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9 Februari

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2006 0:16    Onderwerp: 9 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 9. Februar

1914

1915
Erfolge an der ostpreußischen Grenze
Österreichisch-ungarisches Vordringen in der Bukowina
Die Kämpfe am Suez-Kanal
Beschießung von Jalta
Die englischen Verluste an der Westfront

1916
800 Meter französischer Front bei Vimy erstürmt
Der König der Bulgaren im deutschen Großen Hauptquartier
Zwei englische Zerstörer gesunken
Einnahme von Preza und Valjas in Albanien

1917
Einzelkämpfe an der englischen Front
Rege Feuertätigkeit an der Somme
16000 Tonnen von einem U-Boot versenkt
Günstige Patrouillenunternehmungen an der Ostfront

1918
Der Friede mit der Ukraine unterzeichnet
Der Untergang der "Tuscania"
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2006 0:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 9

1922 Congress Tackles WWI Debt

World War I left a mountain of debt in its wake: Great Britain owed the U.S. government over four billion dollars, while France and Italy racked up war-related loans of roughly $3 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively. Alhough President Woodrow Wilson blindly insisted on full repayment of all debts to the U.S., the reality was far thornier, as the European governments were simply too strapped for cash to make good on their loans. Britain attempted to broker a deal for the reciprocal remittance of the debts, but Wilson rebuffed the offer. The debt dilemma festered into the early 1920s, stirring-up bitter and often anti-foreign feelings on both sides of the Atlantic. In hopes of resolving the issue, Congress convened on February 9, 1922, and voted in favor of establishing the World War Foreign Debt Commission. The Commission rounded the money owed to the U.S. to $11.5 billion and established a sixty-two-year term, at 2 percent interest, for the repayment of the debts. However, by 1925, the U.S. could no longer ignore fiscal reality: the loans would never be repaid in full. Despite his initial refusal to scuttle the debts, President Calvin Coolidge relented and cancelled good chunks of various governments' outstanding debts.
1989 Bush's Budget Blues

Shortly after rolling over Michael Dukakis to become the forty-first president of the United States, George Bush set about compiling his first budget. On February 9, 1989, the former Vice President submitted a budget of $1.16 trillion, including an estimated deficit of $91.1 billion. While hardly small numbers, Bush's budget and defect projections seemed like improvements over his predecessor, Ronald Reagan. During his last two years in office, President Reagan submitted budgets that climbed over the then unheard of trillion mark, and in 1988, he projected that the deficit would climb to $129.5 billion. However, any notions that Bush would restrain federal spending or reign in the defect proved to be wishful thinking: in 1992, the president submitted what proved to be his final budget, which estimated a deficit of $352 billion.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2008 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Heute vor 90 Jahren wurde der sogenannte "Brotfriede" von Brest-Litowsk geschlossen, der gegen Ende des Weltkriegs die Lebensmittelversorgung des Deutschen Reichs sichern sollte.
Uitzending te beluisteren:
http://www.podcast.de/episode/607563/9._Februar_1918:_Noch_den_Sieg_vor_Augen_%C2%85
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting of February 1915

SECONDARY SCHOOLS (MILITARY DRILL.)


HC Deb 09 February 1915 vol 69 cc386-7 386

Colonel YATE asked the President of the Board of Education what steps have been taken to carry into effect the resolution carried at the annual conference of the Incorporated Association of Head Masters in Secondary Schools in London, on the 5th January last, that instruction in the elements of military drill and the use of the rifle should form part of the education of all boys in secondary schools?

The PRESIDENT of the BOARD of EDUCATION (Mr. J. A. Pease) I cannot undertake to see that the terms of the resolution referred to are carried out, although I am fully aware of the success which has attended the formation of Cadet Corps and contingents of the Officers' Training Corps in many secondary schools, but the question of what further steps should be taken to extend their number is one for the consideration of the War Office and Territorial Associations.

Colonel YATE Will not the right hon. Gentleman take the initiative in the question and call the attention of secondary schools to the resolution?

Mr. PEASE These are matters connected with other Departments, and it is not for me to interfere with the administration of those other Departments.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/09/secondary-schools-military-drill
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, but prior to that on February 9, 1918, the Central Powers signed an exclusive protectorate treaty with the Ukrainian People's Republic as part of the negotiations that took place in Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) recognizing the sovereignty of the republic. Although not formally annexing the territory of the former Russian Empire, the Germany and Austria-Hungary secured a food supply support in return for the military protection.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Brest-Litovsk_(February_9,_1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 February 1919, Galveston Daily News,

Ad on page 5:

DANISH PASTRY
This is to announce to the public of Galveston that we have engaged the world-famed baker
MR. L. C. KLITTENG
Of Isle of Laesoe, Denmark.
To Introduce the Celebrated Danish pastry
in Our Bakery from Saturday, Feb. 8

DANISH PASTRY
Fresh From the Oven at 11 a. m. and 4 p. m. Today

Mr. Kliteng made and served this kind of Danish Pastry for President Wilson's wedding in Washington, Dec. 1915, and since that time has introduced same all over from New York to San Francisco.

We cordially invited you to try out this most excellent of all kinds of cakes for your coffee and tea.

