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9 Februari

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2006 0:16    Onderwerp: 9 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 9. Februar

1914

1915
Erfolge an der ostpreußischen Grenze
Österreichisch-ungarisches Vordringen in der Bukowina
Die Kämpfe am Suez-Kanal
Beschießung von Jalta
Die englischen Verluste an der Westfront

1916
800 Meter französischer Front bei Vimy erstürmt
Der König der Bulgaren im deutschen Großen Hauptquartier
Zwei englische Zerstörer gesunken
Einnahme von Preza und Valjas in Albanien

1917
Einzelkämpfe an der englischen Front
Rege Feuertätigkeit an der Somme
16000 Tonnen von einem U-Boot versenkt
Günstige Patrouillenunternehmungen an der Ostfront

1918
Der Friede mit der Ukraine unterzeichnet
Der Untergang der "Tuscania"
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2006 0:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 9

1922 Congress Tackles WWI Debt

World War I left a mountain of debt in its wake: Great Britain owed the U.S. government over four billion dollars, while France and Italy racked up war-related loans of roughly $3 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively. Alhough President Woodrow Wilson blindly insisted on full repayment of all debts to the U.S., the reality was far thornier, as the European governments were simply too strapped for cash to make good on their loans. Britain attempted to broker a deal for the reciprocal remittance of the debts, but Wilson rebuffed the offer. The debt dilemma festered into the early 1920s, stirring-up bitter and often anti-foreign feelings on both sides of the Atlantic. In hopes of resolving the issue, Congress convened on February 9, 1922, and voted in favor of establishing the World War Foreign Debt Commission. The Commission rounded the money owed to the U.S. to $11.5 billion and established a sixty-two-year term, at 2 percent interest, for the repayment of the debts. However, by 1925, the U.S. could no longer ignore fiscal reality: the loans would never be repaid in full. Despite his initial refusal to scuttle the debts, President Calvin Coolidge relented and cancelled good chunks of various governments' outstanding debts.
1989 Bush's Budget Blues

Shortly after rolling over Michael Dukakis to become the forty-first president of the United States, George Bush set about compiling his first budget. On February 9, 1989, the former Vice President submitted a budget of $1.16 trillion, including an estimated deficit of $91.1 billion. While hardly small numbers, Bush's budget and defect projections seemed like improvements over his predecessor, Ronald Reagan. During his last two years in office, President Reagan submitted budgets that climbed over the then unheard of trillion mark, and in 1988, he projected that the deficit would climb to $129.5 billion. However, any notions that Bush would restrain federal spending or reign in the defect proved to be wishful thinking: in 1992, the president submitted what proved to be his final budget, which estimated a deficit of $352 billion.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2008 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Heute vor 90 Jahren wurde der sogenannte "Brotfriede" von Brest-Litowsk geschlossen, der gegen Ende des Weltkriegs die Lebensmittelversorgung des Deutschen Reichs sichern sollte.
Uitzending te beluisteren:
http://www.podcast.de/episode/607563/9._Februar_1918:_Noch_den_Sieg_vor_Augen_%C2%85
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting of February 1915

SECONDARY SCHOOLS (MILITARY DRILL.)


HC Deb 09 February 1915 vol 69 cc386-7 386

Colonel YATE asked the President of the Board of Education what steps have been taken to carry into effect the resolution carried at the annual conference of the Incorporated Association of Head Masters in Secondary Schools in London, on the 5th January last, that instruction in the elements of military drill and the use of the rifle should form part of the education of all boys in secondary schools?

The PRESIDENT of the BOARD of EDUCATION (Mr. J. A. Pease) I cannot undertake to see that the terms of the resolution referred to are carried out, although I am fully aware of the success which has attended the formation of Cadet Corps and contingents of the Officers' Training Corps in many secondary schools, but the question of what further steps should be taken to extend their number is one for the consideration of the War Office and Territorial Associations.

Colonel YATE Will not the right hon. Gentleman take the initiative in the question and call the attention of secondary schools to the resolution?

