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16 Februari
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Feb 2006 6:56    Onderwerp: 16 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 16. Februar

1914

1915
Die russische 10. Armee vernichtend geschlagen
Der Kaiser unter den siegreichen Truppen in Lyck
Die siegreichen Kämpfe in Ostpreußen
Die Russen gegen den Pruth zurückgedrängt

1916
Englische Angriffe bei Ypern abgeschlagen
Artilleriekämpfe an der italienischen Front
Die schweren Kämpfe im Kaukasus

1917
Vier feindliche Linien in der Champagne genommen
Die Kämpfe der Kronprinzen-Armee bei Ripont
Der Kaiser zum Sturmerfolg in der Champagne
Erfolgreicher Fliegerangriff auf Dünkirchen
51800 Tonnen von einem U-Boot an einem Tage versenkt
Vereitelter russischer Angriff in der Bukowina
Kaiser Wilhelm Großadmiral der österreichisch-ungarischen Flotte
Ein französisches Torpedoboot gesunken

1918
Verschärfter Artilleriekampf bei Tahure
Der Waffenstillstand mit Rußland abgelaufen
Neuer Streifzug deutscher Kriegsfahrzeuge in den Ärmelkanal
Die Kommissionen der Mittelmächte verlassen Petersburg
Ukrainische Bitte an Deutschland um militärische Unterstützung
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Feb 2006 6:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 16

1916 Russians capture Erzerum

After five days of intense fighting, the Russian army defeats the Third Turkish Army to capture Erzerum, a largely Armenian city in the Ottoman province of Anatolia, on this day in 1916.

The Central Powers considered Turkey, which entered World War I in November 1914, a valuable ally for two reasons: first, it could threaten British interests in the Middle East, and second, it could divert Russian troops from the front in Europe to the Caucasus. Unfortunately for the Turks, the success of this second objective resulted in the loss of the Turkish province of eastern Anatolia to the Russians in 1916.

The brilliant Russian campaign of February 1916 was commanded by General Nikolai Yudenich, one of the most successful and distinguished Russian commanders of the war. On February 11, the Russian troops began their attack on Erzerum from the south, over Kop Mountain. Once the Russian forces broke through the Turkish lines to the south and began to attack other Turkish positions, the fall of Erzerum seemed inevitable. The Third Turkish Army began abandoning their equipment and retreating from their positions as the Russians entered the city. In total, the Russians captured more than 1,000 guns and artillery and took some 10,000 Turkish prisoners.

With the capture of Erzerum, arguably the strongest and most important fortress in the Turkish empire, the Russians had gained the upper hand in the battle for control on the Caucasus front. With this one victory, the Russians captured or controlled all the roads leading to Mesopotamia and Tabriz and, in essence, controlled western Armenia.

In the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 and the subsequent armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, Erzerum was returned to Turkish control. The transfer of power was made official under the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events in the Gallipoli Campaign: January - February 1915

16 February 1915
Two British Marine battalions were sent to the Aegean to provide landing parties to demolish the Turkish guns at the Dardanelles forts.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-february-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 16 February 1915

BELGIAN REFUGEES (PROPERTY).


HC Deb 16 February 1915 vol 69 cc1001-2 1001

Mr. ELLIS DAVIES asked the Prime Minister whether, in view of the uneasiness caused by the threats made by the Germans to transfer the land and house property of the Belgian refugees unless they return, he can give any assur- 1002 ance that at the close of the War the property shall again become vested in its true owners?

The SECRETARY of STATE for FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Sir Edward Grey) The question is one to be settled by the authorities in Belgium after the close of the War. It is one question, amongst others, in which we believe the result of the War will make justice and right prevail.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/16/belgian-refugees-property
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Op 16 februari 1916 overlijdt Jan Ligthart, Nederlands onderwijzer en onderwijsvernieuwer. Bekende vruchten van zijn werk: het leesplankje van Aap – Noot - Mies en de schoolplaten van Jetses. Jarenlang waren zij het beeld van het lager onderwijs. Het Volle Leven was een methode voor het zaakonderwijs uit 1900 die Ligthart ontwikkelde met H. Scheepstra en W. Walstra. Ze bestaat uit schoolplaten van Cornelis Jetses en W.K. de Bruin en lees- en leerboekjes over mensen, planten, dieren en producten. Er zijn verschillende onderwerpen, bijv.: timmeren, grasland, metselen en bouwland. Heden ten dage worden de ideeën van Ligthart nog steeds serieus genomen. In Nederland zijn tientallen scholen die zijn naam dragen.

http://www.beleven.org/vandaag/16_februari

16 februari 1916 - De grondlegger van het leesplankje ‘Aap-Noot-Mies’ werd op 57-jarige leeftijd tijdens een wandeling getroffen door een sneeuwstorm, waardoor hij in een kanaal viel. Een passerende schipper kon geen hulp meer bieden.
Jan Ligthart werd geboren in Amsterdam op 11 januari 1859. In plaats van op 11-jarige leeftijd bij een kleine baas te gaan werken, werd hij hulpje van een leraar. Later kreeg hij van de gemeente Amsterdam de mogelijkheid om een studie tot docent te volgen.

Hij werd een geroemde onderwijzer en onderwijsvernieuwer. Zijn innoverende manier van lesgeven zorgde ervoor dat Maria Montessori een bezoek kwam brengen en dat Koningin Wilhelmina hem vroeg of hij voor de educatie van prinses Juliana wilde zorgen.

Naast het leesplankje ontwikkelde hij samen met Cornelis Jetses ook de schoolplaten van Jetses. Beide methoden waren jarenlang het beeld van het lager onderwijs. Nog steeds worden zijn ideeen erg serieus genomen.

Hij trouwde met Marie en met haar kreeg hij drie kinderen. De laatste, een zoon, stierf op 9-jarige leeftijd aan een bloedvergiftiging. Deze klap kwam hij nauwelijks te boven. Voor zijn dood was zijn gezondheid dan ook al sterk afgenomen.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1916-02-16/Jan+Ligthart+overleden
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 15 Feb 2010 21:42, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant Evan-Jones

Joining the Welch Regiment in October 1910 and promoted to Lieutenant in November 1911 Evan-Jones served with the 1st Battalion in England,The Mediterranean and India. He fought at the front with his battalion from January 1915 and was killed in action near Ypres on 16 February 1915. He had greatly distinguished himself as a bomb thrower. Writing home to his family in a letter before he was killed he gave this account:

“I made 2 expeditions by myself with some bombs,which I dropped into the German trenches. During my first one,I met a German gentleman,apparently on the same job as myself.My revolver accounted for him all right. We were only about 2 feet apart.I think,if anything,I am rather enjoying myself. Cold feet are the worst part of the show,but my men are such rippers,it makes up for lots.I hate having them hit,though otherwise its quite cheery.I had a singsong in my trench the other evening,which rather annoyed the Germans.I have been favourably reported for going out and throwing those bombs.It was really quite a simple thing to do,and I think people are making rather an unnecessary fuss about it all. “

Hilary Gresford Evan-Jones’ name is listed on Panel 37 of The Menin Gate Memorial.

http://imtheboy.wordpress.com/2009/12/12/lieutenant-hg-evan-jones1st-battalion-the-welch-regiment-kia-16-february-1916-and-private-hj-smith7th-battalion-the-duke-of-cornwalls-light-infantry-kia-10-march-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De gevechten in de Argonnen van september 1914 tot medio 1916

Op 16 februari 1915 voerde de 2e Compagnie van het 1e Bataljon van IR 135 tezamen met de compagnieën van het 5e Bataljon Jagers een stormaanval uit op de Franse voorste lijn in sector 8. Het doel van deze aanval was om Hoogte 285 te nemen maar slechts drie loopgraven konden worden veroverd. De Fransen verloren bij deze actie 100 gesneuvelden en 162 gevangenen en aan Duitse zijde vielen 10 doden en 53 gewonden.

Bij deze stormaanval werd de 4e Compagnie van I/IR 135 onder bevel van luitenant Otto ingezet op de rechtervleugel achter de bataljonsreserve van het 5e Bataljon Jagers met als opdracht eventuele openingen tussen de aanvallende compagnieën van dit bataljon te sluiten.

Lees het hele artikel op http://www.ssew.nl/gevechten-argonnen-september-1914-tot-medio-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Military document, 16 February 1917

Description: pass to enter the city walls of Jerusalem; issued to Willilam Bailey, 2/15th Battalion, London Regiment

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/military-document-16-february-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

16 februari 1917 - “Ter kennis van de ingezetenen van Baerle-Hertog wordt gebracht dat op 21 februari 1917 van 9 uur tot 11 uur voormiddag bij slager Geerts alhier goedkoop varkensvlees zal te verkrijgen zijn.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; schepencollege)

16 februari 1917 - “De Burgemeester van Baerle-Hertog maakt bekend een schrijven te hebben ontvangen van Z.E. den Minister van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel te ’s Gravenhage dd. 8 februari 1917 waarin Z.E. verklaart gaarne bereid te zijn ook in den vervolge deze gemeente bij te staan in de moeilijkheden welke zij ondervindt bij de zorgen voor de broodvoeding harer inwoners. In dit verband zal in deze gemeente met ingang van 5 maart a.s. het broodkaartsysteem worden ingevoerd. De broodkaarten zullen door de gezinshoofden in ontvangst moeten worden genomen ten gemeentehuize van B.H. op 26, 27 en 28 februari 1917 in den voormiddag.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; schepencollege)

16 februari 1917 - De burgemeester vroeg aan de minister van Handel, Landbouw en Nijverheid de maandelijkse levering van elf ton bloem en twee en een halve ton meel. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wanneer de bolsjewieken de macht veroveren in Rusland (oktober 1917) loopt de Duits-Russische frontlijn dwars door het Baltische gebied: Litouwen is nagenoeg helemaal bezet, Letland voor de helft en van Estland zijn enkel de Maalund-eilanden bezet.
In Litouwen roept op 16 februari 1918 een pro-Duitse regering de onafhankelijkheid uit en in juni proclameert ze Litouwen tot monarchie en biedt ze de Duitse hertog Wilhelm von Würtemberg de troon en de kroon aan. In Estland wordt op 26 oktober 1917 -- daags na de revolutie in Petrograd -- een sovjetmacht gevormd. Het merendeel van de omvergeworpen adel en bourgeoisie trekt zich terug op de Maalund-eilanden.

http://www.katardat.org/marxuniv/2002-SUWW2/SUWO2/02Beschermgordel.html

De Raad van Litouwen riep de onafhankelijkheid van Litouwen uit op 16 februari 1918. Duitsland erkende de onafhankelijkheid op 23 maart. Vier maanden later, op 4 juli besloot de raad om de kroon aan te bieden aan de Duitse hertog Willem van Urach, alhoewel dit een controversiële beslissing was. Hertog Willem aanvaardde de kroon op 13 juli en nam de naam Mindaugas II aan. Op 2 november, toen de nederlaag van de Duitsers in de oorlog duidelijk was, veranderde de Raad de grondwet en riep de republiek uit, waardoor de erg korte regeerperiode van Mindaugas beëindigd werd.

