Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

14 Februari
Ga naar Pagina 1, 2  Volgende
 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2006 7:54    Onderwerp: 14 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 14. Februar

1914


1915
Günstiger Verlauf der Kämpfe in Ostpreußen
Russische Niederlage in den Karpathen und der Bukowina
Die Russen räumen Czernowitz

1916
Französische Stellungen bei Tahure und Obersept erstürmt
Die k. u. k. Truppen nahe vor Durazzo
König Ferdinand in Wien
Die Bulgaren 25 Kilometer vor Valona
Der englische Kreuzer "Arethusa" gesunken

1917
Russische Stellungen im Mestecanesci-Abschnitt erstürmt
Wachsende U-Boots-Erfolge
Keine Einschränkung des U-Boot-Krieges
Einspruchnote der nordischen Reiche gegen den uneingeschränkten U-Boot-Krieg

1918
Heftige Kämpfe bei Lens und in der Champagne
Gesteigerte Feuertätigkeit in der Champagne
Die Erklärung Trotzkis über die Beendigung des Kriegszustandes

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2006 7:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 14

1919 Wilson presents draft covenant for League of Nations

In a plenary session of the Versailles peace conference on this day in 1919, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson presents the draft of the covenant for the League of Nations prepared by a League commission that had been established two weeks earlier.

The commission, which was set up on January 25 and had its first meeting on February 4, had tackled the formidable task of laying down the specific tenets of Wilson’s ambitious but nebulous vision—expressed in his famous Fourteen Points—of an international organization that would regulate future conflicts between nations and preserve world peace. At its start, the commission included two representatives from each of the Big Five nations (Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States); nine more representatives were eventually added from the other countries present at the peace conference.

Tensions flared during the commission’s deliberations, particularly over the issues of general disarmament and the establishment of an international military force to give the League the power to enforce its principles. The French argued strongly in favor of both; the U.S. and Britain disagreed, suspicious of continued French aggression against Germany and unwilling to cede control of their own military operations to the League.

Despite these difficulties, Wilson was able to present the commission’s draft in less than two weeks. In it, the commission had outlined all aspects of the League, including its administration: a general assembly, a secretariat and an executive council. There would be no League army and no mandate for disarmament—France had lost on these points. The French had held fast, however, in their insistence that Germany not be invited to join the League right away; this would later force a frustrated Germany to agree, in the Treaty of Versailles, to the formation of an organization that it could not join. (Germany joined the League in 1926; in 1933, after the rise to power of the National Socialist or Nazi Party, it withdrew.)

With a few modifications, the covenant was approved in another plenary session of the conference on April 28. “Many terrible things have come out of this war,” Wilson had said as he presented the draft of the League covenant, “but some very beautiful things have come out of it.” In Wilson’s idealistic vision, the League of Nations was intended to be the most beautiful of these things, but in practice it failed to live up to expectations. For one thing, the Treaty of Versailles was never ratified by the U.S. Senate, largely because of opposition to the League covenant’s Article X, which required that all League members preserve the territorial independence of all other members and commit to joint military action, when necessary, in order to do this.

The absence of the U.S. in the League of Nations, as well as the covenant’s requirement that all League decisions be unanimous, greatly detracted from the organization’s efficacy, and within two decades, the world would again be at war. Ultimately, the League’s greatest legacy would not be its ability to keep the peace, but the groundwork it laid for another international organization: the United Nations, which would borrow some of the League’s organizational principles and, perhaps more importantly, learn from its mistakes.

http://www.historychannel.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 13:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Road to Chunuk Bair
Wanganui & the Great War

Sunday 14 February 1915
Padre Green came down and held a short service. The intelligence officers arrived early and spent a great part of the day in examination of prisoners. The Turkish officers kit was examined and he displayed a good assortment of highly scented and embroidered silk ware of all kinds. He had two large bags with him. In the afternoon an enquiry was held into the matter of the two men who were discharging firearms on Friday night. Their identity was ultimately established and they received 18 days detention each. The men deeply resent the discredit brought on the detachment by the behaviour of these two men. There is no word yet of moving our prisoners.

http://www.wanganuilibrary.com/ww1/2010/02/14/sunday-14-february-1915/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 13:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De chemische oorlog 1915 –1918 en het Belgische leger
Roger R. Verbeke

Op 14 februari 1915 onderzocht hulparts J. De Cuyper zes soldaten van de 1ste Legerdivisie die duizelden en braakten na een Duitse beschieting bij Ramskapelle. In zijn rapport verwees hij naar stikgas.

Lees het hele artikel op http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/gas2006.pdf
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stormvloed van 1916

Noordwaarts ruimende wind joeg in de ochtend van 14 februari 1916 het water over de Waterlandse Zeedijk, die bij Katwoude en Uitdam brak. Hierdoor liep praktisch de hele regio Waterland onder. Tussen Zaandam, Purmerend en Edam tot aan het IJ bij Amsterdam had het water vrij spel. Ook de verschillende polder- en ringdijken verdwenen goeddeels onder. Wel bleven de Purmer en Wijdewormer droog, evenals de dijken langs IJ en Zuiderzee.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormvloed_van_1916
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 13:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sergeant/Adjutant Alphonse Segard

4828 Sergeant/Adjutant Alphonse Segard, 1er Régiment d'Infanterie Territoriale - French Army.

Alphonse was born at Wattelros, Nord on 27th June 1879. Taken prisoner (along with practically the whole of his regiment!) at Maubeuge on 7 September 1914, he died on 14 February 1916 in the prisoner of war hospital at Sennelager in Germany.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1151-14-february-sergeantadjutant-alphonse-segard.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 13:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1916 AIF mutiny.

On Monday, 14 February 1916, about 5000 AIF troops refused to accept the introduction of a new training manual and marched out of their Light Horse training base at Casula, 35 kilometres southwest of Sydney. They headed to nearby Liverpool barracks and persuaded 10000 troops to join them. From here they moved into Liverpool itself and raided several hotels and seized large quantities of alcohol. The manager of the Commercial Hotel in Liverpool later declared that over 100 gallons of rum had been stolen from his hotel. Many then boarded trains for Sydney. They arrived there about 11 am and continued to march and roam through the streets. Some shop windows were smashed and military and mounted civilian police were called out to restore order. Vehicles were even commandeered by the rioters and fruit stalls were stripped of their produce. At the Central Railway Station (Sydney) the troops used a fire hose to repel the authorities. Shots were exchanged and one soldier was shot through the head and died. Nine others were wounded.

Interessant artikel op http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4828547/The-1916-AIF-mutiny.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 14 February 1917

SOLDIERS UNDER AGE.

HC Deb 14 February 1917 vol 90 cc604-5 604

Mr. O'SHAUGHNESSY asked the Under-Secretary for War whether he is aware that Thomas M'Kessy, of Newcastle West, county Limerick, a boy of 16½ years of age, as his certificate of age forwarded to the military authorities proves, joined the South Irish Horse, and that his father applied to the military authorities for his discharge on the ground that he is under military age and not of robust health, which application has been refused; and whether, for the reasons stated, his discharge will now be granted?

The UNDER-SECRETARY Of STATE for WAR (Mr. Macpherson) Inquiries are being made, and my hon. Friend will be informed of the result.

Mr. LYNCH Will the hon Gentleman give the House, definitely, the legal position with regard to such a question: Whether it is legal to hold boys at the age of sixteen in the Army against the wishes of their parents?

Mr. MACPHERSON I cannot discuss that within the limits of question and answer.

Mr. LYNCH Does not it simply require an answer, yes or no?

Mr. SPEAKER When the hon. Member is asking a question on some legal point, he might put the question down. Legal points require consideration.

Mr. FLAVIN Can the hon. Gentleman say what is the minimum age at which a boy is eligible to join the Army? Is there anything definite?

Mr. MACPHERSON The minimum age is really eighteen, but we get a great many patriotic young boys who come forward and give a wrong age.

Mr. O'SHAUGHNESSY Having regard to the fact that this boy's father has stated, and that I have written to the military authorities saving, that he is not in robust health, what is the use of keeping him in the Army?

Mr. MACPHERSON I have told my hon. Friend that I am making inquiries, and if the facts are as stated in his letter the matter will get full consideration.

Mr. O'SHAUGHNESSY asked the Under-Secretary for War whether he is aware that a boy named Maurice Quinlan, of Newcastle West, county Limerick, who was under seventeen years of age when he enlisted in the South Irish Horse, stationed at Cahir, was retained against the wish of his father, who made application for him, while another boy, named John Flynn, who enlisted after December, 1916, in the same regiment, was discharged; that Maurice Quinlan's health was bad, as his father informed the military authorities, that he had to be conveyed back to barracks from his home against the local doctor's wishes at Christmas, and that since his mind got deranged, and he is now in a lunatic asylum; and whether, when in future the father of a boy under military age asks for his discharge, it will be granted by the military authorities?

Mr. MACPHERSON It is the fact that the discharge of Quinlan was refused in accordance with the general practice. He is at present in an asylum, and as soon as he is fit for removal, he will be brought before a medical board for discharge from the Army. I have no information as to Flynn, and inquiries are being made. The discharge of soldiers under military age is not now authorised, unless under very exceptional circumstances, and I regret therefore that I cannot give the assurance asked for.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/feb/14/soldiers-under-age
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI.
Vol. 152, February 14th, 1917.

"We will hold up wheat, we will hold up meat, we will hold up munitions of war and we will hold up the world's commerce," says Herr Ballin. Meanwhile his countrymen on the Western front are content to hold up their hands.

"We are at war," says the Berliner Tageblatt, a statement which only goes to prove that there is nothing hidden from the great minds of Germany.

An exhibition of Zeppelin wreckage has been opened in the Middle Temple Gardens. The authorities are said to be considering an offer confidentially communicated to them by the German Government to add Count Zeppelin as an exhibit to the rest of the wreckage.

The American Association for the Advance of Science decided at a recent convocation that the ape had descended from man. This statement has evoked a very strong protest in monkey circles.

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17471
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SUPPLEMENT TO THE LONDON GAZETTE, 14 FEBRUARY, 1917

Decorations conferred by HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS. (November 2, 1916.)

Grand Officier de l'Ordre de la Gouronne.
+ Lieutenant-General Sir William Riddell Birdwood, K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., D.S.O., Indian Army.
+ Lieutenant-General The Honourable Sir Julian Hedworth George Byne, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., M.V.O. (Colonel, 3-d Hussars).

Lees wat ZKH nog meer uitdeelt: http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/29943/supplements/1592/page.pdf
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lejzer Zamenhof (1859-1917)

Joods-Litouwse oogarts en filoloog die met name bekend werd vanwege de internationale hulptaal die hij ontwierp: Esperanto.

