations. The pit, being an ironstone mine and free from gas, was worked with naked lights and was regarded as absolutely safe.

When the occurrence became known, rescue brigades were summoned from the North Staffordshire Central Rescue Station at Berryhill, Birchenwood, Apedale, Silverdale, Talk o th Hill, Florence and Parkhouse collieries and these together with colliery officials entered upon rescue work as speedily as possible. Among those known to be dead is Mr. Claude Hodgkinson one of the proprietors of this colliery

Lees verder op http://nsmg.apedale.co.uk/Disasters/newhem%201915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hoe Sgt. Kunze Fort Douaumont veroverde, 25-2-1916

Op 25 februari 1916, omstreeks kwart voor vier in de middag, naderen Sergeant Kunze en 9 Pioniers in een strijdroes de noordpunt van het Fort Douaumont. Aan Kunze's rechterkant maakt Frans mitrailleurvuur vanuit het dorp Douaumont de opmars van de rest van het Brandenburger 24ste Infanterie Regiment vooralsnog onmogelijk.

Het Fort Douaumont was op 25 februari 1916 helemaal geen veroveringsdoel voor het Brandenburger 24ste Infanterie Regiment van Generaal von Lochow's 3de Legerkorps. De Brandenburgers hadden die besneeuwde middag moeten stoppen op 750 meter afstand ten noordoosten van het fort om het eventueel aan het 12de Regiment Grenadiers over te laten.
Het fort was buitengewoon slecht bezet met een groep van 56 Territoriale kanonniers onder commando van Sergeant-majoor Chenot. Met uitzondering van de kanonnen in de geschutskoepels waren vrijwel alle kanonnen verwijderd om later in te zetten bij de al geplande Slag aan de Somme, die pas in de zomer van 1916 zou uitbreken.

Kunze's ploegje vervolgt zijn weg naar de noordoostzijde. In het spijlenhek rond het fort vinden zij een bres, veroorzaakt door een granaatinslag. Juist door het hek gekomen, belandt Kunze door een nabije explosie in de gracht rond het fort, een kort ogenblik later gevolgd door zijn ploegje mannen. Het fort ligt nog steeds onder Duits artillerievuur. Op bevel van Kunze vormen de mannen in de gracht gezamenlijk een menselijke piramide. Kunze weet door een onbemand schietgat van een kanon naar binnen te klimmen. Als hij de anderen naar binnen de galerij in wil helpen, gaan er toch nog 7 man vandoor, die een expeditie door het donkere fort niet zien zitten. Kunze blijft slechts met 2 andere naamloze soldaten over. Dwalend door de donkere gangen van het uitgestrekte fort neemt Kunze eerst 4 kanonniers gevangen, waarmee hij het laatste en grootste geschut van het fort (155 mm) uitschakelt. Kunze dwaalt verder en vindt in een gewelfde zaal een groepje van 26 Franse kanonniers*, die een lezing bijwonen. Door een explosie valt het licht even uit, en Kunze weet van de verwarring gebruik te maken door de toegangsdeur op slot te doen. Deze Fransen zijn nu ook krijgsgevangen. Als Kunze in een gang nog een loslopende Franse soldaat tegenkomt, dwingt hij deze om hem naar de officiersmess te leiden, waar hij uitgebreid gaat zitten voor een maaltijd van brood met gebakken eieren. De soldaat kijkt toe, en Kunze vergeet zijn gevangenen.

Ongeveer een half uur later, terwijl Kunze zit te schransen, is Luitenant Radtke en zijn peloton van de 6de compagnie bezig het fort te naderen. Radtke volgt ruwweg het spoor van Kunze naar binnen, ditmaal gebruikmakend van balken en een stapel puin in de gracht, die een granaatexplosie kort tevoren had veroorzaakt. Radtke weet door te dringen tot de "Rue des Remparts", de belangrijkste verbindingsgang, waar hij nog eens 3 Fransen krijgsgevangen neemt. In een andere gang neemt Radtke nog een groep van vijf gevangen.
Kunze keert nu met zijn laatste gevangene terug naar de kamer van zijn opgesloten gevangenen, die plotseling leeg blijkt te zijn. Ondertussen hebben 4 andere Franse kanonniers het vuren met het tot hun verbazing verlaten 155 mm-geschut weer hervat.

Vijf minuten na Radtke's aankomst in het fort, rukt de 7de compagnie van kapitein von Haupt op naar het fort. Von Haupt laat op de top van het fort nog een artillerievlag zwaaien om de Duitse artillerie te laten stoppen met vuren. Von Haupt weet Kunze's 26 ontsnapte gevangenen weer in te sluiten evenals de Commandant Chenot en de vier kanonniers. Rond half vijf is het fort al eigenlijk gevallen zonder dat er een schot is gelost. Von Haupt organiseert de verdediging van het fort tegen een eventuele Franse tegenaanval.