Schaefer's Bakery
2102 Market St.

http://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/danish_pastry/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, and Protocol
(Paris, 9 February 1920)


The President of the United States of America; His Majesty the King of Great Britain and
Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India; His Majesty the
King of Denmark; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy;
His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Majesty the King of Norway; Her Majesty the
Queen of the Netherlands; His Majesty the King of Sweden,

DESIROUS, while recognising the sovereignty of Norway over the Archipelago of
Spitsbergen, including Bear Island, of seeing these territories provided with an equitable
regime, in order to assure their development and peaceful utilisation,

Lees verder op http://www.aeco.no/MicrosoftWord-TheSvalbardTreaty.pdf.pdf

The Svalbard regime

Based on the 1920 Treaty of Spitsbergen, this arrangement recognizes Norway’s sovereignty over the Svalbard Archipelago in return for commitments on Norway’s part to demilitarize the entire area, grant equal access to Svalbard’s natural resources to treaty members and their nationals, and to create an equitable administrative system. It remains in force today.

http://www.arcticgovernance.org/the-svalbard-regime.4668236-142904.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 februari 1919

Het vrachtschip ms. 'Riek' (1918) van A. den Ouden uit Rotterdam, op weg van IJmuiden naar Bergen (Noorwegen), loopt op een mijn en zinkt acht zeemijl van de Noorse kust ter hoogte van Lindesnaess. De bemanning kan hierbij worden gered.

Bron: scheepsrampen koopvaardij 1855 - 1991

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/02/9-februari-1919.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fkoopvaardij%2Fkoopvaardij+%28Koopvaardij%29
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marine-etablissement Kattenburg



Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 9 februari 1914 (nummer 17) werd tot opheffing van de 's Rijks Werf besloten. Tijdens de mobilisatie in het najaar van dat jaar werden wel de opgelegde schepen weer gebruiksklaar gemaakt en andere lopende projecten afgerond. Op 3 juli 1915 was het werk afgerond en werd de werf feitelijk opgeheven. Vice-Admiraal G.F. Tydeman (Tideman) was de laatste Directeur Commandant der Marine te Amsterdam.

http://www.stelling-amsterdam.nl/kazernes/amsterdam-marinekattenburg/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Tramp (1914–1915)



The Tramp debuted during the silent film era in the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice (released on 7 February 1914). However, Chaplin had devised the tramp costume for a film produced a few days earlier but released later (9 February 1914), Mabel's Strange Predicament. Mack Sennett had requested that Chaplin "get into a comedy make-up". As Chaplin recalled in his autobiography:

I had no idea what makeup to put on. I did not like my get-up as the press reporter [in Making a Living]. However on the way to the wardrobe I thought I would dress in baggy pants, big shoes, a cane and a derby hat. I wanted everything to be a contradiction: the pants baggy, the coat tight, the hat small and the shoes large. I was undecided whether to look old or young, but remembering Sennett had expected me to be a much older man, I added a small moustache, which I reasoned, would add age without hiding my expression. I had no idea of the character. But the moment I was dressed, the clothes and the makeup made me feel the person he was. I began to know him, and by the time I walked on stage he was fully born.

"The Tramp" is a vagrant with the refined manners, clothes, and dignity of a gentleman. "Fatty" Arbuckle contributed his father-in-law's derby and his own pants (of generous proportions). Chester Conklin provided the little cutaway tailcoat, and Ford Sterling the size-14 shoes, which were so big, Chaplin had to wear each on the wrong foot to keep them on. He devised the moustache from a bit of crepe hair belonging to Mack Swain. The only thing Chaplin himself owned was the whangee cane.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlie_Chaplin
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE FIGHTING FOR THE FORTRESS OF PRZEMYŚ'L

Between 19th December 1914 and 5th February 1915 there was no consecutive fighting. The bled Austria-Hungarian forces were not capable of further offensive activity. Food and maintenance became a problem. The provisions in the magazines which had been used by the field armies during their withdrawal before the second siege had run out. The soldiers had to be put on short rations, 13,000 horses had to be slaughtered to feed the army.

Since 9th February 1915 the Russians began to suppress the advanced Austrian positions. The fortified positions Na Gorach and Batycze had suffered a strong assault. Despite some counterattacks from the fortress, on March 14, the advanced positions of the northern sector had been completely liquidated. The Russians also attempted to capture the field positions in the west of Przemyśl amongst other objectives on 19th February 1915 without success.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/przemysl.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ernest George Dickens (1884-1954)

After returning from India as a sergeant in the 58th Battery RFA in January 1914, Ernest spent the rest of that year in an Artillery Reserve Brigade at Newcastle. He was promoted Battery Sergeant Major in November and became a Warrant Officer, Class II, in January 1915. On 9 February 1915, he was posted to the Divisional Ammunition Column (DAC) of the 6th Division in France. This Division was part of the original British Expeditionary Force and it reached France in September 1914, after the battle of Mons. He served as a Warrant Officer until 6 May 1915 when he was commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery.

Lees verder op http://www.familytree-stuff.com/france-and-belgium-1915.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GERMAN POETS: Adolf PETRENZ

Adolf PETRENZ, 1873-1915. Journalist, poet & writer. Editor of the Tagliche Rundschau in Berlin. Died of wounds, 9 February 1915.

http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/listgerm.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ivor Gurney (1890–1937)



Ivor Gurney was born in Gloucester on 28th August 1890, the son of David and Florence Gurney, a family of tailors. Gloucester, and the surrounding countryside, were to be a major influence on the rest of his life, constantly drawing him back. He was educated at the King's School in Gloucester Cathedral as a chorister and organist, and his love of music was to be one of the dominating influences of his life. In 1911 he studied at the Royal College of Music under Sir Charles Stanford.

