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15 Februari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2006 6:45    Onderwerp: 15 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 15. Februar

1914


1915
Racionz von den Deutschen besetzt
Nadworna von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzt

1916
800 Meter englische Stellung bei Ypern genommen
Französische Opfer ihrer Landsleute
Fliegerbomben auf Mailand
Ein Fort von Erzerum durch die Russen besetzt
Der Untergang des Kreuzers "Amiral Charner"

1917
Starker Artilleriekampf zwischen Serre und Somme
Erfolgreiche Infanteriekämpfe in der Champagne
25000 Tonnen von einem U-Boot versenkt
Fliegerangriff auf Dünkirchen
Erfolgreiche Vorstöße in Galizien und Wolhynien
Enthebung des Erzherzogs Friedrich vom stellvertretenden Armeeoberkommando
Graf Bernstorffs Abreise

1918
Erkundungsvorstoß gegen die belgischen Linien
Vorstoß deutscher Torpedoboote in den Kanal

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2006 6:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 15

1915 Mutiny breaks out among Indian soldiers in Singapore


In Singapore on this day in 1915, Indian soldiers launch the first large-scale mutiny of World War I.

Some 800 soldiers in the Indian army’s 5th Light Infantry Brigade broke out of their barracks on the afternoon of February 15 and killed several British officers before moving on to other areas of the city. By the time the revolt was quashed, several days later, by British, French and Russian troops, the mutineers had killed 39 Europeans—both soldiers and civilians. British soldiers executed 37 of the mutiny’s ringleaders by gunfire.

The Singapore Mutiny was intended by its organizers to be part of a general uprising being engineered by Sikh militants in neighboring India against British colonial rule. The Sikhs—whose religion combined elements of Hinduism and Islam—had earned favorable treatment from the British after their refusal to take part in an earlier mutiny in India in 1857, but some still chafed against the constraints of the empire. The Indian rebellion in 1915 enjoyed encouragement from the Germans, whose ship, the Bayern, had recently been intercepted by the Italians with a cargo of 500,000 revolvers, 100,000 rifles and 200,000 cases of ammunition intended to aid the militants. The rebels in India were betrayed in March 1915 by a police spy, and the leaders were arrested before they could signal the start of the revolt. Eighteen were hanged.

Despite such insurrections, many Indians from across the country continued to volunteer to serve the British empire in World War I. The first Indian Victoria Cross for bravery had been awarded on the Western Front in January 1915. Mahatma Gandhi, champion of passive resistance and leader of the struggle for Indian home rule, played an active role in the recruitment of Indian soldiers during World War I, writing later that “If we would improve our status through the help and cooperation of the British, it was our duty to win their help by standing by them in their hour of need.”

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2010 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 Indian (Singapore) Mutiny
By Tan, Bonny written on 2001-11-22

In the midst of the First World War, on 15 February 1915, the Right Wing (Rajput) of the 5th Madras Light Infantry (Indian Army) revolted, killing more than 40 British officers, British residents and local civilians. The mutiny came to be known as the "Singapore Mutiny", and locally as the "Sepoy Mutiny" or "Indian Mutiny". But is not to be mistaken for the "Indian Mutiny 1857-1858" also known as the "Sepoy Rebellion" which occurred on Indian soil.

Background
Active propaganda for Indian independence from British rule by the Ghandr Party in India during the early 1900s had generated unrest amongst overseas Indians, affecting troops stationed in Singapore. The 5th Light Infantry, made up mainly of Punjabi Muslims, were one of these. The troop's morale was constantly at a low, afflicted by poor communication, slack discipline and a weak leadership. A certain Kassim Mansoor, a Gujerati Muslim coffee-shop owner, had also influenced the troops in negative feelings towards the British. The troop had been stationed to guard the military prisoners from the German ship, Emden, at the Alexandra Barracks. Their duties at an end, they were slated to leave for Hong Kong by 16 February 1915. However, rumours amongst the troop had it that they were to be ferried to fight against Muslim Turkey instead. The misunderstanding led to greater disaffection which was fanned further by the German prisoner, Oberleutenant Lauterbach, who encouraged the troop to mutiny against their British commanders.

Description
With a single rifle shot soon after 3 pm by Sepoy Ismail Khan signalled the start of the mutiny. Being the middle of the Chinese New Year, the majority of the Chinese Volunteers were on leave, leaving Singapore almost defenceless in the face of the Indian mutiny. Officers at the Tanglin barracks were massacred. An estimated 800 mutineers roamed the streets of Singapore, killing any Europeans they came across. However, without strong leadership and with their German supporters having escaped, the mutiny soon lost direction. It however continued for ten days and was not suppressed until support came from the Singapore Volunteer Artillery, additional British troopers, military men brought in by the Sultan of Johor and men from the Allied forces including Japan.

A Court of Inquiry was held on 23 February 1915, first in secret but then continued publicly, concluded by 15 May. A total of 36 mutineers were executed, including Kassim Mansoor, and 77 officers were transported with another 12 imprisoned. The public executions were conducted at Outram Prison, witnessed by an estimated 15,000.

Impact
Subsequently, all Indian residents were required to register, causing ill feelings amongst a majority loyal community. Studies more than half a century after the event imply that the mutiny may have had strong support from factions based in India, keen on overthrowing British forces in the region. It also serves as a reminder of the importance of internal security and the need for a civilian force trained in defence. To commemorate the event, two memorial tablets have been placed at the entrance of the Victoria Memorial Hall and four plaques at the St Andrew's Cathedral.

http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_570_2005-01-24.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 Feb 1915: "A Night Out" (film) is Released

A Night Out is a 1915 Charlie Chaplin comedy short. It was Chaplin's first film with Edna Purviance, who would continue as his leading lady for the following eight years. It was also Chaplin's first film with Essanay Film Company in Niles, California. Chaplin's first Essanay film, His New Job, was made in the Chicago studio, after which he moved to Niles Studios. He found Purviance in San Francisco when he was searching for leading lady for his films. A Night Out also stars Ben Turpin, Leo White and Bud Jamison.

Even kijken... http://timelines.com/1915/2/15/a-night-out-film-is-released
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot - 58th Field Ambulance, R.A.M.C.

15 February 1918; Friday
Up about 7.30. On parade and on fatigue all the morning. Warned for inoculation in the afternoon. Walked round village at dinner time.
Inoculated in the afternoon. Wright did it and stuck the needle right in.

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2018/02/15/15-february-1918-friday/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 February 1915: First exchange of prisoners of war

10 British and 95 German wounded POWs were released to return home, both going via the Netherlands.

http://www.1914-1918.net/firstsnlasts.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Background to the Battle of Fromelles

(...) As Aubers Ridge provided direct observation of the railway lines leading from the east and southeast of Lille and on the town itself, the capture of Aubers Ridge was of great strategic importance. In addition, an offensive against Aubers Ridge could be co-ordinated with and receive support from the prospective French 10th Army offensive on the Artois plateau further south (Vimy Ridge) and together the two attacks would threaten the rail, road and canal junction of La Bassee from north and south. On 15 February 1915, Sir John French, Commander-in-Chief asked General Haig to draft schemes for an offensive by the First Army with Le Bassee and Aubers Ridge as its objectives. (...)

http://fffaif.org.au/research-tools/the-battle-of-fromelles-part-1-1915-and-the-battle-of-aubers-ridge/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE TURKISH AIR FORCE BETWEEN 1911 AND 1918

(...) The 13th Field Air Navigation Branch was established, affiliated to the General Headquarters due to the increasing number of aircraft at the end of 1913 and aviation affairs were transferred to this branch. The title of the subject branch was changed as "The Inspectorate of Aviation" in November. Along with the Inspectorate on 15 February 1915, the 9th Aviation Affairs Branch was established within the structure of the Ministry of War and during this period the Turkish Air Force was organized to include the Air School, Air (aircraft) Stations, Air (aircraft) Companies, Stationary Balloon Companies, Anti-Aircraft Artillery Units and Meteorology Stations. The Naval Air Companies (Naval Aircraft Companies) and the Naval Air School performed their duties within the organization of the Ministry of Marine. (...)

http://www.hvkk.tsk.tr/PageSub/Kurumumuz/Tarihce/1911-1918Eng.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Card from 2nd Lt Albert Brainerd Raynes Raynes, 15th February 1915

Second Lieutenant Albert Brainerd Raynes, Royal Sussex Regiment, attached 2nd Bn. Royal Berkshire Regiment, was killed in action on 10th March 1915, aged 20. The son of Albert Edward and Alice Mary Raynes, of 201, Denman St., Nottingham, he is commemorated on the Le Touret Memorial. Lieutenant Raynes fell on the opening day of the battle of Neuve Chapelle, his battalion taking part in the attack of the 8th Division.

Bekijk het hier: http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/5870?CISOBOX=1&REC=6
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Monday 15th February 1915

Bed. No parades for vaccinated cripples until next Monday. Also they not allowed out of camp until Saturday.

Had sick parade round hut, Townsend with one foot in a sling consisting of puttee round his neck, the dry scrubber as a crutch, towel for a sling for arm, dish cloth round his head. Looked very humorous.