Dan pas verschijnt de beroemde Eerste Luitenant Cordt von Brandis van de 8ste Compagnie ten tonele. Hij volgt op zijn beurt weer wat later het spoor van Radtke en von Haupt. Von Brandis vindt ook nog eens 26 Territorialen in een kelderverdieping en neemt deze krijgsgevangen. Er zijn nu 90 Duitsers aanwezig in het fort.
Even voor 5 uur loopt von Brandis von Haupt tegen het lijf. Alle krijgsgevangenen worden boven een kruitkamer opgesloten. Von Haupt belast von Brandis met de buitenverdediging van het fort. Von Brandis' eenheden jagen nog even een Franse patrouille na.
Om vijf minuten voor half zes zendt von Haupt von Brandis op weg om rapport over de verovering van het fort uit brengen in het bataljonshoofdkwartier aan Majoor von Klüfer. Von Brandis krijgt toestemming om dit goede nieuws naar het regimentshoofdkwartier te brengen. Daar eist von Brandis nogmaals alle eer voor de overwinning op voor von Haupt en hemzelf.

Slechts von Haupt en von Brandis worden op 14 maart 1916 al voor de verovering van Fort Douaumont onderscheiden met hoogste Duitse onderscheiding, "Pour le Mérite". Radtke, die niet van adel was, moest nog tijden wachten op erkenning en kreeg later op voorspraak van Majoor von Klüfer alsnog een IJzeren Kruis. Sergeant Kunze, die toch het eerst in het fort aanwezig was, heeft nooit een onderscheiding ontvangen. Pas 20 jaar later na een grondig onderzoek van Majoor von Klüfer o.a. in de Reichsarchive en ondanks zijn plichtsverzuim, wordt Kunze uit dank voor zijn verdiensten gepromoveerd van politieagent tot politie-inspecteur. Radtke ontvangt als late erkenning alsnog een gesigneerd portret van de Duitse Kroonprins.

*Over deze aantallen krijgsgevangenen lopen de bronnen nogal uiteen. Het gaat uiteindelijk om een bezetting van slechts 56 tot 63 Franse officieren en soldaten.

http://pierreswesternfront.punt.nl/?id=451677&r=1&tbl_archief=1&
Zie ook http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_verdun_douaumont.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Adolf Ritter von Tutschek



Adolf, Ritter von Tutschek (16 May 1891 - 15 March 1918) Pour le Mérite, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross, Military Order of Max Joseph, was a professional soldier turned aviator who became a leading fighter ace with 27 victories.[2] As German air strategy turned towards concentrated air power, he was entrusted with one of the world's first fighter wings. (...)

On 25 February 1916, he was awarded the Military Order of Max Joseph for storming a Russian stronghold near Petrylów in Poland (south of Brest-Litowsk) with two companies of 3rd Bavarian Infantry and holding it against repeated counterattacks (10 August 1915).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Ritter_von_Tutschek
Zie ook http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=21560&highlight=tutschek
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Alexander Davidson, Royal Engineers

Multiple page entries from 15th November 1915 to 21st June 1916, with some pen sketches. Places mentioned in the headings of sections:
Querrieux, 4th January 1916
Domart, 16th January - 22nd February 1916
Doullens, 22nd -25th February 1916
Marieux, 25th February - 4th March 1916
Aubigny (en Artois), 4th - 10th March 1916
Mont St. Eloi Station, 10th - 21st March; 22nd April - 15th June; 17th - 21st June 1916
Maroeuil, 20th March - 22nd April; 15th - 17th June 1916

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9227?REC=7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Vern, 25 February 1916

Friday 25/2/16 - Egypt

Dearest Mum,
Just a short note. I am sending a man in to Cairo tomorrow to do a bit of shopping for me & I am taking the opportunity of sending along some of the cash which has been accumulating in my pay book lately. I am sending £20 by Money Order. I’ll be writing shortly. We are in the same old place & our post office has reopened at last, so will be able to write again now. I got a letter each from you & Viv today & was pleased to learn that you are all O.K. I guess you’ve been ‘some’ mystified about my cable “Address fiftysixth, Percy third”. I am now in the 56th Bn & Percy is still in the Third. I am wondering if you will understand the cable? Heard from Bert the other day – dated 27th Jan - he was then expecting to go to Weymouth preparatory to rejoining us. He must have been pretty fit.

Will tell you all news when I write. Let me know soon as you receive this money. I’ll send all I earn home periodically.

Best love & wishes to all at home.

Your loving son
Vernie

P.S. the M.O. will not be enclosed here. It goes direct thro the P.O. to G.P.O. Sydney from whence it will be sent to you.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/v_6.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Snowdrifts in Swythamley, 24-28 February 1916
From the Log Books of Swythamley Church of England School, 1916

24 February 1916 - Very rough day- deep drifting snow, only 13 children present. Registers not marked.

25 February 1916 – Only 4 children reached school; they were sent home and the school closed for the day

28 February 1916 - Children still not able to reach school owing to snow drifts

http://www.staffspasttrack.org.uk/exhibit/weather/february.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Butte de Warlencourt

On 25 and 26 February 1917 there was much Australian action around the Butte de Warlencourt. On 25 February, in the dark, the 18th and 20th Battalions (New South Wales) advanced through thick fog on either side of the Butte, meeting minimal resistance. Across the fields to the left (as one looks back towards Le Sars), the 9th Battalion (Queensland) and the 10th Battalion (South Australia) were ordered to advance in the fog towards the village of Le Barque. As they moved off at a quick marching pace down the slope, the fog lifted and shells burst all around them on the muddy ground. Between them the two units lost thirty men killed in that day’s charge at Le Barque, but the German rearguard moved quickly away into a small wood fringing the village.