Gurney tried to enlist at the outbreak of war, but was rejected due to poor eyesight (he wore glasses throughout most of his life). He eventually joined on the 9th February, 1915, as a private with the 2nd/5th Gloucesters. He was injured in early 1917, and later during the Battle of Passchendaele (Third Ypres) he was caught in a gas attack and invalided home.

Whilst on active service Gurney, removed from the tools and peace required to allow him to work on his music, began to concentrate on his poetry. Not only did he write his own poems, he also commented on the works of other contemporary poets. He corresponded with his friend Marion Scott throughout, who assisted in getting his poems ready for print, and many of the manuscripts and typescripts provide evidence of this. In 1917 Severn and Somme was published, and then a further collection in 1919 - War's Embers. The titles of the two collections are important and prophetic. First, as is demonstrated in many of his war poems, his love of the Gloucestershire countryside and his desire to return there from the devastation he witnessed on the Western Front is constantly evident. Second, the war would have a lasting effect on Gurney up until his death, and even in his later poems he refers to his experiences there.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/gurney
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 6th to 9th February, 1916 - Spent with the battery. Had one day observing at Artillery House, one of the very few remaining houses in Givenchy. It would be a splendid place, if one could use one's opera glasses, but the port holes are just too small and it is a hopeless place to use a telescope. However, as it is only 300 yards to the Bosch trench, one would not need glasses there. Windy House is the place the OO [Observing Officer?] sleeps in before going to the OB and it has been well named as one wall has been knocked out of it and the bed consists of wire netting strecthed across a framework. Boschie gives the OO quite a nasty fright at times, as he drops a shell on it now and again, just to show he has the range, but the brick tower is very strong and it would have to be a good shot to score a direct hit on the top of it, where it is only two bricks thick.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/02/diary-entry-6th-to-9th-february-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

9 februari 1916 - Ik zie franskiljons die er altijd op uit zijn Vlamingen aan te klagen en verdacht te maken... dat ze heulen met de vijand, die nu om maar gauw bediend te zijn op de Kommandantur - er geen graten in zien, hun paspoort te betalen met goud - en alzo de vijand rechtstreeks ondersteunen in 't geen, naar ze zelf bekennen: hij 't meest nodig heeft.

Van Wervik naar Bissegem mag deze dagen niemand op straat komen.

Er is bevel gegeven dat er een volledige volksoptelling moet gebeuren iets gelijk ten tijde van Koning Herodes, met dit verschil dat we ons niet naar Jerusalem moeten begeven en dat we stilletjes mogen thuis blijven en er niets van gewaar worden terwijl de bewerking van het optellen geschiedt - in zulke gevallen zijn we toch ver vooruit gegaan!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0018.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Blackfoot Chief, Mountain Chief making phonographic record at Smithsonian, 2/9/1916."



Part of a series of pictures depicting Frances Densmore at the Smithsonian Institution in 1916 during a recording session with Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Library of Congress caption: "Blackfoot Chief, Mountain Chief making phonographic record at Smithsonian, 2/9/1916."

National Geographic caption: "This 1916 image of Frances Densmore and Blackfoot leader Mountain Chief listening to a cylinder recording has become a symbol of the early songcatcher era."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Frances_Densmore_recording_Mountain_Chief2.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle for Lake Tanganyika

(...) "...In Kivu Colonel Tombeur urgently asked for Belgian troops. In fact the Congolese Army had been present in the area until the beginning of 1916 but restricted to border patrols. This seemed to have been succesful as the island of Kwidjwi in the Kivu lake was the only piece of Congolese territory that had been occupied by the enemy (Germany). The operations on en around the Tanganyka Lake were the most important during that period.

The ALEXANDRE DELCOMMUNE was the only Belgian boat on the lake and was put out of action on 22 AUG 1914 by the HEDWIG VON WISSMAN. The Germans consequently had absolute control over Tanganyka Lake where they operated two tugs, barges and a large ship the GRAF VON GOTZEN which was shortly after put into service.

The Allies wanted to react against this evolution. The repaired ALEXANDRE DELCOMMUNE entered service again as VENGEUR. The Belgians introduced a kind of flying boat: the NETTA and the British introduced two fast launches: MIMI and TOUTOU.

On 26 DEC 1915 the Allies captured the tug KINGANI and on 9 FEB 1916 they sunk the HEDWIG VON WISSMAN.

Thanks to the GRAF VON GOTZEN the Germans remained in control of the Lake. This would soon change as the Belgians introduced 4 waterplanes which arrived in June 1916 in situ, this is the exact moment when the offensive against German-East Africa was started.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/tang1000.htm

Book review: Sideshow on the lake

During the night of 9 February 1916, two men were sitting on opposing shores of Lake Tanganyika. The longest lake in the world, it at that time divided German East Africa from the Belgian Congo. One of the men was Herr Kapitänleutnant Gustav von Zimmer, the other was an eccentric British navy officer, Commander Geoffrey Spicer-Simpson. The following morning, Zimmer would launch the Graf von Götzen, a large vessel which floats to this day on the waters of the lake.

Spicer-Simson takes a starring role in my narrative non-fiction book, Mimi and Toutou Go Forth (2004). The history of the two British motor launches, Mimi and Toutou, and their vainglorious, skirt-wearing, tattooed commander — who brought them from the Thames to Africa, tugging them by steam engine through the bush to the lakeshore — is extraordinary enough. Now Alex Capus has added another layer to this strange episode in a sideshow of the first world war, with a wonderful fictionalised account of what the Germans did while Spicer pranced about in his skirt.