Saw Arnold Kay in evening.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 February 1916 - Portrait of Ernest Hemingway as a young man

Klik! http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ernest_Hemingway,_15_February_1916.jpg
Ook hier: http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/xih8FH3P-Uq6hUeeYyXgNw.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag bij Verdun

Eigenlijk waren de Duitsers van plan om op 15 februari 1916 aan te vallen, maar door slecht weer werd dit uitgesteld.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?p=255134&sid=c9674a0829424a88036f3285e7fa92ce
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Woodrow Wilson - Confusion and crises, 1916

(...) Meanwhile, Lansing had launched an initiative that threatened to wreck House's negotiations. On 18 January 1916 the secretary of state proposed to the Allies that they disarm their merchant ships in return for a pledge by Germany that submarines would sink merchantmen only after warning them and providing for the safety of their crews. As Grey said, the Allies were being asked to permit submarines to sink their entire merchant fleets. Protests from Grey and House in London caused Wilson and Lansing to reverse course at once. The secretary of state announced on 15 February 1916 that the administration would follow customary rules and require submarines to warn defensively armed merchant ships before attacking them. (...)

http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/Woodrow-Wilson-Confusion-and-crises-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

FEBRUARY 1916: SUBWAYS SPREAD INTO QUEENS

(...) The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) train ran from Jackson Avenue in Long Island City to Lexington Avenue and 42nd St in Manhattan. (This part of the line was known at the time as the Queensboro Subway.) At one minute past midnight on February 15, 1916, the guard on the train at Jackson Avenue slammed the door and announced loudly: "Hunterpoint Avenue next!" (...)

http://www.astorialic.org/starjournal/1910s/1916feb_p.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dyersburg State Gazette, TUESDAY AFTERNOON FEBRUARY 15, 1916

NEGRO CITY HALL BURNS--The two story negro restraurant in West End, known by the colored population as the City Hall, was destroyed by fire Friday night. The building was occupied by FRANK HAYES and has given the officers much trouble on account of the numerous negro fights there and other infractions of the law. The building was the property of M. H. SCOTT and was valued at $2, 500. It was insured by M. S. Summers & Co. for $1, 500. It will not be rebuilt.

Let op dat toontje... http://tn-roots.com/tndyer/newspapers/gazette46.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Roll of Honour - Bedfordshire - Pirton

FRANK CANNON
Company Serjeant Major 14982 11th Bn., Essex Regiment. Killed in action Tuesday 15 February 1916. Age 32. Born, lived and enlisted Hitchin. Husband of Violet Maud Cannon, of 87, Walsworth Rd., Hitchin. Buried: POTIJZE BURIAL GROUND CEMETERY, Ieper, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium. Ref. H. 10.

http://www.roll-of-honour.com/Hertfordshire/Pirton.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

15 februari 1917 - En toch wordt er altijd maar voort gesmokkeld - hele benden ingericht doen een geregelde dienst met alles wat eetwaren en koopwaar is en verdienen geld dat 't schandalig is.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0030.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 22:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 15 FEBRUARY 1917

CARPENTER, Trooper Richard E, third son of J H M Carpenter of Remuera, was awarded the Military Medal for bravery at the Hohenzollern Redoubt, France. He is an old boy of King’s College. He was in Canada when war broke out and went to England and joined the British forces. His younger brother, Bernard CARPENTER, left NZ with the Main Body of the Expeditionary Force and has been in France for some time.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn15feb1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2011 23:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T.E. Lawrence: 'With the Northern Army', Arab Bulletin No.42, 15 February 1917

Route notes

On January 2, 1917, I left Yambo and rode across the plain to the mouth of Wadi Agida in five hours. From the mouth of Wadi Agida to the watershed into the Wadi Yambo basin was one hour, and thence to Nakhl Mubarak was one hour; all done at a four miles an hour walk. The lowest third of the ascent of Wadi Agida was over sand: soft, slow going. The upper parts were harder and better: the divide was low and easy, and it gave at once to the eastward, on to a broad open valley, coming from the left with only very low hills on each side (Jebel Agida?), down which the road curved gently into Nakhl Mubarak. The 'Sebil' stands about 400 yards east of the watershed.

The road down to Nakhl looked very beautiful today. The rains have brought up a thin growth of grass in all the hollows and flat places. The blades, of a very tender green, shoot up between all the stones, so that looked at from a little height and distance there is a lively mist of pale green here and there over the surfaces of the slate-blue and brown-red rocks. In places the growth was quite strong, and the camels of the army are grazing on it.

In Nakhl Mubarak I found Feisal encamped in tents: he himself was in his private tent, getting ready to go out to his reception. I stayed with him that day, while rumours came in that the Turkish force had evacuated Wadi Safra. One reported that from Bir Sheriufi to Bir Derwish was one great camp, and that its units were proceeding to Medina; another had seen a great force of camelmen and infantry ride East past Kheif yesterday. We decided to send out a feeler towards Hamra, to
get news.

On January 3, I took thirty-five Mahamid and rode over a dull tamarisk- and thorn-grown plain past Bir Faqir (not seen) to Bir Wasit, which is the old Abu Khalaat of my first trip. We waited there till sunset, and then went to Bir Murra, left our camels with ten of the men, and the rest of us climbed up the hills north of the Haj road up to Jebel Dhifran, which was painful, for the hills are all of knife-like strata which are turned on edge, and often run in straight lines from crest to valley. It gives you abundance of broken surface but no sound grips, as the strata are so minutely cracked that almost any segment will come away from its socket in your hand.

The top of Dhifran was cold and misty. At dawn we disposed ourselves in crevices of the rocks, and at last saw three bell tents beneath us to the right, behind a spur at the head of the pass, 300 yards away. We could not get round to them to get a low view, so put a few bullets through their top. This turned out a crowd of Turks from all directions. They leaped into trenches and rifle pits each side of the road, and potting them was very difficult. I think they suffered some loss, but I could not be sure. They fired in every direction except towards us, and the row in the narrow valley was so awful that I expected to see the Hamra force turn out. As the Turks were already ten to our one this might have made our getting away difficult, so we crawled back and rushed down into a valley, almost on top of two very scared Turks, who may have been outposts or may have been at their private morning duty. They were the most ragged men I have ever seen, bar a British tramp, and surrendered at once. We took them with us, and bolted off down the valley for another 500 yards. From there we put a few shots into the Turks, which seemed to check them, and so got off gently to Bir Murra by 6.30 a.m. The prisoners could speak only Turkish, so we mounted them and raced up to Nakhl to find an interpreter. They said it was the 5th Coy. of the 2/55th Regiment which was posted on Dhifran, the rest of the battalion and two companies of the first battalion being at Hamra village. The other companies of the 1/55th were guarding the Derb el-Khayaa from Hamra to Bir Ibn Hassani; 3/55th in Bir Derwish; O.C. 55th Regiment, Tewfik Bey.

At Nakhl Mubarak I found letters from Captain Warren saying that Zeid was still in Yambo, and that the Dufferin would wait in Sherm Yambo till I came. As Feisal was just starting for Owais, I changed my camel and rode down with him and the army to the head of Wadi Messarid by 3 p.m. The order of march was rather splendid and barbaric. Feisal in front, in white: Sharaf on his right in red headcloth and henna dyed tunic and cloak; myself on his left in white and red; behind us three banners of purple silk, with gold spikes; behind them three drummers playing a march, and behind them again, a wild bouncing mass of 1,200 camels of the bodyguard, all packed as closely as they could move, the men in every variety of coloured clothes, and the camels nearly as brilliant in their trappings, and the whole crowd singing at the tops of their voices a warsong in honour of Feisal and his family. It looked like a river of camels, for we filled up the Wadi to the tops of its banks, and poured along in a quarter of a mile long stream.

At the mouth of Wadi Messarid I said goodbye to Feisal and raced down the open plain to Yambo by 6 p.m. I was riding Feisal's own splendid camel, and so managed to do the twenty-two miles fairly easily. To my great relief I found the Dufferin had already left for Rabugh with Zeid, and so I was saved a further ten miles' march to Sherm Yambo.

Arab forces

The troops in Nakhl Mubarak were mostly camel corps. There were very many - according to Feisal’s figures, over 6,ooo - but their camps were spread over miles of the Wadi and its tributaries, and I could not manage to see all of them. Those I did see were quiet, and I thought in fair spirits. Some of them have now served six months or more, and these have lost their enthusiasm but gained experience in exchange. They still preserve their tribal instinct for independence of order, but they are curbing their habit of wasting ammunition, have achieved a sort of routine in matters of camping and marching, and when the Sherif approaches near they fall into line and make the low bow and sweep of the arm to the lips which is the official salute. They do not oil their guns - they say because they then clog with sand, and they have no oil handy - but the guns are most of them in fair order, and some of the men know how to shoot. They are becoming separate but coherent units under their sheikhs, and attendance is more regular than it was, as their distance from home increases. Further, they are becoming tempered to the idea of leaving their own diras, and Feisal hopes to take nearly all to Wejh with him. As a mass they are not formidable, since they have no corporate spirit or discipline, or mutual confidence. Man by man they are good: I would suggest that the smaller the unit that is acting, the better will be its performance. A thousand of them in a mob would be ineffective against one fourth their number of trained troops: but three or four of them, in their own valleys and hills, would account for a dozen Turkish soldiers. When they sit still they get nervous, and anxious to return home. Feisal himself goes rather to pieces in the same conditions. When, however, they have plenty to do, and are riding about in small parties tapping the Turks here and there, retiring always when the Turks advance, to appear in another direction immediately after, then they are in their element, and must cause the enemy not only anxiety, but bewilderment. The mule mounted infantry company is very promising. They have got Mulud, an ex-cavalry officer, training them, and already make a creditable appearance. The machine-gun sections were disappointing. They say that the Egyptian volunteers are improving these and the artillery details.
[39 lines on Camp life, here omitted, are virtually reproduced in Seven Pillars of Wisdom.]