Lejzer Zamenhof overleed op 14 april 1917 aan de gevolgen van hart- en longklachten en werd begraven op de Joodse begraafpaats aan de Okopowastraat in Warschau.

Lees het allemaal op http://historiek.net/index.php/Uitvinders/Lejzer-Zamenhof-1859-1917.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE 1917 FEBRUARY REVOLUTION. TESTIMONY BY A RUSSIAN DIPLOMAT

1917, FEBRUARY. The opening of the State Duma was set for February 14. Asked whether the government was really going to open the Duma, Alexander Protopopov answered: "We certainly will open it, but in the event of any undesirable developments, we will immediately machine-gun it." The Golitsyn and Protopopov government really feared demonstrations by factory workers and took steps in advance to suppress them by force of arms: posted all over the city were notices by Khabalov, Commander of the Military District, warning that fire would be opened at the slightest sign of unrest; he also issued orders for machine-guns to be emplaced in the houses neighbouring on the Duma.

The opening of the Duma on February 14 proceeded peacefully. Both that day and later on, all speakers were careful to keep to a reasonably moderate tone. The meeting of the State Council was somewhat turbulent. Ivan Shcheglovitov first refused David Grimm the floor for an extraordinary statement and then prevented the whole Council from discussing the refusal. Over 40 members of the State Council left the hall in protest.

http://dlib.eastview.com/browse/doc/19438031
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 februari 1918

De zeillogger 'Luctor et Emergo' (SCH 238) van reder F. Haack te Den Haag, vertrokken op 14 februari 1918 voor de visserij op de Noordzee, wordt sindsdien vermist.
Vermoedelijk is het schip met man en muis vergaan door het lopen op een zeemijn. De acht bemanningsleden komen hierbij om het leven.

Bron: 'De Zee' (1918)
http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/02/14-februari-1-1.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fkoopvaardij%2Fkoopvaardij+%28Koopvaardij%29
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 februari 1918

De geluidloze film "Tarzan of the Apes" wordt uitgebracht. De film is gebaseerd op een serie verhalen geschreven door Edgar Rice Burroughs.

http://www.beleven.org/vandaagdedag/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 14:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 14, 1918 -
Russia adopts the Gregorian calendar, changing February 1 to February 14 and moving the country into synch with the rest of Europe.

http://www.britannica.com/facts/10/40944124/February-14-1918-Russia-adopts-the-Gregorian-calendar
Zie ook http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/245469/Gregorian-calendar
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2010 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 februari 1914

Het vrachtschip ss. 'Dorothea' (1903) van NV Maatschappij ss. 'Dorothea' te Rotterdam (P.W. Louwman), op weg van Marbella naar Rotterdam, strandt op de Chesil Bank bij Portland.
Het schip kan door de bemanning verlaten en vervolgens geabandonneerd worden. In 1915 zal het schip door de Engelsen worden geborgen en als 'Ignis' weer onder Britse vlag in de vaart worden gebracht.
Op 8 december 1915 zal het schip op 5 mijl ten noordoosten van Aldeburgh op een mijn lopen en vergaan. Deze zeemijn werd gelegd door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'UC 7'.

Bron: scheepsrampen koopvaardij 1855 - 1991
http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/02/14-februari-191.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fkoopvaardij%2Fkoopvaardij+%28Koopvaardij%29
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Introduction of the Tango to Australia
Oct 18, 2010 Leann Richards

The Tango was introduced to Australia in 1914 and was the cause of much scandal.

The scandalous Argentine tango was introduced to the Australian population in 1914. It was condemned by churches and society matrons, but was well patronised by a curious public.

The Tango in England

The tango arrived in England from the United States in late 1913. It immediately caused a sensation. The split skirts worn by the dancers and the intimacy of the partners combined to make the dance controversial. Society matrons condemned it as indecent, and the Queen banned it from her presence. Following this example, the tango was forbidden in ballrooms across the nation. This, however, did not stop people from dancing it in underground halls and music venues.

It was not only society that condemned the tango, but the clergy did too. The Pope laid a edict against it and priests were instructed to preach against the immoral dance.

The Tango in Australia

The tango that came to London and subsequently to Australia was a tamer version than the original Argentine affair. The dresses were modest, although they occasionally revealed a lady's knee, and the dance was less intense and passionate. Nonetheless even the tame version attracted condemnation from the establishment.

News of the dance reached Australia fairly quickly. It created an avid curiosity in the public. Seeking to capitalise on this, Tivoli Theatre owner, Hugh McIntosh, decided to introduce the tango to Australian audiences.

McIntosh introduced a series of tango teas. During the show, a couple, Miss Dudley Hamilton and Mr George Salinger would dance the tango as the patrons sipped tea. This was followed by a fashion parade of ladies in lingerie. After all the excitement, Miss Josephine Davis would sing, "Take me to that Tango Tea" which provided more publicity.

The first tango tea in Melbourne was performed in February 1914, and the newspapers agreed that the tango, rather than being an animalistic rhythmic dance, was, instead, a series of intricate steps. However, the mild reaction of the newspapers was not echoed in the conservative community.

Reaction to the Tango

The ladies of the Australian women's conference in Melbourne were horrified with the slit skirts worn by the dancers. They were equally scandalised by the fact that low cut tango dresses with high slits, were on display in Melbourne stores. Apparently more men than women were window shopping at that particular shopfront.

The dance was very popular with men. One advantage of the tango, which was discussed in the newspaper was that it attracted men back to the ballrooms. The sight of a ladies knee, was of course rare at the time, and the hope of such a sight encouraged the male population to patronise dances.

In Adelaide, a reverend preached against the immorality of the dance, and in Western Australia, the owners of the Tivoli were charged with breaches of the public health act when they held a tango tea.

However, despite the establishment horror, the dance was very popular with the public. In Adelaide, large queues formed when the tango teas were announced, and as in London, the tango was danced in popular dance halls.

Eventually the tango became an accepted part of ballroom dancing, however, it challenged the mores of established society and in many ways prefigured the more flamboyant dances, dresses and tunes of the 1920s.

Sources
•Tango Tea The Argus Melbourne ,14 February 1914
•Tango Dress Sydney Morning Herald,, 5 March 1914
•The Tango The Argus Melbourne, 14 February 1914


http://www.suite101.com/content/the-introduction-of-the-tango-to-australia-a297762
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 14 Februari 1914.

Valkenswaard. Een genotvolle avond wacht ons morgen, doordat ’t gemengd zangkoor het Rozenknopje, bijgestaan door een beroepskomiek ons een concert aanbiedt. Waarborgt ’t Rozenknopje veel kunstgenot, de declamator zal voor de vermakelijke afwisseling zorg dragen.
Nu we opnieuw eens een uitstekend gezelschap zangeressen en zangers te hooren krijgen moge de vraag nog eens overwogen worden of ook hier een dergelijke zangvereeniging geen levensvatbaarheid zal hebben. Ook pianist en pistonist zullen hun beste beentje voorzetten. Het concert heeft plaats bij den heer Kanen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1914.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GEORGE HERMAN "BABE" RUTH, 1894-1948

Early Life - The legend surrounding Ruth's life and career has its origins in his troubled upbringing. When he was eight years old he was sent for a few weeks to Baltimore's Saint Mary's Industrial School for boys, a home for "incorrigibles." At the age of ten he was returned to the reformatory and from age ten to twenty, he spent at least seven years there. While at Saint Mary's, Ruth came under the influence of Brother Mathias, who in 1914 asked Jack Dunn, a scout for the Baltimore Orioles, then in the Federal League, to watch the nineteen-year-old left-hander pitch. Dunn signed Ruth on 14 February 1914 to a $600 contract with the Orioles.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Babe_Ruth.aspx
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 February 1915: Maori soldiers sail to war


Members of the Native Contingent aboard ship before their departure in February 1915

Imperial policy initially opposed the idea of 'native peoples' fighting in a war among Europeans. There were fears that they might turn on their colonial masters or cause embarrassment by expecting equal treatment with European soldiers. When it was suggested that Maori be sent to garrison the newly captured German colony of Samoa, New Zealand Administrator Robert Logan cabled the government warning that this might provoke the Samoan population. Instead, the Native Contingent of about 500 men left Wellington for Egypt aboard the SS Wairrimoo on 14 February 1915.

Maori had mixed views about the First World War. Some supported the war effort and wanted to join up. Others opposed the war as they did not want to fight for the British Crown, which was seen to have done much harm to Maori communities in the 19th century. The varied reactions reflected iwi experiences of British actions in the previous century.

The official policy regarding the use of ‘native peoples’ changed as casualties mounted and the need for reinforcements grew. The Maori Contingent had a combat role at Gallipoli before being converted into a Pioneer Battalion to serve on the Western Front.
By the end of the war, 2227 Maori and 458 Pacific Islanders had served in the Maori Pioneer Battalion. Of these, 336 died on active service and 734 were wounded. Other Maori enlisted (and died) in other battalions as well.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline&new_date=14/02
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cornelius Coughlan

Cornelius Coughlan VC (27 June 1828 in Eyrecourt, County Galway - 14 February 1915) was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 28 years old, and a Colour Sergeant in the 75th Regiment of Foot (later The Gordon Highlanders), British Army during the Indian Mutiny when the following deeds took place on 8th June and 18th July 1857 at Delhi, India for which he was awarded the VC:

For gallantly venturing, under a heavy fire, with three others, into a Serai occupied by the Enemy in great numbers, and removing Private Corbett, 75th Regiment, who lay severely wounded. Also for cheering and encouraging a party which hesitated to charge down a lane in Subzee Mundee, at Delhi, lined on each side with huts, and raked by a cross fire; then entering with the said party into an enclosure filled with the Enemy, and destroying every man. For having also, on the same occasion, returned under a cross fire to collect dhoolies, and carry off the wounded ; a service which was successfully performed, and for which this man obtained great praise from the Officers of his Regiment.

Queen Victoria felt moved to write a personal letter to Sgt Major Coughlan on hearing about his acts of bravery.

The soldier returned from India to serve for two decades in the Connaught Rangers in his native Ireland achieving the rank of sergeant-major.

He died in Westport, County Mayo on 14 February 1915 and is buried locally. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the National War Museum of Scotland (Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelius_Coughlan
Zie ook http://www.victoriacross.org.uk/bbcoughl.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oud-minister de Beaufort noteert 14 februari 1915 in zijn dagboek

“Prins Hendrik wordt buiten alles gehouden, weet zelfs van de reizen der koningin niets. Hij moet onlangs te Gorinchem zijn gekomen en vernam daar van den burgemeester dat de koningin één uur na hem werd verwacht.”