During 25 and 26 February 1917, the 18th Battalion fought its way slowly forward in the countryside in front of the Butte, along the road to Bapaume. An observer on the Butte would have had a good view of the action as the battalion met enemy machine gun fire from above the road to the left and went to ground in a dry watercourse called ‘Thames Ditch’ close to where today a side road (the D10E) turns right for Le Barque. There the 18th established a firing line, while on the left the 20th Battalion moved to the bank of the road between Warlencourt village and the main road. Later that day the 18th were ordered to assault a German trench called ‘Malt Trench’, which ran across the countryside ahead of them and across the main Albert–Bapaume road.

Lees verder op http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/warlencourt/25-26-february-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

25 februari 1917 - De nood stijgt - en de eetwaren worden al zeldzamer. Nu is er hier de Volkssoep ingericht - en in school krijgen de kinders een kop koffie met een smouterham1 in de namiddag - uitstekende maatregelen - die veel nood zullen lenigen. ‘We gaan naar 't ergste, maar dan komt het einde en de beternis’, zeggen de mensen. Men stelt zijn troost in de hoop en dat doet de mensen voortleven. Het allerergste voor 't ogenblik is de nood aan kolen - al wie er zonder is kan er geen meer krijgen - een geluk dat de felle koude wat geweken is, maar wat gaan de mensen uitrichten zonder vuurmaaksel? De gemeentebesturen hebben last gegeven2 de bomen langs de kalseiden3 te doen snoeien om alzo4 de mensen wat te gerieven5 van brandhout. Op de trambaan zitten hele benden wijven en kinders die de kolen uit de asse zoeken...

1 smouterham: boterham met smout
2 last geven: opdracht geven
3 kalseide: steenweg
4 alzo: aldus
5 gerieven: voorzien


http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0030.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Capture of Serre, 25th February 1917

The Attack of 13th November 1916

All hopes of a decisive breakthrough on the Somme had been dashed by the carnage wrought by German machine gun and artillery fire on 1st July 1916. It took a further 140 days of bitter fighting to drive the Germans off the ridge between the rivers Ancre and Somme. It was only on 13th November that a renewed attack was attempted on the left of the battle front against the fortified villages of St. Pierre Divion, Beaucourt, Beaumont Hamel and Serre.

The situation in front of Serre was even less auspicious for the British than it had been before the attack of 1st July. The ground below the village was now a sea of deep, cloying mud overlayed with more sophisticated and more densely concentrated barbed wire entanglements. At 5am on 13th November, shrouded in fog, the leading battalions of 76th Brigade (3rd Division) moved into No Man's Land, crossing the same ground over which the men of 94th Brigade had fallen over 4½ months earlier. History was to repeat itself. On the left of the Brigade front, few of the 2nd Suffolks were able to penetrate the German wire. Behind them, the 8th King's Own were caught in No Man's Land by a devastating artillery barrage. On the right, men of the 10th Royal Welch Fusiliers and 1st Gordon Highlanders fought their way as far as the German 4th Line but were eventually overwhelmed. As the Battle of the Somme drew to a close with the capture of St. Pierre Divion, Beaucourt and Beaumont Hamel, Serre remained in German hands.

Serre Captured

Towards the end of October 1916, an RFC patrol reported sighting new trench lines several miles east of the battle front. This was the first glimpse the Allies had of the "Siegried Stellung" or Hindenburg Line - a defensive position of awesome strength and depth to which the exhausted German Army of the Somme could withdraw.

On the fine though misty morning of 24th February 1917, three patrols from the 21st Manchester Regiment reached the western outskirts of Serre without sighting the enemy. Reporting to 91st Infantry Brigade Headquarters the battalion's commanding officer, Col. W. W. Norman, wrote:

"The above report seems almost incredible but I am of an opinion that it is reliable. If so, it points to the evacuation of SERRE by the enemy."

By evening there was every indication that the enemy had retired along the whole length of the V Corps front, and orders were issued for an advance through Serre on the following morning.

The 21st Manchesters' War Diary for 25th February reads simply:

"In trenches. Serre attacked and occupied. Bn HQ moved to MOUSE POST, Bn relieved by 1st RWF in trenches beyond SERRE - relief complete 8.14PM. Marched back to billets in MAILLY-MAILLET. 1 O.R. killed, 7 O.R. wounded."

A detailed account of the occupation of Serre is given in Col. Norman's Report on Operations: http://www.pals.org.uk/norman.htm

239 Days after the opening of the Battle of the Somme, the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line had finally yielded Serre to the Allies.

http://www.pals.org.uk/serre.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexandra Fyodorovna, letter to Nicholas II (25th February, 1917)

The strikers and rioters in the city are now in a more defiant mood than ever. The disturbances are created by hoodlums. Youngsters and girls are running around shouting they have no bread; they do this just to create some excitement. If the weather were cold they would all probably be staying at home. But the thing will pass and quiet down, providing the Duma behaves. The worst of the speeches are not reported in the papers, but I think that for speaking against the dynasty there should be immediate and severe punishment.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Feb 2011 16:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Arab Bureau
Savoy Hotel
Cairo

25.2.17

Back in Cairo again for a few days - till the 28th to be exact. One does run about on this show! But as a matter of fact I have only come up to get some mules, and a wireless set, and a few such-like things.