Mr. PEASE These are matters connected with other Departments, and it is not for me to interfere with the administration of those other Departments.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/09/secondary-schools-military-drill
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, but prior to that on February 9, 1918, the Central Powers signed an exclusive protectorate treaty with the Ukrainian People's Republic as part of the negotiations that took place in Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) recognizing the sovereignty of the republic. Although not formally annexing the territory of the former Russian Empire, the Germany and Austria-Hungary secured a food supply support in return for the military protection.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Brest-Litovsk_(February_9,_1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 February 1919, Galveston Daily News,

Ad on page 5:

DANISH PASTRY
This is to announce to the public of Galveston that we have engaged the world-famed baker
MR. L. C. KLITTENG
Of Isle of Laesoe, Denmark.
To Introduce the Celebrated Danish pastry
in Our Bakery from Saturday, Feb. 8

DANISH PASTRY
Fresh From the Oven at 11 a. m. and 4 p. m. Today

Mr. Kliteng made and served this kind of Danish Pastry for President Wilson's wedding in Washington, Dec. 1915, and since that time has introduced same all over from New York to San Francisco.

We cordially invited you to try out this most excellent of all kinds of cakes for your coffee and tea.

Schaefer's Bakery
2102 Market St.

http://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/danish_pastry/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, and Protocol
(Paris, 9 February 1920)


The President of the United States of America; His Majesty the King of Great Britain and
Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India; His Majesty the
King of Denmark; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy;
His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Majesty the King of Norway; Her Majesty the
Queen of the Netherlands; His Majesty the King of Sweden,

DESIROUS, while recognising the sovereignty of Norway over the Archipelago of
Spitsbergen, including Bear Island, of seeing these territories provided with an equitable
regime, in order to assure their development and peaceful utilisation,

Lees verder op http://www.aeco.no/MicrosoftWord-TheSvalbardTreaty.pdf.pdf

The Svalbard regime

Based on the 1920 Treaty of Spitsbergen, this arrangement recognizes Norway’s sovereignty over the Svalbard Archipelago in return for commitments on Norway’s part to demilitarize the entire area, grant equal access to Svalbard’s natural resources to treaty members and their nationals, and to create an equitable administrative system. It remains in force today.

http://www.arcticgovernance.org/the-svalbard-regime.4668236-142904.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 februari 1919

Het vrachtschip ms. 'Riek' (1918) van A. den Ouden uit Rotterdam, op weg van IJmuiden naar Bergen (Noorwegen), loopt op een mijn en zinkt acht zeemijl van de Noorse kust ter hoogte van Lindesnaess. De bemanning kan hierbij worden gered.

Bron: scheepsrampen koopvaardij 1855 - 1991

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/02/9-februari-1919.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fkoopvaardij%2Fkoopvaardij+%28Koopvaardij%29
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marine-etablissement Kattenburg



Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 9 februari 1914 (nummer 17) werd tot opheffing van de 's Rijks Werf besloten. Tijdens de mobilisatie in het najaar van dat jaar werden wel de opgelegde schepen weer gebruiksklaar gemaakt en andere lopende projecten afgerond. Op 3 juli 1915 was het werk afgerond en werd de werf feitelijk opgeheven. Vice-Admiraal G.F. Tydeman (Tideman) was de laatste Directeur Commandant der Marine te Amsterdam.

http://www.stelling-amsterdam.nl/kazernes/amsterdam-marinekattenburg/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Tramp (1914–1915)



The Tramp debuted during the silent film era in the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice (released on 7 February 1914). However, Chaplin had devised the tramp costume for a film produced a few days earlier but released later (9 February 1914), Mabel's Strange Predicament. Mack Sennett had requested that Chaplin "get into a comedy make-up". As Chaplin recalled in his autobiography:

I had no idea what makeup to put on. I did not like my get-up as the press reporter [in Making a Living]. However on the way to the wardrobe I thought I would dress in baggy pants, big shoes, a cane and a derby hat. I wanted everything to be a contradiction: the pants baggy, the coat tight, the hat small and the shoes large. I was undecided whether to look old or young, but remembering Sennett had expected me to be a much older man, I added a small moustache, which I reasoned, would add age without hiding my expression. I had no idea of the character. But the moment I was dressed, the clothes and the makeup made me feel the person he was. I began to know him, and by the time I walked on stage he was fully born.

"The Tramp" is a vagrant with the refined manners, clothes, and dignity of a gentleman. "Fatty" Arbuckle contributed his father-in-law's derby and his own pants (of generous proportions). Chester Conklin provided the little cutaway tailcoat, and Ford Sterling the size-14 shoes, which were so big, Chaplin had to wear each on the wrong foot to keep them on. He devised the moustache from a bit of crepe hair belonging to Mack Swain. The only thing Chaplin himself owned was the whangee cane.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlie_Chaplin
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE FIGHTING FOR THE FORTRESS OF PRZEMYŚ'L

Between 19th December 1914 and 5th February 1915 there was no consecutive fighting. The bled Austria-Hungarian forces were not capable of further offensive activity. Food and maintenance became a problem. The provisions in the magazines which had been used by the field armies during their withdrawal before the second siege had run out. The soldiers had to be put on short rations, 13,000 horses had to be slaughtered to feed the army.