Lees er alles over op http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/wilhelmina-in-oorlogstijd/wilhelmina-1915/index.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RAF: 12 Squadron

No. 12 Squadron was formed on 14 February 1915 at Netheravon from a nucleus of crew and aircraft provided by No. 1 Squadron.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/organisation/12squadron.cfm

RAF Squadron: 11 (F) Squadron RFC

Initially formed at Netheravon on 14 February 1915, was equipped with the 2 seat Vickers Gunbus fighter a month before deploying to Northern France in July 1915 as the first dedicated fighter squadron to enter WWI, hence the letter ‘F’, for Fighter, included in the squadron title. 11 Squadron flew this obsolete aircraft for a year before being re-equipped with the Royal Aircraft Factory FE2 fighter in June 1916 which was eventually replaced by the Bristol Fighter in 1918. It was while flying the obsolete Gunbus that 2nd Lt GSM Insall won the Victoria Cross in November 1915 in an action over German lines. The squadron, as with many others, was disbanded in late 1919.

http://www.hmforces.co.uk/Join_The_Forces/articles/111-raf-squadrons-numbers-11-19
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henare Wepiha Te Wainohu (1882–1920)

Ngati Kahungunu and Ngati Pahauwera leader, Anglican clergyman, army chaplain


Henare Wepiha Te Wainohu, photographed in army chaplain's uniform during the First World War

(...) At the outbreak of the First World War Te Wainohu was attached to the New Zealand Chaplains Department. He was appointed chaplain to the Maori Contingent, which left New Zealand for Egypt on 14 February 1915 aboard the troopship Warrimoo. At first there was official opposition to sending Maori troops into battle, and after months of training in Egypt and garrison duty at Malta they were becoming restless. Eventually the Maori Contingent was sent to reinforce the New Zealand troops at Gallipoli, arriving in July 1915. On 6 August they were sent into battle beside their Pakeha comrades at Sari Bair. On the eve of the battle Te Wainohu preached a sermon that was later much quoted and which formed the basis for a proverb. As well as exhorting the soldiers to be fearless in battle and not to turn their backs on the enemy, he reminded them of their duty to uphold the warrior tradition of the Maori: 'remember you have the mana, the honour and the good name of the Maori people in your keeping this night'. This appeal, in particular, gave courage to the soldiers.

Henare Te Wainohu risked his life for others on many occasions at Gallipoli. In the company of the medical officer, Major Peter Buck, he carried out the wounded, distributed water, and comforted the dying – often under fire. He was wounded in the back in September 1915. After the evacuation of Gallipoli, Te Wainohu accompanied the New Zealand Pioneer Battalion, in which the contingent was now integrated, to France.

During the war the Maori newspaper Te Kopara published some of Te Wainohu's letters home. In one of these he answered the criticism that Maori troops had been split up into platoons and forced to fight with Pakeha battalions. He and Buck had attempted to persuade General A. J. Godley to keep the Maori Contingent together in 1915, but had been told that they did not have sufficient experienced officers. Other letters revealed Te Wainohu's concern for the moral and spiritual welfare of Maori soldiers, particularly those troops training in England, who for a time were without their own chaplain. He supported the publication of prayer books in Maori, and towards the end of the war visited the wounded in London hospitals. He was awarded various medals, including the Serbian Order of the White Eagle (fifth class) and was mentioned in dispatches for his services in France in 1918. (...)

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/3t23/1
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant ERIC ARCHIBALD McNAIR VC - 9th Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment - Hooge - 14th February 1916



Citation from the London Gazette, No 29527 March 30, 1916: "Eric Archibald McNair, Lieutenant, Royal Sussex Regiment. When the enemy exploded a mine, Lieutenant McNair and many men of two platoons were hoisted into the air, and many men were buried. But, though much shaken, he at once organised a party with a machine gun to man the near edge of the crater, and opened rapid fire on a large party of the enemy who were advancing. The enemy were driven back leaving many dead. Lieutenant McNair then ran back for reinforcements, and sent to another unit for bombs, ammunition and tools to replace those buried. The communication trench being blocked, he went across the open under heavy fire, and led up the reinforcements the same way. His prompt and plucky action undoubtedly saved the situation."

Born on 16th June 1894, at Calcutta in India, Eric Archibald McNair was the son of a solicitor then working and living in India. He was educated at Charterhouse school, and Magdelen College, Oxford where he met the then Prince of Wales.

Commissioned into the Royal Sussex Regiment in October 1914, he joined the 9th Battalion at Brighton. Their training took them to barracks near Dover, and crossed to France with the Battalion in August 1915, to take part in the ill-fated Battle of Loos. The 9th fought near a position called The Dump, and suffered heavy casualties. The Battalion they moved to the Ypres Salient, where they took over trenches on the Bellewaarde Ridge near the hamlet of Hooge. It was here on 14th February 1916 that the action which resulted in the award of the VC took place.

McNair was appointed to the rank of Captain, continued to serve with the 9th Bn after the award of the VC until badly wounded at Guillemont, on the Somme, on 18th August 1916. He never returned to the battalion, his wounds and sickness resulting in a Staff job. This staff work took him to Italy in 1917, where he was attached to General Headquarters. McNair again contracted sickness, dying at Genoa Hospital on 12th August 1918, aged twenty four. He is buried in Staglieno Cemetery, Genoa, Italy (Plot I, Row B, Grave 32).

His VC is held at the Royal Sussex Regiment museum at Eastbourne.

http://battlefields1418.50megs.com/vc2.htm

Eric Archibald McNair



Eric Archibald McNair VC (16 June 1894 - 12 August 1918) was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was educated at Charterhouse School from 1907-1913, where he was Head of the School.

He was 21 years old, and a Temporary Lieutenant in the 9th (S) Battalion, The Royal Sussex Regiment, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 14 February 1916 near Hooge, Belgium, when the enemy exploded a mine, Lieutenant McNair and a number of men were flung into the air and many were buried. Although much shaken, the lieutenant at once organised a party with a machine-gun to man the near edge of the crater and opened rapid fire on the enemy who were advancing. They were driven back with many dead. Lieutenant McNair then ran back for reinforcements, but the communication trench being blocked he went across the open under heavy fire and held up the reinforcements the same way. His prompt and plucky action undoubtedly saved a critical situation.

He later achieved the rank of Captain. He died of chronic dysentry at the base hospital in Genoa, Italy, on 12 August 1918.[1]

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Eastbourne Redoubt Museum, Eastbourne, Sussex, England.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Archibald_McNair
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Watersnood (1916)

Extreem hoog water langs de Zuiderzee vóór de ramp door aanhoudende noordwestenwind. Dagenlange regen had bovendien de - slecht onderhouden - dijken verslapt. Noordwaarts ruimende wind joeg in de ochtend van 14 februari 1916 het water over de Waterlandse Zeedijk, die bij Katwoude en Uitdam brak. Hierdoor liep praktisch de hele regio Waterland onder. Tussen Zaandam, Purmerend en Edam tot aan het IJ bij Amsterdam had het water vrij spel. Ook de verschillende polder- en ringdijken verdwenen goeddeels onder. Tevens brak de Amsteldijk bij Anna-Paulownapolder. Hier kwamen 2 mensen om het leven. Makers van de film: Onbekend Datum: 1916 Versie: Ned. Locatie: Noord-Holland

Bewegend beeld! http://www.plaats.nl/uitdam/videos/WF9yiDDKWtI/watersnood-1916/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The other charge of the Light Brigade

ate on a February night in 1916 Ernest William Keefe, a trooper training with the Sixth Australian Light Horse Depot, was shot through the right cheek and killed by the Metropolitan Police at Sydney's Central Railway Station. For much of the day thousands of troops from Liverpool had rampaged through the city in a booze-fuelled rage. After Trooper Keefe was shot, at 10.45 pm, the decade-old station quickly emptied, but gun smoke lingered in the thick summer air. Moments earlier five hundred soldiers and civilians, boots and shouts throwing violent echoes around the tiled cavern of Central Station, came up against a military picket.

The angry mob threw stones and bottles, and turned a fire hose on the authorities. A soldier shot a revolver into the air, and those in the picket, which included two policemen, returned fire. According to the police report to the New South Wales Coroner, the picket and police fired fifty shots, seriously injuring seven in the crowd, including a civilian.

Keefe was only nineteen. He was one of the thousands of young men from the city and far-flung country towns who had responded to the recruiting marches over the previous three months and the December ‘Call to Arms' from Prime Minister William Hughes urging men to join the Australian Imperial Force. Keefe was training in the Light Horse Brigade, which was again making a name for itself in the Middle East. Instead of finding glory or death in battle ‘in the greatest war of all time', Trooper Keefe was buried in the Church of England section of Waverley Cemetery, the victim of a battle close to home.

The death of Trooper Keefe marked the end of a strike that had begun almost fourteen hours earlier and caused riotous chaos throughout the city. The seeds of ‘the mutiny', as it was called, were sown just before the 9 am parade at Casula Camp, in south-western Sydney, on 14 February 1916 – Valentine's Day.

The AIF had maintained bases in the Liverpool area since 1903, but the camp at Casula was established much later, to accommodate and train recruits before they went to the Great War's foreign battlefields. The overcrowded base housed about six thousand troops and was adjacent to the Concentration Camp, which housed thousands of enemy aliens in what some soldiers considered were better conditions. These dusty tent settlements operated with military routine, yet with increasing unease. A Royal Commission had investigated the complaints about overcrowding, lack of ventilation and abuse of alcohol at Casula a few months earlier.

The disquiet at Casula found focus on the morning of 14 February, when the recruits were told their training was being extended by four and a half hours, from thirty-six hours a week. They were angry about the overcrowding and lack of a wet canteen at the camp, and the difficulty of getting leave. The extra drill was the last straw. A report in The Bulletin the following day described conditions as ‘a dam about to burst' that began ‘in cold blood, in bitter sobriety'. The men were hungry for war, not more training, but they wanted to be treated with respect and to receive what they considered to be a fair go.

That February morning thousands of soldiers reached breaking point. They refused the direction to extend training hours and decided to strike. One of the convicted ringleaders, sixteen-year-old Private F Short, later said in his court martial that outside his tent ‘there was a big crowd...nearly all the camp. They were going from one tent to another pulling people out. "Now, you have to come with us."' According to Captain Smith, a senior officer at Casula, around midday about 2,500 soldiers out of 5,600 remained at the camp.