The bizarre battle for Lake Tanganyika and the wider East African campaign has produced interesting fiction. C. S. Forester’s The African Queen (1935), later made into the classic film by John Huston, was the first strike. In 1968, Wilbur Smith’s Shout at the Devil dramatised another, related naval encounter on the east coast of what would later become Tanzania. This involved the Konigsberg, a German cruiser lying hidden in the Rufiji Delta. In 1982 William Boyd published An Ice-Cream War, which covered the whole campaign. At a tangent to Boyd’s plot lies an episode fully dramatised in Smith’s most recent novel, Assegai (2008), involving a Zeppelin mission from Europe to East Africa.

A Matter of Time
Alex Capus
Haus, 252pp, Ł12.99


http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/5635563/sideshow-on-the-lake.thtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Romanov Archives - Okhrana Surveillance Report on Rasputin

From the Red Archives- Russian State Papers and other documents relating to the years 1915-1918
RASPUTIN AS KNOWN TO THE SECRET POLICE (OKHRANA) - EXTRACTS




9 February, 1916. Reports.

Tiomny, Gorokhovaia Street, 64

The guests, who had visited Tiomny last night, left at two o'clock. The entertainment was noisy. Vyroubova paid a call at 9-45 this morning. She was followed by Dobrovolskaia, who stayed for three hours. At 10.50 arrived Liubov and Maria Golovina; Haar also paid a long visit. Mamontov and Ossipenko came by government car No. 5064; they were accompanied by an unknown official, who stayed for half-an-hour. At midday Dobrovolsky made his appearance and stayed for an hour and a half. Varnava and Avgustin drove up in car No. 127. At 2.40 Tiomny came out of his flat on his way to the baths, where he remained for fifty minutes. While walking along, he said: "It is a pity that there has been so much talk; now there will be an inquiry." He further remarked: "They are thinking of assassinating me. If they find out that the letter was written by Iliodor [an intriguing monk] they certainly will. "Von Bock paid him a call at 4.45 in the afternoon; Maria Golovina reappeared atfive o'clock; she was followed by Moskvina, who stayed for an hour and ten minutes. Tourovitch came at 5-45 and left with Golovina at 6,45. Klionovsky paid a short visit. Simanovitch paid a call later in the evening, accompanied by an engineer, a Jew. "Tiomny" received no petitioners.

(Signed). TEREKHOV, SVISTOUNOV, VASSILY POPOV, GRIGORY IVANOV.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/rasputinreport.html
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"Fighting Conscription in Canada" in The Public, Feb 9, 1917 by S. J. Farmer



Transcription

The Public 137
February 9, 1917.
human relationship, and that it might even be pos-
sible to provide an international code which contem-
plated a milder calamity than an immediate world
war in the event that the face of one’s wife was
slapped, which usually it is not.
Buncombe Advertising.
The Union Leader (Chicago), Jan. 13.—“How
$12,000,000 a Year Are Distributed in Wages,” is the
attractive headline of a Chicago Surface Lines adver-
tisement, which appeared in the local daily papers
recently. Well, what of it? How many employees
are these $12,000,000 distributed among, and how
much do they get individually? What are the profits
of the Chicago Surface Lines? Do the employees
benefit proportionately from these profits?...
Does the Chicago Surface Lines, out of its bigness
of heart, give away these $12,000,000 a year, or does
it demand in return exacting service? And who gets
the profits from this service? Why does the Chicago
Surface Lines exploit the $12,000,000 pay roll, and
why is it necessary for a public monopoly to pur-
chase advertising space in the daily papers? Does
it have to solicit business, or do car riders have to
patronize their lines whether they want to or not?
These questions, answered in fairness, should make
good “copy” for future advertisements of the Chicago
Surface Lines. They would furnish the public with
real facts concerning traction methods, instead of the
one-sided blare of public benefaction.
CORRESPONDENCE
FIGHTING CONSCRIPTION IN CANADA.
Recent events in Canada, and particularly in
Winnipeg, prove that the spirit of democracy has
not been quenched by the food of militarism which
thirty months of war has loosed upon this country.
From the beginning of the war press, platform and
pulpit have afforded publicity to none but pro-war
advocates, and it was but natural that our local
Prussians should make full use of the opportunity
to press their ideas to the front. Advocates of con-
scription have of course been particularly active,
and seemed to have the field to themselves until
the first overt step in the direction of their aims
was taken by the Canadian government. Then
the other side, long silent, made itself heard. The
government inaugurated a plan of registration, list-
ing the entire male population between the ages of
16 and 65, for what they dignified with the title of
“National Service.” Organized labor at once recog-
nized the resemblance to the notorious “Derby
scheme,” which was the forerunner of conscription
in Great Britain, and organized opposition to the
plan sprang to life all over the Dominion. In this
city, for example, large anti-registration meetings
were held on two consecutive Sundays. Afternoon
and evening of both days, four and five concurrent
meetings were held in as many halls in the Labor
Temple, the speakers passing from one meeting to
another. On the third Sunday a large public meet-
ing was held in a local theatre. The local dailies
vied with each other in misrepresenting the char-
acter of the meetings and the remarks of the
speakers. As a result of the movement, large num-
bers of the registration cards were returned blank,
and other filled in with answers indicating opposition
to the whole proposal. Naturally, every active par-
ticipant in this movement has been vilified to the
limit, especially those who hold public office. In
addition to four Labor members of the city council
who have thus come in for abuse, F. J. Dixon, In-
dependent, and R.A. Rigg, Social Democrat, mem-
bers for Winnipeg constituencies in the Manitoba
Legislature have been conspicuous targets for at-
tack. At the annual convention of the Manitoba
Grain Growers’ Association attempts were made to
have Dixon’s name struck off the list of speakers.
He was billed to speak on “Free Trade.” The
Grain Growers however stood splendidly by the
principle of free speech, and Dixon never got a
better reception that [than] on that occasion. So grossly
was the whole matter distorted by the press that the
Convention passed a strongly worded resolution con-
demning the newspapers for willfully misrepresenting
the affair.
On the opening of the Manitoba Legislature a few
days later, the usual official speeches in reply to the
address from the throne contained further attacks
upon the opponents of registration. In reply to
these attacks both Dixon and Rigg delivered vigor-
ous anti-war speeches, and all the fat is in the fire.
Petitions are being circulated asking Dixon to
apply the principle of the Recall, of which he has
been chief exponent, to himself. Whether these
petitions will be largely signed or not remains to
be seen. One gathers, however, that the people re-
sponsible for their circulation are having their
troubles. Dixon’s attitude toward the request de-
pends, of course, upon the size of the petitions. But
whichever way the scheme terminates, I think the
militarists are going to be painfully surprised at
the strength of the anti-militarist sentiment. Even
among those who support the war there is consid-
erable resentment at the attitude of the Liberal
Premier of the Province, who has publicly declared
that the anti-registrationists should be jailed, and
this resentment has been augmented by the dismissal
of two letter carriers, who as delegates from their
union to the Trades Council took a more or less ac-
tive part in the anti-registration movement. Also by
the dismissal by the Manitoba Free Press of one
member of its editorial staff and a reporter, for
the same reason.
One noticeable and gratifying effect of these devel-
opments is the coming together of Radicals, Social-
ists, Social Democrats and Trade Unionists to face
their common enemy, Privilege. We are probably
in the minority, but do not judge our strength by
the lack of space accorded us in the press, nor the
strength of the conscriptionists by the noise they
are making.
S. J. FARMER.
Winnipeg, Manitoba.
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN NOTES.
During the past two years we have been trying
to get the Town Council of Port Augusta to take
a poll under the Land Values Assessment Act. Port
Augusta is the starting point in South Australia