Since 9th February 1915 the Russians began to suppress the advanced Austrian positions. The fortified positions Na Gorach and Batycze had suffered a strong assault. Despite some counterattacks from the fortress, on March 14, the advanced positions of the northern sector had been completely liquidated. The Russians also attempted to capture the field positions in the west of Przemyśl amongst other objectives on 19th February 1915 without success.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/przemysl.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ernest George Dickens (1884-1954)

After returning from India as a sergeant in the 58th Battery RFA in January 1914, Ernest spent the rest of that year in an Artillery Reserve Brigade at Newcastle. He was promoted Battery Sergeant Major in November and became a Warrant Officer, Class II, in January 1915. On 9 February 1915, he was posted to the Divisional Ammunition Column (DAC) of the 6th Division in France. This Division was part of the original British Expeditionary Force and it reached France in September 1914, after the battle of Mons. He served as a Warrant Officer until 6 May 1915 when he was commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery.

Lees verder op http://www.familytree-stuff.com/france-and-belgium-1915.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GERMAN POETS: Adolf PETRENZ

Adolf PETRENZ, 1873-1915. Journalist, poet & writer. Editor of the Tagliche Rundschau in Berlin. Died of wounds, 9 February 1915.

http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/listgerm.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ivor Gurney (1890–1937)



Ivor Gurney was born in Gloucester on 28th August 1890, the son of David and Florence Gurney, a family of tailors. Gloucester, and the surrounding countryside, were to be a major influence on the rest of his life, constantly drawing him back. He was educated at the King's School in Gloucester Cathedral as a chorister and organist, and his love of music was to be one of the dominating influences of his life. In 1911 he studied at the Royal College of Music under Sir Charles Stanford.

Gurney tried to enlist at the outbreak of war, but was rejected due to poor eyesight (he wore glasses throughout most of his life). He eventually joined on the 9th February, 1915, as a private with the 2nd/5th Gloucesters. He was injured in early 1917, and later during the Battle of Passchendaele (Third Ypres) he was caught in a gas attack and invalided home.

Whilst on active service Gurney, removed from the tools and peace required to allow him to work on his music, began to concentrate on his poetry. Not only did he write his own poems, he also commented on the works of other contemporary poets. He corresponded with his friend Marion Scott throughout, who assisted in getting his poems ready for print, and many of the manuscripts and typescripts provide evidence of this. In 1917 Severn and Somme was published, and then a further collection in 1919 - War's Embers. The titles of the two collections are important and prophetic. First, as is demonstrated in many of his war poems, his love of the Gloucestershire countryside and his desire to return there from the devastation he witnessed on the Western Front is constantly evident. Second, the war would have a lasting effect on Gurney up until his death, and even in his later poems he refers to his experiences there.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/gurney
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 6th to 9th February, 1916 - Spent with the battery. Had one day observing at Artillery House, one of the very few remaining houses in Givenchy. It would be a splendid place, if one could use one's opera glasses, but the port holes are just too small and it is a hopeless place to use a telescope. However, as it is only 300 yards to the Bosch trench, one would not need glasses there. Windy House is the place the OO [Observing Officer?] sleeps in before going to the OB and it has been well named as one wall has been knocked out of it and the bed consists of wire netting strecthed across a framework. Boschie gives the OO quite a nasty fright at times, as he drops a shell on it now and again, just to show he has the range, but the brick tower is very strong and it would have to be a good shot to score a direct hit on the top of it, where it is only two bricks thick.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/02/diary-entry-6th-to-9th-february-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

9 februari 1916 - Ik zie franskiljons die er altijd op uit zijn Vlamingen aan te klagen en verdacht te maken... dat ze heulen met de vijand, die nu om maar gauw bediend te zijn op de Kommandantur - er geen graten in zien, hun paspoort te betalen met goud - en alzo de vijand rechtstreeks ondersteunen in 't geen, naar ze zelf bekennen: hij 't meest nodig heeft.

Van Wervik naar Bissegem mag deze dagen niemand op straat komen.

Er is bevel gegeven dat er een volledige volksoptelling moet gebeuren iets gelijk ten tijde van Koning Herodes, met dit verschil dat we ons niet naar Jerusalem moeten begeven en dat we stilletjes mogen thuis blijven en er niets van gewaar worden terwijl de bewerking van het optellen geschiedt - in zulke gevallen zijn we toch ver vooruit gegaan!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0018.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Blackfoot Chief, Mountain Chief making phonographic record at Smithsonian, 2/9/1916."