The mob marched to nearby Liverpool in full flight. There they swarmed into the pubs and hotels demanding free grog. The Sydney Morning Herald reported that at the Commercial Hotel, opposite the Liverpool railway station, the soldiers rolled eleven hogsheads onto the street and drank them dry; the publican estimated that they had stolen a ‘hundred gallons' of rum. A bulk store was raided: an axe was used to break down the door and £1,500 of stock was stolen. Several police, including Constable Tillet of Cabramatta, were assaulted. Three hundred soldiers tried to break into a second hotel and then another hotel opposite it. The riot progressed like a tropical storm, with quiet followed by waves of destruction. Captain Smith described the action: ‘There would be a lull for a quarter of an hour, then they would continue again. The number would come down to a hundred or a hundred and fifty, and it would suddenly increase again by men coming from different directions, who would form a larger body, and the new lot of men would rush the hotel.'

FROM 1PM THE soldiers started rushing trains leaving for the ‘50-mile' journey to Sydney – they had long thought they were entitled to free train travel and now took it. Later in the afternoon the police, with the aid of twenty reinforcements from Sydney, managed to keep those remaining in Liverpool out of the other pubs, which lined the streets, and and send them back to Casula.

Shortly before 2 pm the first train arrived at Central Station. Half-drunk soldiers piled onto the main platform and ‘quickly formed up in fours'. Organising themselves, they started marching from the platform, heading out of the station and up George Street. The Sydney Morning Herald reported, ‘Here they made a really fine picture, and keeping good time...the men marched as if on parade.'

In front of the first column the protesting soldiers rigged up a Union Jack, regimental colours and a placard: ‘Strike. We won't drill 401⁄2 hours [sic].' Any semblance of discipline among the soldiers, drunk on rum and the luck of getting so far, soon broke down. They raided fruit carts, eating some produce but also throwing it at each other and passers-by. As the troops marched north up George Street, passing vehicles became targets. ‘Motor cars, motor bicycles, lorries, drays' were commandeered. There was little the former occupants could do but smile at the long column of men in dungarees and khaki marching down the street, and let them take possession. Many people in the city, though initially frightened, were sympathetic and impressed by the spectacle – thousands joined in the riot later in the day.

By 2.30 pm an estimated three thousand soldiers had reached the city. There they were received by a panicked hundred-strong police force and an even more frightened Cabinet. The Chief Secretary sent regular notes to the Premier describing, with increasing alarm, what was happening as the troops took over the city: ‘Three thousand men are now marching down George Street and the military authorities do not know how they got there.'

Four hundred troops marching in rank arrived at the door of the Evening News later in the day and demanded that the poster in front of the office declaring ‘Riot At Liverpool' be changed to ‘Strike at Liverpool', and an apology delivered.

The parade of marching troops continued to thin as groups broke off to raid nearby pubs. Yet the momentum of the day carried many of them on to Circular Quay, before they turned around and took a ‘smoko' next to the Domain gates.

AFTER THE REST at the Domain the troops made a run at the Assembly Hotel, opposite the police headquarters. It took a pitched battle with police to get them out. During the afternoon the chaos of the mob turned into a city-wide riot. Hotels were raided and those that were closed had windows broken and charged. The Bulletin concluded, ‘If all the beer in Sydney had been buried in stone vaults at the moment that the human tornado struck the city, it would have stood a big chance of being torn from its place of seclusion.'

By this stage there were several groups in different parts of the city, as each train from Liverpool deposited between three and six hundred troops. One group rushed towards Broadway and Toohey's Brewery, another marched up Eddy Avenue; two hundred men ran down Shepherd Street. The fruit stalls in the Queen Victoria Building were cleared out and broken.

The riot peaked at 5 pm. A thousand drunk troops in George Street, near Hay Street, almost overwhelmed the few police trying to maintain order. At the Regent Street Police Station about seventy soldiers, some carrying lead pipes, threatened to charge the station and free ‘our boys' who had been arrested. Throughout Haymarket the police made baton charges against the troops.

Both the German Club on Phillip Street and R Kleisdorff's tobacco store on the corner of Hunter and Castlereagh streets were attacked. Outside the Criterion Hotel one of the troops, pointing to a name above the sign, shouted ‘Here's a German' before the mob got inside and started demanding drinks from that ‘German bastard'.

The locus of the riot moved to the Queen Victoria Building by 9 pm. There, about five hundred troops rushed around in a crowd of four or five thousand people. A mob collected across the road, on the Druitt Street side of Town Hall, when three revolver shots were heard and the crowd surged, overpowering the few police and forcing ‘many women to take refuge in the grounds of St Andrews Church'.

The military leadership eventually responded, deploying fifteen hundred soldiers as pickets, and the entire Sydney police force joined them in what became a full-scale battle with the mob of striking troops. Police eventually trapped many of them in the city centre.

What happened in the final hours of mayhem, between this exchange in Druitt Street and the death of Ernest Keefe, is unclear. The trail of historical documents peters out. But what is clear is that the riot ended where it started, with the chant ‘Will we drill forty hours? No!' answered by rifle fire.

THE FOLLOWING DAY, at 11 am, most of the striking/rioting soldiers reported for a compulsory parade at Casula. In the weeks that followed 279 troops were discharged, thirty-six were convicted in state courts and the ringleaders were sentenced to up to five years of hard labour. Others were sent to faraway battles, and some of those involved in the Liverpool riot went on to fight on the Western Front and in the Middle East. Within months the Casula base was closed and those who had yet to be sent abroad were relocated elsewhere. The bullet holes at Central were filled with putty and the memory of the Valentine's Day riot slowly evaporated.

Although the battle began as a dispute over working conditions it gave the temperance movement, which had been gathering support for many years, a compelling argument to convince the people of New South Wales to vote in June 1916 for the six o'clock closing of all pubs. The Bulletin denounced the link as ‘hysterical...pub hours were no more to blame than the railway timetable or the width of the Redfern tunnel'. Yet if the events of Valentine's Day 1916 are remembered at all it is as the trigger for six o'clock closing – a policy that remained law in the state until 1955. ♦

Notes on sources: The information used in the research of this piece was drawn from a wide range of areas. These included the archived Sydney Morning Herald and Daily Telegraph, a coronial inquiry, police reports to the Coroner, correspondence of the Colonial Secretary, the Gazette of the Second Military District, courts martial records, police testimony delivered in the courts martial, and military inquiries. I tried to corroborate the information as much as possible. For example the 3,000 troops I describe ending up in the city relied on Colonial Secretary's correspondence (which was probably based on police estimates), the report of senior officer Captain Smith, and the estimate of The Bulletin. However such depth of knowledge was not always available. On occasion I had to make a decision as to the reliability of certain sources and their perspective. For instance when I write about the troops rushing the Criterion bar yelling ‘there's a German in there' I relied on the courts martial testimony of Staff Sergeant Sydney Tanner, who was trying to prove his innocence. Although the evidence may seem uncertain, as it was uncorroborated and shaped by his aim to prove his innocence, it was corroborated in a larger sense. The troops did damage German-owned property – and that they suspected was German-owned. There was widespread anti-German sentiment in the community with a Concentration Camp for Germans next to the Liverpool base. The major source of blame for the incident was initially attributed to German spies. In the end the work is a mixture of directly corroborated records and plausible individual interpretations.

National archives
National Archives of Australia, A471, 1444. Sydney Tanner court martial.
National Archives of Australia, A471, 1143. Cecil E Madden et all court martial.
National Archives of Australia, A471, 1196. F Short and J Sutcliffe court martial.
National Archives of Australia, A5522, M466. Commission of inquiry – Liverpool military camp.
National Archives of Australia, AWM34, 105/1/1 – 203/1/4. 2ND Military district gazette.

Newspapers
The Bulletin, The Army that Came to Town, 24 February 1916.
Daily Telegraph, 15 February 1916
Sydney Morning Herald, , 15 – 18 February 1916

State Archives
State Records NSW: Colonial Secretary; 5/2641-5/2643 A-Z 1916, no. 798.


http://www.griffithreview.com/edition-28-still-the-lucky-country/244-essay/891.html
In PDF: http://www.griffithreview.com/images/stories/edition_articles/ed28_pdfs/reinecke_ed28.pdf
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Somme Offensive

14 February 1916 : Franco-British conference which sets 1 July as the start of the offensive of the Somme.

http://www.somme-battlefields.com/battlefields/the_great_war/chronology
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bell Telephone Company of Canada

Incorporated by an act of Parliament on 29 April 1880, the Bell Telephone Company of Canada (today Bell Canada) received by its charter the right to construct telephone lines alongside all public rights-of-way in Canada, a most valuable privilege. Under a licensing agreement with the US-based America Bell Telephone company, Bell also manufactured telephones and telephone equipment, an activity that would be spun off as Northern Electric Manufacturing Company in 1895 which, in turn, would become Northern Electric Ltd. (known today as Nortel Networks) following a merger with Imperial Wire and Cable in 1914.

On 14 February 1916, on the occasion of a banquet held by the Bell Telephone Company of Canada in Montréal, a call was placed to Vancouver - the first trans-Canadian telephone call, albeit routed through large parts of the United States. It would be another 16 years before such a call using all-Canadian lines would be made.

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0000662
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The actions of Spring 1916

Enemy diversionary attacks around the Ypres Salient: the Bluff, 14 February - 2 March 1916

Second Army (Plumer)
172nd Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers
V Corps (Fanshawe)
3rd Division
17th (Northern) Division


The Ypres-Comines canal, running south east from the town, cut through the front lines about 3 miles from the Cloth Hall. This was the position at the end of the First Battle of Ypres and it was much the same by 1916, the Second Battle having not altered things. Facing the British, the village of Hollebeke; on the left was the hotly-contested ground of Hill 60 and Zwarteleen, and on the right the hotspot at St Eloi. On the northern embankment of the canal, a curious mound - a spoil-heap, created when the canal was excavated - gave the British front an unusual observation advantage over the enemy. If the enemy held it, the view across the rear areas of the Salient to Hill 60, towards Ypres and down to Voormezele would have made the Salient very difficult to hold. The position just had to be held.



The German front line fire trench lay some 200 yards ahead of this feature, which the British called the Bluff, and the germans the Grosse, or Kanal, Bastion. British trenches ran around the forward base of the Bluff, snaking around the front of the lips of a number of mine craters that had been blown here in October and November 1915 and in January 1916. Communication trenches ran back over the Bluff itself. The canal cutting was steep sided, and over 100 yards wide. The trenches continued on the other side, with only a single plank bridge connecting the two banks.