Affairs are going a little slower than I had hoped, but there has been no suspicion of a set-back, and we are all well contented. I enclose a few photographs-as long as they are not published there is no harm in showing them to anyone. I have a lot more, but they have not been printed yet. They will give you an idea of the sort of country (in the oases) and the sort of people we have to do with. It is of course by far the most wonderful time I have had. I don't know what to write about! What we will do when I get back I don’t know exactly - and cannot say any how. Cairo is looking very gay, and everybody dances and goes to races as usual or more so - but after all, there is not, and never has been, war in Egypt.

The weather here is fresh - and in Wejh warmish.

Tell Arnie that I think his drawings try after ease too quickly. There is no point in making lines because other people do. The way is to look at a thing long enough, and try and make up your mind which way you have to twist your point to show up its shape in black and white. It will take a long time to do a drawing, but you do get a certain amount of thought and direction into it - not very much, I'm afraid, unless you are an artist, and born to it. After you have thought out how to do it, then you can get easy, and put polish on. Modelling is better, because there you show things as they really are, instead of recording solids in flat. I don't like relief, for that reason, unless it is half-round, and shows only half the object - otherwise it seems to me only a meretricious sketching. The greatest works I can remember are the battered heads of Skopas, the torso of Poseidon from the Parthenon, and some of the more fluid heads, like the Collignon athlete, Hypnos, etc. Above all, those two wonderful heads.

I got the headcloth safely, about a week ago, in Wejh, together with news that Bob had gone to France. As a matter of fact, you know, he will be rather glad afterwards that he has been... and as it will be easier work, and healthier than his hospital work in London. I do not think that you have much cause to regret. Many thanks for the headcloth.

I wrote to Young, and asked him to send me Will’s Pindar.

I have now been made a Captain and Staff Captain again, which is amusing. It doesn't make any difference of course really, as I am never in uniform in Arabia, and nobody cares a straw what rank I hold, except that I am of Sherif Feisul's household. Can't think of anything else to say, as have become a monomaniac about the job in hand, and have no interest or recollections except Arabian politics just now! it's amusing to think that this will suddenly come to an end one day, and I take up other work.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170225_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 9:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Fallen Ancestor: Julius Wronsky

Julius Wronsky was born on the 22 January 1889 at “Makouwrskop”, district Wolmaranstad, Tranvaal, Union of South Africa. His parents were Fritz and Maria (neé Libenberg), Fritz and his three brothers, Ludwig, Eric and Wilhelm emigrated from Prussia in the mid- to late 1800′s arriving in the port of Cape Town. They were “Russian Jews”.

Julius had 2 siblings, Alice Elizabeth and William Henry Wronsky. Julius and William attended St. Andrews college in Grahamstown in the late 1800′s – early 1900′s. After completing his schooling, Julius studied to be a teacher at the Normal College in Pretoria, South Africa. After teaching for a number of years, he enlisted and was drafted into “C” company, South African Irish regiment on the 5 October 1914. (No. 260). During his time with the SA Irish, he was involved in the German South West Africa Rebellion and the “S. A. H.” (Highlanders?) He was discharged from that Regiment on 23 July 1915. On the bottom of a pay-slip, Julius’s next of kin was given as “Miss A. Wronsky, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Cape Colony”.

Not long after that, on the 7 September 1916, Julius enlisted again, being drafted into the 2nd Brigade of the South African Infantry, No 7646. On his “Certificate of Medical Examination” is stated the he was 5’8 ¼ ” tall, weighed 175lbs, “flush” complexion and “fair” hair. He was re-assigned on the 20th October 1916 at Robert’s Heights/Potchefstroom to the 2nd Regiment 1st SA Infantry Brigade (Overseas), No. 10348. At that time (11 month later), his complexion was “dark”, eyes “blue” and hair “dark brown” and his weight 165lbs. Strange transformation.

He embarked on the “Walmer Castle” on the 6th November 1916 in Cape Town arriving in Southhampton, England. He left for the front on the 25th February 1917 and joined his unit on 26th February 1917. Julius was killed in action at the battle of Arras, France on the 9th April 1917. He was buried at the “Brown Line British Cemetery, North of St. Laurent Blangy, 1 ¼ miles North East of Arras.

In a letter from the Office of the Staff Officer, War Records, Pretoria, dated 28th December 1920, his next of kin (then given as W. H. Llyod-Wronsley, 4 Mayfield Terrace, Newington, Edinburgh, Scotland) was informed that Julius’s remains were exhumed and re-interred at the Point-du-Jour Military Cemetery No. 1. 2 ½ miles East North East of Arras, France.
All SA troops who saw service in any of the theatres of the war – in Julius’ case – the Western Front – received at least 2 medals. The British War Medal and the Allied Victory Medal.

The BWM was an automatic award you almost just had to report for duty for that one while the AVM was awarded only if you were in a theatre where fighting was taking place.
Julius would have been awarded the medals posthumously them going to his next of kin.

R.I.P.

http://ancestry24.com/a-fallen-ancestor/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 9:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 February 1917 Capt Basil Elmo Atkins, 7th Bn North Staffordshire Regt.