Part of a series of pictures depicting Frances Densmore at the Smithsonian Institution in 1916 during a recording session with Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Library of Congress caption: "Blackfoot Chief, Mountain Chief making phonographic record at Smithsonian, 2/9/1916."

National Geographic caption: "This 1916 image of Frances Densmore and Blackfoot leader Mountain Chief listening to a cylinder recording has become a symbol of the early songcatcher era."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Frances_Densmore_recording_Mountain_Chief2.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle for Lake Tanganyika

(...) "...In Kivu Colonel Tombeur urgently asked for Belgian troops. In fact the Congolese Army had been present in the area until the beginning of 1916 but restricted to border patrols. This seemed to have been succesful as the island of Kwidjwi in the Kivu lake was the only piece of Congolese territory that had been occupied by the enemy (Germany). The operations on en around the Tanganyka Lake were the most important during that period.

The ALEXANDRE DELCOMMUNE was the only Belgian boat on the lake and was put out of action on 22 AUG 1914 by the HEDWIG VON WISSMAN. The Germans consequently had absolute control over Tanganyka Lake where they operated two tugs, barges and a large ship the GRAF VON GOTZEN which was shortly after put into service.

The Allies wanted to react against this evolution. The repaired ALEXANDRE DELCOMMUNE entered service again as VENGEUR. The Belgians introduced a kind of flying boat: the NETTA and the British introduced two fast launches: MIMI and TOUTOU.

On 26 DEC 1915 the Allies captured the tug KINGANI and on 9 FEB 1916 they sunk the HEDWIG VON WISSMAN.

Thanks to the GRAF VON GOTZEN the Germans remained in control of the Lake. This would soon change as the Belgians introduced 4 waterplanes which arrived in June 1916 in situ, this is the exact moment when the offensive against German-East Africa was started.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/tang1000.htm

Book review: Sideshow on the lake

During the night of 9 February 1916, two men were sitting on opposing shores of Lake Tanganyika. The longest lake in the world, it at that time divided German East Africa from the Belgian Congo. One of the men was Herr Kapitänleutnant Gustav von Zimmer, the other was an eccentric British navy officer, Commander Geoffrey Spicer-Simpson. The following morning, Zimmer would launch the Graf von Götzen, a large vessel which floats to this day on the waters of the lake.

Spicer-Simson takes a starring role in my narrative non-fiction book, Mimi and Toutou Go Forth (2004). The history of the two British motor launches, Mimi and Toutou, and their vainglorious, skirt-wearing, tattooed commander — who brought them from the Thames to Africa, tugging them by steam engine through the bush to the lakeshore — is extraordinary enough. Now Alex Capus has added another layer to this strange episode in a sideshow of the first world war, with a wonderful fictionalised account of what the Germans did while Spicer pranced about in his skirt.

The bizarre battle for Lake Tanganyika and the wider East African campaign has produced interesting fiction. C. S. Forester’s The African Queen (1935), later made into the classic film by John Huston, was the first strike. In 1968, Wilbur Smith’s Shout at the Devil dramatised another, related naval encounter on the east coast of what would later become Tanzania. This involved the Konigsberg, a German cruiser lying hidden in the Rufiji Delta. In 1982 William Boyd published An Ice-Cream War, which covered the whole campaign. At a tangent to Boyd’s plot lies an episode fully dramatised in Smith’s most recent novel, Assegai (2008), involving a Zeppelin mission from Europe to East Africa.

A Matter of Time
Alex Capus
Haus, 252pp, £12.99


http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/5635563/sideshow-on-the-lake.thtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Romanov Archives - Okhrana Surveillance Report on Rasputin

From the Red Archives- Russian State Papers and other documents relating to the years 1915-1918
RASPUTIN AS KNOWN TO THE SECRET POLICE (OKHRANA) - EXTRACTS