Ontvangen van http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koninkrijk_Litouwen_(1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 februari 1977:De Italiaanse luchtaas Silvio Scaroni overlijdt te Milaan. Voor WO1 was hij korporaal bij de 2e Veldartillerie en in maart 1915 kwam hij bij het Corpo Aeronautico Miliatare. Hij zou pas op 14 november 1917 zijn eerste overwinning boeken,zijn laatste,de 26ste,behaalde hij op 12 juli 1918. Diezelfde dag werd hij gewond en was de oorlog afgelopen voor hem.

Scaroni deed in 1926 mee aan de Schneider Trophy.
In 1933 zond Italië een militaire missie naar China,tijdens deze missie richtte kolonel Scaroni een vliegschool op voor de Chinese luchtmacht te Loyang. Er werd ook een fabriek opgestart om Fiat gevechtsvliegtuigen en Savoia-Marchetti bommenwerpers onder licentie te bouwen.

Tijdens WO2 was hij commandant van de Italiaanse luchtmacht op Sicilië.

Hij was schrijver van vier boeken.
# Impressioni e ricordi di guerra aerea. Silvio Scaroni. 1922. (zijn oorlogsmemoires)
# Battaglie nel cielo. Silvio Scaroni. 1934.
# Con Vittorio Emanuele III. Silvio Scaroni. 1954.
# Missione militare aeronautica in Cina. Silvio Scaroni. 1970.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul van Ostaijen. Een documentatie
Gerrit Borgers

Ook het eerste halfjaar van 1918 was in poëtisch opzicht een zeer vruchtbare tijd voor Van Ostaijen. Op 16 februari schreef hij het gedicht Vreugde met de haast programmatische beginregel: ‘Onder de gloedende zoen van mijn levenscheppende vreugde ligt de stad’.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/borg006paul01_01/borg006paul01_01_0033.php

Vreugde
Onder de gloedende zoen van mijn levenscheppende vreugde ligt
de stad;
vreugde in mij, niet om welke oorzaak ook, maar om zich zelf:
zo is elke grote liefde. Mijn vreugde is een absolute liefde.
Dat weet ik: ik ben een schepper die een warme golf over de stad laat
varen.

Op schaliedaken ligt maanlicht dol in vreugde, goud-gelukkig.
Ik weet: moest de verzoeking mij op een hoogte brengen
van al de schaliedaken zou ik maanlicht stromen zien:
een ziedende zee van zilveren golven uit licht lopend goud.

Veni Creator van het leven: vreugde om de vreugde!
Voel ik nu niet rusten de lippen van mijn geliefde op mijn mond?
Alles stroomt naar mij toe, - gelijk het maanlicht schept een zee: haar
eigen leven, -
nu ben ik een beeld der volle vreugde.

Mijn moeder heeft mij tans bekeken met haar warmste ogen;
nooit was de handdruk van mijn vriend hechter als deze al is mijn
vriend ook ver,
en nooit zoende mij zó een geliefde als deze die ik niet ken.
Van de avondlike bomen valt licht vol schittering.

Een koets zou over mijn lichaam kunnen heenrijden,
dit zou mijn vreugde niet even kwetsen.
Mijn vreugde zou gaan en het klingelen der sukkel-belletjes
door het geschal van bazuinen vertalen.

16 februarie 1918


http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/osta002verz02_01/osta002verz02_01_0068.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 22:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

February 16, 1918 #8
Somewhere in France

Dear Folks:-

To-night I hardly known what to write. We have done nothing of importance in the four days that have elapsed since I wrote last. However I think the time is getting ripe for something to start. I hope it isn’t anything unfavorable or disagreeable, but then I am sure it won’t be.

This morning we decided that today being a day of rest we ought to get an unusual amount of exercise. So three of us started out on a hike through the country. We hadn’t gone very far before we met three more of the bunch going in about the same direction. So we all went on together. About twelve we landed at a small inn near a village. We went in and ordered dinner for 1:30 and went on to explore an old chateau a little way farther. When we came back our dinner was ready.

We had some dinner. Each one had a large omelet, a huge veal cutlet, french fried potatoes, peas and wine and besides that several of us had portions (not small) of rabbit. Then we finished with Camembert cheese, cakes and black coffee. All this was cooked in the inimitable French way and cost seven francs each (about $1.25). It sure did taste good for it was a welcome change from our mess. Not that we aren’t eating well for we are, still as you know a change in cooking is always welcome and the French people are such good cooks that it is doubly welcome here.

Over here the Officer’s mess is the same as the enlisted man’s, that is we have the same rations. Of course the officers eat in a different place but we eat the same kind of food. In return we pay only the actual value of the ration (at present about 42¢ per day) instead of $1.00 per day as at Garden City & elsewhere. Of course we add to this by buying preserves, jam and cheese, etc. and we have no cause to complain. We are all well & healthy and that is the main thing.

By the way, I have intended to speak of this before, if you ever hear of anyone who specially needs them or have a good chance to get rid of them you had better dispose of the greater share of my clothes. Please keep my sweaters, jerseys, silk shirts etc. and whatever anyone at home can use. About the rest use your own judgment. Things are so unsettled that I don’t know what to advise but I probably won’t want any of those clothes until they are thoroughly out of date. But you better keep at least one suit, one with two pair of trousers. Don’t bother about it or let it worry you but do as you think best when the opportunity arises, if it ever does.

Really I am so stuped tonight. I haven’t the slightest idea of what to write. However I hope it won’t be long before I will have more to say and can make my letters more interesting.

So far I have succeeded in getting off about two letters a week but I’ll try and do better. We haven’t much to do here, still it seems as though we were always busy.

Lots of love to all. Hope you are all well and not working too hard. I am fine and feeling tip top.

Mortimer.

O.K.
Mortimer M. Lawrence.
2nd Lt. Sig. R.C., A.S.

http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/february-18-1918-8
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The First World War Diary of Bombardier Charles B. Spires

Bert Spires was an insurance office manager and "joined up" at the end of 1916 at the age of 32. He was assigned to the Royal Field Artillery to be trained as a signaller. In 1917 he embarked for France, on draft for 23 Division in the Ypres salient in Belgium. He kept a diary during his service in Belgium and later in Italy, and this is the subject of this site. He describes his experiences in note form, from the day he landed in France. He mentions unit casualties with dates and locations as well as a wealth of information on his movements. He survived the war, dying in 1940, after a successful post war career in the insurance industry.

Le Havre 16 February 1917
Disembarked 6am. Name of boat Edward Vll. Marched to camp at Harfleur (6 Kilos). After numerous parades and inspections was detailed to signaller's lines (L troop 11 camp). Second day had tests on buzzer, flags, disc and lamp. In charge of tent. Gym for 2 hrs each day on hill disgusted with system of 'bending', practiced by gym instructors. Had 1 day gas course on hill. Weather cold but bright. Route march up Seine. On draft for line 23 Div. March 2nd. Party Haggis, Keen, Saunders, Cooper, Accleton, Shoey and self. 2 days rations travelled civi coach. Saw dirigible flying up Seine estuary. Splendid view from top of hill.

Leuke site... http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/tedspires/Diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 22:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oostenrijk

1919 - first elections for a new state
The beginning of 1919 is marked by a disastrous food scarcity and an equally bad energy supply situation: hunger and cold are the distinguishing attributes of the young Republic which faces major difficulties trying to establish a political administration in line with republican ideas from the remnants of a former empire and with what is left in Vienna of the former monarchy's state apparatus. On 16 February 1919, about three months after the proclamation of the Republic, elections are held for a constituent national assembly. In these general, direct and secret elections women are for the first time entitled to vote.

http://www.wien.gv.at/english/history/commemoration/elections.html
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Commons Sitting, February 16, 1920

WAR CRIMINALS.


HC Deb 16 February 1920 vol 125 cc506-7 506

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY asked the Prime Minister if he will state the proposed composition of the courts before which it is intended to arraign the German princes, statesmen, soldiers, and sailors whose surrender is demanded under Article 228 of the Treaty of Peace with Germany; where will be the location of these courts for the trial of the persons demanded by Great Britain; how long it is estimated that the trials will last; whether the trials will be held in public; what is the total number of persons whose surrender is demanded; and to whom will the cost of the proceedings be charged?

Mr. BONAR LAW I regret that I am unable to answer these questions in detail at the present moment. The matters referred to are at the present moment under discussion with our allies and with the German Government.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Is the right hon. Gentleman aware that there is a strong feeling amongst soldiers and sailors against the demand for the surrender of those high officers?

Mr. BONAR LAW My answer is that while the subject is being discussed it is not suitable to discuss it in this House.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/feb/16/war-criminals
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Army altitude record

February 16, 1914 - Lts. Joseph E. Carberry and Walter R. Taliaferro set an Army altitude record of 8,700 feet for two people in a Curtiss plane at San Diego.

http://www.af.mil/information/heritage/weekinhistory.asp
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http://scriabin.com/gallery/Etude_Covers/1914_02_001.jpg.html
D'r zitten hele mooie tussen... http://www.scriabin.com/gallery/Etude_Covers/?g2_page=4
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Brief van een gevluchte Belgische officier aan een Zwols meisje, 16 februari 1915
door Jeanine Otten, Historisch Centrum Overijssel

“Harderwijk, le 16 /2/1915
Chère petite demoiselle Mieni,
Eerst en vooral, dank voor uw portret. Van dezen oogenblik al zal mijne lieve kleine Mieni altijd bij mij wezen en dat zal me veel vreugde doen. Ge zegt dat ge mij gauwer schrijft dan verleden keer! Vergeet niet, lieve kleine, dat al gelijk wanneer ge mij van uw nieuws zult willen laten weten, het mij altijd welkom zal wezen en dat ik ver ben van te klagen als ik er geen ontvang; dan … zucht ik. Et c’est tout faute de mieux. Hetgeen het muziekaal avondfeest aangaat van zondag waar ge R. Baco gehoord hebt, daarover hebt ge zeker tevreden moeten zijn, want ik heb hem tweemaal gehoord te Zwolle: in de kantien en in de St. Josefkring. Wat was dat schoon en wat speelt hij oprecht wel! Superbe, n’est-ce pas? Je l’avais lu dans le Zwolsche Courant. Ik heb het inzicht met Krier deze week naar het Bioscoop te gaan.”
Voor het oogenblik is het weder goed: het is niet ongelukkig, want wanneer het regent, is het zoo slecht dat men geen hond zou buiten zetten (maar Gé wel!). Modder, nog modder en altijd modder, dat is den staat van het kamp wanneer het regent.
Maintenant Krier vient de me dire que vous êtes indisposé. Est-ce vrai? Si oui, tâchez de vous guérir au plus tôt, car cela me ferait tant de chagrin de vous savoir malade et ne pouvoir être auprès de vous pour vous consoler et amuser. C’est de tout coeur que je vous souhaite bien vite guérie. De hartelijkste groeten van Uw Grooten vriend (hé!) Emile.”