Feisal's table talk

Talking one day about the Yemen, as they call anything south of Mecca and Jiddah, Feisal remarked on the great docility and reasonableness of the Southern tribes, compared with the Harb, Juheinah and Ateibah of the North. He said that no Arabs of his acquaintance were so easy to hold and to rule. To imprison an officer, his sheikh had only to knot a thin string about his neck and state his sentence, and the man would henceforward follow him about with protestations of innocence and appeals to be set at liberty. Another good custom is that of naming boy or girl children after a favoured guest. They then belong literally to their name-father, who can dispose their actions as he pleases, to the exclusion of parental authority; they even incur their part-responsibility of the blood feuds of the name-parent. He was down south between Taif and Birk and inland up to Ebhah for months, and says that now whole tribes of boys are called Feisal, and that, over them and indirectly over their fathers, he has wide personal influence. Particularly he spent four months fortifying Muhail for the Turks, and made great friends of Suleiman ibn Ali and his family. He says that, given ten days leave, he would undertake to raise every fighting man in Asir against Muhieddin. Ebhah he says is not formidable to an attacking force with a battery of field-guns. The present bar on action is that Nasir is not weighty enough to counterpoise the Idrisi. The tribes all believe that Idrisi would egg on his friendly sheikhs to attack them in the rear, if they moved openly against the Turks. The presence of Feisal or Abdullah would allay these fears.

Feisal says that Abdullah, though quick when he does move, is rather luxurious in taste and inclined to be lazy.

Stotzingen told Feisal in Damascus that, from the Yemen, arms and ammunition were to be shipped across to Abyssinia, and an anti-foreign war begun in that country. He himself was going afterwards to German East Africa.

Frobenius (calling himself Abd el-Kerim Pasha) turned up in Jiddah one morning by sea from Wejh soon after war had begun, Feisal was in Jiddah, and headed him off from Mecca. British naval activity dissuaded him from going on further south.
Feisal, therefore, got him a boat, and gave him a letter of recommendation, and sent him back north again. When he got to Rabugh, however, Hussein Mubeirik took suspicion of him and locked him up in the fort. Frobenius had some difficulty in getting out, and made great complaints of his treatment when he got back to Syria.

In March, 1916, Jemal Pasha took Feisal to a cinema in Damascus. The star film showed the Pyramids, with the Union Jack on top, and beneath them, Australians beating the Egyptian men and raping the women, and, in the foreground, an Egyptian girl in an attitude of supplication. The second scene showed a desert, with camel-convoys and a Turkish infantry battalion marching on for ever and ever. The third scene returned to the Pyramids with a sudden appearance of the Ottoman Army in review order, the killing of the Australians and the surrender of General Maxwell, the joy of Egypt, the tearing down of the British flag from the Pyramids, and its replacement by the Turkish flag. Feisal said to Jemal: 'Why go on troubling my father and myself for recruits for your army if this film is true?' Jemal said: 'Well, you know it encourages the people. We do not expect or try to conquer Egypt yet. Our policy is to hold the British forces there with the least cost to ourselves; and Germany has promised us that the last act of the war shall be the conquest of Egypt by Germany and its restoration to the Ottoman Empire. On these terms I agreed to join her in arms.'

Oppenheim came to see Feisal in Constantinople in early 1915. He said he wanted to make rebellions. Feisal asked of what and why? Oppenheim said there were to be rebellions of Moslems against Christians. Feisal said the idea was sound. ‘Where did he propose to start them? Oppenheim said, 'everywhere' - in India, Egypt, the Sudan, Java, Abyssinia, North Africa. Feisal said they might consider India first. There was the technical difficulty of lack of arms. Oppenheim said that would be put right by a German-Turk expedition into Persia. He asked if the Sherif would be prepared to co-operate with the Indian Moslem societies. Feisal said his father would want to know whether, afterwards, the Indian Moslems would be independent and supreme, or would Hindus rule them, or India fall to another European Power? Oppenheim said he had no idea: that it was previous to think so far ahead. Feisal said he was afraid his father would want to know all the same. Oppenheim said, 'Very well, how about Egypt? We can arrange to give your family office there, when it is conquered.' Feisal quoted the Koran to the disparagement of Egyptians, and said that he had lately been in Egypt, and had been offered the crown by the Nationalist party. (This took place in Piraeus.) Egyptians were weather-cocks, with no political principle except dissatisfaction, and intent only on pleasure and money getting. Any Egyptian who talked of raising a rebellion in Egypt was trying to touch you for something on account. Oppenheim said, 'Well, then, the Sudan?' Feisal said 'Yes, you are right. There is in the Sudan material to cause a real rebellion: but do you know the Sudan?' Oppenheim said, 'Why?' Feisal said, 'They are ignorant negroes, armed with broad-bladed spears, bows and shields. He, who would try to stir them up against the English and their rifles and machineguns, is no good Moslem. The men, however, are sound material. Give me arms, money and the command of the Red Sea for about six weeks, and I shall be Governor-General of the Sudan.' Oppenheim has hardly spoken to him since.

In January, 1915, Yasim, Ali Riza, Abd el-Ghani, and others approached the Sherif of Mecca and suggested a military rebellion in Syria. The Sherif sent Feisal up to report. He found Divisions 25, 35 and 36 ready to revolt, but public opinion less ready, and a general opinion in military circles that Germany would win the war quite rapidly. He went to Constantinople, and waited till the Dardanelles was in full blast. He then came back to Damascus, judging it a possible moment: but he found the well disposed divisions broken up, and his supporters scattered. So he suggested to his father that they delay till England had been properly approached, and Turkey had suffered crippling losses, or until an Allied landing had been effected at Alexandretta.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170108_c_e_wilson.htm
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Ishbel Ross, diary entry (15th February, 1917)

Mrs Ingles and I went up behind the camp and through the trenches. It was so quiet with just the sound of the wind whistling through the tangles of wire. What a terrible sight it was to see the bodies half buried and all the place strewn with bullets, letter cases, gas masks, empty shells and daggers. We came across a stretch of field telephone too. It took us ages to break up the earth with our spades as the ground was so hard, but we buried as many bodies as we could. We shall have to come back to bury more as it is very tiring work.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wross.htm
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Shipwrecks of Cork Harbour

On the 15th of February 1917 HMS Goshawk, an Acheron Class destroyer, spotted a mine at the entrance to Cork Harbour, indicating that a new minefield had been laid in the frequently swept channel. This mine was one of 10 that had been laid by the German U-boat UC-33 on February 12th 1917.

The crew of HMS Goshawk attempted to destroy the mine with rifle fire. This was one of the most effective ways of exploding a floating mine at that time.The attempts failed however and the signal was given to send out the minesweepers.

The Clifton was one of the minesweepers ordered out and was sweeping at the harbour entrance when there was a massive explosion and the ship disappeared in seconds. She had struck one of the very mines being swept and with no watertight compartments and cemented bulkheads she would have sunk very quickly.

There was only one survivor, Sub-Lieutenant James G. Clemens, RNR who was pulled from the water unconcious . The body of the Skipper, Edward Garrod of Lowestoft was recovered later. He is buried in Lowestoft (Beccles Road) Cemetary in Suffolk.

http://iol.ie/~mkeniry/iiclifton.htm
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Vogue, Feb 15, 1917

This whimsical illustration begins to evoke an early modern style seen more widely in the 1920′s.

Even doorklikken! http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/12/vintage-magazine-covers-with-a-wow-factor/
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Last letter home of Sgt. H. Godfrey, 15th February 1917

Last letter home of Sgt. H. Godfrey, who was killed in action, 17th February 1917, and is buried in plot IX, row A, grave 2, Regina Trench Cemetery near Albert on the Somme.

Lees de brief op http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/8863/3089
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E. Belfort Bax: "F.J. Gould and the Jews"
Justice, 15th February 1917, p.8. (letter)

Dear Comrade, – Our friend Gould, in his article on National Socialism, in which, according to his views, Internationalism takes a very back place, makes some observations concerning the rôle played by the Jewish race, which, I contend, is utterly opposed to the facts. He abuses Marx for lacking the “sense of nationality.” He goes on to develop the thesis that the Jew is essentially an anti-nationalist, anti-advocate of cosmopolitan ideals. Now I submit that any statement more directly contradicting the actual facts of the case could hardly be made. All the Jews that I have ever met with, certainly outside the Socialist movement, have been strong patriots, and in many cases fire-eating Jingoes, as regards the country of their birth or even naturalization. This aggressive patriotism of the Jew towards the country of his birth or adoption has always struck me as a singular phenomenon. The Jew, one would think from his history, ought to be cosmopolitan and indifferent to the claims of modern nationalities, only it so happens he isn’t. Where, I ask, will you find a stronger British patriot than the average Stock Exchange Jew? Again, I think, the British patriotism of Mr. Ellis Barker ought to satisfy even our friend Gould.