9 February, 1916. Reports.

Tiomny, Gorokhovaia Street, 64

The guests, who had visited Tiomny last night, left at two o'clock. The entertainment was noisy. Vyroubova paid a call at 9-45 this morning. She was followed by Dobrovolskaia, who stayed for three hours. At 10.50 arrived Liubov and Maria Golovina; Haar also paid a long visit. Mamontov and Ossipenko came by government car No. 5064; they were accompanied by an unknown official, who stayed for half-an-hour. At midday Dobrovolsky made his appearance and stayed for an hour and a half. Varnava and Avgustin drove up in car No. 127. At 2.40 Tiomny came out of his flat on his way to the baths, where he remained for fifty minutes. While walking along, he said: "It is a pity that there has been so much talk; now there will be an inquiry." He further remarked: "They are thinking of assassinating me. If they find out that the letter was written by Iliodor [an intriguing monk] they certainly will. "Von Bock paid him a call at 4.45 in the afternoon; Maria Golovina reappeared atfive o'clock; she was followed by Moskvina, who stayed for an hour and ten minutes. Tourovitch came at 5-45 and left with Golovina at 6,45. Klionovsky paid a short visit. Simanovitch paid a call later in the evening, accompanied by an engineer, a Jew. "Tiomny" received no petitioners.

(Signed). TEREKHOV, SVISTOUNOV, VASSILY POPOV, GRIGORY IVANOV.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/rasputinreport.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Fighting Conscription in Canada" in The Public, Feb 9, 1917 by S. J. Farmer



Transcription

The Public 137
February 9, 1917.
human relationship, and that it might even be pos-
sible to provide an international code which contem-
plated a milder calamity than an immediate world
war in the event that the face of one’s wife was
slapped, which usually it is not.
Buncombe Advertising.
The Union Leader (Chicago), Jan. 13.—“How
$12,000,000 a Year Are Distributed in Wages,” is the
attractive headline of a Chicago Surface Lines adver-
tisement, which appeared in the local daily papers
recently. Well, what of it? How many employees
are these $12,000,000 distributed among, and how
much do they get individually? What are the profits
of the Chicago Surface Lines? Do the employees
benefit proportionately from these profits?...
Does the Chicago Surface Lines, out of its bigness
of heart, give away these $12,000,000 a year, or does
it demand in return exacting service? And who gets
the profits from this service? Why does the Chicago
Surface Lines exploit the $12,000,000 pay roll, and
why is it necessary for a public monopoly to pur-
chase advertising space in the daily papers? Does
it have to solicit business, or do car riders have to
patronize their lines whether they want to or not?
These questions, answered in fairness, should make
good “copy” for future advertisements of the Chicago
Surface Lines. They would furnish the public with
real facts concerning traction methods, instead of the
one-sided blare of public benefaction.
CORRESPONDENCE
FIGHTING CONSCRIPTION IN CANADA.
Recent events in Canada, and particularly in
Winnipeg, prove that the spirit of democracy has
not been quenched by the food of militarism which
thirty months of war has loosed upon this country.
From the beginning of the war press, platform and
pulpit have afforded publicity to none but pro-war
advocates, and it was but natural that our local
Prussians should make full use of the opportunity
to press their ideas to the front. Advocates of con-
scription have of course been particularly active,
and seemed to have the field to themselves until
the first overt step in the direction of their aims
was taken by the Canadian government. Then
the other side, long silent, made itself heard. The
government inaugurated a plan of registration, list-
ing the entire male population between the ages of
16 and 65, for what they dignified with the title of
“National Service.” Organized labor at once recog-
nized the resemblance to the notorious “Derby
scheme,” which was the forerunner of conscription
in Great Britain, and organized opposition to the
plan sprang to life all over the Dominion. In this
city, for example, large anti-registration meetings
were held on two consecutive Sundays. Afternoon
and evening of both days, four and five concurrent
meetings were held in as many halls in the Labor
Temple, the speakers passing from one meeting to
another. On the third Sunday a large public meet-
ing was held in a local theatre. The local dailies
vied with each other in misrepresenting the char-
acter of the meetings and the remarks of the
speakers. As a result of the movement, large num-
bers of the registration cards were returned blank,
and other filled in with answers indicating opposition
to the whole proposal. Naturally, every active par-
ticipant in this movement has been vilified to the
limit, especially those who hold public office. In
addition to four Labor members of the city council
who have thus come in for abuse, F. J. Dixon, In-
dependent, and R.A. Rigg, Social Democrat, mem-
bers for Winnipeg constituencies in the Manitoba
Legislature have been conspicuous targets for at-
tack. At the annual convention of the Manitoba
Grain Growers’ Association attempts were made to
have Dixon’s name struck off the list of speakers.
He was billed to speak on “Free Trade.” The
Grain Growers however stood splendidly by the
principle of free speech, and Dixon never got a
better reception that [than] on that occasion. So grossly
was the whole matter distorted by the press that the
Convention passed a strongly worded resolution con-
demning the newspapers for willfully misrepresenting
the affair.
On the opening of the Manitoba Legislature a few
days later, the usual official speeches in reply to the
address from the throne contained further attacks
upon the opponents of registration. In reply to
these attacks both Dixon and Rigg delivered vigor-
ous anti-war speeches, and all the fat is in the fire.
Petitions are being circulated asking Dixon to
apply the principle of the Recall, of which he has
been chief exponent, to himself. Whether these
petitions will be largely signed or not remains to
be seen. One gathers, however, that the people re-
sponsible for their circulation are having their
troubles. Dixon’s attitude toward the request de-
pends, of course, upon the size of the petitions. But
whichever way the scheme terminates, I think the
militarists are going to be painfully surprised at
the strength of the anti-militarist sentiment. Even
among those who support the war there is consid-
erable resentment at the attitude of the Liberal
Premier of the Province, who has publicly declared
that the anti-registrationists should be jailed, and
this resentment has been augmented by the dismissal
of two letter carriers, who as delegates from their
union to the Trades Council took a more or less ac-
tive part in the anti-registration movement. Also by
the dismissal by the Manitoba Free Press of one
member of its editorial staff and a reporter, for
the same reason.
One noticeable and gratifying effect of these devel-
opments is the coming together of Radicals, Social-
ists, Social Democrats and Trade Unionists to face
their common enemy, Privilege. We are probably
in the minority, but do not judge our strength by
the lack of space accorded us in the press, nor the
strength of the conscriptionists by the noise they
are making.
S. J. FARMER.
Winnipeg, Manitoba.
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN NOTES.
During the past two years we have been trying
to get the Town Council of Port Augusta to take
a poll under the Land Values Assessment Act. Port
Augusta is the starting point in South Australia