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=2044&sid=1ef24f07a1570d20522d4637fe23cd16
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Accident Returns: Extract for the Accident at Ilford on 1st January 1915

Document Summary
The report on the collision of two passenger trains at Ilford in 1915.
This document was published on 16th February 1915 by Board of Trade.
It was written by Lieut. Col. P. G. von Donop
.

"In this case, as the 8.20 am. up passenger train from Gidea Park to Liverpool Street, consisting of an engine and l8 carriages, was running through the connection at the west end of Ilford Station, leading from the Up local to the up through line, it was run into at the fouling point of the two lines by the engine of the 7.6 a.m. up express passenger train from Clacton to London, which consisted of an engine, tender and nine vehicles, and which was running on the up through line. The Gidea Park train was travelling at the time of the collision at a speed of from 10 to 15 miles an hour, whilst the speed of the Clacton train is variously estimated at from 20 to 50 miles an hour.

The engine and the first six carriages of the Gidea Park train had already reached the up through line, but the seventh vehicle of that train was struck by the engine of the Clacton train. That carriage was very severely damaged, and the one immediately in rear of it was practically destroyed; the next four carriages of the Gidea Park train were also very severely damaged. The engine and two leading vehicles of the Clacton train were very severely damaged, and the two following ones slightly so; the driver and fireman of the engine were both scalded by the steam, and were otherwise injured, but their injuries are believed not to be very serious. Ten passengers, most of whom were travelling in the Gidea Park train, were killed, and upwards of 500 passengers have notified the Company of personal injuries or of shock sustained."

http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=313
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Gallipoli Diary
Edward P. Cox



Tuesday Feb. 16th 1915 - Uneventful day. As our Coy. Moves from No 3 Post tomorrow I am arranging for them to have a concert this evening to mark our pleasant associations with the other members of the garrison (the 7th Gurkha Rifles)
10th Manchester Machine Guns and Naval crews operating the searchlights & ferry services.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d5.html
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Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (1885-1977), wife of Sir Winston Churchill, 16 February 1915



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clementine_Churchill_1915.jpg
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Kelly and Lewis V8 Engine (1915)



"Kelly and Lewis" engines were the products of Kelly and Lewis Ltd, a Melbourne based engineering company formed in 1899 through partnership of Edward Lewis and Geoge Kelly. Operating from Melbourne premises in Little Bourke Street opposite the old works of Wright & Edwards, which they eventually purchased, the partners established a reputation for the excellence of their products.

The firm's development was aided by the demand from the Western Australian deep-lead goldfields for steam-driven winders, condensing plants and pumps. Kelly & Lewis constructed plant for zinc recovery by flotation and in 1910 began producing internal combustion engines.

Wartime production included the manufacture of three aircraft engines for the Australian Flying Corps for the B.E.-2a aircraft of the Central Flying School at Point Cook.

In 1913 the firm became a proprietary company with a capital of £50,000; after Kelly died in 1919 Lewis was sole managing director. Many men spent their whole working lives at Kelly & Lewis, with sons following fathers. Edward Lewis's habit was to visit each department at least once a day and his 'system of mental arithmetic and shirt cuff memoranda' enabled him to give instant summaries of the work in hand. Construction of a large foundry at Springvale was begun in 1921 and contracts after this time included extensions to the Yallourn power house and sluice gates for the Hume weir.

Kelly & Lewis Ltd went on to build many petrol and diesel stationary engines for farm and industrial use and merged with the Thompson Engineering and Pipe Company of Castlemaine in 1987, and continues to trade today as Thompsons, Kelly & Lewis Pty Ltd (a subsidiary of BTR Nylex Ltd).

On 16 February 1915 the Minister for Defence Senator George Pearce announced that the Defence Department would proceed with the building of military aircraft in Australia, that 6 Renault engines were required, and engineering firms could communicate with the Department for particulars. On 28 August 1915 a 70hp engine patterned on the air cooled Renault V8 was completed by Tarrant Motors Pty Ltd Melbourne and bench tested, and later taken to Point Cook for installation in a B.E.2a. Tarrant had recieved orders for three engines while three other Renault engines were ordered from Kelly and Lewis.

Lees verder op http://www.aarg.com.au/Kelly&LewisV8Engine.htm
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The Gallipoli Front

By this time Admiral Fisher was growing thoroughly alarmed at the prospect that 'spare' shipping be drawn away from his beloved Grand Fleet - a threat in being in the North Sea - for what he regarded as a highly dubious undertaking in the Mediterranean. His former close relations with Churchill - who had brought him out of distinguished retirement in October 1914 to his former post of First Sea Lord - began to chill.

However Fisher's growing reservations were largely ignored by British war minister Lord Kitchener. On 16 February 1915 Kitchener issued orders to ensure the readiness of Britain's sole available infantry division to assist with operations as necessary.

He further specified that Australian and New Zealand forces stationed in Egypt en route for France should be made available if required. On 18 February the French government similarly added a corps of men to the endeavour, although they arrived too late to be used the following day.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/overview_gf.htm
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Champagne

February 16, 1915 - On the Western Front, the French launch their second offensive against German defense lines in Champagne. Once again they are hampered by the muddy winter weather and a lack of heavy artillery. After a month of fighting, suffering 240,000 casualties, the exhausted French break off the offensive.

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1915.html
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1916 De watersnood - Uit het dagboek van de pastoor.

16 februari 1916: Hevige zuidwesterstorm, het water beukt tegen de huizen en de pastorie, het kerkhof is verschrikkelijk gehavend. ‘s Nachts stijgt het water, ‘s morgens een voet in de pastorie. Mijn waterlaarzen doen goed dienst. Kapelaan Veldhuyse gaat naar Amsterdam. Ik heb hem op mijn rug de pastorie uitgedragen naar buiten.”

http://volendaminvogelvlucht.wordpress.com/boekfragmenten/1916-de-watersnood/
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British Military Report on the Russian Capture of Erzerum, 16 February 1916

Reproduced below is the text of the British military report, written by the British observer with Russian forces Morgan Price, detailing the Russian success in seizing control of Erzerum from Turkish control on 16 February 1916.

The Russian Capture of Erzerum, 16 February 1916, by Morgan Price, British Military Observer with the Russian Army

This success had been due to errors by the Turks, who did not feel insecure in Armenia, and would take risks to save Baghdad.

They must have been ill-informed as to the nature of the Russian reinforcements, for in December they gave leave of absence to a number of officers in the Erzerum garrison, while they made no haste to send back to Erzerum the heavy artillery from the Dardanelles.

Instead, they concentrated all their efforts on Mesopotamia, where they succeeded in surrounding General Townsend in Kut, and in threatening the whole British expedition with breakdown. Thus it was clear that a Russian offensive on the Caucasus front would not only relieve the situation in Mesopotamia, but would stand a good chance of driving the Turks back on their last line of defence round the fortress of Erzerum, and possibly even of taking it.

The Russians were now superior by about 50,000 men along the whole of the Asiatic front from the Black Sea to Persia. This enabled them to undertake flanking movements, which always count for so much in Asiatic warfare.

In Asia, with its wide expanses, the chances of an enemy digging himself into positions which cannot be outflanked are very much less than in Europe. Everything, therefore, favoured an offensive in the direction of Erzerum, and a series of manoeuvres and flanking movements in the mountains and valleys at the headwaters of the Araxes and the Euphrates.

The eastern approach to Erzerum lies along the Passan plain. Its outer chain of forts lies on the Deve-Boyun, a range of rolling hills from 7,000 to 8,000 feet high, dividing the head-waters of the Araxes from those of the western Euphrates.

Bounding the Passan and upper Euphrates plain on the south is the great range of the Palan-teken, rising to 10,000 feet, and running east and west like most of the ridges of Armenia outside the volcanic zone.

To the north of the plain lies a confused area, where volcanic effusions have overlaid the original plateau ranges. To the east, not far from the Russo-Turkish frontier, lie the masses of the Djelli-Gel and Kodjut-Dag, which to the west merge into the great uplift of the Kargar-bazar.

Further west still rise the Giaur and Dumlu Dags, between which and the Kargar-bazar is the only gap in the whole length of the mountain wall that shields Erzerum on the north. This gap is the defile of Gurji-Bogaz, and the road through it, at the height of 7,000 feet, is the only approach to Erzerum from this side.

Coming up from the south and passing through this defile, one enters the valley of the Tortum River and descends into the relative depression of Olti Chai and the middle Chorokh. The problem for the Turks was to hold the approaches to Erzerum along the Passan plain on the east (this was effected by the 9th and part of the 10th Army Corps), and to block tile narrow gap in the mountains on the northeast (this was done by the 11th Army Corps, which had entrenched itself some months previously on the mountain mass of the Gey Dag, just southwest of Olti).

To the south of Erzerum, across the Palan-teken, lay a part of the 10th Army Corps, protecting the road leading into the Van basin and on to Mesopotamia.

The Russian plan, worked out by General Yudenich, the Grand Duke Nicholas's commander in the field, was to attack the Turkish positions in three columns.

The 2nd Turkestan Army Corps at Olti in the Chorokh depression was to attack the Turks guarding the Gurji-Bogaz defiles in the positions on the Gey Dag, and by this demonstration to draw off their strength from the Passan plain, where the main blow was to be struck by the 1st Army Corps, which was to make a frontal attack on the Azap Keui positions between Hassan Kaleh and the old Russo-Turkish frontier.

These positions had been carefully prepared for some months, and had all the signs of permanent field-fortifications. To make them untenable, a third force, the 4th Rifle Division, was to be sent into the mountain country of the Djelli-Gel, to hold the line between the 1st Army Corps and the Turkestans, and to threaten the flanks of the Turks at Azap Keui and on the Gey Dag.