It is the same in Germany. There the Jews are nearly all, save for a few Socialists amongst them, Pan-Germanists. Even in the Socialist Party the bulk of the leading Jewish members are in the ranks of those holding the views of the present Reichstag “majority.” Jews are even to be found among “Jew-baiters” in the interests of their modern nationality. Thus I believe I am correct in saying that alike the founder and the present editor of that well-known French Jingo and anti-Jewish organ, La Libre Parole, were and are of Jewish race. Can our comrade Gould give me the name of a single Jew in this country who was a declared pro-Boer during the South African war? I only knew of one, and he was a Dutch Jew, which only illustrates my point. No, most emphatically, the facts show us the Jew is in every country alike the fanatical supporter of the Nationalist and Imperialist aspirations of that country, as against Internationalism and cosmopolitanism. Marx’s contempt for the principles of nationality as such arose from the strength of his convictions as an original thinker, and was in spite of rather than because of his Jewish descent

For my part, my Internationalism, or Cosmopolitanism as Gould may call it, has been rather strengthened than otherwise by the present war. We have had an object lesson indeed in National Socialism in the Reichstag “majority” of the German Party. Does Gould like it? A National Socialist Party need not be a party of National Socialism any more than a Yorkshire branch of the party need not be a society for the promotion of Yorkshire Socialism. The whole of civilised humanity to-day is divided into territorial and ethnical sections. This is a matter of fact which we all have to take account of whether we like it or not. But it need not affect Socialist principles.

In conclusion I would commend to Gould’s attention the fact that German National Socialism, in opposition to the International or Cosmopolitan Socialism of Karl Marx, had for its protagonist also a Jew – by name Ferdinand Lassalle. – Your fraternally,

E. Belfort Bax

http://www.marxists.org/archive/bax/1917/02/gouldjews.htm
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VERNON CASTLE 1887-1918 AND IRENE CASTLE 1893-1969 - Dancers

A Whirlwind Career - In just three years, 1912 to 1915, Vernon and Irene Castle rose from a nightclub act to the most famous ballroom dancers in the world. Three years after that their partnership ended in tragedy. Yet by 1918 this husband and wife's choreography—together with the high-class aura they lent the new and controversial phenomenon of public dancing—had transformed popular entertainment and brought millions of Americans onto the dance floor. (...)

A Tragic End - In 1916 and 1917 Irene Castle sold Liberty Bonds, acted in several movies—including William Randolph Hearst's pro-American Patria (1916)—and danced solo in Florenz Ziegfeld's Miss 1917. Work did not alleviate her worry over her husband's dangerous assignments as an aerial photographer of enemy territory in Europe, for which the French government awarded him the Croix de Guerre. Later in the war, while he was training American flyers in Texas, he was killed in a plane crash, on 15 February 1918. The train bearing his body back to New York was met by crowds of mourners all along its route. (...)

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Vernon_Castle_and_Irene_Foote.aspx
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George Lambert: ‘Lieutenant General Sir Harry Chauvel’

The Australian War Memorial has many pencil portrait sketches Lambert made of the Light Horse men he travelled with. This sensitive sketch of Lieutenant General Henry (Harry) George Chauvel GCMG, KCB (1865-1945) was made on 15 February 1918 during Lambert’s first tour of Palestine as an official war artist. At this time Lambert was travelling with the ANZAC Mounted Division around the Ayunkara / Richon le Zion area.

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2008/04/28/lambert-and-the-light-horse-in-toowoomba/
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Wytschaete, Belgium. 15 February 1918.

An Australian working party at Wytschaete building a concrete observation post. The heavy camouflage prevents enemy aerial observation.

Foto... https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C1339
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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

15 February-1919 - Between 15 February and 10 March 1919, Charles Bean revisited Gallipoli for research purposes. In 1948 Bean published an account of this visit entitled Gallipoli Mission.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/1916-2000.html
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Sidney Godley

Sidney Godley was the first Private to be awarded the Victoria Cross in the First World War. (...)

On 23 August 1914 the Royal Fusiliers received the order to hold two bridges over the Mons-Condé Canal, Belgium. This would allow the other units to retreat to the River Marne. Pte Sidney Godley was in the section defending Nimy Railway Bridge.

After his commander was wounded and unable to continue, Godley defended the bridge by himself. He did this for two hours despite heavy enemy fire and his own wounds, which included a bullet in his skull. When the ammunition ran out he dismantled his gun and threw it into the canal.

Some assumed that he had died, but he had instead been taken prisoner and sent to a field hospital. Following further medical treatment he was sent to the German Prisoner of War camp at Doberitz, and remained there until 1918. (...)

On 15 February 1919 he was presented with the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry, at Buckingham Palace.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/medals-godley.asp
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HANSARD 1803–2005 → 15 February 1915 → Commons Sitting → BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE.

NEWSPAPERS FOR TROOPS.

Sir WILLIAM BULL asked the Solicitor-General why the troops at the front in Franco can get the "Daily Chronicle" freely while there is a difficulty in obtaining any other daily newspaper; why special facilities are given to the "Daily Chronicle"; and will he see that other papers have equal facilities for sale and distribution amongst the troops in France?

Mr. TENNANT A large number of newspapers and journals, amongst them the "Daily Chronicle," send as a free gift to the troops a considerable number of copies. Equal facilities for the distribution of all such gifts are given. I may add that the generosity of the Press in sending these papers is highly appreciated by the troops, and I desire to take this opportunity of acknowledging their public-spirited and generous action.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/15/newspapers-for-troops via http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/sittings/1915/feb/15
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Oundle School: MOIRA FRANCIS ALLAN MACLEAN, 15 FEBRUARY 1915

Moira Maclean was born on 23 Nov 1883 in Colorado and came to Oundle – School House – in January 1897. He played for the XV in 1899 and left school in July 1900.

The 1915 Singapore Mutiny, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, involved some 400 Indian soldiers or sepoys, who mutinied against their British officers in the afternoon of 15th February 1915. Captain Moira Francis Allan Maclean was probably one of the two officers killed by snipers that afternoon, trying to regain control of his regiment.He was determined to follow a career in the army and, after training at Woolwich, he joined the Garrison Artillery and was posted to a battery at Colaba in India. After 13 years in India, he was appointed to command the Mountain Battery of the Malay States Guides with the rank of Captain. He was anxious to join the war in Europe, and his recall had just been authorized when the Singapore Mutiny broke out.

Captain Maclean was 31 years old at the time of his death.

http://www.oundleschool.org.uk/Moira-Francis-Allan-Maclean-15-February-1915?returnUrl=/World-War-I-
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War Diary of AA Laporte Payne - Feb 1915

Sunday February 14th 1915 - (...) “I am Divisional Orderly Officer tonight, and have to sleep in the General’s Office near the entrance to the barracks. I am the only officer left in the Battery, as the others are away on courses, one at Aldershot, and the other at Woolwich. Part of the Divisional Artillery have moved to huts at Ipswich, the Dexters with them. I do not envy them in this weather, which is awful. The Saturday’s half-holiday has been cancelled now, and the work has been stiffened up a lot."

https://the-bay-museum.co.uk/category/world-war-i/1915/february-1915/
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Singapore Cricket Club: The Supreme Sacrifice

Victims of the Mutiny February 1915

E.O. Butterworth, Assistant in Guthrie & Company. Killed by mutineers in Pasir Panjang Road on 15 February 1915.

Bernard Cuthbert Cameron, Private 9, Singapore Volunteer Rifles. Killed in action 15 February 1915. Aged 25. Son of David William and Hannah Cameron, of St Michaels, Cadwell Road, Paignton, Devon, England. Buried in Kranji War Cemetery, Singapore. Plot 37. Row E. Grave 19.

Lees verder op http://scc.org.sg/documents/10184/11840/the-supreme-sacrifice-as-of-6-jan-2014.pdf
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Robert Myles Heywood Died 15th February 1915, Lieutenant. East Kent Regiment. (The Buffs)

Robert Myles Heywood was born on 1st February 1884 in Manchester the only child of Robert and Annabel Crook Heywood, latterly of Hales Hall, Cheadle, Staffordshire.

In 1891 the family were living in Rushulme, Lancashire. Robert senior is described as a Cotton Bleacher / Dyer and already the family are doing well as they have three servants.

In 1901 at the census Robert Myles Heywood is shown as a boarder at an address in Frodsham Lordship Cheshire. His father is shown as residing at The Cottage Entwhistle, Lancashire. They had a husband and wife as general servants.

Annie Heywood as she is recorded throughout the census returns is shown as a visitor at Moor Court in Oakamoor the then home of Alfred Bolton JP for Staffordshire. She is one of two visitors the other being an electrical engineer. Francis Bolton son of Alfred is recorded as being a copper smelter, this being Bolton’s of Froghall family who built the now listed building in 1861. There are six servants in the household.

Lees verder op http://kingsleyremembers1914.org.uk/?p=124
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The effects of the war on English life

15 February 1916: Conservative minister Walter Long predicts the first world war will have a far-reaching impact on Britain’s economic, social and political landscape.