Born in Vancouver, British Columbia on 10 October 1892, Basil was commissioned into the East Yorkshire Regiment in September 1914, serving in the UK with the 9th Battalion until his transfer to the North Staffs. He served in Gallipoli (where he was wounded in January 1916) and in Mesopotamia, and he was once Mentioned in Dispatches. Basil was killed in action near Kut on 25 February 1917 and is now commemorated on the Basra Memorial.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1712-25-february-1917-capt-basil-elmo-atkins.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from 2683 William Albert Wenham to his mother , 25th February 1917





Transcript:

"Name: 2683. Lc Cpl. Wenham
Christian Name: William
Comp: British
Camp of prisoners of war
5th Lincs Regt
Gefangenen Lager
Cottbus I
Germany

Mrs. Wenham
45 Barcroft St
New Cleethorpes
Grimsby
Lincs
England

Cottbus. Feb 25th. Dear Mother. Just a line to let you know that I am going on well. I have received two letters from you dated Jan 16 and 28th and I am very pleased to hear that you are alright. I received the money safe and you must thank George for me. Tell him I will write him later. I am very pleased to hear Tom is alright I hope he remains so. Am very sorry to hear Sydney has been ill. I hope he will
Will you let the Regt. know my change of address. Love to all from Your Loving Son Billy xxx"


http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/8732?REC=5
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Somewhere in France - 25 February 1917"



http://www.clubsonline.com.au/customdata/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_main&ItemID=4297&OrgID=1689&dts=552010417
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Count Georg von Hertling on President Wilson's Addendum to the Fourteen Points, 25 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of a speech given by German Chancellor Count Georg von Hertling to the German Reichstag on 25 February 1918. In his address to the Reichstag Count Hertling addressed himself to a speech given by Woodrow Wilson to the U.S. Congress on 11 February in which the U.S. President expanded upon his earlier Fourteen Points speech of 8 January 1918. In his new address Wilson had set out the terms upon which belligerent nations were to discuss any potential peace settlement.

Count Hertling, expanding upon his own earlier speech to the Reichstag on 24 January 1918, again welcomed Wilson's Fourteen Points initiative. He also claimed to be largely in concurrence with the principles behind Wilson's latest speech.

Hertling nonetheless berated the Entente Powers for hypocrisy, arguing that Britain (to take one example) found herself in contravention of many of Wilson's key principles. Given this, Count Hertling found it unreasonable that American criticism should be levelled exclusively at the Central Powers.

Count Hertling's Speech to the Reichstag in Response to Woodrow Wilson's 11 February Speech to U.S. Congress, 25 February 1918

I entertain certain doubts as to the utility and success of dialogues carried on by Ministers and statesmen of belligerent countries.

Mr. Runciman in the House of Commons recently expressed the opinion that we would get much nearer peace if responsible representatives of the belligerent powers would come together in an intimate meeting for discussion.

I can only agree with him that that would be the way to remove numerous intentional and unintentional misunderstandings and compel our enemies to take our words as they are meant, and on their part also to show their colours.

I cannot at any rate discover that the words which I spoke here on two occasions were received in hostile countries objectively and without prejudice. Moreover, discussion in an intimate gathering alone could lead to understanding on many individual questions which can really be settled only by compromise.

It has been repeatedly said that we do not contemplate retaining Belgium, but that we must be safeguarded from the danger of a country with which we desire after the war to live in peace and friendship becoming the object or the jumping-off ground of enemy machinations.

If, therefore, a proposal came from the opposing side - for example, from the Government in Havre - we should not adopt an antagonistic attitude, even though the discussion at first might only be unbinding.

Meanwhile it does not appear as if Mr. Runciman's suggestion has a chance of assuming tangible shape, and I must adhere to the existing methods of dialogue across the Channel and ocean.

Adopting this method, I readily admit that President Wilson's message of February 11th represents, perhaps, a small step toward a mutual rapprochement. I therefore pass over the preliminary and excessively long declarations in order to address myself immediately to the four principles which, in President Wilson's opinion, must be applied in a mutual exchange of views.

The first clause says that each part of the final settlement must be based upon the essential justice of that particular case and upon such adjustments as are most likely to bring a peace that will be permanent.

Who would contradict this? The phrase, coined by the great father of the Church, Augustine, 1,500 years ago - "justitia funndamentum regnorum," - is still valid today. Certain it is that only peace based in all its parts on the principles of justice has a prospect of endurance.

The second clause expresses the desire that peoples and provinces shall not be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game, now forever discredited, of the balance of power.

This clause, too, can be unconditionally assented to. Indeed, one wonders that the President of the United States considered it necessary to emphasize it anew. This clause contains a polemic against conditions long vanished, views against Cabinet politics and Cabinet wars, against mixing State territory and princely and private property, which belong to a past that is far behind us.

I do not want to be discourteous, but when one remembers the earlier utterances of President Wilson, one might think that he is labouring under the illusion that there exists in Germany an antagonism between an autocratic Government and a mass of people without rights.

And yet President Wilson knows (as, at any rate, the German edition of his book on the State proves) German political literature, and he knows, therefore, that with us Princes and Governments are the highest members of the nation as a hole, organized in the form of a State, the highest members, with whom the final decision lies.