http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/publications/PUB/PUB_1917_0209
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CASTELAIN Alfons ou/of Alphonse Joseph



Conflit/Conflict : 1914 - 1918; Statut/Statuut : Mort en captivité - In gevangenschap overleden
Naissance/Geboorte : Rollegem, WV, BE 1886-01-24; Décčs/Overlijden : Munster, DE 1917-02-09
Grade - Régiment/Graad - Regiment : Soldat de 2čme classe - Soldaat 2 klasse 9čme - 9de Ligne - Linie 3/1
Plus d'infos/Meer info: Milicien 1906. Stamnummer: 109/53751. Overleden in lazaret van Munster, DE (Bron [38]). Oorspronkelijke begraafplaats: Sprockhovel, Westphalie, DE, katholiek kerkhof, 6 rij, n° 57 (Bron [4]). Zoon van Auguste en van Eugenie STICHELBOUT. Krijgsgevangen genomen, door onmacht en naar Duitsland gevoerd in 1914. Hij stierf een heldendood op 9 februari 1917. Datum van begrafenis: 13 februari 1917. Laatste rustplaats: Leopoldsburg (Bourg-Léopold), LI, BE, Belgisch militaire begraafplaats, graf n° P-76

http://www.bel-memorial.org/photos/CASTELAIN_Alfons_22289.htm
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U.S. Congressional Record February 9, 1917, page 2947

Congressman Calloway announced that the J.P. Morgan interests bought 25 of America's leading newspapers, and inserted their own editors, in order to control the media.

The CHAIRMAN: The Chair will recognize the gentleman from Texas, a member of the [defense appropriations] committee.

Mr. CALLAWAY: Mr. Chairman, I ask unanimous consent to insert in the Record a statement that I have of how the newspapers of this country have been handled by the munitions manufacturers.

The CHAIRMAN: The gentleman from Texas asks unanimous consent to extend his remarks in the Record by inserting a certain statement. Is there any objection?

Mr. MANN: Mr. Chairman, reserving the right to object, may I ask whether it is the gentleman's purpose to insert a long list of extracts from newspapers?

Mr. CALLAWAY: No; it will be a little, short statement not over 2 ˝ inches in length in the Record.

The CHAIRMAN: Is there any objection?

There was no objection.

Mr. CALLAWAY: Mr. Chairman, under unanimous consent, I insert into the Record at this point a statement showing the newspaper combination, which explains their activity in the war matter, just discussed by the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. MOORE]:

“In March, 1915, the J.P. Morgan interests, the steel, ship building and powder interests and their subsidiary organizations, got together 12 men high up in the newspaper world and employed them to select the most influential newspapers in the United States and sufficient number of them to control generally the policy of the daily press in the United States.

“These 12 men worked the problems out by selecting 179 newspapers, and then began, by an elimination process, to retain only those necessary for the purpose of controlling the general policy of the daily press throughout the country. They found it was only necessary to purchase the control of 25 of the greatest papers. The 25 papers were agreed upon; emissaries were sent to purchase the policy, national and international, of these papers; an agreement was reached; the policy of the papers was bought, to be paid for by the month; an editor was furnished for each paper to properly supervise and edit information regarding the questions of preparedness, militarism, financial policies and other things of national and international nature considered vital to the interests of the purchasers.