Lees verder op https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/15/first-world-war-impact-politics-society-1916
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15 February 1918 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

Harry and Mary Barnes of McLachlan Street receive a letter from Mrs Agostini of Port of Spain in Trinidad informing them that their son Eric spent two “very pleasant” days in port there, where he and his comrades “were given a heaty welcome, especially by the ladies of the town, who distributed to them cigarettes, fruit, refreshments etc”.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/15-february-1918/

Uit de Leader (Orange, NSW) - 15 feb 1918

"WOMEN AND THE WAR.
Fix this textParents are naturally anxious about
their soldier sons, in these submarin
ing days, who are on their way to the
front, and it is pleasing to know that,
when they touch port in foreign lands,
kindly woman are to be found who not
only care for them, but also have a
thought for those left under the paren
tal roof in far away Australia. Mr.
and Mrs. Barnes, of East Orange, have
just received the following letter,
which, needless to say, places them
under a debt of gratitude to the
writer:—"Castiglione House, Port of
Spain, Trinidad, 8th December, 1917.
Dear Mrs. Barnes: I had the pleasure
of meeting your son, Eric, on his pas
sage here. He is quite well and in
good spirits. He has asked me to let
you know of him, as he could not write
himself. The few days he spent in
harbor were very pleasant ones. All
the men of his ship were given a hear
ty welcome, especially by the ladies
of the town, who distributed to them
cigarettes, fruit, refreshments etc.,
Hoping that you shall soon receive
these few lines, which I send at his
request, believe me, yours truly (Mrs)
E, Agostini." Such is the part which
"angel women" play in the war. They
cannot fight, nor can all be nurses,
but they perform the little acts which
bring comfort and consolation in their
own peculiar way. Prior to enlisting
Private Eric Barnes was an employee
of the Canobolas Shire Council. He
sailed on November 2, and a cable was
recently received from him to the ef
fect that he is in camp in London."

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/100958788/10546514
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Criminaliteit op AlphenaandeMaas.com: De moord op Christianus Mollenberg

In de Gelderlander van 15 februari 1918 is te lezen hoe Alphen werd opgeschrikt door een moord:

"Reeds geruimen tijd hadden eenige opgeschoten jongens, die bij avond en ontijden hun vermaak zochten op hoeken van straten, een soort club gevormd, schijnbaar met het doel het den bewoners van de buurt 'Greffeling' zoo lastig mogelijk te maken. Niets werd ontzien. Heiningen en muren worden afgebroken, vensters afgehangen, achterdeuren verbroken, enz., te veel om op te noemen.

Bij dergelijke tooneelen werden oude hooge of deukhoeden gedragen om zich onherkenbaar te maken; mogelijk was het een onderling kenteken van de leden der bende. Ieder die bij dergelijke straatschandalen op hun tooneel verscheen en hunne handelingen zou kunnen bespieden of verhinderen, werd aangerand of met steenen geworpen.

Bleek soms een gemolesteerde eenigen moed te bezitten, dan worden de lafaards op de vlucht gedreven."

Christianus Mollenberg, een 57-jarige handelaar, is ook doelwit. "Meermalen werd hem de pet van het hoofd geslagen". Ook zijn paard moet het ontgelden als het "met groote steenen wordt toegetakeld". Als hij op de bewuste avond na enkele klanten bezocht te hebben naar huis gaat, wordt hij van achteren besprongen door iemand die hem met een mes in de rug steekt.

Volgens de kranten roept Christiaan de naam van de dader, waarmee hij het daags van tevoren ook al aan de stok heeft gehad, voor hij sterft. Het is de 21-jarige Andries A. uit Alphen, die direct onder arrest werd gesteld.

In een kort verslag van de rechtszaak in het Algemeen Handelsblad van 24 mei 1918 lezen we dat "ook een 12-jarige jongen ter rechtzitting verklaarde, dat hij had gezien, Dat A. den steek had toegebracht." Er worden in totaal 23 getuigen gehoord. Vreemd blijft het, dat de verdachte desalniettemin ontkent. Het O.M. eist 8 jaar. De rechter gelast een onderzoek naar geestvermogens van de beklaagde.

Hij wordt in een krankzinnigengesticht in Woensel geplaatst, waar hij na één jaar als genezen wordt ontslagen. Hij wordt gedurende zes weken behandeld in de psychiatrisch-neurologische kliniek verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht waar hij na afloop wordt ontslagen als zijnde 'volkomen hersteld'.

Vervolgens wordt hij weer gedetineerd in Tiel waar de zaak opnieuw voor de rechtbank komt. De officier eist opnieuw 8 jaar, maar de verdediger achtte de misdaad "overtuigend noch wettig bewezen". "De beklaagde ontkende onder tranen schuldig te zijn aan den dood van Mollenberg."

In de Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant van 6 februari 1920 lezen we het uiteindelijke vonnis van de rechter: vijf jaar gevangenisstraf met aftrek van de voorlopige hechtenis.

http://www.alphenaandemaas.com/WHAM/WHAM_Criminaliteit/1918_Moord_Mollenberg.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2018 10:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hollandsche Waterlinie: Wekelijks werkrapport van 9 tot en met 14 februari 1919

Titel: Wekelijks werkrapport van 9 tot en met 14 februari 1919
Beschrijving: Verslag van de werkzaamheden in de diverse groepen in de provincie Utrecht in de week van 9 februari 1919
Vervaardigd door: De majoor, Eerstaanwezend-Ingenieur der Genie
Datum: 15 februari 1919
Plaats: Utrecht

http://hollandsewaterlinie.erfgoedsuite.nl/@2948/wekelijks/
Klik door voor het daadwerkelijke 'werkrapport'.
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Venrayse Courant - 15 februari 1919

U bent uitgenodigd! http://www.deurnewiki.nl/wiki/index.php?title=Bestand:KDO_Venrayse_krant_15_februari_1919.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2018 10:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brieven van en aan Jacob Israël de Haan 1899-1908

De Haan aan Eekhoud, omstreeks 2 februari 1919
U zult wel opkijken, een kaart van mij uit Napels! Ik heb Holland verlaten en ga naar Palestina wonen. Ik heb gereisd over Londen en Parijs. In den trein naar Rome heb ik een Italiaanschen luitenant ontmoet, die u misschien in Brussel komt opzoeken. Veel groeten, ook aan uw vrouw. Schrijf mij eens poste restante Jerusalem,
Joop de Haan

De luitenant was op weg van het geallieerde hoofdkwartier in Brussel naar zijn woonplaats in Calabrië, toen De Haan, op weg naar Palestina, hem in de trein van Parijs naar Rome ontmoette. Ze praatten over literatuur en over de wereldoorlog, die nog vers in het geheugen lag: ‘zeker heeft Italië zijn gewonden en gesneuvelden’. 's Nachts kan De Haan niet slapen. De luitenant ‘leunt tegen mij aan. Maar hij leunt zoo licht. Hij leeft nog. Maar zooveel kleine luitenants, slank en fijn, zijn dood’. Aldus één van De Haans eerste ‘Palestijnse’ feuilletons, in het Algemeen Handelsblad van 15 februari 1919. En in de Kwatrijnen is hij vereeuwigd:

Nachttrein
Een luitenant, maar niet meer dan een knaap.
Wij reisden samen des nachts in den trein.
Wat lot genoot hij lachend in zijn slaap?
Terwijl ik waakte en kromp van pijn.

Lees verder op http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/haan008brie02_01/haan008brie02_01_0250.php
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15th February 1918: The Massacre of the Dover Patrol Drifters.

GERMAN DESTROYERS' RAID ON DRIFTERS. FIVE DESTROYERS SINK EIGHT PATROL BOATS OFF DOVER.

By the beginning of 1918 the deep mine barrage across the Dover Strait from Folkestone to Cape Gris Nez, on the French coast, had been made so efficient that the German submarines were no longer able to traverse the passage without grave risk.

The mines were laid in lines at varying depths, those at shallowest depth being 30ft. to 40ft. below the surface. Supporting this minefield were numerous naval trawlers and drifters, assisted by the destroyers of the Dover Patrol. Their job was to drive the submarines down on to the mines by gun-fire during the day, and to maintain a line of flares, making night as bright as day, so that the submarines diving to avoid being seen in these flares, would foul the minefields. The U-boat commanders reported their nerve-racking experiences, and it was decided to detach some of the larger destroyers from the German High Seas Fleet to carry out a raid on these vessels.

And so it was on the morning of Friday, 15th February shortly after 01:00 that German destroyers raided the Straits of Dover. It was the first raid that has taken place since the end of last spring, and as on previous occasions it was during an exceptionally high tide. The destroyers attacked a fleet of drifters that were engaged in hunting a submarine, and the first that those vessels knew of it was that a big destroyer nearly ran down a drifter in the dark. The destroyers then steamed down the line of drifters firing at them heavily, from time to time sinking one. The drifters at once scattered, dodging here and there to upset the aim of the destroyers gunlayers. The destroyers steamed right down the line, firing continually, and then steamed back the other side.

Unfortunately there was no help at hand to assist these vessels, which are very lightly armed, whilst the Germans were armed with many 5.9 inch guns, which fire a 110 lb shell. From shore the firing could both be seen and heard very distinctly, and as drifter after drifter blew up the flames showed up ashore with startling vividness. Some of the destroyers fired their guns shorewards, as some fragments of shell fell on a village some distance back from the coast. Directly the attack was over the drifters at once went to the aid of their comrades who were either in the water or on drifters which had been hit. It must be said that the German gunnery was very accurate. Most of the shots hit vital parts of the vessels, and tore and ripped steel work to pieces like paper. In one case the whole of the crew of a sunken drifter were rescued, but most of the others were not so fortunate.