But, seeing the that they also, as the supreme organs, belong to the whole, decision is of such a nature that only the welfare of the whole is the guiding line for a decision to be taken. It may be useful to point this out expressly to President Wilson's countrymen.

Then finally at the close of the second clause the game of the balance of power is declared to be forever discredited. We, too, can only gladly applaud. As is well known, it was England which invented the principle of the maintenance of the balance of power in order especially to apply it when one of the States on the European Continent threatened to become too powerful for her. It was only another expression for England's domination.

The third clause, according to which every territorial settlement involved in this war must be made in the interest and for the benefit of the populations concerned, and not as part of any mere adjustment or compromise of claims among rival States, is the only application of the foregoing in a definite direction, or a deduction from it, and is therefore included in the assent given to that clause.

Now, in the fourth clause he demands that all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them without introducing new or perpetuating old elements of discord and antagonism that would be likely in time to break the peace of Europe, and consequently of the world.

Here, also, I can give assent in principle, and I declare, therefore, with President Wilson, that a general peace on such a basis is discussable.

Only one reservation is to be made. These principles must not be proposed by the President of the United States alone, but they must also be recognized definitely by all States and nations. President Wilson, who reproaches the German Chancellor with a certain amount of backwardness, seems to me in his flight of ideas to have hurried far in advance of existing realities.

Certainly a League of Nations, erected upon justice and mutual unselfish appreciation, a condition of humanity in which war, together with all that remains of the earliest barbarism, should have completely disappeared and in which there should be no bloody sacrifices, no self-mutilation of peoples, no destruction of laboriously acquired cultural values - that would be an aim devoutly to be desired.

But that aim has not yet been reached. There does not yet exist a court of arbitration set up by all nations for the safeguarding of peace in the name of justice. When President Wilson incidentally says that the German Chancellor is speaking to the court of the entire world, I must, as things stand today, in the name of the German Empire and her allies, decline this court as prejudiced, joyfully as I would greet it if an impartial court of arbitration existed and gladly as I would cooperate to realize such ideals.

Unfortunately, however, there is no trace of a similar state of mind on the part of the leading powers in the Entente. E ngland's war aims, as recently expressed in Lloyd George's speeches, are still thoroughly imperialistic and want to impose on the world a peace according to England's good pleasure.

When England talks about peoples' right of self-determination, she does not think of applying the principle to Ireland, Egypt, or India.

Our war aims from the beginning were the defence of the Fatherland, the maintenance of our territorial integrity, and the freedom of our economic development. Our warfare, even where it must be aggressive in action, is defensive in aim.

I lay especial stress upon that just now in order that no misunderstandings shall arise about our operations in the east.

After the breaking off of peace negotiations by the Russian delegation on February 10th we had a free hand as against Russia. The sole aim of the advance of our troops, which was begun seven days after the rupture, was to safeguard the fruits of our peace with Ukraine.

Aims of conquest were in no way a determining factor. We were strengthened in this by the Ukrainians' appeal for support in bringing about order in their young State against the disturbances carried out by the Bolsheviki.

If further military operations in other regions have taken place, the same applies to them. They in no way aim at conquest. They are solely taking place at the urgent appeals and representations of the populations for protection against atrocities and devastation by Red Guards and other bands.

They have, therefore, been undertaken in the name of humanity. They are measures of assistance and have no other character. It is a question of creating peace and order in the interest of peaceable populations.

We do not intend to establish ourselves, for example, in Esthonia or Livonia. In Courland and Lithuania our chief object is to create organs of self-determination and self-administration. Our military action, however, has produced a success far exceeding the original aim.

News was received yesterday that Petrograd had accepted our conditions and had sent its representatives to Brest-Litovsk for further negotiations. Accordingly, our delegates travelled thither last evening.

It is possible that there will still be dispute about the details, but the main thing has been achieved. The will to peace has been expressly announced from the Russian side, while the conditions have been accepted and the conclusion of peace must ensue within a very short time.

To safeguard the fruits of our peace with Ukraine, our army command drew the sword. Peace with Russia will be the happy result.

Peace negotiations with Rumania began at Bucharest yesterday. It appeared necessary that Secretary von Kuhlmann should be present there during the first days when the foundations were laid. Now, however, he will presumably soon go to Brest-Litovsk.

It is to be remembered regarding negotiations with Rumania that we are not taking part in them alone, and are under obligation to champion the interests of our allies, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, and to see to it that a compromise is arranged there regarding any divergent desires that will possibly give rise to difficulties, but these difficulties will be overcome.

With regard to Rumania, too, the guiding principle will be that we must, and desired to, convert into friends the States with which on the basis of the success of our army we now conclude peace.

I will say a word regarding Poland, in behalf of which the Entente and President Wilson have recently appeared specially to interest themselves, as a country liberated from oppressive independence of Tsarist Russia by the united forces of Germany and Austria-Hungary, for the purpose of establishing an independent State, which, in unrestricted development of its national culture, shall at the same time become a pillar of peace in Europe.

The constitutional problem - in the narrower sense the question what constitution the new State shall receive - could not, as is easily understood, be immediately decided, and is still in the stage of exhaustive discussions between the three countries concerned.