17th (Northern) Division had moved to relieve 3rd Division in the canal sector between 5 and 8 February 1916, and placed 51st Brigade on a 1300 yard front at the Bluff position. It was also responsible for the south bank and had 52nd Brigade there. Enemy shellfire began to fall on both brigade fronts in the morning of 14 February, intensifying on the Bluff from mid afternoon. (The enemy was also shelling 24th Division at Hooge at this time). British artillery began to retaliate and the infantry at the Bluff stood by to meet an anticipated attack. All telephone wires were cut by the shelling, which severely affected the ability of units in the front line to call for support. German tunnellers blew three small mines at 5.45pm, one under the Bluff (which buried a platoon of the 10/Lancashire Fusiliers sheltering in an old tunnel) and two slightly further north, under the 10/Sherwood Foresters. Shortly afterwards, German infantry attacked between the canal bank and the Ravine. They entered and captured the front line trenches but were driven out of the support lines behind the front. Small local efforts to counter attack over the next two days failed. The all-important Bluff position had been lost, and it would take more than localised efforts to regain it.

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/bat14.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LINSEY-WOOLSEY/ˈlɪnzɪ ˈwʊlzɪ/

A textile material; a strange medley.

Back in Tudor times in England there was a coarse linen material called linsey, whose name was formerly believed to have come from the dialect word line for linen, but is now thought to be from Lindsey, the name of the village in Suffolk where it was first made. Linen was woven with wool to make a less costly fabric that became known as linsey-woolsey, with the ending of wool changed to make a rhyming couplet.

Henry Smith, who was a Church of England clergyman and a renowned preacher — he was known as Silver-Tongued Smith — included this comment in his sermon, A Preparative to Marriage, that was published in 1591: “God forbad the people to weare linsey wolsey, because it was a signe of inconstancie.” He was referring to the Biblical prohibition against wearing clothes made from a mixture of linen and wool.

Rather later, linsey-woolsey became an inferior coarse cloth of wool woven on cotton. You can tell its humble status from Elizabeth Gaskell’s mention of it in Sylvia’s Lovers of 1863: “How well it was, thought the young girl, that she had doffed her bed-gown and linsey-woolsey petticoat, her working-dress, and made herself smart in her stuff gown, when she sat down to work with her mother.” The Ohio Democrat commented in 1869 on local small farmers who had come into Charlotte, North Carolina, to sell their cotton crop: “They were uniformly dressed in the roughest sort of homemade linsey-wolsey.”

Punch had fun with its name in its issue of 14 February 1917:

When I grow up to be a man and wear whate’er I please,
Black-cloth and serge and Harris-tweed — I will have none of these;
For shaggy men wear Harris-tweed, so Harris-tweed won’t do,
And fat commercial travellers are dressed in dingy blue;
Lack-lustre black to lawyers leave and sad souls in the City,
But I’ll wear Linsey-Woolsey because it sounds so pretty.
I don’t know what it looks like,
I don’t know how it feels,
But Linsey-Woolsey to my fancy
Prettily appeals.


Because linsey-woolsey combines two fabrics, the word came, as early as the end of the sixteenth century, to refer to a strange mixture and so to confusion or nonsense. Shakespeare was an early user in All’s Well That Ends Well (1601): “But what linsey-woolsey hast thou to speak to us again?” It’s long defunct in this sense; one of the last users was an anonymous critic in The Examiner in 1823: “A perking, prurient, linsey-wolsey species of composition.” [Perking: upstart, insolent or impudent.]

http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-lin2.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Valentine Fairbairn

On leaving school he went to England to enlist for active service; he was accepted by the Royal Flying Corps and commissioned as a flying officer in July 1916. On 14 February 1917 he was shot down and captured by the Germans while helping to escort a squadron taking photographs between Cambrai and St Quentin. An account of the incident and his fourteen-month captivity until he was released on exchange was published in the Corian. His right arm had been badly damaged and was to remain largely disabled despite repeated operations; but he refused to be diverted from an intention to continue flying.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080483b.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Owen Squier - Major General, United States Army



George Owen Squier was born in Dryden, Michigan, 21 March 1863 and graduated from the Military Academy in 1877. After first entering the Army as an artillery officer, Squier joined the Signal Corps, rising to Major by 1903. He commanded cable-ship Burnside during the laying of the Philippine cable from 1900 to 1902. He was appointed Chief Signal Officer of the Army 14 February 1917, and was promoted to Major General 6 October. He also served as Chief of the Army Air Service 1916 to 1918. General Squier was the author of numerous articles and papers on technical subjects, and is credited with several important inventions in the fields of radio and electronics. He took part in his later life in several international conferences on communications and attended the 1921 Washington Conference on Naval Limitations for the War Department. General Squier died 24 March l934.

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/gosquier.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

80,000 ton Battleship. Scheme IV-1 ... January 30, 1917



Preliminary design plan of a hypothetical battleship created at the request of the U.S. Senate and submitted to the Senate on 14 February 1917. Senator Benjamin R. Tillman of South Carolina had sponsored a resolution calling for the design of the battleship of maximum size and capability that could use the Panama Canal and existing harbor facilities. The Navy recommended against building such ships but delivered plans illustrating potentially feasible designs that reflected differing priorities. This 80,000 ton design (# IV-1) provided five twin and one triple 18-inch gun turrets. No such ships were built.

This plan provides thirteen 18-inch guns, electric drive machinery, and a speed of 25.2 knots in a ship 975 feet long on the waterline, 108 feet in beam, and with a normal displacement of 80,000 tons.

Note: The original document was a blueprint (white on dark blue).

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/s-file/s584116c.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armenian Genocide Timeline: 1917

2/14/1917 Halide Hanum, the Turkish female author, and head of an orphanage established in Syria, receives 70 Armenian orphans in her orphanage in order to Turkify them.

http://www.genocide1915.info/history/chronology1917.asp

NEW REVELATIONS ON THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
Nora Parseghian / Simon Beugekian

The Armenian nation lived the most horrible phase of its history in 1915. The Ottoman authorities executed the Genocide which resulted in the killing of over 1 million Armenians, while most of the Armenians remaining on the western parts of historic Armenia were compelled to leave there cities and villages and deported, marched towards the deserts of Iraq and Syria.

Parts of the deported Armenians reached Lebanon where they believed that they were left in peace without realizing that in one of the not-so-far villages of Lebanon, namely Aintoura, near Zouk, Keserwan, which is about half an hour drive from the capital city Beirut, a plan of Turkification of Armenian orphans had been put in motion in 1915.

Such a new page in the history of the Armenian Genocide was recently discovered by Missak Keleshian, who is an avid collector of all kinds of photos of the Armenian Genocide. This is how he speaks about this most recent discovery: “A few months ago I was reading a book entitled "The Lions of Marash" by Stanley E. Kerr, (President of the American Univerity of Beirut) who tells about his personal experiences with Near East Relief during the years 1919-1922. In the book I came across a shocking photo with the following caption: “Jemal Pasha...on the steps of the French College at Aintoura, Lebanon. Jemal Pasha had established an orphanage for Armenian children in the college building and had appointed Halide Edib to be its directress”. Halide Edib Hanum was a famous Turkish feminist and very well known for her efforts to turkify Armenian orphans. Beside being shocking, the photo was the first step that lead to a new discovery.

“On December 8, 2005 I visited the village of Aintoura and located the school where the photo was taken. It’s a famous French College and it was established by the Jesuit priests 1657-1783 and Lazarist priests 1783-1834. I met with the school principal Superior Lazarist Father Jean Sfeir and after showing him the photo, I asked for his permission to research the school’s archives for additional information about it and reveal its entire history. He was also amazed by the photo and asked the archivist of the school to assist me.”

“The archivist of the school Mr. Jean Sebastian Arhan, a Frenchman who came to Lebanon 43 years ago and has been since working in the archive of the French College in Aintoura. I showed him the photo and explained to him what I was looking for. To my amazement he was not only well aware of that part of the school’s history that I was interested in but he had also gathered all the archival material pertaining to that period in a separate file which he gave to me.”

According to Missak Keleshian, the most important revelation of the photo is the presence of Jemal Pasha and Halide Hanum beside Armenian orphans. Halide Hanum (Halide Edib Adivar 1884-1964) was one of the world renowned feminists of her times. She had received higher education American College for Women in1901. Best known for her novels criticizing the low social status of Turkish women; her first novel Seviye Talip, was published in 1909, Her first husband, Salih Zeki, then she remarried Dr. Adnan Adivar in 1917.

She served as a sergeant in Turkey’s nationalist military. Lived in UK, France, and as one of the early feminists met with Gandhi and visited the United States of America for meeting with the leaders of the feminist movement there. She fell in love with Kemal Atatourk but the latter rejected her. Halide Hanum was a strong supporter of the pashas who planned, organized and executed the Armenian Genocide and played a crucial role in the efforts to turkify the remnants of the Armenians and was one of the leaders of that effort with Nigar Hanum.

Halide Adivar was Member of Parliament 1950-1954.

On October 29, 1914 the Ottoman Empire declared war against France, Great Britain and Russia. Therefore the agreement signed between the great powers and the Ottomans giving Mount Lebanon special status on June 9, 1861 was voided. The last christian governor of Lebanon, Ohannes Kouyoumdjian Pasha, is replaced by Ali Mounif Bey, during whose reign Lebanon lived horrible condition including hunger, very harsh economic conditions and a surge in the number of executions.

At the end of 1915, the kaymakam (district governor) of Jounieh informs the responsible of the Aintoura College that they must close it down. The clergy are compelled to leave to another monastery on a higher altitude, others are taken to Anatolia and Ourfa while a few older priests, who are unable to travel, remain in Aintoura.

Following the expulsion of the Lazarist priests the school is transformed into an orphanage for Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish children. In 1915 the school housed 800 orphans and 30 soldiers who guarded the school. The staff consisted of 10 Lebanese and the director was Nebih Bey. This is when efforts to turkify the Armenian orphans start to be implemented. The boys are circumcised and they are given Arabic and Turkish names by keeping the first letters of their Armenian names. This is how Haroutiun Najarian becomes Hamid Nazim, Boghos Merdanian becomes Bekim Mohammed, Sarkis Sarafian becomes Safwad Suleyman. Poor sanitary conditions, lack of nourishment and diseases prevail in the school and as a result a big number of children die. Turkish responsibles visiting the school blame Nebih Bey and accuse him of incompetence. In 1916, the commander of the Fourth Turkish Army Jemal Pasha decides to visit the orphanage. Upon being informed that the official who had appointed him to his position and charged him with the responsibility of turkifying the orphans is planning a visit, Nebih Bey orders the statues of St. Joseph and the statue of father Saliege removed from the school’s entrance. Jemal Pasha arrives at the school accompanied by feminist Halide Hanum, who is immediately appointed to replace Nebih Bey as the principal of the orphanage. Halide Hanum is assisted by five Lebanese nuns from the Sacred Heart Order, who are responsible of the sanitation and nutrition of the orphans and other chores. Beside the Aintoura orphanage, Halide Hanum is also responsible of the Sister Nazareth school in Beirut, which is closed down in 1917.