Plenty of help came as soon as it was realised what had happened, but despite the raid the patrol of the Straits and the measures to stop submarines passing through never ceased. Later in the morning the section of the drifters which had so heavily suffered, came into Dover to land the rescued and the injured and dead. Altogether eight vessels were sunk, of which one was a trawler. The injured were at once landed and taken to the Hospital, whilst the dead were placed in motor lorries and taken to the Market Hall, crowds watching the bodies, wrapped in blankets, being lifted on to stretchers and carried into the Market Hall. The injuries that the men had received were of a very terrible nature, and were due in almost all cases to shells and splinters. Altogether thirty-six bodies were landed however many men drowned at sea.

There are many stories of the heroic drifter men's coolness, and courage, during the fight. On one vessel the Germans swept the decks with shell fire, whilst the vessel trained its searchlight on the Germans, replying with her gun. When the gun was silenced through its crew being shot down, the man in charge thought, "My searchlight is no good now," and turned it off. The Germans apparently thought the vessel had sunk, as well it might after the intense fire it had sustained, and turned their fire elsewhere, and the vessel escaped. In another case a drifter caught fire from its flare lights being ignited by a shell that killed the skipper and 8 other members of the crew. The two survivors — the engineers of the vessel who escaped the shell fragments by being at their engines below — got away in a boat, and, after the Germans were gone, seeing their vessel still afloat, returned board, and helped to bring it into harbour.

Another story of the fight which appeared in the London papers, was told by a young able seaman who took part in it:

"This is not the first fight of a similar character in which I have taken part during this war," he said, "and yet, thank God, I am unhurt. But it was by far the worst of the four scraps which I have been engaged in. It was a terribly one-sided affair. The only thing I can compare it to is a picture of a man armed, say, with a revolver or a pop-gun being expected to do battle in a small boat with an armed cruiser. It was a fine, starlight night, and was so calm, there was not a breath of wind and only a very slight haze. The fleet of drifters to which I was attached was on patrol duty. Being then off duty myself, I went down to my bunk, but before turning in I was reading a book.

Suddenly at about 1 o'clock in the morning, I was startled by heavy and rapid firing, the noise of hurrying footsteps on the deck overhead, and the issuing of rapid orders. My first impression was that we had seen, and were firing at, a submarine. Picking up my lifebelt I hurried on deck. The noise of the cannonade at this time was almost deafening. The first thing I saw on reaching the deck was the blowing up of one of our drifters, which was not far away our port quarter. She went up in the air enveloped in a great sheet of flame, in the midst of which I distinctly saw her two masts and funnel fall with a splash into the water, sending up spray in all directions.

For a moment I stood watching the awful sight, and then the thunder of additional guns coming rapidly from various directions at once indicated to me that we were up against something more than a submarine fight. I ran along deck aft as my mate shouted, 'There goes another one,' and he had scarcely made the remark before a third boat was blown up. Following the direction indicated, I saw that they were both enveloped in flames, but they were too far off for us to render them any assistance. Moreover, it was a case of having to look out for oneself, for just at this moment our own vessel had a marvellous escape.

Suddenly, immediately astern of us, a searchlight shot out, sweeping the sea for some distance around, and by its light we were surprised to see the big dark hull of a German destroyer. She was bearing down at full speed, and had she continued on her course she would have cut us and sunk us easily. She was not more than 200 yards away from us. It is our belief that we owe our escape to being too close to be hit. We were sailing away from the destroyer, dodging all the time, and, fortunately for us, she missed us as she steamed northwards. The noise of the fight was terrible. Shells were falling in all directions."

The following account of the incident as written by the Admiralty for syndicated press release and is compiled from survivors' narratives:

The German destroyer raid on the English Channel on the night of 14th-15th February had for its primary aim the destruction of the Auxiliary Patrol Forces on outpost duty. This much was evident from the deliberate and systematic manner in which, once touch was established in the inky darkness, the attack was carried out A large force was chosen for the enterprise, comprising ten at least of Germany's largest and fastest destroyers. That these succeeded in sinking seven armed fishing vessels and returning to their base without being intercepted by the British Patrols proper can be ascribed to accurate foreknowledge of the disposition of these forces (information readily supplied by aerial reconnaissance). The raiding tactics of German destroyers are too well known to call for detailed repetition. They sortie on a chosen night, a hand closed round the firing key of every gun and torpedo tube. Every surface craft sighted is an enemy, and they fire on sight, moving without lights at top speed. It must be admitted that they thus possess an initial advantage of which they might reasonably be expected to make the most. Indeed, the wonder is not so much that they were not intercepted in the inky darkness of a thousand square miles, but that they did not make more of their opportunity.

On the night in question one of the drifter patrol had sighted a submarine on the surface, attempting to break through the vigilant cordon of patrol craft. Off went the drifter in jubilant pursuit, signalling to her consorts to join the hunt, and the remainder joined her like a pack of bassett hounds on the trail of an otter. The enemy destroyers, casting about in the darkness, sighted the "Tally-ho" rocket, and swept down upon the drifters from at least four quarters simultaneously. The Germans appear to have worked in pairs. The leading boat of each couple switched on blinding searchlight for the few seconds necessary to get an accurate range, and then the whole force slowed down to carry out the deliberate work of destruction. In the words of one of the survivors, "It was awful — just slaughter." The speaker made the statement without heat or reproach; he was a fisherman, as were most of his brethren, wont to accept calamity and misfortune without emotion. "Girt ole black things.." he added, and shook his grizzled head while the sunlight winked on his gold ear-rings.

The enemy closed in nearly all cases to within fifty yards of their victims, poured two salvoes of high explosive shell into each, and passed on. They had no time for fancy shooting and there were few misses. It is to be hoped they found the gruesome work to their taste.

In one case a German destroyer misjudged her distance, and came so close to her victim that she was unable to depress her guns sufficiently to bring them to bear on the little target. She fired as she rolled instead, and the drifter, Cloverbank, turned on the instant into a splintered shambles, buried in clouds of steam and sparks. Only one man survived the first salvo, Deckhand Plane, R.N.R. (Trawler Section). He forged forward to the gun through the flames and fumes of bursting shell, and, finding it loaded, returned the fire at point-blank range, single-handed, half-blinded, stupefied by smoke and din.

It was brave work, but all round him in the darkness amid the flames of guns and blazing ships and all the savagery of that onslaught, the drifter patrol was taking its gruel not a whit less gallantly. The survivors launched their splintered dinghies, carrying their wounded with them, and paddled clear of the blazing wrecks that a few minutes before had been ship and home. The two enginemen of the Violet May - Engineman Ewing and Eagineman Noble — succeeded in launching their boat, and lowered into it the mate, mortally wounded, and a wounded deckhand. The remainder of the crew lay inextricably entangled in the blazing wreckage, dead. The survivors paddled clear, waited till the enemy had passed on, and then closed their little ship again. The fire had hold of her forward, steam was pouring from her wrecked engineroom, and the ammunition was exploding broadcast about her decks.

"A doot she's sinkin'," said Ewing, stoutly. Noble said nothing. He was not given overmuch to speech, but he made the painter and proceeded to climb inboard again. Ewing followed, and between them they fought and overcame the fire. "Dinna leave me, Jamie," cried the mate piteously, "dinna leave me in the little boat." "Na, na," was the reply. "We'll nae leave ye," and presently they brought their wounded back on board, and took them below again. The mate was laid on his bunk, and Ewing fetched his shirts from his bag and tore them up into bandages. "An" them his dress shirts," murmured Noble. It was his first and last contribution to the narrative.

They took turn and turn about to tend the wounded, plug the shot-holes and quench the smouldering embers of the fire, reverently dragging the wreckage from off their dead, and comforting the dying mate in the soft, almost tender, accents of the Celt. "Tis nae guid," said the mate at last, "dinina fash aboot me, lads. A'll gang nae more on patrol," and so he died. But they saved their little ship, and she lies in a corner of the basin at her base, a mass of twisted metal end charred woodwork, to testify to the courage of the British fishermen in war.

The mate's last words were doubtless 'improved' by Admiralty propagandists! They were sitting ducks, weren't they?

The German account was as follows..

''On the night of February 14th our torpedoboats, under the command of Captain Heinecke, made a surprise attack on the strong forces guarding the English Channel between Calais and Dover and Cape Grisnez and Folkestone. A large guardship, numerous armed fishing steamers, and several motor-boats were forced to give battle, and the major part of these were destroyed. Our torpedo-boats suffered no losses or damage, and have all since safely returned."

The German destroyers involved were B97, V100, B109 and B 110 of the II.TF (TF = torpedo boat flotilla) of the High Seas Fleet. The II.TF was equiped at the time with Germany's most powerful destroyers and often used for raiding in late 1917 and early 1918. It's the same unit that attacked a convoy off the Norwegian coast on Deceember 12, 1917, sinking a destroyer, four RN trawlers, and merchant ships. Its commander was KK Oskar Heinecke, the only destroyer officer to be awarded the Pour Le Mérite during the war.

Aftermath and Inquiry: The two British destroyer captains in charge of guarding the trawlers were court martialled as, on challenging the Germans passing astern they challenged them, on receiving no response assumed they were friendly. From The Dover Patrol 1914 - 1918 by Roy Humphries: "The convened Court of Inquiry could not fail to lay blame squarely on the shoulders of those who had commanded AMAZON and TERMAGANT and the M 26 monitor..........Vice Admiral Keyes could not find any excuse for the delay in engaging the enemy vessels who had not replied to a challenge signal. There was, he concluded sufficient evidence to frame a charge for a trial by courts martial upon the commanders. All three were relieved of their respective commands immediately."