“This contract is in existence at the present time, and it accounts for the news columns of the daily press of the country being filled with all sorts of preparedness arguments and misrepresentations as to the present condition of the United States Army and Navy, and the possibility and probability of the United States being attacked by foreign foes.

“This policy also included the suppression of everything in opposition to the wishes of the interests served. The effectiveness of this scheme has been conclusively demonstrated by the character of the stuff carried in the daily press throughout the country since March, 1915. They have resorted to anything necessary to commercialize public sentiment and sandbag the National Congress into making extravagant and wasteful appropriations for the Army and Navy under false pretense that it was necessary. Their stock argument is that it is 'patriotism.' They are playing on every prejudice and passion of the American people.”

http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Morgan-Buys-Newspapers9feb17.htm
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Peace Treaty Between Ukraine and Central Powers, 9 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of the peace treaty agreed between the Ukraine and the Central Powers on 9 February 1918. Punitive in economic terms so far as the Ukraine was concerned, it nevertheless obliged Bolshevik Russia to reluctantly accept Ukrainian independence.

With the disintegration of the Russian monarchy in February 1917 nationalist Ukrainian leaders (led by Vinichenko) moved swiftly to seek a form of independence within the Russian union, a desire granted by the Provisional Government in July 1917. With the success of the Bolshevik October Revolution of the same year however, the Ukrainians found themselves accused of essentially aiding and abetting anti-Bolshevik forces within Russia.

Ukrainian President Vinichenko consequently issued a proclamation of autonomy on 20 November 1917 in response to the unrest within Russia. He reiterated the Ukraine's desire to remain autonomous within a wider Russian union - to no avail. The following month, December 1917, brought the Ukraine into civil war against Bolshevik forces (click here to read Lenin's ultimatum on the subject).

Ultimately the Ukrainians sought protection from the Germans with whom they negotiated the peace treaty below. Exacting a heavy economic price for their support the Germans duly took the Ukrainians' side and obliged the Bolsheviks to accept an autonomous Ukraine. The Ukraine had earlier declared independence on 22 January 1918.

Peace Treaty Between the Central Powers and the Ukraine, 9 February 1918 (Subsequently Accepted by Russia)

Whereas, the Ukrainian People has, in the course of the present world war, declared its independence, and has expressed the desire to establish a state of peace between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Powers at present at war with Russia, the Governments of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey have resolved to conclude a Treaty of Peace with the Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic; they wish in this way to take the first step towards a lasting world peace, honourable for all parties, which shall not only put an end to the horrors of war, but shall also conduce to the restoration of friendly relations between the peoples in the political, legal, economic, and intellectual spheres.

To this end the Plenipotentiaries of the above-mentioned Governments have met together at Brest-Litovsk for the inception of peace negotiations, and have agreed upon the following points:

ARTICLE I

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey of the one part, and the Ukrainian People's Republic of the other part, declare that the state of war between them is at an end. The contracting parties are resolved henceforth to live in peace and amity with one another.

ARTICLE II

(1) As between Austria-Hungary of the one part, and the Ukrainian People's Republic of the other part, in so far as these two Powers border upon one another, the frontiers which existed between the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and Russia prior to the outbreak of the present war will be preserved.

(2) Further north, the frontier of the Ukrainian People's Republic, starting at Tarnograd, will in general follow the line Bilgoray, Szczebrzeszyn, Krasnostav, Pugashov, Radzin, Miedzyzheche, Sarnaki, Melnik, Vysokie-Litovsk, Kameniec-Litovsk, Prujany, and Vygonovsk Lake. This frontier will be delimited in detail by a mixed commission, according to the ethnographical conditions and after taking the wishes of the inhabitants into consideration.

(3) In the event of the Ukrainian People's Republic having boundaries coterminous with those of another of the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, special agreements may be come to thereupon at a later date.

ARTICLE III

The evacuation of the occupied territories shall begin immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty of Peace.

The manner of carrying out the evacuation and the transfer of the evacuated territories shall be determined by the Plenipotentiaries of the interested parties.

ARTICLE IV

Diplomatic and consular relations between the contracting parties shall commence immediately after the ratification of the Treaty of Peace.

Provision for the admission of consuls on the widest scale possible on both sides is held over for special agreements.

ARTICLE V

The contracting parties mutually renounce repayment of their war costs, that is to say, their State expenditure for the prosecution of the war, as well as payment for war damages, that is to say, damages sustained by them and their nationals in the war areas through military measures, including all requisitions made in enemy territory.

ARTICLE VI

Prisoners of war of both parties shall he permitted to return home, in so far as they do not desire, with the approval of the State in whose territory they shall be, to remain within its territories or to proceed to another country. Questions connected with this will be dealt with in the separate treaties provided for in Article VIII.

ARTICLE VII

It has been agreed as follows with regard to economic relations between the contracting parties, viz.:

The contracting parties mutually undertake to enter into economic relations without delay and to organize the exchange of goods on the basis of the following stipulations [here follow details which by a supplementary commercial treaty placed the Ukraine under German control]:

ARTICLE VIII

The establishing of public and private legal relations, the exchange of prisoners of war and interned civilians, the amnesty question, as well as the question of the treatment of merchant shipping in the enemy's hands, shall be settled by means of separate Treaties with the Ukrainian People's Republic, which shall form an essential part of the present Treaty of Peace, and, as far as practicable, come into force simultaneously therewith.