A fresh difficulty has been added to the many difficulties which have in this connection to be overcome, difficulties especially in the economic domain in consequence of the collapse of old Russia. This difficulty results from the delimitation of the frontier between the new State and adjacent Russian territory.

For this reason the news of peace with the Ukraine at first evoked great uneasiness in Poland. I hope, however, that with goodwill and proper regard to the ethnographical conditions a compromise on the claims will be reached. The announced intention to make a serious attempt in this direction has greatly calmed Polish circles.

In the regulation of the frontier question only what is indispensable on military grounds will be demanded on Germany's part.

The Entente is fighting for the acquisition of portions of Austro-Hungarian territory by Italy and for the severance of Palestine, Syria, and Arabia from the Turkish Empire.

England has particularly cast an eye on portions of Turkish territory. She has suddenly discovered an affection for the Arabians and she hopes by utilizing the Arabians to annex fresh territories to the British Empire, perhaps by the creation of a protectorate dependent upon British domination.

That the colonial wars of England are directed at increasing and. rounding out the enormous British possessions, particularly in Africa, has been repeatedly stated by British statesmen.

In the face of this policy Entente statesmen dare to represent Germany as the disturber of peace, who, in the interest of world peace, must be confined within the narrowest bounds.

By a system of lies and calumny they endeavour to instigate their own people and neutral countries against the Central Powers and to disturb neutral countries with the spectre of the violation of neutrality by Germany.

Regarding the intrigues recently carried on in Switzerland we never thought, nor will we think, of assailing Swiss neutrality. We are much indebted to Switzerland. We express gratitude to her, Holland, the Scandinavian countries, and Spain, which by her geographical position is exposed to especial difficulties, and no less to the extra-European countries which have not entered the war, for their manly attitude in that, despite all temptations and oppressions, they preserve their neutrality.

The world yearns for peace and desires nothing more than that the sufferings of war under which it groans should come to an end. But the Governments of the enemy States contrive ever anew to stir the war fury among their peoples.

Our people will hold out further, but the blood of the fallen, the agonies of the mutilated and the distress and sufferings of the peoples will fall on the heads of those who insistently refuse to listen to the voice of reason and humanity.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/fourteenpoints_hertling2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Josef Freiherr Roth von Limanowa-Lapanów



(...) On the 19th of May 1916 he was honored with the title of Geheimer Rat (Privy Councillor) followed by his ennobling to "Ritter von" on the 11th of June 1916. He asked for the predicate "Limanowa-Lapanöw" which was granted on the 4th of September 1916. During the following month, especially during the breakthrough at Flitsch-Tolmein, Josef Roth Ritter von Limanowa-Lapanów had again the possibility to distinguish himself as corps commander. He received the 1st class of the Order of Leopold with war decoration and swords on the 8th of April 1917 and the bronze military medal with swords on the 16th of October 1917. After the success of Flitsch-Tolmein the immediate defence of the Tyrolean border was no longer necessary and the supreme command now searched for another command for General Roth. Conrad von Hötzendorf, who mainly agreed with the evaluations of Erzherzog Eugen, had the right idea and wrote in his evaluation on Roth: "A kind, knightly character, more conciliatory than decisive, intrepid and brave, not suitable for army command, suitable for inspector of military educational establishments, has the heart and understanding for the young." and this was the reason why General Roth received his appointment as Generalinspektor der Militär-Erziehungs- und Bildungsanstalten on the 15th of February 1918. On the 1st of February 1918 he received his promotion to Generaloberst with seniority from the 25th of February. (...)

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/biog/roth.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rationing in Britain during the First World War

The failure of voluntary rationing led to compulsory rationing being introduced, starting with sugar in December 1917 and meat and butter on 25 February 1918. This rationing was started in London before the scheme was expanded to cover the rest of the country on 8 April.



http://www.home-front.org.uk/rationing/first_world_war.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Observer, pilot, and Bristol Fighter F2B aircraft



ID Number: P03631.013
Maker: Hurley, James Francis (Frank)
Place made: Palestine: Mejdel Jaffa Area, Mejdel
Date made: 25 February 1918-28 February 1918

Observer, pilot, and Bristol Fighter F2B aircraft, Serial B1146, of No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps. The pilot (left) is Captain (Capt) Ross Macpherson Smith, MC and bar, DFC and two bars. Capt Hurley visited No. 1 Squadron on the 25 and 28 February 1918 and this photograph was probably taken on one of these days. This image is a colour Paget Plate.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/3288052387/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (25-02-1919)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1919/0225
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 February 1919 → Commons Sitting

REPATRIATED PRISONERS OF WAR
.

HC Deb 25 February 1919 vol 112 cc1570-1 1570

Mr. WATERSON asked the Secretary of State for War if men who have been prisoners of war and suffered much as a consequence are being forced into the Army of Occupation; and, if so, will he take steps to stop such a practice?

Mr. SPOOR asked the Secretary of State for War whether repatriated prisoners of war are to be retained in the Army; if so will they be sent overseas again; and whether in view of the sufferings of these men he will make an order that they shall be demobilised?

Mr. CHURCHILL It would not be right to confer a privilege upon repatriated prisoners of war as against their comrades in the fighting line. It is not possible to appraise the relative suffering and hazards endured. If men are fit in bodily health they must be treated alike, according to the age and categories prescribed.