The two enginemen who survived with the Violet May. They were as named James Ewing and Alexander Noble, and were the only unwounded survivors of the crew. The caption says, "They launched their boat, lowered into it the mate mortally wounded and a wounded deck hand, and got clear. After the enemy had gone, finding their vessel afloat, they returned, put out the fire, plugged the shot holes, rendered first-aid to the wounded and succeeded in getting their vessel back into port."

More of the report suggests that the Violet May may have caught fire from its flares being ignited by a shell that killed the skipper and other members of the crew. The two who survived did so because they were below, with their engines. The report goes on to day that the remainder of the crew lay inextricably entangled in the blazing wreckage, dead. Some of the conversation is reported, written like this: " "It's nae guid," said the mate at last, "dinna fash aboot me, lads. A'll gan nae mair on patrol" and so he died."

Post Scriptum: When the German destroyers made off in the darkness they had raided the Dover Straits for the last time in the war. Their destroyer attacks upon the Straits are indeed a brilliant episode in German naval operations. Seven times in all the German destroyers burst into the Straits and inflicted loss and damage on British watching forces; on one occasion only had they themselves suffered. But although the German raiding was well conducted it was never more serious than mere raiding. The shortest interval between any two successive attacks was about a month: the longest nearly nine. The German commander in Flanders was never able to shake the British hold on the Straits by continuous attacks, with the consequence that the damage done by any one raid had been made good by the time the next raid was started.

https://www.facebook.com/TheGreatWar191418/posts/15th-february-1918-the-massacre-of-the-dover-patrol-drifterspicturedtwo-german-t/1216905118441737/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 9:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Margaret Duncan’s diary: 7-15 February 1918
by Nicky Sugar, Archivist.

In February 1918 Margaret Duncan, a Post Office clerk from Scotland, sailed to East Africa for a new job and new adventures.
Her diary and photograph albums are now in the British Empire and Commonwealth Collection at Bristol Archives (ref: 2001/090/2).


Friday 15 February 1918 - Have missed writing for a whole week. A week of lazy delight. Have thoroughly enjoyed every moment of it, we have a special corner of the deck and there the boys join us every day. Reg Grove, Ben Jones, Billy Fowler, The Padre and Sgt Harry Clibbett.

They are all delightful companions and we have such jolly times. But we are very much under Military Rule, one evening the Sgt and I and a great many others had to take the lower prom deck, only Hospital patients and Warrant Officers being allowed above.

It makes the Sergeants boil to be sure, truth to tell there are so few unmarried girls on board that the Officers are jealous of them having a good time, and they are bringing out all sorts of horrid rules and restrictions regarding Sergts and passengers.

Sgt Clibbett is becoming quite a pal of mine, he’s a vet, has been badly broken up by the war, heart trouble and eye sight and is returning to “Ausie” for his discharge. We had a concert last night but it was in the saloon and we were nearly in a Turkish bath all the time! What a heat! The concert was very good, Sgt Major Cook DCM is the comedian on this boat.

This morning we dropped anchor about 6.30 and beheld land when we mounted to deck! All the convoy, and also other ships are anchored here, and we are viewing a tropical land now.

Freetown Sierra Leone lies before us, it looks lovely and most interesting. Behind the town the hills rise beautifully, with red, yellow and brown houses nestling on the slopes. It all looks quite fascinating, we are longing to be allowed to go ashore, but one of the Marconi Operators has just told us that we aren’t to go ashore today, possibly tomorrow.

https://www.bristolmuseums.org.uk/blog/margaret-duncans-diary-february-continued/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 9:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Birmingham Daily Gazette, Friday 15 February 1918

Women, the Vote and the War [To THE EDITOR OF THE BIRMINGHAM GAZETTE.]

Sir, – “Rose Berkeley” seems unduly pessimistic with regard the future operation of the woman’s franchise, because of the attitude of the Pankhursts and their spurious Women’s Party, but some of us have enough faith in democracy to believe that a party whose leaders are self-elected political adventurers is never able to hold more than a temporary sway over any section of the public.

Many women today seem hopelessly anti-democratic, but the average working woman knows little or nothing of actual politics and experience will soon teach her that it is not such an innocent game she thinks it is. She will soon learn to sift the sheep from the goats.

The W.S.P.U. was broken up because of the narrow attitude of its own leaders, and I venture to predict that the so-called Women’s Party will suffer the same fate.— Yours, etc., (Mrs) E. Jones. Alum Rock, B’ham.

https://www.voicesofwarandpeace.org/2018/02/15/on-this-day-15-february-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 9:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'Our little ones'- The realtime diaries of F.P. Welch 1913-1919

February 1918 - Friday 15
Rainy day. At office.
Sent particulars of 15000
acres milling bush of
G A Gammans, Tauranga
to J D Ritchie, Chairman
of the Land Purchase
Board, with view to sell
ing for returned soldiers.
At night I bottled plums
for winter use.

https://fpwelchdiaries.wordpress.com/2018/02/15/15-february-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 11:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oorlogsdagboek Raphaël Waterschoot 1914-1918 - hoe een burger van Sint Niklaas de Groote Oorlog beleeft

15 februari 1917 donderdag. Sint Niklaas
Broêr Emiel gaat bij Albert naar Antwerpen.
N’en liter melk kost reeds 0,40 frank.

https://raphaelwaterschoot.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/15-februari-1917-donderdag/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 11:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Limburgs Studentenblaadje voor oorlogstijd
Jan Veestraeten

Op 1 mei, Vlaamse Erfgoeddag, heeft het Archief en documentatiecentrum voor het Vlaams-nationalisme een tentoonstelling georganiseerd over de geestelijke armoede aan het IJzerfront. Ondermeer Frontblaadjes moesten Vlaamse soldaten een houvast bieden. Voor de Franstalige legertop was vooral het Limburgsch Studentenblaadje de kop van Jut.

Het eerste Frontblaadje, bestemd voor soldaten uit Sint-Jans-Molenbeek,werd in 1915 uitgegeven door aalmoezenier Jan Bernaerts, voor de oorlog kapelaan in Molenbeek. Het was een schot in de roos, het uitgeven van Frontblaadjes werd snel een ware rage. In 1916 waren het er al 51, in de herfst van 1917 publiceerde Onze Temschenaars een lijst met toen 83 bladen. Bijzonder actief was de later als oprichter en bezieler van Sporta bekende norbertijn Antoon van Clé die diverse frontblaadjes uitgaf.

Op 1 februari 1916 verscheen het Limburgsch Studentenblaadje voor oorlogstijd van aalmoezenier Paul Vandermeulen. Het zou maar verschijnen tot 1 mei 1917. Aanvankelijk gold de censuur niet voor deze frontblaadjes, maar vanaf mei 1917 konden ze niet meer verschijnen zonder toelating van de legerleiding. Aanleiding voor deze censuur waren een aantal artikels in het blad van Vandermeulen. Het Limburgs Studentenblaadje werd zonder meer verboden. Andere bladen hielden er vrijwillig mee op omdat ze niet wilden buigen voor de anti-Vlaamse censuur. Ze verdwenen of verschenen voortaan clandestien.

De Nieuwe Encyclopedie van de Vlaamse beweging heeft duidelijk geen hoge dunk van deze blaadjes. Ze gaven, aldus de encyclopedie, een thans eerder ontstellend beeld van het lage intellectueel niveau van de gemiddelde Vlaming tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Dit moet ten zeerste genuanceerd worden. Er moet niet alleen rekening gehouden worden met de moeilijke omstandigheden waarin deze bladen gemaakt werden, maar uiteraard ook met de tijdsgeest van die jaren. Voor het Limburgs Studentenblaadje gaat deze beoordeling in geen geval op. Het blad dat om de 2 weken verscheen getuigde absoluut niet van een laag intellectueel niveau. En het genoot niet alleen aan het front, maar ook in het bezette Vlaanderen en in Nederland ruime aandacht. Aan het Limburgs studentenblaadje werkten ondermeer Cyriel Verschaeve, Filip de Pillecyn, Lambrecht Jeurissen, en aalmoezenier Lode Clijsters mee.

De frontblaadjes werden gratis verspreid en dus moesten de uitgevers voor de nodige financies zorgen. In het nummer van 15 mei 1916 liet Vandermeulen een blik in de achterkeuken van zijn blad toe. Gestart met 70 exemplaren had het tijdschrift bij zijn 8ste nummer al een oplage van 250 exemplaren. Elk nummer kostte hem 15 fr. Van meet af aan kon Vandermeulen rekenen op steun. Al in nummer 4 verscheen er een brief van minister Helleputte, volksvertegenwoordiger voor Maaseik. Vandermeulen zal ongetwijfeld in zijn nopjes zijn geweest met de lof van Helleputte, maar nog meer met de 100 fr. die erbij gevoegd was. Ook van volksvertegenwoordiger Jan Ramaeckers uit Hasselt kreeg hij 25 fr. Andere giften volgden. Dank zij deze bijdragen, dank zij vooral de gulle gift van minister Helleputte, aldus Vandermeulen in nummer 5, zijn de eerste kosten gedekt en is, voor menige nummers, het bestaan van ons blaadje gedekt.