400 new orphans between the ages 3-15 are brought to Aintoura with Jemal Pasha. They are accompanied by 15 young women from Turkish elite families, who join the team of 40 people working towards the islamization and turkification of the orphans. Halide Hanum, the principal of the school, was the highest authority and was supervising all the activities aiming at the full turkification of the orphans in the shortest possible interval. Her goal was to transform the Aintoura College into an idea Turkish institution.

While famine was prevailing in Beirut and other parts of Lebanon and the Turkish plan to exterminate the Armenians by the sword and the Arabs by famine was being carried on, cows, sheep and flour were abundant in the Aintoura orphanage. The goal was to have well fed and healthy newly turkified children. Lebanese outside the compound walls used to gather and beg for food.

Teaching at the orphanage was in Turkish. Older orphans were trained in trades – shoemaking, carpentry and others and the mullah assigned to the schools called the children to prayer five times a day. Every night the band used to play “Long live Jemal Pasha”.

In the summer of 1916 leprosy starts spreading within the orphanage while the Ottoman Armies start loosing on the fronts in the Balkans and in Palestine. Lutfy Bey, Rashid Bey and Halide Hanum abandon the school and the orphanage starts falling into chaos. Students start leaving the school compound and disorderly conduct leads to fights between the Turkish and Kurdish students on one side and the Armenian orphans – who were blaming the parents of the Turkish and Kurdish students of having killed their parents – on the other. It is only through the interference of the Turkish soldiers stationed at the school that killings are avoided.

From the 1200 orphans kept at the Aintoura orphanage one thousand are Armenians and the remaining 200 are Turkish and Kurdish. The Armenian orphans used to keep forks and other sharp objects to defend themselves. When the Ottomans retreat and the French and British arrive in the region, accompanied by members of the clergy, they find a chaotic situation in the school. One of the Lazarist leaders approaches Bayard Dodge, an officer of the American University of Beirut for assistance, who immediately complies with the request and arrange for shipments of food through the American Red Cross.

On October 1, 1918 the Turkish Army abandons Lebanon. On October 7 Father Sarlout returns to Aintoura and realizes that the situation is untenable. He arranges for the Turkish and Kurdish orphans to be transported to Damascus to ease the tension within the orphanage. He then gathers the Armenian orphans and starts working with them to remember their Armenian names and tries to explain to them that the turkification process they were going through is no longer in force. Once convinced, the Armenian orphans start calling each other by their original names then they gather all the forks and sharp items they were hiding and “surrender” them to the school officials. The statue of St. Joseph is returned to its podium and the French flag flies over the school. But father Sarlout realizes that his resources are limited and he cannot support that many orphans. He calls upon Bayard Dodge and the American Red Cross to support the school and the orphans. Mr. Crawford is then appointed principal of the Aintoura school, the staff of the school is replaced by Armenian teachers and the orphans are offered lessons in Armenian and English. Later “Near East Relief” takes over the school and keeps it until the fall of 1919, when the male orphans are sent to Aleppo and the females to the Armenian orphanage in the village of Ghazir, Lebanon.

While the school was under Turkish control, as a result of malnourishment, lack of sanitary conditions and diseases (mainly typhus), 300 Armenian orphans die. They are buried during 1916 in the backyard of the school. In 1993 the school directors decide to build an extension in that same backyard. When they start digging the ground they come across human remains which they gather and rebury in a few joint graves in the cemetery belonging to the Aintoura priests.

When the Turks leave and Father Sarlout returns to the school, he finds there 670 orphans – 470 boys and 200 girls.

“Wondering in the different parts of the school, one corner looked very familiar to me. At a first glance I couldn’t remember where or how I had seen that spot but I was sure that this was not new to me. When I returned home I started working in my collection of photographs and after three hours I found what I was looking for: it was the photo of a young orphan, which was actually taken in the same corner of the Aintoura school that looked familiar to me. The original of the photo was in the archives of the Catholicosate of the Holy See of Cilicia in Antelias, Lebanon, in the documents and photos belonging to Maria Jacobson. The writing on the side of the photo notes: “Armenian orphan, clean-cut and bright”. The seal of “Near East Relief” is still visible at the bottom-left of the photo. At the time, the photo in question did not seem that important but toady, following the newly discovered facts about the Aintoura college, it was another piece of the puzzle I was faced with”,- says Keleshian.

By putting the photos side by side and researching the archives of the Aintoura College, Missak Keleshian succeeded in reconstructing one of the most horrifying phases in the life of the orphans of the Armenian Genocide – Turkification, which was nothing else but another portion of the general plan of annihilating the Armenian nation.

http://www.aztagdaily.com/EnglishSupplement/FEA_02012006_0001.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 14 FEBRUARY 1918

AUCKLAND QUOTA – 37th Reinforcements

A contingent of about 240 men, comprising the Auckland quota of the 37th Reinforcements, left by special train for Trentham camp on Thursday. The troops assembled at the Drill Hall at 9 am for roll call and reassembled at 1.30pm. Headed by the Garrison Artillery Band, they marched through Queen Street to the station. The route was lined with people and flags and bunting were displayed on a number of business premises. As the martial music resounded down the street, business practically ceased and the staff of the shops poured outside to farewell the recruits. As usual, there was little cheering but its absence did not indicate indifference. There was evidence of suppressed excitement everywhere and the farewell was hearty, if rather silent. The general impression left on the spectator as the draft marched past, was its youth. Here and there older faces were seen but youth was the predominant characteristic of the draft. It was the first draft containing youths of 19 years who are now permitted to volunteer provided the consent of both parents is given and this fact doubtless accounted for the presence of some very boyish faces in the ranks. Arrived at the station the draft marched on to No.5 platform to entrain, the public being admitted on the other side. The train was festooned with greenery. The guard’s van was decorated on behalf of the American Navy League. On each side was a painting embodying an American eagle and a kiwi under clasped hands and bearing the words “Good Luck and God Speed”. “We are with you New Zealand to the finish.” To the strains of “Auld Lang Syne” and “Tipperary” the train steamed out at 2.50 pm.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn14feb1918.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home

Letter dated February 14, 1918

Dear Mother -:

I hope you will forgive the form of this letter and I won’t even go as far as making any rash statements as regards the substance making up for the form. Well, school is over and in some way I am not a little glad. I think I got a lot out of it but living conditions there weren’t all that they might be and the food not particularly favorable. It might have in some places been termed plain but wholesome, at best. More than that tho, I am glad to be back with the regiment. There is quite a lot in being able to come back to one’s old orderly and be with the same men and officers again. As a result of my school I have a new role to fill and hence the start of this letter, for it is practically all night work and just now it is very nearly four o’clock on a misty Valentine’s day morning, and I look and feel just like one of Bairnsfather’s pictures. (Bruce Bairnsfather, who served in the British forces, created the classic cartoons of men in the trenches in World War I, somehow making humorous scenes in the midst of the desolation --Ed.)

I got a whole lot of mail today from you. A letter written on your birthday and another Jan. 22, a letter from Nannoo and a Xmas card. Also Papa sent me al lot of clippings about this great war chest business.

It is great of you to tell me so much about the dogs (great danes -- Ed). They must be wonderful and I would about sell my soul to have one of them with me and try as I may I can’t seem to find any dog here I want.

I am glad you liked the picture I sent you for it is one I have liked ever since the first time I saw it and it is also of the “chasseurs” which still are in my mind the best troops I have ever seen and ever hope to.

This all now. With love, Paul

http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008/06/letter-dated-february-14-1918.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Tidswell Towers-Clark MC

(...) On 14th February 1918, William ceased to be employed as an assistant instructor and presumably joined a unit of The Machine Gun Corps. The London Gazette issue of 31st May 1918 reports: “Machine Gun Corps. Captain W T Towers-Clark MC (C Gds) to be 2nd in command of a Bn and to be acting Major while so employed.” The “effective from” date is recorded as 20th February 1918. He was promoted to temporary major with the Machine Gun Corps on 14th June 1918 and for purposes of pay was graded as GSO 2nd Grade. He relinquished this temporary rank on 23rd June 1919 on ceasing to be employed with the Corps. (...)

http://www.chailey1914-1918.net/william_tidswell_towers_clark.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 17:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Making <time> safe for historians

On 24 January 1918 Lenin signed a decree that moved the brand-new Soviet Union from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. In order to bridge the 14-day gap between Julian and Gregorian, 1-13 February 1918 were omitted, so that 31 January was directly followed by 14 February.

http://www.quirksmode.org/blog/archives/2009/04/making_time_saf.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 18:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henry Hudson Evans



Rank Last Held- Lance Corporal
Serial No. 28996
First Known Rank- Rifleman
Occupation before Enlistment- Farm hand
Next of Kin- Henry John Evans (father), Southburn, Canterbury, New Zealand
Body on Embarkation- New Zealand Rifle Brigade
Embarkation Unit- 9th Reinforcements 3rd Battalion, G Company
Embarkation Date- 16 October 1916
Place of Embarkation- Wellington, New Zealand
Place of Death- United Kingdom to France
Date of Death- 14 February 1918
Cause of Death- Died of wounds

http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/Cenotaph/4600.detail
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Covenant of the League of Nations, 1919-24

Reproduced below are the 26 articles comprising the covenant of the League of Nations. The covenant was originally drafted by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson and submitted on 14 February 1919. While the League was accepted by many nations the U.S. Congress refused to accept American membership of the League.

Wilson found his political nemesis in the Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, the Senate Majority Leader who worked to ensure both public (and consequently political) rejection of the League. Wilson himself unwittingly helped in blocking passage of the League in Congress by refusing to compromise with his Republican political opponents.

The Covenant of the League of Nationsb(Including Amendments adopted to December, 1924)

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve international peace and security by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations between nations, by the firm establishment of the understandings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and by the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another,

Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations.

Article 1

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede without reservation to this Covenant.

Such accession shall be effected by a Declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two months of the coming into force of the Covenant. Notice thereof shall be sent to all other Members of the League.

Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not named in the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, provided that it shall give effective guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its international obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the League in regard to its military, naval and air forces and armaments.

Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of its intention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all its international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal.