ARTICLE IX

The agreements come to in this Treaty of Peace shall form an indivisible whole.

ARTICLE X

For the interpretation of this Treaty, the German and Ukrainian text shall be authoritative for relations between Germany and the Ukraine; the German, Hungarian, and Ukrainian text for relations between Austria-Hungary and the Ukraine; the Bulgarian and Ukrainian text for relations between Bulgaria and the Ukraine; and the Turkish and Ukrainian text for relations between Turkey and the Ukraine.

FINAL PROVISION

The present Treaty of Peace shall be ratified. The ratifications shall be exchanged in Vienna at the earliest possible moment.

The Treaty of Peace shall come into force on its ratification, in so far as no stipulation to the contrary is contained therein.

In witness whereof the Plenipotentiaries have set their hands and seals to the present Treaty.

Executed in quintuplicate at Brest-Litovsk on the 9th day of February, 1918. [Here follow signatures.]

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukrainianpeacetreaty.htm
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'The Daily Mirror, Saturday February 9th 1918'...



... announcing the torpedoing of the liner Tuscania, carrying 2,011 American troops, off the Irish coast

http://www.carters.com.au/index.cfm/item/61940-the-daily-mirror-saturday-february-9th-1918-announcing-the-torpe/
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Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 9 Februari 1918.

Valkenswaard.
- Door de Rijks- en gem. politie alhier werd bij zekeren B. (Belgisch vluchteling) een partij waschgoed gevonden die van vroeger alhier gepleegde diefstallen afkomstig was. De vrouw van B., genaamd J. H., die steeds ontkent den diefstal gepleegd te hebben, zit achter slot en grendel. Heden is zij naar ’s Bosch getransporteerd.

- Op Zondag 10 dezer zal door de Belgische geďnterneerden eene uitvoering gegeven worden in de zaal van den heer J. Verhappen.

- Mej. A. de Rooy, onderwijzeres bij de Zusters Franciscanessen alhier, is benoemd tot onderwijzeres met acte Fransch aan de M.U.L.O.-school der Eerw. Zusters van St. Antonius te ’s-Hertogenbosch.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1918.htm
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Alexander Severyuk on the Ukraine Brest-Litovsk Peace Settlement, 9 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of the response given by Alexander Severyuk - on behalf of the Ukraine government - to an address given by the Chairman of the Brest-Litovsk Conference, Richard von Kühlmann (also German Foreign Secretary), acclaiming news of the peace settlement.

Alexander Severyuk on the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty, 9 February 1918

We state with joy that from this day peace begins between the Quadruple Alliance and Ukrainia.

We came here in the hope that we should be able to achieve a general peace and make an end of this fratricidal war. The political position, however, is such that not all of the powers are met here to sign a general peace treaty.

Inspired with the most ardent love for our people, and recognizing that this long war has exhausted the cultural national powers of our people, we must now divert all our strength to do our part to bring about a new era and a new birth.

We are firmly persuaded that we conclude this peace in the interests of great democratic masses, and that this peace will contribute to the general termination of the Great War.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukraine_brest_severyuk.htm
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9/02/1914

Theodore Burgard, alleged German spy, is arrested photographing French fortifications



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9th February 1918 - LIEUTENANTS EXPERIENCES

War Front:
1st Batt: Batt moved to Eecke at 7.30am, entrained at Goddesvervelte, detrained at Wieltje and went to billets at English Farm Camp. The transport lines were at Ryde Camp.
2nd Batt: There was an ARA Competition for 2 platoons per Coy and B Coy won.
3rd Batt: Batt in Brigade Reserve, washing and cleaning up
10th Batt: Batt proceeded to Front Line and relieved the 10th Royal Welsh.

Home Front:
WORCESTERSHIRE AND THE WAR – PET BIRD FOR WAR FUND – In the interests of the sick and wounded at Norton Barracks, Mr Harry Wakefield of the Bull’s Head, Worcester arranged a ballot for his own pet prize canary and cage and he realised the handsome sum of Ł13.3s. It is to be noted also that he paid all expenses connected with the ballot and therefore the gratitude of the sick and wounded is all the greater.

LIEUTENANTS EXPERIENCES – Mr J Brettell, Rainbow Hill, has received a letter from his son, 2nd Lieut. F Brettell R.N., telling him that the boat he was in was torpedoed in the Eastern Mediterranean and sank in two and a half minutes. As soon as she was struck 2nd Lieut Brettell rushed on deck and jumped into the sea, swimming about till he caught hold of some wreckage. Three sailors joined him. All four were picked up by a destroyer, were wrapped in blankets and then taken on board a ship.

Information researched by The Worcestershire World War 100 team

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1918/02/lieutenants-experiences/
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Scott Statue Unveiled – 9th February 1917

On 9th February 1917, the Scott Statue was unveiled in the Scott Reserve – the south west corner of Worcester Street and Oxford Terrace. The ceremony was led by New Zealand Governor Arthur Foljambe, the 2nd Earl of Liverpool.

It hadn’t even been a week after the news of Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s death in Antarctica – after a failed attempt to be the first party to reach the South Pole – that talk was started on a memorial for them in Christchurch. Scott’s wife, Kathleen, was a world famous sculptor so she was approached about the project. She was asked for a replica of a bronze statue of her husband that stood on Waterloo Road in London. Kathleen accepted.