http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/publications/PUB/PUB_1917_0209
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CASTELAIN Alfons ou/of Alphonse Joseph



Conflit/Conflict : 1914 - 1918; Statut/Statuut : Mort en captivité - In gevangenschap overleden
Naissance/Geboorte : Rollegem, WV, BE 1886-01-24; Décès/Overlijden : Munster, DE 1917-02-09
Grade - Régiment/Graad - Regiment : Soldat de 2ème classe - Soldaat 2 klasse 9ème - 9de Ligne - Linie 3/1
Plus d'infos/Meer info: Milicien 1906. Stamnummer: 109/53751. Overleden in lazaret van Munster, DE (Bron [38]). Oorspronkelijke begraafplaats: Sprockhovel, Westphalie, DE, katholiek kerkhof, 6 rij, n° 57 (Bron [4]). Zoon van Auguste en van Eugenie STICHELBOUT. Krijgsgevangen genomen, door onmacht en naar Duitsland gevoerd in 1914. Hij stierf een heldendood op 9 februari 1917. Datum van begrafenis: 13 februari 1917. Laatste rustplaats: Leopoldsburg (Bourg-Léopold), LI, BE, Belgisch militaire begraafplaats, graf n° P-76

http://www.bel-memorial.org/photos/CASTELAIN_Alfons_22289.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Congressional Record February 9, 1917, page 2947

Congressman Calloway announced that the J.P. Morgan interests bought 25 of America's leading newspapers, and inserted their own editors, in order to control the media.

The CHAIRMAN: The Chair will recognize the gentleman from Texas, a member of the [defense appropriations] committee.

Mr. CALLAWAY: Mr. Chairman, I ask unanimous consent to insert in the Record a statement that I have of how the newspapers of this country have been handled by the munitions manufacturers.

The CHAIRMAN: The gentleman from Texas asks unanimous consent to extend his remarks in the Record by inserting a certain statement. Is there any objection?

Mr. MANN: Mr. Chairman, reserving the right to object, may I ask whether it is the gentleman's purpose to insert a long list of extracts from newspapers?

Mr. CALLAWAY: No; it will be a little, short statement not over 2 ½ inches in length in the Record.

The CHAIRMAN: Is there any objection?

There was no objection.

Mr. CALLAWAY: Mr. Chairman, under unanimous consent, I insert into the Record at this point a statement showing the newspaper combination, which explains their activity in the war matter, just discussed by the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. MOORE]:

“In March, 1915, the J.P. Morgan interests, the steel, ship building and powder interests and their subsidiary organizations, got together 12 men high up in the newspaper world and employed them to select the most influential newspapers in the United States and sufficient number of them to control generally the policy of the daily press in the United States.