Article 2

The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected through the instrumentality of an Assembly and of a Council, with a permanent Secretariat.

Article 3

The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of the League. The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time to time as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at such other place as may be decided upon.

The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world.

At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League shall have one vote, and may have not more than three Representatives.

Article 4

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, together with Representatives of four other Members of the League.

These four Members of the League shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion. Until the appointment of the Representatives of the four Members of the League first selected by the Assembly, Representatives of Belgium, Brazil, Spain and Greece shall be members of the Council.

With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council may name additional Members of the League whose Representatives shall always be members of the Council; the Council, with like approval may increase the number of Members of the League to be selected by the Assembly for representation on the Council.

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once a year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other place as may be decided upon.

The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world.

Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be invited to send a Representative to sit as a member at any meeting of the Council during the consideration of matters specially affecting the interests of that Member of the League.

At meetings of the Council, each Member of the League represented on the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more than one Representative.

Article 5

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or by the terms of the present Treaty, decisions at any meeting of the Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the Members of the League represented at the meeting.

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of the Council, including the appointment of Committees to investigate particular matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the Council and may be decided by a majority of the Members of the League represented at the meeting.

The first meeting of the Assembly and the first meeting of the Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States of America.

Article 6

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the League. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary General and such secretaries and staff as may be required.

The first Secretary General shall be the person named in the Annex; thereafter the Secretary General shall be appointed by the Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly.

The secretaries and staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed by the Secretary General with the approval of the Council.

The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings of the Assembly and of the Council.

The expenses of the League shall be borne by the Members of the League in the proportion decided by the Assembly.

Article 7

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the League shall be established elsewhere.

All positions under or in connection with the League, including the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women.

Representatives of the Members of the League and officials of the League when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities.

The buildings and other property occupied by the League or its officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be inviolable.

Article 8

The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of peace requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by common action of international obligations.

The Council, taking account of the geographical situation and circumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduction for the consideration and action of the several Governments. Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision at least every ten years.

After these plans shall have been adopted by the several Governments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the concurrence of the Council.

The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private enterprise of munitions and implements of war is open to grave objections. The Council shall advise how the evil effects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the necessities of those Members of the League which are not able to manufacture the munitions and implements of war necessary for their safety.

The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and frank information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, naval and air programmes and the condition of such of their industries as are adaptable to war-like purposes.

Article 9

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council on the execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and on military, naval and air questions generally.

Article 10

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.

Article 11

Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations.

In case any such emergency should arise the Secretary General shall on the request of any Member of the League forthwith summon a meeting of the Council. It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any circumstance whatever affecting international relations which threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding between nations upon which peace depends.

Article 12

The Members of the League agree that, if there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture they will submit the matter either to arbitration or judicial settlement or to enquiry by the Council, and they agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the award by the arbitrators or the judicial decision, or the report by the Council.

In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators or the judicial decision shall be made within a reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall be made within six months after the submission of the dispute.

Article 13

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall arise between them which they recognise to be suitable for submission to arbitration or judicial settlement and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration or judicial settlement.

Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of international law, as to the existence of any fact which if established would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to the extent and nature of the reparation to be made for any such breach, are declared to be among those which are generally suitable for submission to arbitration or judicial settlement.

For the consideration of any such dispute, the court to which the case is referred shall be the Permanent Court of International Justice, established in accordance with Article 14, or any tribunal agreed on by the parties to the dispute or stipulated in any convention existing between them.

The Members of the League agree that they will carry out in full good faith any award or decision that may be rendered, and that they will not resort to war against a Member of the League which complies therewith. In the event of any failure to carry out such an award or decision, the Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto.

Article 14

The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent Court of International Justice.

The Court shall be competent to hear and determine any dispute of an international character which the parties thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an advisory opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or by the Assembly.

Article 15

If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration or judicial settlement in accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that they will submit the matter to the Council.

Any party to the dispute may effect such submission by giving notice of the existence of the dispute to the Secretary General, who will make all necessary arrangements for a full investigation and consideration thereof.

For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate to the Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements of their case with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may forthwith direct the publication thereof.

The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, and if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be made public giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate.

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unanimously or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which are deemed just and proper in regard thereto.

Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make public a statement of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions regarding the same.

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with the recommendations of the report.

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously agreed to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve to themselves the right to take such action as they shall consider necessary for the maintenance of right and justice.

If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is found by the Council, to arise out of a matter which by international law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the Council shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its settlement.

The Council may in any case under this Article refer the dispute to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of either party to the dispute, provided that such request be made within fourteen days after the submission of the dispute to the Council.

In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of this Article and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the Council shall apply to the action and powers of the Assembly, provided that a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in by the Representatives of those Members of the League represented on the Council and of a majority of the other Members of the League, exclusive in each case of the Representatives of the parties to the dispute, shall have the same force as a report by the Council concurred in by all the members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute.

Article 16

Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its covenants under Articles 12, 13 or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Members of the League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the covenant-breaking State, and the prevention of all financial, commercial or personal intercourse between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State, whether a Member of the League or not.

It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to the several Governments concerned what effective military, naval or air force the Members of the League shall severally contribute to the armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the League.

The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutually support one another in the financial and economic measures which are taken under this Article, in order to minimise the loss and inconvenience resulting from the above measures, and that they will mutually support one another in resisting any special measures aimed at one of their number by the covenant-breaking State, and that they will take the necessary steps to afford passage through their territory to the forces of any of the Members of the League which are co-operating to protect the covenants of the League.

Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the League may be declared to be no longer a Member of the League by a vote of the Council concurred in by the Representatives of all the other Members of the League represented thereon.

Article 17

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a State which is not a Member of the League, or between States not Members of the League, the State or States not Members of the League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions as the Council may deem just.

If such invitation is accepted, the provisions of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be applied with such modifications as may be deemed necessary by the Council. Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immediately institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recommend such action as may seem best and most effectual in the circumstances.

If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall resort to war against a Member of the League, the provisions of Article 16 shall be applicable as against the State taking such action.

If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, the Council may take such measures and make such recommendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the settlement of the dispute.

Article 18

Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by any Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No such treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so registered.

Article 19

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by Members of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable and the consideration of international conditions whose continuance might endanger the peace of the world.

Article 20

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant is accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings inter se which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly undertake that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements inconsistent with the terms thereof.

In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Member of the League, have undertaken any obligations inconsistent with the terms of this Covenant, it shall be the duty of such Member to take immediate steps to procure its release from such obligations.

Article 21

Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the maintenance of peace.

Article 22

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisation and that securities for the performance of this trust should be embodied in this Covenant.

The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League.

The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances.

Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League.

There are territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population.

In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge.

The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council.

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and examine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the observance of the mandates.

Article 23

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of the League:

will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary international organisations;

undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control;

will entrust the League with the general supervision over the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs;

will entrust the League with the general supervision of the trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the control of this traffic is necessary in the common interest;

will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members of the League. In this connection, the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind;

will endeavour to take steps in matters of international concern for the prevention and control of disease.

Article 24

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all international bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent.

All such international bureaux and all commissions for the regulation of matters of international interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League.

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by general convention but which are not placed under the control of international bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any other assistance which may be necessary or desirable.

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the League.

Article 25

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary national Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world.

Article 26

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Council and by a majority of the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Assembly.

No such amendments shall bind any Member of the League which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a Member of the League.

Annex

I. ORIGINAL MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS SIGNATORIES OF THE TREATY OF PEACE:

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, BRITISH EMPIRE, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA, NEW ZEALAND, INDIA, CHINA, CUBA, ECUADOR, FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HEJAZ, HONDURAS, ITALY, JAPAN, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, URUGUAY

STATES INVITED TO ACCEDE TO THE COVENANT:

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, CHILE, COLOMBIA, DENMARK, NETHERLANDS, NORWAY, PARAGUAY, PERSIA, SALVADOR, SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, VENEZUELA

II. FIRST SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS:

The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/leagueofnations.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rudolf Sonneborn - Zionist Mission to Palestine, 1919

A visit to Palestine (January-August 1919) intended to investigate the feasibility of ultimately creating an independent Jewish State of Israel on its territory (finally achieved 29 years later on May 14, 1948). These 44 well-observed and detailed letters (written as a diary) were posted back home to his highly influential and wealthy family in America by the young (20yr old) Rudolf Goldschmidt Sonneborn, appointed as 'Secretary to the Zionist Commission'.

Letter 8 - February 14, (1919)

Rome

Dear Family,-
Our stay in Paris was brief,- too brief to enable us to see all we would have liked to see. In fact I spent the entire of the last two days frantically trying to obtain our railway tickets and our police permits to leave the country – which was almost as hard as obtaining visas to come in. Finally after getting five first class seats to Modane, which is on the Italian border and is an all night ride, and discreetly spreading ten franc notes about the office of the Prefecture of the Police I managed with the assistance of the secretary of the Zionist Bureau in Paris and a note from the British Embassy and from the American Consul to have everything ready for our departure on schedule. At 8.25 P.M. Wednesday the train left for Italy with five of us aboard.

The next morning we found ourselves among the snow-covered foothills of the Alps—most beautiful country. At one o’clock we arrived at Modane and spent three hours being duly inspected and examined and then boarded the train for Torino, from where we would get the night train to Rome. We were constantly climbing higher and it was beginning to get really cold. And we had not succeeded in getting first class (which in Italian trains is non the best) and were cramped into second with several other men who smelled of onions. At Torino three hours later we found a “Cook” man who, for a consideration, found us a comparatively comfortable compartment on the night train to Rome. We made ourselves comfortable and soon settled to sleep, notwithstanding the fact that apparently the Italians have no more scruples about travelling during the night than during the day, and there was a perpetual hubbub at every station. We passed thru Geneva, and Pisa, and lots of little places whose names I don’t recall.

Today at noon we arrived here dirty, and hungry, but happy. Rome received us with open arms, a hotel taxi at the station, a beautiful sunshiny, mild day, a hotel with an inviting suite of three rooms and two baths, -- and how good it all did feel; a shave and a warm bath in a luxurious tub, after not having our clothes off in nearly forty-eight hours. And then some spaghetti and cheese for lunch. We never knew before it could taste so good.

We expect to remain here several days, until we are certain of obtaining passage to Egypt. And I’m not sorry because I really like this place more than either London or Paris am sure to see lots of interesting things.