In 1912 was Vandermeulen niet alleen voorzitter geworden van de Breese studentenbond Frisse Heikracht, maar ook gouwvoorzitter van het Algemeen Vlaams Studentenverbond (AKVS). Tijdens de oorlog bleef hij het AKVS-ideaal trouw. Een vrij Vlaanderen in een vrij België, schreef hij in nummer 3 van zijn blad, is onze leuze. Vrij België vooral is nu bedreigd: dat is het eerste doel nu van ons strijden hier in het leger, maar eens Vrij België verzekerd, dan hervatten we de strijd voor Vrij Vlaanderen. Vrij Vlaanderen, zonder Vrij België is onmogelijk. Anderzijds kan Vrij België niet groot zijn zonder Vrij Vlaanderen.

Dat kon voor de legerleiding nog net door de beugel, maar Vandermeulen liet het daar niet bij. In zijn bijdrage van 1 augustus 1916 sneed hij onder de titel Eensgezindheid de euvele thema’s bestuurlijke scheiding en de vernederlandsing van de Gentse universiteit aan. Wat deze thema’s betreft wilde Vandermeulen zich niet aan definitieve uitspraken wagen. We trachten onze mening te vormen, maar niet zo dat wij de mogelijkheid van een andere mening, van een ander oordeel uitsluiten. Op 25 september 1916 werd de toon scherper. Of de Vlaamse hogeschool nu vervlaamst wordt of niet, of ze lukt of mislukt gedurende de oorlog, zeker is het dat ze er na de oorlog komt. Niet in Antwerpen, geen tweetalige universiteit in Gent, maar een uitsluitend Nederlandstalige universiteit in Gent.

Op 15 februari 1917 was de maat voor de legerleiding bijna vol. Toen becommentarieerde Vandermeulen de tweedracht onder de Vlamingen in Nederland. René de Clercq, leraar aan de Belgische school in Amsterdam en hoofdredacteur De Vlaamse Stem werd ontslagen als leraar omdat hij weigerde ontslag te nemen uit het blad dat mede vanuit Duitsland gefinancierd werd. Vandermeulen noemde dit een onhandige maatregel. Over de wenselijkheid van een bestuurlijke scheiding mag, en is het nuttig dat er wordt nagedacht, schreef hij. Maar op een ernstige, niet op een overhaaste wijze. Voor de legerleiding was dit een regelrechte provocatie. En de patriottenemmer liep helemaal over toen op 1 april 1917 een artikel over de raad van Vlaanderen verscheen. Vandermeulen betreurde het dat Vlamingen die raad in Duitsland gingen bepleiten. Wat Duitsland het land, ook Vlaanderen, heeft aangedaan kunnen we niet vergeten, aldus Vandermeulen. Maar van de andere kant sloeg hij spijkers met koppen. Mocht een bestuurlijke scheiding niet verenigbaar zijn met het Belgische belang, maar zou ze de enige redding voor Vlaanderen betekenen, dan moest die scheiding er komen. We zijn eerst Vlaming en dan Belg, aldus Vandermeulen. Vlaming zijn we door de natuur en van Gods wege, Belg zijn we enkel door een politiek verband.

In het nummer van 1 mei 1917 verscheen nog een artikel van Filip de Pillecyn waarin er met zeer veel reserves over de Raad van Vlaanderen geschreven werd. Wellicht een poging om het Limburgs Studentenblaadje nog te redden? Dan kwam die poging in elk geval te laat. Het meinummer was het laatste nummer van het Limburgs Studentenblaadje.

Einde van een blad, maar het begin van een lijdensweg voor Vandermeulen. In een dagorde aan het leger van 27 augustus, getekend door minister van Oorlog Armand de Ceuninck, werd Vandermeulen afgezet als adjunct-aalmoezenier en als ziekendrager naar de tuchtcompagnie op het eiland Cézembre verbannen. Die dagorde werd uiteraard origineel in het Frans geschreven en de vertaling was een typisch Belgisch klungelwerk. Abbé Vandermeulen werd daar niet vertaald met Eerwaarde Heer, toen de gebruikelijke aanspreektitel voor priesters, maar door…abt Vandermeulen. Bovendien waarschuwde de minister voor ziekelijke hitzingen om respect voor het Nederlands af te dwingen.

Vandermeulen was niet alleen de drijvende kracht achter het Limburgs Studentenblaadje. Studenten, schreef hij in het nummer van 25 september 1916, willen hulde brengen aan hun dikwijls vergeten makkers die op het veld van eer gevallen zijn. Er is een werk opgericht om de graven van onze gesneuvelde medebroeders te versieren met een heldenhuldezerkje. Bescheiden verzweeg Vandermeulen dat hijzelf de initiatiefnemer was. Een heldenhuldezerkje kostte … 30 fr, een marmeren gedenkplaat op een bestaande zerk 12.

Bij zijn terugkeer in 1919 naar het bevrijde land circuleerden er inschrijvingslijsten om Vandermeulen een geschenk aan te bieden. Dat werd een zilveren kelk versierd met een gouden leeuwtje. Als collegeleraar en als professor filosofie bleef Vandermeulen het AKVS na de oorlog een warm hart toedragen. Met veel pijn in het hart moest hij in 1928 op bevel van zijn bisschop meewerken aan de oprichting van de KSA. In 1931 organiseerde hij nog de Studentenbedevaart naar Rome van het jeugdverbond voor Katholieke Actie waartoe de KSA behoorde. Een pijnlijke bedevaart. Paus Pius XI ontving de Vlaamse studenten wel, maar weigerde hun vlag te wijden en negeerde de kelk die ze als geschenk hadden meegebracht. In strenge woorden verweet hij de Vlaamse studenten hun ongehoorzaamheid aan hun bisschoppen. Een jaar later koos de ontgoochelde Vandermeulen voor het kloosterleven. Hij werd trappist in de abdij van Achel.

In 1953 kwam Vandermeulen ongewild nog even in de publiciteit. Hij droeg de mis op tijdens de 26ste IJzerbedevaart. Op het altaar de zilveren kelk met gouden leeuwtje van 1919. Tijdens de bedevaart scandeerden jongeren slogans tegen de CVP en voor amnestie. Dat was voor alles wat Belgisch was een schandaal. Op 25 oktober organiseerde de Waal Jean Fosty, later een van de steunpilaren van het FDF, met zijn Comite d’Appel au Pays een zogenaamde herstelbedevaart naar Diksmuide. Wat aan Vlaamse zijde weer aanleiding gaf tot een felle anti-Fostymeeting in Antwerpen. Ook die anti-meeting zorgde weer voor een anti-anti-Fostymeeting onder leiding van de socialistische voorman Jef van Eynde. Zelfs in het parlement kwam Vandermeulen ter sprake. In een interpellatie van 22 oktober 1953 betreurde Maurice Herman, CVP-kamerlid voor Ronse, het feit dat de mis tijdens de bedevaart werd opgedragen door een kloosterling wiens gedrag op het front niet onder ieder opzicht voorbeeldig was geweest. Later verontschuldigde Herman zich schriftelijk bij Vandermeulen voor dit woordgebruik.

https://vosnet.org/index.php/limburgs-studentenblaadje-voor-oorlogstijd/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duitsers openen de Montzenroute

Op 15 februari 1917 openen de Duitsers de in snel tempo aangelegde spoorlijn 24 tussen Aken en Tongeren als een onderdeel van het traject tussen het Ruhrgrbied en de haven van Antwerpen. Deze route krijgt de naam Montzenroute met als meest karakteristiek onderdeel het viaduct van Moresnet. Gezien de neutrale opstelling van Nederland in deze oorlog was het gebruik van de Ijzeren Rijn (via de grensovergang tussen Hamont en Weert) niet meer mogelijk. De officiële opening van de lijn, met tal van genodigden en toespraken volgt bijna twee weken later.

Weldra is de lijn druk in gebruik voor transporten van vooral militaire goederen allerhande. Op een gewone werkdag rijden er zowat vijftig treinen in beide richtingen. Vanaf 9 oktober 1917 is er ook personenvervoer op spoorlijn 24. Vlakbij de dorpskern van Sint-Martens-Voeren is een circa 20 meter hoger en 250 meter lange viaduct dat deel uitmaakt van spoorlijn 24. Dit viaduct is gekend als het viaduct van Moresnet.

https://martinusevers.org/2017/02/15/duitsers-openen-de-montzenroute/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Feb 2019 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The only good German is a dead German...

Description - A supplement to the Australia Statesman and Mining Standard issue of 15 February 1917. It is an anti-German propaganda pamphlet loosely disguised as a poster calendar for March - December 1917 which could be purchased for 'Twopence'. It calls for the Allies to finish the war by smashing the Germans so they can never cause conflict again. It includes several short articles about and photographs of German officials and officers and quotations from Australian Parliamentarians.

The Australian Statesman and Mining Standard was owned and edited by journalist and publisher Frank Critchley Parker (1862 - 1944) between 1914 - 1917. He was a passionate pro conscriptionist who used his publication to attack anti-conscriptionists and Irish Catholics. Throughout the war he published anti- German and pro-British propaganda as patriotic pamphlets written by himself and others. So fervent were his attacks that the publication was successfully sued for libel by two senators and there were calls to hold a Royal Commission to investigate the publication, its distribution, and finance by the Federal Labour party.

Klik even door... https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C102583
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