“These 12 men worked the problems out by selecting 179 newspapers, and then began, by an elimination process, to retain only those necessary for the purpose of controlling the general policy of the daily press throughout the country. They found it was only necessary to purchase the control of 25 of the greatest papers. The 25 papers were agreed upon; emissaries were sent to purchase the policy, national and international, of these papers; an agreement was reached; the policy of the papers was bought, to be paid for by the month; an editor was furnished for each paper to properly supervise and edit information regarding the questions of preparedness, militarism, financial policies and other things of national and international nature considered vital to the interests of the purchasers.

“This contract is in existence at the present time, and it accounts for the news columns of the daily press of the country being filled with all sorts of preparedness arguments and misrepresentations as to the present condition of the United States Army and Navy, and the possibility and probability of the United States being attacked by foreign foes.

“This policy also included the suppression of everything in opposition to the wishes of the interests served. The effectiveness of this scheme has been conclusively demonstrated by the character of the stuff carried in the daily press throughout the country since March, 1915. They have resorted to anything necessary to commercialize public sentiment and sandbag the National Congress into making extravagant and wasteful appropriations for the Army and Navy under false pretense that it was necessary. Their stock argument is that it is 'patriotism.' They are playing on every prejudice and passion of the American people.”

http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Morgan-Buys-Newspapers9feb17.htm
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Peace Treaty Between Ukraine and Central Powers, 9 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of the peace treaty agreed between the Ukraine and the Central Powers on 9 February 1918. Punitive in economic terms so far as the Ukraine was concerned, it nevertheless obliged Bolshevik Russia to reluctantly accept Ukrainian independence.

With the disintegration of the Russian monarchy in February 1917 nationalist Ukrainian leaders (led by Vinichenko) moved swiftly to seek a form of independence within the Russian union, a desire granted by the Provisional Government in July 1917. With the success of the Bolshevik October Revolution of the same year however, the Ukrainians found themselves accused of essentially aiding and abetting anti-Bolshevik forces within Russia.

Ukrainian President Vinichenko consequently issued a proclamation of autonomy on 20 November 1917 in response to the unrest within Russia. He reiterated the Ukraine's desire to remain autonomous within a wider Russian union - to no avail. The following month, December 1917, brought the Ukraine into civil war against Bolshevik forces (click here to read Lenin's ultimatum on the subject).

Ultimately the Ukrainians sought protection from the Germans with whom they negotiated the peace treaty below. Exacting a heavy economic price for their support the Germans duly took the Ukrainians' side and obliged the Bolsheviks to accept an autonomous Ukraine. The Ukraine had earlier declared independence on 22 January 1918.

Peace Treaty Between the Central Powers and the Ukraine, 9 February 1918 (Subsequently Accepted by Russia)

Whereas, the Ukrainian People has, in the course of the present world war, declared its independence, and has expressed the desire to establish a state of peace between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Powers at present at war with Russia, the Governments of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey have resolved to conclude a Treaty of Peace with the Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic; they wish in this way to take the first step towards a lasting world peace, honourable for all parties, which shall not only put an end to the horrors of war, but shall also conduce to the restoration of friendly relations between the peoples in the political, legal, economic, and intellectual spheres.

To this end the Plenipotentiaries of the above-mentioned Governments have met together at Brest-Litovsk for the inception of peace negotiations, and have agreed upon the following points:

ARTICLE I

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey of the one part, and the Ukrainian People's Republic of the other part, declare that the state of war between them is at an end. The contracting parties are resolved henceforth to live in peace and amity with one another.

ARTICLE II

(1) As between Austria-Hungary of the one part, and the Ukrainian People's Republic of the other part, in so far as these two Powers border upon one another, the frontiers which existed between the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and Russia prior to the outbreak of the present war will be preserved.

(2) Further north, the frontier of the Ukrainian People's Republic, starting at Tarnograd, will in general follow the line Bilgoray, Szczebrzeszyn, Krasnostav, Pugashov, Radzin, Miedzyzheche, Sarnaki, Melnik, Vysokie-Litovsk, Kameniec-Litovsk, Prujany, and Vygonovsk Lake. This frontier will be delimited in detail by a mixed commission, according to the ethnographical conditions and after taking the wishes of the inhabitants into consideration.

(3) In the event of the Ukrainian People's Republic having boundaries coterminous with those of another of the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, special agreements may be come to thereupon at a later date.

ARTICLE III

The evacuation of the occupied territories shall begin immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty of Peace.

The manner of carrying out the evacuation and the transfer of the evacuated territories shall be determined by the Plenipotentiaries of the interested parties.