It is interesting to note that this was the same sort of plan as that which Enver Pasha adopted, when he attacked the Russians just twelve months before. He, however, demonstrated on the Passan plain, and made his main attack on the Olti and Chorokh basins.

His plan ultimately failed, because he could not guarantee supplies to his advanced forces in the country that they had occupied. But the Russians were brilliantly successful, because they had given the necessary attention to roads and transport for their main advance along the Passan plain.

On January 13th the Russian advance began. The 2nd Turkestan Army Corps attacked the Turkish 11th Army Corps, which was strongly entrenched on the Gey Dag west of Olti. The Russian losses were heavy, and they did not succeed in dislodging the Turks; but the real object of the attack was obtained by causing the Turks to draw off forces for the defence of the northeast (Gurji-Bogaz) gateway to Erzerum, and by masking the main blow, which was delivered on the Passan plain.

Information brought by airmen, who flew over Erzerum during these days, showed that Abdulla Kerim Pasha, the Turkish commander, had withdrawn one regiment to the north to protect his left flank in the defiles.

This gave the necessary opportunity for the Russian 1st Army Corps to carry the main Turkish position, and on January 13th the Azap Keui line was attacked.

In spite of the withdrawal of a regiment, the Turks made a very stubborn resistance, and for three days there was severe fighting With great losses on both sides. But on January 15th the 4th Composite Division, which had been given the task of connecting the 2nd Turkestans with the 1st Army Corps, crossed the high rugged country of the Djelli Gel at a level of 9,000 feet, and joined up with the Turkestans in the valleys of the upper Olti Chai.

The Turkish 11th Army Corps on the Gey Dag, and the 9th and 10th in the Passan plain, were thus in danger of being outflanked. Moreover, the Russians had so severely pounded the Azap Keui positions that they were now practically untenable.

So on January 16th Abdulla Kerim Pasha ordered a general retreat to the last line of defence on the Erzerum forts.

Then followed what is frequently met with in Turkish retreats, and is very characteristic of that race. The Turk has all the stubbornness and endurance of a highlander and an agriculturist. He does not see at once when he is outmastered: but when he does, then the untrained Oriental comes out strong in him; he throws everything away and bolts in a general sauve qui peut.

In this case he just ran till he reached Erzerum. The Russians reached Kupri Keui on the 18th, and the next day were in Hassan Kaleh, thus getting into their hands the whole of the east Passan plain and the basin of the Araxes right up to the outer forts of Erzerum.

On January 19th the last Turkish column was seen disappearing behind the rolling banks of the Deve-Boyun. The Cossacks pursued right up to the outer chain of forts tinder cover of darkness, and cut off 1,000 prisoners.

Next day field artillery shelled the outer forts, and so after thirty-nine years Erzerum saw a Russian shell again within its precincts.

Up to this time it was not really part of the Russian plan to attack Erzerum. The original plan was to break the Turkish line on the Passan plain, and to put such pressure on the Turks along the whole line from the Chorokh to Bitlis that the pressure on the English at Baghdad would be relieved.

The extraordinary success of the advance in the second week of January took no one more by surprise than the Russians themselves. The Grand Duke Nicholas would not believe the news when he heard that Hassan Kaleh and Kupri Keui had fallen.

Indeed, it was not until January 23rd that General Yudenich informed him that he thought it possible to take Erzerum, and asked for permission to work out a plan. This was done in the next few days.

Meanwhile, information which strengthened this decision came to hand in the shape of a wireless telegram, intercepted between Abdulla Kerim Pasha and Enver Pasha, in which it was stated that "the condition of the 3rd Army is serious; reinforcements must be sent at once, or else Erzerum cannot be held."

On January 31st a demonstration was made from Hassan Kaleh by the Russians against the outer forts of the Deve-Boyun to test the strength of the Turks. The bombardment continued all day, and by evening it was seen that the Turks had poured water down the slopes in front of the forts, which on freezing covered the mountain sides with icy sheets.

According to accounts given me by some officers, as the sun was setting that evening the sign of a cross appeared in the clouds of white smoke that accompanied the bombardment and lay over the forts.

During the first week of February heavy artillery was brought up, and the Russian dispositions were made and developed with extraordinary skill. General Paskevitch, when he captured Erzerum in 1828, confined his attentions solely to the approach from the Passan plain. Meeting with slight Turkish resistance and with primitive forts, he had no great difficulty in breaking through the Deve-Boyun.

He had not to trouble about the defiles and the northern approaches to Erzerum, nor had he to force a passage across immense mountainous tracts of snowy wastes in order to keep his line of advance intact. But in these days the methods of modern warfare have to some degree overcome nature.

The Gurji-Bogaz defiles were now passable for artillery, and moreover the Turks had built two forts there. On their extreme left wing a whole Turkish Army Corps held positions far away in the isolated valleys of the upper Chorokh Su, where it had before been impossible to keep and feed a battalion.

The devices of the engineer and transport services had made all this possible. The Russians therefore were threatened with the danger that, if they should make a frontal attack on the Deve-Boyun forts and carry them, the Turks in the upper Chorokh might suddenly make a great counter-move, break into the Olti depression, reach the Kars plateau, and so get into the rear of the whole Russian army, as they did in December, 1914.

This in fact is exactly what Abdulla Kerim Pasha tried to do. He ordered Halid Bey (the exceedingly brave, if somewhat rash, commander of the frontier regiment which had retreated from before Artvin through Southern Lazistan when the Azap Keui positions were captured) to call up reinforcements from Baiburt, break through the narrow Tortum valley and cut off the 2nd Turkestan Army Corps at Olti.

During the first ten days of February severe fighting took place on the passes of the Kabak-tepe east of Igdir, and on more than one occasion Halid Bey seemed on the point of outflanking General Prejvalsky.

By February 10th, however, the Russian Turkestans had succeeded in repulsing hint and were secure in the Tortum valley, and it was safe for General Yudenich to begin his advance on Erzerum.

The plan was to form the whole of the Russian forces in this part of Armenia into a great semicircular line stretching from the Upper Chorokh Su across the great volcanic chains of the Dumlu and Giaur Dags and the Kargar-bazar, across the Passan plain, and the heights of the Palan-teken to the valley of Khunus.

The line was some 130 miles long, and it had to be covered by two Army Corps and some detached forces. All the different sections of the line had to keep in touch with each other, and to advance over snowbound plateau or icy mountain skree, whichever fell to their lot, thus gradually converging upon the great fortress, and threatening to surround it.

The object of General Yudenich, in this most ably conceived and brilliantly executed plan, was to force Abdulla Kerim Pasha either to evacuate Erzerum, or else to be locked up in it with no hope of relief.

It is safe to say that the struggle was much greater in this operation with the natural enemies, cold and hunger, than it was with the Turks. The Russian troops had to cross mountain ranges with deep snow-drifts at 10,000 feet, and to go for at least three days cut off from supplies of food, with nothing but the few crusts of bread they could carry with them.

No other race of human beings, except those accustomed to the cold of sub-arctic climates like that of Russia, could have performed this feat. The Anatolian Turk is in no degree inferior to the Russian in physical endurance, but he lacks the habit of husbanding his resources.

The Russian, whenever he gets the smallest chance, sets himself down in some little hollow, and somehow or other makes himself a cup of tea by burning bits of grass or moss. But the Turkish soldier literally goes without anything for two or three days, and then eats a whole sheep or a perfect mountain of "pilaff," so that he cannot move for hours.

Moreover, the Turkish army has in it Arabs and Syrians, who can ill endure a winter campaign in Armenia.

On February 11th the order for the general Russian advance was given. The Elizabetopol and Baku regiments attacked Forts Chaban-dede and Dolan-gyoz respectively.

The latter fort is situated on a little knoll which juts out into the Passan plain, and is, as it were, the advanced guard of the outer chain. By 5 a.m. on the 12th Dolan-gyoz was surrounded, but the battalion of Turks holding the fort managed to retreat to the Uzun Ahmet fort, a powerful redoubt which rests upon a trapeze-like rocky mass with cliffs on three sides.

At the same time the 2nd Turkestans, advancing through the defiles of the Gurji-Bogaz, surrounded the advanced fort of Kara-gyubek. Two outposts were already in the hands of the Russians; but the main struggle was yet to come.

On the Kargar-bazar heights to the north all through the day and night of the 10th and 11th of February the 4th Composite Division attacked the Turks across snow-fields and skrees of rock. The summit of the range was in the hands of the Russians, but the Turks held stubbornly on to the snow-fields to the west of the summit which connected Forts Chaban-dede and Tufta.

Here they had made snow-trenches, which were invisible to the naked eye at a distance of more than a hundred yards. On the night of the 12th the right wing of the 39th Division was ordered to attack Fort Chaban-dede, which, with Tufta, was the key to Erzerum.

The Baku regiment, which had taken Dolan-gyoz, now joined the Elizabetopols, and together they advanced from the village of Buyuk Tuy on the Passan plain up the rocky valley of the Tuy towards the towering cliffs, on which Fort Chaban-dede rested.

The Russian soldiers were clad in white coats, so that in the darkness and against the snow they were invisible. Silently creeping up the rocky slopes to the fort, they got to within 250 yards of it before the Turkish searchlights discovered them.

At once from the Uzun Ahmet and Chaban-dede forts a murderous cross-fire was poured upon them, which in two hours caused them to lose one-third of their number. However, one battalion of the Elizabetopols pushed right up, till they got underneath the cliffs of Fort Chaban-dede.

Here the guns from the fort could not fire at them, the angle being too high: but the guns from Uzun Ahmet could still rake their lines. At this moment also the 108th regiment of the 11th Turkish Army Corps on the Olugli heights at the head of the Tuy defile began a flanking movement.

The right wing of the Elizabetopol regiment was exposed, and as there was no sign of the 4th Division, whose appearance alone could fill the gap, the position was critical.

The 4th Division was in fact at this moment struggling under almost more terrible conditions at the height of 10,000 feet on the Kargar-bazar. The men were engaged not with the Turks but with the frost and snow.

During the nights of the 12th and 13th they lost 2,000 of their number from frost-bite alone. In addition to their sufferings from cold, they had the Herculean task of carrying their artillery across the snow and rocks which alone was enough to account for their delay.

Accordingly, there was nothing for the Elizabetopol and Bakintsi regiments to do but to retreat to the bottom of the Tuy valley, where respite could be obtained, and this they did on the morning of the 13th. All that day they waited in vain for the 4th Division; but when evening came and no one appeared, it was seen to be useless to wait any longer, for time only aided the Turks, whose reinforcements were being hurried up from Erzerum.