Lots of love to all,

Rudolf

http://rudolfsonneborn.blogspot.com/2008/03/letter-8-february-14-1919.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 9:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oorlog op Schiermonnikoog! - De Eerste Wereldoorlog 1914 - 1918

(...) Problemen tussen burgemeester en militaire commandant - Direct na het afkondigen van de staat van beleg geeft de militaire commandant Vanderclijs aan burgemeester Van den Berg te kennen dat hij voortaan de leiding bij het uitvaren van de reddingboot op zich wenst te nemen. Van den Berg accepteert dit niet. Hij weet met een hogere legercommandant, de op Terschelling gelegerde overste De Timmerman, af te spreken dat bij reddingen alles bij het oude blijft. Is er sprake van buitenlandse militairen die geinterneerd moeten worden, dan worden deze, zodra ze aan wal komen, aan het Nederlandse bewakingsdetachement overgedragen.

De irritaties blijven echter voortduren. Op 14 februari 1915 landt een militair watervliegtuig bij de Engelsmanplaat tussen Schiermonnikoog en Ameland.[1] De reddingboot vaart zonder militairen uit. Bij het vliegtuig gekomen weigeren de twee inzittenden over te stappen. Wanneer de reddingboot uren later, nu met Nederlandse militairen aan boord, opnieuw bij het watervliegtuig komt, is dit verdwenen. Een schending van de neutraliteit die onbestraft is gebleven!

[1] In het Friesche zeegat op 51-28-70 NB, 06-05-05 OL wordt de “”watervliegmachine nummer 8(?)”” met onbekende nationaliteit aangetroffen, aldus het strandingrapport, opgemaakt door schipper Dubblenga. Het lijkt aannemelijk dat ook dit een van Borkum afkomstig Duits verkenningsvliegtuig is geweest.

Leuk artikel op http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/stranding-onderzeeboot-H6/index.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 9:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Afrikaanse Dienstweigeraars - 14 februari 1915

Al voor de Eerste Wereldoorlog was in de Franse koloniën in Afrika de dienstplicht ingevoerd. In tegenstelling tot de Britten stuurden de Fransen vanaf 1915 de Afrikaanse dienstplichtigen ook naar het oorlogsfront in Europa. Afrikanen verzetten zich met kracht tegen dit vooruitzicht. In de regio Bélédougou in Frans Soedan (nu Mali) was in februari 1915 een complete opstand tegen de dienstplicht. Toen het Franse expeditieleger het dorp Koumi bezette, pleegden de leider van de opstand, Bambara chef Diossé Traoré (1840-1915) en zijn volgelingen zelfmoord door zichzelf open te snijden.

Jonathan Derrick, Africa's 'Agitators'. Militant Anti-Colonialism in AFrica and the West, 1918-1939 (2008) 47, gevonden op https://socialhistory.org/nl/vandaag/02-14/afrikaanse-dienstweigeraars
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 9:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brief van een Belgische officier aan een Zwols meisje

(...) De eerste Belgische vluchtelingen in Zwolle - Op vrijdag 9 oktober 1914 kwamen de eerste Belgische vluchtelingen in Zwolle aan, een kleine 70 in getal. In de dagen daarna zouden er nog eens 750 volgen. De vluchtelingen werden onder anderen ondergebracht in het klooster van de Zusters van Liefde aan het Gasthuisplein, maar ook veel bij particulieren. 400 Belgische officieren werden ondergebracht in de Broerenkazerne, waar nu het conservatorium Constantijn Huygens en restaurant De Librije zitten. Op 30 januari 1915 vertrokken de militairen van de kazerne met de trein naar het interneringskamp Harderwijk waar al 13.000 Belgische militairen gehuisvest waren in houten barakken.

Brief van Belgische militair aan Zwols meisje - Sommige Zwolse burgers onderhielden een hartelijk contact met de Belgische vluchtelingen, ook nadat ze uit Zwolle waren vertrokken. Het bewijs hiervan is een briefje van de Belgische militair Emile van Hove, geïnterneerd in het kamp te Harderwijk, geschreven op 16 februari 1915 vanuit barak 23 aan de dertienjarige Wilhelmina Johanna (in de brief ‘Mieni’ genoemd) Bomhof, wonende aan de Roggenstraat 4 te Zwolle. (...)

De inhoud van de brief - Uit het briefje, gedeeltelijk geschreven in Vlaams en Frans, blijkt dat Mieni Emile haar portret had gestuurd. Hij was er heel blij mee. Verder wordt in het briefje gerefereerd aan het Volksconcert dat Mieni op 14 februari 1915 in Zwolle had bijgewoond en waar de jeugdige violist Raoul Bacot, de lieveling van het publiek, stukken speelde van zijn Belgische landgenoot, de componist Henry Vieuxtemps (1820-1881). Een verslag van dit concert stond in de Zwolse Courant van 14 februari 1915. (...)

Lees het gehele artikel op https://historisch-centrum-overijssel.mijnstadmijndorp.nl/verhalen/brief-van-een-belgische-officier-aan-een-zwols-meisje
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 9:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Melk en water-arrest

Het Melk en water-arrest (HR 14 februari 1916, NJ 1916/681), ook wel bekend als Melkventer-arrest, is een klassiek arrest uit 1916, waarin de Nederlandse Hoge Raad de leer van Afwezigheid van alle schuld (AVAS) heeft geïntroduceerd. Afwezigheid van alle schuld is een buitenwettelijke schulduitsluitingsgrond. Bij afwezigheid van alle schuld dient een verdachte niet veroordeeld te worden, aldus de Hoge Raad. Het arrest speelt ook een rol in het leerstuk deelneming.

Casus - In Amsterdam was het volgens artikel 303 van de Algemene Politie Verordening verboden om aangelengde melk als volle melk te verkopen. Een veehouder had melk met water verdund zonder dit te openbaren en liet dit product door zijn knecht als volle melk verkopen. De knecht had geen weet van dit bedrog en hem viel niets te verwijten. Door zogenaamde afwezigheid van alle schuld werd de knecht niet schuldig bevonden.

Procesgang en relevantie - De veehouder was door de rechtbank veroordeeld tot een geldboete van vijfentwintig gulden voor het doen afleveren van aangelengde melk (doen plegen). Tegen dit vonnis ging de veehouder in cassatie. Het cassatieberoep werd verworpen. Ook bevestigde de Hoge Raad het beginsel van afwezigheid van alle schuld:

dat toch niets, bepaaldelijk niet de geschiedenis van het Wetb. van Strafr., er toe dwingt om aan te nemen, dat bij het niet-vermelden van schuld als element in de omschrijving van een strafbaar feit, in het bijzonder van een overtreding, onze wetgever het stelsel huldigt, dat bij gebleken afwezigheid van alle schuld niettemin strafbaarheid zou moeten worden aangenomen, tenzij er een grond tot uitsluiting daarvan in de wet mocht zijn aangewezen;

Deze afwezigheid van alle schuld bij de verkoper (de feitelijk dader) impliceert volgens de Hoge Raad niet dat ook zijn baas (de middellijk dader) vrijuit gaat. Er is sprake van doen plegen als iemand een ander een delict laat plegen waarvoor die ander zelf niet kan worden gestraft.

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melk_en_water-arrest
Zie ook hier: https://www.hetrechtenstudentje.nl/jurisprudentie/eclinlhr1916bg9431-melkventerarrest/
Zie ook hier: https://www.studytubelaw.nl/arresten/65-melk-en-water
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sainte Adresse, Verklaring van

Sainte Adresse, Verklaring van, Frankrijk, Groot Brittannië en Rusland verplichtten zich in deze verklaring van 14 februari 1916 de oorlog niet te zullen beëindigen voordat België in zijn politieke en economische onafhankelijkheid was hersteld.

Zij gaven België de verzekering dat het aan de vredesonderhandelingen kon deelnemen en geholpen zou worden bij het economisch herstel. De verklaring werd op 29 april aangevuld met de verplichting dat de drie mogendheden België tijdens de vredesonderhandelingen zouden bijstaan om `de Congo in zijn huidige territoriale staat te handhaven'.

LEXICON VAN DE GESCHIEDENIS VAN NEDERLAND & BELGIË, op https://www.ensie.nl/lexicon-nederland-en-belgie/sainte-adresse-verklaring-van
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naar de haaien 1914-1918

Duitse duikboten brachten vele geallieerde en neutrale schepen tot zinken. Van oorlogsschepen tot koopvaardij-, passagiers- en vissersschepen. In de collectie van A. Mijs in het Zeeuws Archief bevinden zich enkele tientallen foto’s van tot zinken gebrachte schepen, zoals van de Britse stomer Longscar (hieronder). Het koopvaardijschip werd 14 februari 1917 tot zinken gebracht nabij de monding van de Gironde, Bordeaux, Frankrijk. De foto’s werden genomen vanaf de commandotoren van de onderzeeboot U 21 van kapitein Reinholt Saltzwedel.

Mooie fotoserie! http://www.zeeuwsarchief.nl/zeeuwse-verhalen/naar-de-haaien-1914-1918/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 10:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ROMANOV FAMILY: ON THIS DATE IN THEIR OWN WORDS

From the 1917 diary of Olga Romanov: Mordvinov. Tuesday. 14 Febr. Slept well. Polyakov was here, and [made] a warm compress. [I] was lying down on the sofa all day. Mama sat during the day and Anya. Papa stopped by. After tea, Bibi sat with me, then N.P. – Nyuta read. Tº – 37,1 – 37,2 ½ – 37,2 – 37,4 – In the evening Mama, Papa, N.P. and Mordvinov came by.

From the book Russia’s Last Romanovs: In Their Own Words, via http://www.theromanovfamily.com/romanov-family-on-this-date-in-their-own-words-olga-romanov-14-february-1917/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 10:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Interstate Bridge

De Interstate Bridge is een vakwerkbrug en hefbrug in de Verenigde Staten, gelegen op de grens van de staten Oregon en Washington. De brug overspant de Columbia River in Portland en is onderdeel van de Interstate 5. (...) De eerste brug is in twee jaar tijd aangelegd tussen 1915 en 1917 en opende op 14 februari 1917 voor het verkeer. De aanleg kostte destijds $ 1,75 miljoen. De brug had destijds een rijbaan van 11,6 meter breed en een voetpad van 1,5 meter breed. Het was de tweede brug over de Columbia River, en de eerste die op de grens van Oregon en Washington ligt. Er reden trams over de brug tussen openstelling in 1917 en 1940. De brug was een tolweg tussen 1917 en 1928. (...)

Lees verder op https://www.wegenwiki.nl/Interstate_Bridge (... en já... er ís een 'wegenwiki'!)

Interstate Bridge Opening on February 14, 1917

Foto! https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Bridge_Opening_on_February_14,_1917.jpg
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Ga naar Pagina 1, 2  Volgende
Pagina 1 van 2

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group