ARTICLE IV

Diplomatic and consular relations between the contracting parties shall commence immediately after the ratification of the Treaty of Peace.

Provision for the admission of consuls on the widest scale possible on both sides is held over for special agreements.

ARTICLE V

The contracting parties mutually renounce repayment of their war costs, that is to say, their State expenditure for the prosecution of the war, as well as payment for war damages, that is to say, damages sustained by them and their nationals in the war areas through military measures, including all requisitions made in enemy territory.

ARTICLE VI

Prisoners of war of both parties shall he permitted to return home, in so far as they do not desire, with the approval of the State in whose territory they shall be, to remain within its territories or to proceed to another country. Questions connected with this will be dealt with in the separate treaties provided for in Article VIII.

ARTICLE VII

It has been agreed as follows with regard to economic relations between the contracting parties, viz.:

The contracting parties mutually undertake to enter into economic relations without delay and to organize the exchange of goods on the basis of the following stipulations [here follow details which by a supplementary commercial treaty placed the Ukraine under German control]:

ARTICLE VIII

The establishing of public and private legal relations, the exchange of prisoners of war and interned civilians, the amnesty question, as well as the question of the treatment of merchant shipping in the enemy's hands, shall be settled by means of separate Treaties with the Ukrainian People's Republic, which shall form an essential part of the present Treaty of Peace, and, as far as practicable, come into force simultaneously therewith.

ARTICLE IX

The agreements come to in this Treaty of Peace shall form an indivisible whole.

ARTICLE X

For the interpretation of this Treaty, the German and Ukrainian text shall be authoritative for relations between Germany and the Ukraine; the German, Hungarian, and Ukrainian text for relations between Austria-Hungary and the Ukraine; the Bulgarian and Ukrainian text for relations between Bulgaria and the Ukraine; and the Turkish and Ukrainian text for relations between Turkey and the Ukraine.

FINAL PROVISION

The present Treaty of Peace shall be ratified. The ratifications shall be exchanged in Vienna at the earliest possible moment.

The Treaty of Peace shall come into force on its ratification, in so far as no stipulation to the contrary is contained therein.

In witness whereof the Plenipotentiaries have set their hands and seals to the present Treaty.

Executed in quintuplicate at Brest-Litovsk on the 9th day of February, 1918. [Here follow signatures.]

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukrainianpeacetreaty.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'The Daily Mirror, Saturday February 9th 1918'...



... announcing the torpedoing of the liner Tuscania, carrying 2,011 American troops, off the Irish coast

http://www.carters.com.au/index.cfm/item/61940-the-daily-mirror-saturday-february-9th-1918-announcing-the-torpe/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 22:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 9 Februari 1918.

Valkenswaard.
- Door de Rijks- en gem. politie alhier werd bij zekeren B. (Belgisch vluchteling) een partij waschgoed gevonden die van vroeger alhier gepleegde diefstallen afkomstig was. De vrouw van B., genaamd J. H., die steeds ontkent den diefstal gepleegd te hebben, zit achter slot en grendel. Heden is zij naar ’s Bosch getransporteerd.

- Op Zondag 10 dezer zal door de Belgische geïnterneerden eene uitvoering gegeven worden in de zaal van den heer J. Verhappen.

- Mej. A. de Rooy, onderwijzeres bij de Zusters Franciscanessen alhier, is benoemd tot onderwijzeres met acte Fransch aan de M.U.L.O.-school der Eerw. Zusters van St. Antonius te ’s-Hertogenbosch.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 22:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexander Severyuk on the Ukraine Brest-Litovsk Peace Settlement, 9 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of the response given by Alexander Severyuk - on behalf of the Ukraine government - to an address given by the Chairman of the Brest-Litovsk Conference, Richard von Kühlmann (also German Foreign Secretary), acclaiming news of the peace settlement.

Alexander Severyuk on the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty, 9 February 1918

We state with joy that from this day peace begins between the Quadruple Alliance and Ukrainia.

We came here in the hope that we should be able to achieve a general peace and make an end of this fratricidal war. The political position, however, is such that not all of the powers are met here to sign a general peace treaty.

Inspired with the most ardent love for our people, and recognizing that this long war has exhausted the cultural national powers of our people, we must now divert all our strength to do our part to bring about a new era and a new birth.

We are firmly persuaded that we conclude this peace in the interests of great democratic masses, and that this peace will contribute to the general termination of the Great War.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukraine_brest_severyuk.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2014 6:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9/02/1914

Theodore Burgard, alleged German spy, is arrested photographing French fortifications



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