So it was decided that the Derbent regiment, which had hitherto been held in reserve, should come up on the right wing and try to turn the flank of the 108th Turkish regiment, which was now occupying the heights of the Sergy-kaya, a desolate knoll on the rocky mass of Olugli.

At 7 p.m. the advance began. The Derbent regiment left its position in the rear, and crossing in the darkness the head of the Tuy valley, ascended a defile and reached the snow-fields round the Olugli mass. Immense difficulty was experienced in the advance. The snow lay in drifts often five to six feet deep, and in places the soldiers in order to move had to take off their coats and walk on them in the snow, throwing them forward every three feet to avoid sinking in up to their necks.

In this way they advanced painfully all night. The Turks, suspecting nothing, were lying in their snow trenches, their attention chiefly concentrated on how to prevent themselves from freezing to death. At last daylight began to break upon this arctic scene, and through scuds of snow broken by the icy wind, the Turks saw a chain of dark forms slowly closing in on them.

They could hardly believe their eyes, for it seemed to them impossible that a human army with rifles and ammunition could cross the country that lay in front of them.

By 5.30 a.m. the Turks saw that their trenches on the Sergy-kaya were being surrounded from the northeast and east, and only a narrow neck of snow-field to the south connected them with the fort of Chaban-dede. So they hastily left their trenches and retreated as fast as the drifts would allow them across the Olugli snow-field till they reached the fort.

Chaban-dede was now surrounded on the northeast, but the retreat of the Turkish garrison was not cut off on the south and west, and the Turks with characteristic stubbornness and bravery continued their deadly cross-fire from Forts Uztin Ahmet and Chaban-dede, as if nothing had happened.

Thus the Derbent regiment had by this manoeuvre gained important ground; but the Russians had not yet broken the Turkish cordon that united the forts, nor did the three regiments of the 39th Division dare to advance farther for fear of becoming separated from the Russians to the right and left of them, and so giving the Turks a chance to break through in a counter-attack.

But what had happened meanwhile to the 4th Composite Division and the and Turkestans? They alone could save the situation by piercing the plateau between Forts Chaban-dede and Tufta, and so joining up with the Derbent regiment on the heights of Olugli. The critical question was whether they had been equal to their stupendous task of penetrating the 50 miles of rugged snow-bound ridges and plateau. The morning of February 14th showed that they had accomplished this task, and so sealed the fate of Erzerum.

During the previous day the 4th Composite Division had been finishing the transport of their artillery to the summit of the Kargar-bazar ridge. The guns had again been dismembered, and carried to positions whence they could drop shells on the Turks defending the right flank of Fort Tufta.

The Turkestans had also prepared their artillery to sweep the fort from the north. On the morning of February the 14th the infantry of the 4th Division descended the northwestern slopes of the Kargar-bazar, sliding down the snow on their coats to the open plateau, out of which the Tuy River rises.

From here they moved on to the northwest and reached the foot of the Grobovoye heights, which form the eastern side of the Gurji-Bogaz defile. This is the north-eastern "gateway" to Erzerum through which the and Turkestans were to advance, and which the Turkish 10th Army Corps was defending from Forts Kara-gyubek and Tufta.

The plan was that the Turkish positions on the Grobovoye heights, connecting Forts Kara-gyubek and Tufta, should be attacked simultaneously by the Turkestans coming through the northern defiles, and by the 4th Division coming down from the Kargar-bazar on the south.

The critical moment for the Russians had arrived.

Would these forces unite and press their attack together, or had one of them failed and been overwhelmed in the snowfields or defiles? About midday the artillery of the 4th Division began to drop shells on the Turkish snow-trenches on the Grobovoye heights. The bombardment went on for half an hour and then stopped, the commanders waiting in suspense to hear whether there was any reply from their comrades, the Turkestans, who should by this time be attacking from the north.

Hope was beginning to wane, and they were faced by the prospect either of a single-handed encounter with a greatly superior enemy or of a disastrous retreat. But about one o'clock a faint rumble was heard, and a few minutes later shells were seen dropping on the Grobovoye heights. They were Russian shells, yet not fired by the 4th Division. T he situation was saved, for the Turkestans had forced their way through the Gurji-Bogaz defile, capturing Fort Kara-gyubek, and pressing on to the Grobovoye heights and towards Fort Tufta.

The Turks now on the Grobovoye heights were in danger of being surrounded from the north, south and east. They could see that Kara-gyubek was already in Russian hands. The left wing of the 4th Division, moreover, was pressing on to the heights of Kuni-tepe, a mass lying north of the Olugli and commanding Fort Tufta from the south.

This they occupied at three o'clock, and the Turks on the Grobovoye heights retired at once on Fort Tufta. In another half-hour the Turkestans appeared upon the sky-line; and here, on this desolate Grobovoye height, at this historic moment, they greeted their brothers of the 4th Division.

The gap in the Russian line was now filled; the mountains and the snowfields had been overcome, and it was now only a question of a few hours before the Turks would be overcome too.

Just as this memorable meeting was taking place, the Russian artillery observation posts at Ketchk noticed a great stir in the Turkish lines surrounding Fort Tufta. The Staff of the 10th Army Corps knew that the game was up, and, to escape being surrounded, at once began the evacuation of Fort Tufta.

That night also Abdulla Kerim Pasha ordered the evacuation of all the forts of the Deve-Boyun. The reserves of the 11th Army Corps were the first to leave, followed by those of the 9th. Then explosions in Forts Kaburgar, Ortayuk, Uzun Ahmet and Sivishli were observed from the Russian lines.

The evacuation of Fort Chaban-dede was begun at 2 p.m., and by four o'clock the Russians were in possession of all the forts of the Deve-Boyun, while the 4th Composite Division and the Turkestans were pouring into the Erzerum plain, in the hope of cutting off the Turkish retreat. But here they met with less success.

The 4th Division, with orders to advance south, were ten miles ahead of the Turkestans, who had orders to advance west. The confusion caused by columns crossing on the march gave a good start to the Turks, who had speedily evacuated the forts, as soon as danger was imminent. Yet one of their divisions, the 34th, was captured at Ilidja, and a large part of their artillery was lost.

It is curious that the Russians lost much less in the operations before Erzerum than they did in the fighting before the Azap Keui positions in the previous month, when they lost not less than 30,000 killed and wounded in four days' fighting.

But in the five days' fighting along the whole length of the Erzerum forts from the Deve-Boyun to the Gurji-Bogaz defiles their losses were not more than 12,000, a large part of which were deaths or injuries due to exposure.

The capture of the great fortress, hitherto considered impregnable, sent a thrill through the whole continent. Every bazaar from Shiraz to Samarkand, from Konia to Kuldja, began talking of the great Urus, who had taken Erzerum from the Osmanli.

Russian military prestige in the East had fallen very low since the Sarikamish battle and Enver Pasha's advance into the Caucasus in December, 1914. But the Dardanelles expedition had given the Turks something else to think of than conquering the Caucasus, and had thus afforded the Russians the necessary respite to prepare for their' attack on Erzerum which in its turn saved the British from being driven completely out of Mesopotamia.

The capture of Erzerum was the first great success that came to the Allies in Asia. It might be regarded as the turning point of the war in the East.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/erzerum_price.htm
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Nikolai Yudenich on the Russian Capture of Erzerum, 16 February 1916

Reproduced below is the text of Nikolai Yudenich's report on the Russian capture of Erzerum from Turkish control on 16 February 1916.

Yudenich was perhaps Russia's most successful wartime field commander, winning victory after victory against Turk forces.

The Russian Capture of Erzerum, 16 February 1916 by General Nikolai Yudenich

The fortress of Erzerum was the only fortified point in the interior of Asia Minor, protecting Western Armenia and Anatolia and commanding all the best roads of Transcaucasia and the interior of Asia Minor.

For many years past great improvements had been carried out in the works by the Turks, with the assistance of the Germans.

The terrain in front rendered it naturally strong, while it was covered on the flanks by mountain masses most difficult of approach and with their passes protected by powerful forts.

Such was the formidable barrier on the path of our offensive, with enormous defensive advantages on the northeast and east. During the five days' assault the fortress was defended by the Turks with a stubbornness to which the enormous quantity of killed and frozen corpses gives testimony.

The Caucasus army succeeded in surmounting steep mountains protected not only by frost but by wire entanglements and other defences, and assaulted the fortress after an artillery preparation.

The assault on the forts and the principal position lasted from February 11th till February 15th inclusive. After we had taken the forts on the left flank of the principal Turkish line of defence, extending about 27 miles, the fate of the forts in the centre and on the right flank, and, after them of the second line forts and the principal defensive position, was decided on February 16th after short attacks.

These fortifications, which, were full of Turkish dead, remained in our possession.

During the assault on the fortress several Turkish regiments were annihilated or made prisoners with all their officers. On the line of forts alone we took 197 pieces of artillery of various calibres in good condition. In the defence works of the central fortress we took another 126 pieces of artillery. In the fortified region of Erzerum we took a large number of depots of various kinds, which have already been mentioned by the Headquarters Staff.

The exact number of Turkish prisoners is 235 officers and 12,753 men.

It is possible to estimate the force of the blow which we dealt the Turkish army, whose demoralized remnants are now withdrawing in disorder towards the west, if only by the fact that some Army Corps of three divisions now only number from 3,000 to 5,000 men with a few guns. All the remainder have either fallen into our hands or perished in the fighting, or from the cold.

According to latest information received, Turkish officer and soldier prisoners, who were captured in the fortified district of Erzerum and in the course of the pursuit, complain bitterly that their Headquarters Staff was concentrated in the hands of Germans.

The latter during the assault on the fortress of Erzerum were the first to abandon the fortified positions, causing a panic and disorder among the already shaken Turkish troops.

The great Russian advance west of Erzerum came to an end only with the exhaustion of the pursuers. In the south, Mush, eighty miles beyond Erzerum, fell on February 19th; and on March 1st the Russians were at Kamak, only seven miles northeast of Bitlis.

On the following day Bitlis itself was taken, the mountain pass opening up the whole of the Tigris valley, and only 100 miles from the Turkish railhead at Nisibir, thus coming into the possession of the victorious invaders.

Here again the Russians found themselves confronted with terrible obstacles owing to continual snowstorms and severe frost at an altitude of nearly 5,000 feet.

Bitlis had been an important Armenian centre, but there were few of the oppressed race left to welcome their liberators, the Turks and Kurds, under Djevdet Pasha, having massacred some 15,000 of them in the previous June.