Mr. HOGGE Can the right hon. Gentleman, on behalf of the War Office, give a denial to a statement that has appeared publicly that repatriated prisoners of war are entitled to demobilisation on expiry of their two-months'leave; and when will he be in a position to make the statement he promised the other day on the whole question of demobilisation as applied to repatriated prisoners?

Mr. CHURCHILL I think my hon. Friend will see that what I have said covers the statement. We do propose, if the man is within the category retained—assuming Parliament approves of the retention of such categories—to utilise his services during the period of the Armies of Occupation, whether he is a fighting soldier at the present time, or whether he is a returned repatriated prisoner of war. I take this opportunity, amongst others, of making that fact public.

Mr. HOGGE Can my right hon. Friend say definitely that the statement on the subject that has appeared in a great many papers is entirely wrong; it is to the effect that these repatriated prisoners have no special privileges as repatriated prisoners?

Mr. CHURCHILL Yes, Sir; that is the fact. Of course, their health must be most carefully examined here, for many of them have suffered much; but so have the men who have been fighting all the time in the lines.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/feb/25/repatriated-prisoners-of-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 25 Februari 1919.

Valkenswaard.
Op last van den Burgemeester mag met de a.s. Carnavalsdagen geen dansmuziek of openbare vermakelijkheden gehouden worden, zulks in overleg met de militaire autoriteiten.

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 25 Februari 1919.
Borkel en Schaft.
- Zaterdagnacht werd alhier door inbraak diefstal gepleegd bij den rijwielhandelaar Jonkers. Een heeren- en een damesrijwiel alsmede eenig waschgoed werd ontvreemd.
- Ook hier zijn de boerderijen veel in prijs gestegen. De boerderij De Leeuwerik is door Geldersche boeren aangekocht voor de som van f 15.000. Ook andere boerderijen zijn aan boeren uit Gelderland verkocht voor meer dan dubbele waarde voor een vijftal jaren.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Creation of the Civil Aviation Branch and its Early Years
by Roger Meyer

The first attempt at the international regulation of air navigation was made in 1910 when representatives of 19 European countries held an International Air Conference in Paris. A draft Convention was discussed but unanimous agreement on a definitive text could not be reached and the meeting was abandoned.

The idea was again discussed at the Peace Conference held after the Great War of 1914-18. This time there was complete agreement among the ex-allied States as the respective Governments realised that aviation, which had made great advances during the war, would develop rapidly as a means of international transport. It was therefore agreed to hold an International Conference to lay down the principles of rules for air traffic which would serve as the basis for uniform international regulations.

This Convention (the Paris Convention) was signed by the representative of each participating country on 13 October 1919. Article 34 of the Convention made provision for the creation of a permanent International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) under the direction of the League of Nations. Thirty six states, including Australia, became parties to the Paris Convention.

Australian pilots had distinguished themselves during World War I in the Australian Flying Corps, and in the immediate post-war era, aviation quickly captured the imagination of Australians. Inevitably, there were many unfortunate accidents and sections of the press began to campaign against reckless flying and the lack of regulation by Government, alleging that neither the Commonwealth nor the States seemed anxious to take responsibility.

However, the Prime Minister (Rt. Hon. W.M. Hughes) had faith in the future of aviation, and was largely responsible for the Government’s decision to offer a prize of £10,000 for a flight from Britain to Australia by an aeroplane crewed by Australians. The successful flight by Ross and Keith Smith did much to improve the public image of flying as a valid form of transport.

While there was no Government control over aviation, the need for action in this regard was foreseen, and an Air Traffic Committee was set up under the Council of Defence, and first met on 25 February 1919. The Committee was strongly supported by the Minister for Defence, Sir George Pearce, who shared the Prime Minister’s enthusiasm for aviation in Australia. The Chairman of the Committee, Major General Legge, noted that there should be only one regulatory air authority for Australia, working under a single legislature.

http://www.airwaysmuseum.com/Creation%20of%20the%20CAB%20part%201.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great Pandemic: Indiana

(...) As elsewhere, doctors stepped in to fill the breach, providing money and support for patients, sometimes from their own pockets. A letter from a PHS Officer to the Surgeon General of PHS dated February 25th, 1919 details how some physicians were overwhelmed and unable to keep accurate records: Dr. C.R. Applegate, Acting Assistant Surgeon for influenza control in Indiana, was assigned from this station for service at Clinton, Universal, Jacksonville, Shirkeyville, and New Goshen, all of them mining towns in the Clinton District. Dr. Applegate found it necessary to attend cases of influenza because of the great lack of physicians. He also found it necessary to expend his own money for drugs used in treating these cases. He endeavored to keep an account of these drugs, but, as stated in his affidavit, lost the book in which these accounts were kept, and found it impossible to secure any sort of statement from the drug store in Clinton where most of these drugs were purchasedYI am very certain the statement as submitted by Dr. Applegate is an accurate statement of the amount of money he advanced personally for these drugs and for which he should be reimbursed."

http://1918.pandemicflu.gov/your_state/indiana.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Feb 2011 10:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Discharge Certificate of Private John Brettle, from the Royal Warwickshire Regiment, British Army, Dated: 25/2/1919



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:British_Army_WW1_Military_Discharge_Certificate.png
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