With this success the whole of the Van region passed into Russian hands, and the connection between the Turks in Anatolia and their forces across the Persian frontier and south of Lake Urmia was severed.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/erzerum_yudenich.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett (1881–1931)

(...) His first lecture was to be held the next day at the Sydney Town Hall. On the morning of the lecture Ashmead-Bartlett was visited by the local military censor, Major Armstrong. He informed him that he was acting under instructions from the Ministry of Defence in Melbourne and that Ashmead-Bartlett was not to say a word until his whole lecture had been screened by the major. This was a problem as Ashmead-Bartlett spoke from notes. Later that afternoon he collected the carbon copies of all the articles and telegrams he had ever written from the Dardanelles – about fifty thousand words – and handed them to the Major saying he would be lecturing from that but wouldn’t know exactly which parts he would use. As he had intended, the major returned all the papers after he had read about a dozen pages. A report in the Sydney Mail on 16 February 1916, stated that the Town Hall was ‘thronged’ for his lecture on 12 February and he was given ‘a very warm reception’. The report continued that Ashmead-Bartlett:

...expressed the earnest hope that every available man in Australia and New Zealand would join his comrades at the front, and so hasten the inevitable victory.
[Sydney Mail, 16 February 1916]

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/bartlettbio.html
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LORD STRATHCONA'S HORSE (ROYAL CANADIANS)

At the outbreak of World War One, the Regiment was mobilised and began its training in England. In 1915, Lord Strathcona's Horse served as infantry in the trenches in France. On 16 February 1916, the Strathcona's were reconstituted as a mounted force.

Lees verder op http://www.ldshkitshop.com/homepage.php
Zie ook http://www.strathconas.ca/bmenu_history_1914_1918.php
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Emperor Nicholas II

On 2 March, 1917, under the pressure of public opinion, Emperor Nicholas II abdicated in favour of his brother Mikhail and signed a manifesto of abdication.

The following day, Mikhail refused the throne, bringing the Romanov dynasty to an end. After Nicholas II abdicated, power passed into the hands of the Provisional Government. As he was both an admiral of the British navy (28 May 1908) and a field-marshal of the British army (16 February 1916), Russia suggested that Britain offer political assylum to the former tsar. When Nicholas's cousin, King George V of Great Britain, turned down his request, the Provisional Government decided it would be safer to remove the ex-tasr and his family to Tobolsk in Siberia.

http://www.angelfire.com/pa/ImperialRussian/royalty/russia/tsar19.html
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'The Trojan Women' - by Vigilant , Westralian Worker, 16 February 1917

The Trojan Women by Vigilant
THE OLDEST ANTI-WAR DRAMA IN THE WORLD

Opposite the ever-famed Gallipoli, on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles, lies the Plain of Troy. Our fathers believed that Troy, or Ilion, was but a myth, a creature of the genius of Homer, or of unknown bards before him. To-day we know that the Mound of Troy covers the ruins of seven cities, built in succeeding ages, one on top of the other. The earliest town was, despite its aspect of solidity, inhabited by men of the stone age, who used tools and weapons little better than those of our Australian aborigines. Three of the seven cities were destroyed by fire, including the last, which, no doubt, was the city of refuge of the faithless Helen, wife of Menelaus, and her lover Paris. On the Plains of Troy was fought the ten years’ campaign, at the end of which the city fell through a stratagem – or a wonderful engine of war.

“Fuit Illium” – “Troy was,” and her wretched daughters lie guarded before their huts, under the ruined wall. In the distance is the Greek camp, where the leaders have just thrown dice for the possession of the captives.

Such was the scene that formed in the mind of Euripides, the Greek, and inspired his mighty anti-war drama, “Trojan Women.”

The play opens with a dialogue between Pallas, who finally gave the victory to the Greeks, and Poseidon, the sea-god, protector of Troy. The goddess foretells woe to the victors. Thus runs her request to Poseidon:

“Do thou make wild the roads of the sea, and steep
With war of waves, and yawning of the deep,
Till dead men choke Euboea’s curling bay,
So Greece shall dread even in after day
My house, nor scorn the watchers of strange lands!”

Truly, a great phrase – “Nor scorn the watchers of strange lands” – an eternal curse upon the wagers of war of conquest resides in those syllables. We can see those mystic watchers materialise in Joan of Arc, and Boadicea.

Poseidon in his response, is no less magnificent:

“- How are ye blind,
Ye treaders down of cities, ye that cast
Temples to desolation and lay waste
Tombs, the untrodden sanctuaries where lie
The ancient dead; yourselves so soon to die!”

Daylight dawns hideous to the captive women. Hecuba, the Queen another of nineteen children, awakes and bemoans her fate:

“Who am I that I sit
Here at a Greek King’s door,
Yea, in the dust of it?
A slave that men drive before,
A woman that hath no home,
Weeping alone for her head;
A low and bruised head,
And the glory struck therefrom.”

But Cassandra, the prophetess, virgin Devotee to Apollo, has been treated kindly by her god. He has struck her with madness, and she can find it in her heart to rejoice that her lot has fallen to Agamemmon:

“Weepest thou, mother mine own?
Surely thy cheek is pale
With tears, tears that wail
For a land and a father dead.
But I go garlanded;
I am the Bride of Desire:
Therefore my torch is borne –
Lo, the lifting of the morn,
Lo, the leaping of the fire!”

But even so pitiful a relief is rare. The abyss of pathos is reached when the Greek herald announces to Andramache, widow of Hector, that he has come to fulfil the counsel of Odyasena - or to use his more familiar name, Ulysses. War hardened ruffian though the herald might be, he struggles with his tears when he demands from the window the infant son of the dead hero. This mite was condemned to be thrown down from the walls of Troy. Andramache had no tender tutelary god to strike her mad:

“... One horrible spring – deep, deep
Down. And they neck.. Ah God, so cometh sleep!
And none to pity thee!...
. . Kiss me, This one time;
Not ever again. Put up thine arms, and climb
About my neck; Now, kiss me, lips lips to lips ..”

To quote a few lines from the preface of the translator, Gilbert Murray, D Litt., Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford: “For some time before the ‘Troades’ was produced, Athena, now entirely in the hands of the War Party, had been engaged in an enterprise which was bitterly resented by the more humane minority. She had succeeded in compelling.. Melos to take up arms against her. . . had conquered. . the town, massacred the men, and sold the women and children into slavery. Melos fell in the autumn of 416 B.C. The ‘Troades’ was produced in the following spring. And while the gods of the prologue were prophesying destruction at sea for the sackers of Troy, the fleet of the sackers of Melos . . was actually preparing to set sail for its fatal enterprise against Sicily.”

Gilbert Murray continues: “Pity is a rebel passion. Its hand is against the strong, against the organised force of society, against conventional sanctious accepted gods. It is the Kingdom of Heaven within us, fighting against the brute powers of the world; ... It brings not peace, but sword.”

No doubt the readers interest will prompt questionings as to the effect of the play upon Athens. It is told in a few words. Euripides was the teller of a great truth. Before long “Almost all Athens rejoiced at his suffering,” and eventually he left the city, a voluntary exile, to while away the remainder of his life in a remote Macedonian retreat.

Still, these great truths must be told, be the penalty what it may. The teller, according to his fibre, will sink or swim – gradually accept the easy path that leads to the trackless wilderness of compromise, or stand unflinching to the end, his head “bloody but unbowed.

War to-day may have lost some – a few – of its more elemental barbarities, but, were Euripides with us today, would he write in a different strain? When we read of the chorus of world statesmen (!) who declare President Wilson’s plea for a League of Nations to be a vision of the dim, distant future, is it not time to set afoot a society of fool-killers? Statesmen of Europe, do you call them? Pah! A pack of war-wolves.

We go to war to secure future peace. Very well. But if we are sincere, let our talk be of the future peace, not of endless war. Let us cut out of our proposals anything calculated to disturb future peace. No matter how much our hearts are set upon it. Keep justice for ever in our eyes – stern justice for ever in our eyes – stern justice. If you will, but not justice vitiated by the temptation to fish out small advantages from this maelstrom. That is a temptation hard to resist, but if succumbed to, its moral effect is to place upon our own shoulders a blood-guilt equal to that of the original aggressors.

“VIGILANT”

Footnote
1.John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library. Records of Tom Fitzgerald. Victorian Socialist Party - General issues and background, n.d. JCPML00653/411


http://john.curtin.edu.au/fitzgerald/collection/pen3.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Thistle Dump Cemetery

Thistle Dump Cemetery lies off to the left of the D20 about a kilometre from Longueval down an unpaved side track.This small battlefield cemetery was begun in August 1916 and in Row E, lying side by side in Graves 32 and 33, are two men of the 4th Pioneer Battalion – Harry Davies and Henry Martin. On 16 February 1917 the friends were working on the building of a light railway line which would eventually run all the way along this area and up north of Longueval to the village of Flers close behind the front line held during the winter of 1916–17. Their deaths by shell fire came about in the random way of so many who died in these areas behind the lines.

Because they died far from the front, there was time to give them a proper burial, unlike those who perished in battle. Martin’s friend, Private Norman Reynolds, wrote:

I was one of the party that was with him at the time and assisted at his burial which took place in the afternoon … our Chaplain took the service all company Officers being present. He is buried in another grave with a comrade named Davies who was killed by the same shell (High Explosive). His death was instantaneous … shortly after our battalion moved to another locality but before moving the battalion erected a cross on the grave. The cross is painted white but the names of Martin and Davies are painted in black … my late friend and comrade would be roughly five foot six inches in height, medium build with a ruddy complexion, hair russet or reddish (or perhaps I may use our common expression ginger), amongst his friends he was often called ‘Bluey’ … he was a good living fellow and was at the time of joining up an active member of the Salvation Army at Townsville.


Headstone, Privates Harry Davies and Henry Martin, 4th Pioneer Battalion, Thistle Dump Cemetery, Longueval.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/flers/index.html
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World War One British Floatplanes: British Fairey Campania Floatplane



The Fairey Campania two-seat seaplane got its name from the ex-Cunard ocean liner Campania which the Admiralty had converted into a seaplane carrier during the winter of 1914-15.

Fairey designed the Campania floatplane in response to the Royal Navy's specification for a purpose-built, two-seat patrol and reconnaissance aircraft. The initial prototype first flew on 16 February 1917. This was the first of two prototypes, designated F.16 which was powered by a 250 hp (190 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle IV. The second prototype was powered by a 275 hp (205 kW) Eagle V engine, it was designated F.17. Both prototypes would later see active service operating from Scapa Flow.

Production aircraft, powered by a 186.3kW Sunbeam Maori II or 186.3-257kW Rolls-Royce Eagle engine, entered service in 1917 and eventually operated as armed-reconnaissance aircraft from the carriers Campania, Nairana and Pegasus and from coastal bases until the Armistice, thereafter also seeing action in Russia. A total of about 60 Campanias were built from the contracts placed with Fairey (f50 aircraft in two batches), Barclay Curie and Company (50) and Frederick Sage and Company / Sunbeam Motor Car Company (70).

http://www.wwiaviation.com/float-planes_Britian.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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Einstein: In His Own Words

After 1915, Albert Einstein continued to rely on his good friend Heinrich Zangger, a professor of forensic medicine in Zurich, to serve as mediator between him and his estranged first wife, Mileva. These three letters to Zangger, published here for the first time, allow us to track Einstein's fitful relationship with his elder son, Hans Albert, and his anxiety about the health on his younger son, Eduard (Tete), whom historians believe was suffering from the early stages of schizophrenia.

Eén van die brieven:

To: Heinrich Zangger
[Berlin,] 16 February 1917
Dear friend Zangger,
Your letter about the condition of my youngest scares me less than you might think. Well-deserved punishment for my having taken the most important step in life so rashly. I begot children with a physically and morally inferior person and cannot complain if they turn out accordingly. Only they will accuse me one day when they are old enough; they will be only too right, unfortunately. So send my poor boy wherever you and Bernstein see fit, if you really think something of it. And even if you silently say to yourself that every [effort] is futile, send him anyway, so that my wife and my [Hans] Albert think something is being done against this evil. I am going to try to send 500 marks to Zurich. I would be very unhappy if I believed that I could have begotten valuable progeny with another woman. But if I look around among my own family and see the banal people, tolerably healthy though they are, then it seems to me that my contribution to this pitiful business mustn't be valued that highly, either. I console myself with the fact that life still goes on through the fruits of labor. The happy consciousness of having really acted productively and liberatingly in this way, and lastingly so, is a consolation for me that nothing can destroy. With this thought I will know how to bear the experiences of my children, sad though they may be; if only the cursed drive to beget children didn't aim to extend the misery into infinity! This drive, in concert with the medical arts to keep alive something that is not viable beyond the years of fertility is undermining civilized humanity. So it would be urgently necessary that physicians conducted a kind of inquisition for us with the right and duty to castrate without leniency in order to sanitize the future.
[EINSTEIN]

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1211367,00.html
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The Diary of Hilton Lamond, B Coy -13th Bn - (13th Reinforcement) 4th Brigade AIF

Enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in Sydney from 29th Infantry Regiment (Militia) 9th August 1915 and to camp Liverpool. Embarked Sydney for the Middle East with 13th Reinforcement group for the 13th Battalion, 4th Brigade, 1st Division per HM transport A60 Aeneas on 20th December 1915. Disembarked Alexandria and to camp Heliopolis, Egypt. To B Company, 13th Battalion at Tel El Kebir, Egypt, 4th March 1916. Promoted Sergeant 19th March 1916. Operations in France and Flanders from early April 1916 near Fleurbaix. Acting Company Sergeant Major 24th August 1916. Wounded in action Mouquet Farm 29th August 1916 with shrapnel to head. Evacuated to England per Hospital Ship St David from Boulogne 4th September 1916. Admitted King George Military Hospital Stanford seriously ill 6th September 1916. To Australian Auxiliary Hospital, Harefield 23rd January 1917. To furlough 7th February 1917. To Perham Downs Depot 16th February 1917. To Weymouth Depot 22nd February 1917. Embarked Devonport per Transport Themistocles 4th May 1917. Disembarked Melbourne 4th July 1917. Discharged Sydney medically unfit 31st July 1917.

Lezen! http://www.army.gov.au/armymuseumofnsw/WW1_Lamond_Diary.asp
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Act of Independence of Lithuania



The Act of Independence of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Nepriklausomybės Aktas) or Act of February 16 was signed by the Council of Lithuania on February 16, 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania, governed by democratic principles, with Vilnius as its capital. The Act was signed by all twenty representatives, chaired by Jonas Basanavičius. The Act of February 16 was the end result of a series of resolutions on the issue, including one issued by the Vilnius Conference and the Act of January 8. The path to the Act was long and complex because the German Empire exerted pressure on the Council to form an alliance. The Council had to carefully maneuver between the Germans, whose troops were present in Lithuania, and the demands of the Lithuanian people.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Independence_of_Lithuania
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The bombing of the Royal Hospital, 16th February 1918



Next to the National Army Museum, Chelsea, west London, is the Royal Hospital, home of the Chelsea pensioners. On the night of 16th/17th February 1918, five Zeppelin Staaken 'Giant' R.VI bombers departed their base at Ghent, Belgium and bombed London and Dover. According to German records, all five 'Giants' attacked, but according to British records only three did. 4,250 kilograms of bombs were dropped that night, killing twelve and injuring six. Although sixty sorties were undertaken by British aircraft to intercept the raid, none were shot down.

This was partly due to the huge size of the Giants (the wingspan was almost twice that of a Gotha, and one metre less than that of a B29 Superfortress from WW2), meaning that intercepting aircraft often confused them for Gothas and fired at too long range to be effective. They were also heavily armed with up to five machine guns, including captured British Lewis guns, still fitted with the cooling jacket (Lewis guns in aviation service usually had the cooling jackets removed, as the rush of air over the barrel was thought to have been more than adequate)

One 'Giant', R39, was the only one to be converted to carry a 1,000kg bomb (the plaque incorrectly says it was a 500lb bomb), and only three were ever dropped on the UK. The first to be dropped was on this raid, hit the north east wing of the Royal Hospital on the night of the 16th. Five were killed, and three children were pulled out of the rubble.(...)

http://forum.keypublishing.com/showthread.php?p=1233411
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Hunter’s Avenue, Ploegsteert Wood, 16 February 1918



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/ploegsteert/index.html
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Letter from Freud to Ludwig Binswanger, February 16, 1919

16 February 1919
Vienna IX, Berggasse 19

Dear Dr. Binswanger,

Please accept my cordial thanks for your speedy assistance. My son was taken prisoner with his entire corps towards the end of October, one of the 300,000 who, according to Austrian claims, were cut off after the ceasefire had been agreed. It was a very long time before we received news of him and learned where they were keeping him, and it was not until the day before yesterday that he acknowledged receipt of the first of our letters to reach him. In his last letter he also asked for money because Genoa is very expensive. He lost all his luggage and other belongings during the capture. Unfortunately, francs and lire are completely unobtainable here, the banks make great difficulties and the transfer of money from Vienna seems to be as difficult as it is uncertain. That is why I decided to turn to you. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.050.0145b
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Occupation of the Rhineland


The occupation zones (Rhineland and Ruhr) 1919 - 1930. green (Saar): League of Nations (France), blue: France, brown: United Kingdom, yellow: Belgium, blue/yellow (Ruhr): France/Belgium

The Occupation of the Rhineland took place following the armistice and brought the fighting of World War I to a close on 11 November 1918. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces. The terms of the armistice provided for the immediate evacuation of German troops from Belgium, France and Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine within 15 days.

Periods
- First Armistice
- First prolongation of the armistice (13 December 1918 - 16 January 1919)
- Second prolongation of the armistice (16 January 1919 - 16 February 1919)
- Third prolongation of the armistice (16 February 1919 - January 1920)
- Foundation of Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupation_of_the_Rhineland
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The dream of Germanic Unification is denied

The Austrian republican government, itself just constituted in late-October 1918 expressed its desire for union with Germany as early as November 12, 1918 and again formally on January 19, 1919. On February 16, 1919 elections for the Austrian Constituent Assembly returned a Socialist majority, which again called for an "union" with Germany.

The German government and representatives of the people responded formally and with equal vigor to the Austrian proposal early in February 1919. The aspirations for a pan-Germanic union were succinctly and eloquently expressed in a key portion of a speech by Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert on the occasion of his opening of the newly elected German National Assembly on February 7, 1919 in Weimar. Ebert was chairman of the Council of Peoples Representatives (the Republican Provisional Government), and the National Assembly had been elected and convened to determine the form of the new Republican Germany. The following excerpt from Ebert's speech of February 7, 1919 addresses clearly this important issue of the day, the frustration of which was to have such far reaching and tragic consequences. Almost a century later, the conviction and tone of righteous entitlement still rings true:

"Germany laid down her arms in condifence, trusting in the principles of President Wilson. Now let them give us a Wilson peace, to which we have a claim....The German people has won its right to self-determination at home. It cannot sacrifice that right abroad. We cannot renounce uniting the whole German nation in the frame-work of a single Empire. Our German-Austrian brothers as far back as November 12th last [1918] in their National Assembly declared themselves to be part of the great German Republic. Now theGerman-Austrian National Assembly has again [January 19, 1919], amid storms of enthusiasm, sent us its greeting and given expression to the hope that our National Assembly and theirs will succeed in again uniting the bonds which violence tore asunder in 1866. [Austro-Prussian War] German-Austria must be united with the Motherland for all time. I am sure that I am speaking for the whole National Assembly when I welcome this historic manifestation sincerely and joyfully, and reply to it with heartfelt fraternity. The brothers of our blood and destiny can be assured that we will welcome them with open arms and hearts in the new Empire of the German nation. They belong to us and we belong to them. (Applause.) I may also express the hope that the National Assembly will empower the future Imperial Government to negotiate as soon as possible with the German-Austrian free State concerning final union. Then there will be no more frontier posts between us. then we shall really be a single people of brothers."

http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/images/anschlusz04.JPG
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The Mail (Adelaide), 16 February 1918

PRIVATE CHOATE - ADELAIDE BOY WHO ESCAPED
FROM HUNS. A PATRIOTIC FAMILY.


Quite the most interesting war item of
the week is the story of the escape of
Private Wesley Choate and Lance-Corporal
Pitt, two South Australians, from a pri-
soners' camp in Germany. Private Choate,
who engineered and carried out the
escape, is a tall (over 6 ft.), well-set-up
young man of that happy-go-lucky tem-
perament which has been responsible for
so many brave deeds in this war. He
was born at Cherry Gardens, but came to
the city with his parents when he was
quite young, and was educated at the
Goodwood Public School. As soon as he
left school he determined to become a
farmer, and he had spent six years on
Yorke's Peninsula in gaining experience.
Soon after the war broke out Wesley
Choate and his two brothers, Raymond
(aged 24) and Archie (19), offered their
services to their country. They were all
in the 32nd Battalion, and at Pozieres
on July 20, 1916, they were all wounded,
Raymond and Archie fatally. Wesley was
injured in the face and was taken prisoner.
He has had two birthdays in the prison
camp in Germany, and during that period
several letters had come to his people,
who reside in Francis Street, Clarence
Park. He always stated that he was
being well treated, but the Germans, of
course, would not allow anything else to
be said. Mr. and Mrs. Choate, who have
a large family of seven sons, but no
daughters, have given all their eligibles to
the war, and Mr. Fred Choate, the uncle
of the soldier who has just escaped, has
five sons, all of whom are at the front—
a splendid record of service for one
family.

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/63843200
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Feb 2018 9:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zeppelin Raids, Gothas and 'Giants' - Britain's First Blitz 1914-1918

16 February 1918 - London Kent
Ernst Brandenburg, who lost a leg in June 1917 in an aeroplane crash, returned to Kagohl 3 in February and resumed command of the squadron. Finding morale low following the regular losses sustained by the crews, particularly in landing accidents, he suspended further raids while he built the squadron back up to full strength. Therefore, on the night of 16 February, five ‘Giants’ of Rfa 501 set out on their own. Strong winds immediately affected the raid and three abandoned the flight to London to settle for the closer target of Dover. One of them, R.33, had a bad night. With three out of the four engines failing, the crew dropped their bombs in the sea off Deal and limped home on one engine, flying at a height of just 200 metres. The crew of R.25 claimed to have bombed Dover but in fact all 20 bombs (each 50kg) fell in a line at about 10.40pm, roughly from Reach Court farm to Granville Road at St. Margaret’s, north of Dover. The bombs smashed a water main in Granville Road, damaged a convent laundry and a house known as ‘The Bungalow’, shattered numerous windows and dug craters in fields but caused no injuries. The crew of R.36 also claimed to have dropped two bombs on Dover, which either dropped with those released by R.25 or they fell in the sea.

The two ‘Giants’ that held on for London, R.12 and R.39, had differing experiences. Both came inland over Essex, headed west and appeared initially to keep close company as the British defences believed there was only one aircraft. R.39, carrying the first 1,000kg bomb over Britain, appears to have evaded the plotters until she appeared over south-west London at about 10.15pm. Her own crew thought they were east of the City of London when they released their single bomb. It struck the north-east wing of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, home of the Chelsea Pensioners, obliterating the building. An officer of the hospital staff died, along with his wife, two of his five children and a niece.

The other London-bound ‘Giant’, R.12, had crossed the Thames and was approaching Woolwich when a section of the balloon apron suddenly loomed up in front of it. One of the defence ideas initiated back in September 1917, ten of these balloon barrages were raised on the eastern approaches to London, described as ‘a wire screen suspended from balloons and intended to form a sort of barrage in which enemy machines navigated at night will be caught’.

Raised to a height of 10,000ft, their more practical purpose was to force enemy raiders to fly at more predictable heights giving the AA guns an increased chance of success. Despite the best efforts of the pilot, the starboard wing of R.12 caught the dangling steel cables, twisting it out of control. After dropping 1,000ft the pilot regained control but the violent manoeuvres shook two 300kg bombs free. They fell in Woolwich at 10.20pm. One, exploding in Artillery Place, demolished the home of a greengrocer and his shop at No. 50a killing five people, severely damaged three other homes and shops from 49 to 51, and caused other damage at Nos. 47, 48, 52 and 53. Windows were also broken in Belford Grove and at a school in Rectory Place. Seconds later the other bomb exploded in Grand Depot Road where it killed an Australian soldier, Bombardier Eric Munro, and a nurse who was on holiday. The bomb also caused damage to St. George’s Garrison Church. Relieved to be still flying, the crew of R.12 turned back and jettisoned their remaining eight 50kg bombs. These fell harmlessly just north-east of Shortlands railway station near Bromley, some on a golf course and others on allotments on Farnaby Road.

Both R.12 and R.39 flew out across Kent with 60 aircraft from the RFC hoping to intercept them, but only three made fleeting unsuccessful attacks. The AA guns had a busy night during which they fired 4,519 rounds at the two ‘Giants’ that reached London and at those near Dover, but all the ‘Giants’ safely reached their home base outside Ghent.

Casualties: 12 killed, 6 injured
Damage: £19,264


http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/16-feb-1918/4594211924
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Lowell in World War One: February 11, 1918 to February 16, 1918

February 16, 1918 – Saturday – Wilson to act to end strikes at shipyards. Report Naval battle off Swedish Coast. No exemptions from Monday closing order. The coal outlook is brightening up. About a day and a half worth of coal was delivered to Lowell today but officials urged people not to become unduly elated and to continue conservation measures.

http://richardhowe.com/2018/02/15/lowell-in-world-war-one-february-11-1918-to-february-16-1918/
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Bolsheviks capture Kiev - archive, 1918

16 February 1918: Little by little the counter-revolutionaries were forced back by artillery and by bayonets

A report transmitted through the wireless stations of the Russian Government on February 11, announcing the capture of Kieff by Bolshevik troops, contains the following:–

Events at Kieff took the following course. At the time when our troops advanced towards Kieff the workmen and soldiers raised a revolt against the Rada. The revolt was successful from the beginning, but the troops of Petliura, after they were detected near Kruti on January 17, blew up the bridges, thus holding up the advance of our troops, and fell upon those in revolt with overwhelming forces. The arsenal was captured by the Officers’ Training School troops and Haidamak troops. The Military Revolutionary Committee, which was arrested there, was shot, among the victims being also … Gorovich.

At the arsenal about 300 men were shot. The workmen and the Ukrainian troops in revolt retreated towards the station. They fought, heroically for several days until the approach of the Council’s troops towards Kieff. The terror among the counter-revolutionaries cannot be described. All workmen were shot if their hands were found to be rough, or if they were wearing workmen’s blouses. The total number of killed is over 1,500.

At last the Council’s troops, led by the Commander-in-Chief of the armies of the Ukrainian Republic, Kichubinsky, approached Kieff on January 21, and joined up with their besieged comrades. They took by storm the station, monastery, arsenal, fortress, and palace. The workmen of Kieff gave evidence of the heroic enthusiasm of the masses. We had not sufficient arms for all combatants. Five hundred workmen whom we had freed from the fortress, and who had not been shot, at once entered into the fray. I report with deep grief that of the Ukrainian regiments in revolt the Bogdanovsky and Shevchenko Regiments were completely wiped out in the fighting, but their sacred blood is a fitting sacrifice for the freedom of the working classes of Ukrainia.

Little by little the counter-revolutionaries were forced back by artillery and by bayonets. The auxiliary and technical detachments of Muraviev rendered great help. His armoured train captured the armoured train of the Rada (the perfection of technique), which was surrounded by the workmen. The counter-revolutionaries fought bravely, and in their ranks were French, English, and Rumanian officers, and even Kieff monks. French aviators dropped bombs… where the counter-revolutionaries resisted for a long time in the midst of conflagrations.

The Municipal Council endeavoured to act as intermediaries, but our representatives demanded an unconditional surrender of arms, and the delivery up of the leaders of the counter-revolution. Gradually our troops cleared out the supporters of the Rada by artillery fire and the bayonet. Kieff was captured.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/16/bolsheviks-capture-kiev-archive-1918
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The Press, Saturday, February 16, 1918: Place Names of the Empire.

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/CHP19180216.2.48?query=New%20Theatre
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Feb 2018 12:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 16 February 1914 → Commons Sitting → ROYAL NAVY.

SUBMARINE A7.

Sir CLEMENT KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if he can inform the House to what depth submarines of the "A" class can dive with safety; what is the depth of water in Whitsand Bay where the submarine A7 lies; and could a vessel of the "A" class dive to that depth without risk of any kind?

Mr. CHURCHILL Submarines of the "A" class are periodically subjected to the same tests as submarines of other classes; and during the last two years have been equipped with powerful electric pumps capable of dealing effectively with water at a great depth. They have now a large margin of safety at a depth of 150 feet. The depth of water in Whitsand Bay, where submarine A7 is lying, is twenty-three fathoms. Submarines of the "A" class have been exercising constantly during the last ten years in this area, and in greater depths of water, and this is the only fatal accident which has occurred to a British submarine while diving, except through collision.

Lord CHARLES BERESFORD Is the right hon. Gentleman aware that in submarines previously lost something went wrong and that it was shown that a greater depth was necessary.

Mr. SPEAKER The Noble Lord might put a question down.

Sir C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether a lighter of the type which raised submarine A8 would be able to raise submarine A7; will he say what dead weight lighter 94 can raise; what dead weight lighter 96 can raise; what is the estimated dead weight of submarine A7 now that she is full of mud, and what dead weight will the new lighter which it is proposed to station at Devonport be able to raise?

Mr. CHURCHILL It is considered that mooring lighters of the type used for raising A8 should be able to raise A7. The answer to the second part of the question is 270 tons; and to the third part, 450 tons. The dead weight, when completely filled with water, is about 160 tons. It is impossible to estimate the dead weight if, as suggested, the submarine is full of mud. The reply to the last part of the question is 270 tons.

Sir C. KINLOCH-COOKE Are we to understand that lighter 94 was not sufficiently powerful to raise the submarine if it was full of mud?

Mr. CHURCHILL It is impossible to estimate the dead weight if the submarine was full of mud. How the submarine got full of mud I cannot suggest.

Vreemd verhaal... http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/feb/16/submarine-a7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Feb 2018 12:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 februari 1919 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Stanislas Carbonez is op 2 april 1899 geboren in Alveringem. Hij is de zoon van Edmond en Sydonia Decock. Deze landbouwers uit Vladslo zijn in hun huwelijksjaar 1894 aan de Oostover in Alveringem komen wonen.

Stanislas treedt pas in 1918 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger. Hij overlijdt op 16 februari 1919 aan longtuberculose, opgelopen in dienst, in het hospitaal van Mortagne-au-Perche, gelegen in het Franse departement Orne. Hij is amper 19 jaar.

Het slachtoffer wordt begraven op de gemeentelijke begraafplaats van Mortagne-au-Perche. Hij rust daar echter onder een Frans stenen kruis waarop vermeld staat: "mort pour la France". Alleen de Belgische driekleur verraadt dat het om een Belgisch soldaat gaat.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/16-februari-1919
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Wapenstilstandsverdrag van 11 november 1918

Dit is de Franse tekst van het wapenstilstandsverdrag van Compiègne van 11 november 1918 (en van daarop volgende verdragen), waarmee een einde kwam aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog. De duur van de wapenstilstand werd hierin op 36 dagen gezet, maar die kon en zou verlengd worden (op 13 december 1918, 16 januari en 16 februari 1919), tot de ondertekening van de Vrede van Versailles van 28 juni 1919.

Lees verder op https://nl.wikisource.org/wiki/Wapenstilstandsverdrag_van_11_november_1918
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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