As the world was well into the WWI and metal was hard to come by, marble was chosen as the ‘blank canvas’. Kathleen travelled to Carrara, Italy to work on her commission. Upon its arrival in Christchurch, the statue was incomplete; the details of Scott’s gloves unfinished. Kathleen had planned to do the finishing touches before the unveiling but this never came to pass.

On the statue’s pedestal are the names of the four other explorers and scientists who lost their lives with Scott on the ice; Edward Wilson, Henry Bowers, Lawrence Oates and Edgar Evans. There is also an entry from Scott’s journal:

‘I do not regret this journey, which shows that Englishmen can endure hardships, help one another, and meet death with a great fortitude as ever in the past’.

Worldwide, there are seven other memorials to Scott made by his widower, Kathleen.

http://www.peelingbackhistory.co.nz/scott-statue-unveiled-9th-february-1917/
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SCENE OF THE BIG PUSH

Private Harold Cassidy, son of Mr.
and Mrs. Harry Cassidy, of Anson-
street, Orange, of the Ammunition
Corps "Somewhere in France," writ-
ing to his grandfather, Major James
Cassidy, of Bentinck street, Bathurst,
draws a comparison between the hot
and dry climatic conditions of Egypt
with the present cold and wet wea-
ther they are experiencing in France.
He states that his surroundings are
most picturesque, the land being well
cultivated and luxuriously rich with
an abundance of water. The condi-
tions of the north and south of
France he also compared, referring to
the destruction wrought by the Hun
in the former districts. The chur-
ches, he states, seemed to have fared
badly, and attributes this to the fact
that it was these and other promin-
ent buildings by which the Huns re-
gulated their artillery fire. The scene
of the big push on the Somme was
a pitiful sight, for you would not now
be able to see two stones standing
together. The remains of one village
was a mass of debris, while at one
point, on the side of a hill, the land-
scape presents the appearance of a
recent landslide. In all directions
are to be seen what were once Ger-
man trenches, but now, owing to the
superiority of British men and muni-
tions, has been made untenable for
the Hun. Everywhere the earth is
spotted with shell craters, varying in
diameter from two to 20 feet and
from 3 to 15 feet in depth. He adds
that it would be most difficult to de-
strongholds, and obstacles the Eng-
lish, Australians and French were
obliged to overcome. They well may
be regarded as almost impregnable.
One of the greatest hindrances, he
concluded, was the mud, through
which they were obliged to plod. It
was truly a matter of being in 'mud
up to your neck', especially when one
stumbled blindly into a shell hole in
the darkness. Guns, transports and
munition waggons were frequently
bogging, and sometimes one pitied
the horses, mules, and oneself for be-
ing in it, but there is always the one
determination to win the war, in
every true Britisher's breast, which
overcame all the obstacles and held
them there, prepared to stay till the
finish.

Uit: Leader, 9 February 1917.
https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/117822111/13052115,
via http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/9-february-1917/
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Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich

"I have been here for six days, far away from earthly cares in the peaceful mountains and valleys of the Caucasus. I am resting, both physically and mentally. It is a selfish feeling, but so pleasant to belong entirely to oneself sometimes, and to live as one wants, and not as one is ordered to do."

https://project1917.com/posts/19394##post
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Diary Entries 9 February - 28 March 1917

Fri 9 February 1917 - Got up at 7.10. I have a wash in a pannican of fresh water every day now as every man is allowed a certain amount for drinking. Light wind blowing fine day small swell running. Had good dinner today got some hash from the Sgts. Mess. Lecture semaphore & physical drill this afternoon we had knot tying & I showed how to splice an end of soap them we had physical drill till 4 pm. Had prunes & sago tea. Played banker and won four boxes of matches. Concert tonight by Company. Bought bag of boiled lollies at canteen 4d. Read up book on field training. No man is allowed in dormitory between the hrs of 9 & 11 am and 2 & 4 pm except orderlies. Fresh water tap open between 6.30 to 7.30 am & 11 to 1.30 & from 4 to 5 pm & 6.30 to 8 pm that has been the rule since leaving Albany.
Went to bunk 9.30.

http://www.lytteltonmuseum.co.nz/new-blog/2017/4/25/diary-entries-9-february-28-march-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 9:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Duncan McRae - diary, 11 December 1916-9 February 1917

Feb. 9 - Our leave of four days commenced to-day. We arose early & had dressed, breakfasted & marched to Amesbury Station (6 miles) by 9.30 A.M. Our train left at 10 & we detrained at Waterloo Station, London at 2 P.M.
We were then marched about 1 ˝ miles to the A.I.F. headquarters at Horseferry Road and after receiving our full instructions were dismissed. We then had some lunch and proceeded by Motor Bus to Trafalgar Square & thence by Tube to Highgate in search of a piano factory about which Alan had heard. We found the place but it was being used for munition work & so we had to retrace our steps. We took the electric car to Euston & there had tea & amused the waitress for a while. We then had to fill in a few hours before getting our train to Birmingham & so resolved to go to one of the picture shows & of course could not go alone. An Australian in England gets the 'glad-eye' from every girl he passes & so we simply walked out of the restaurant & in a few minutes found ourselves is a nice picture palace with two of the prettiest little pink-cheeked girls you ever saw.

https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/page/305074/view en https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/page/305075/view
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 12:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Digger John Christian Stephenson | February 9, 1915

Tuesday, February 9, 1915 - As we packed all the (unreadable) last night we were pretty well ready as soon as we got up. We went between 10 and 11 miles out to the step pyramid had dinner and then under the supervision of the Brigadier made an attack on a well defended position. About five in the evening the attack finished and all the Companys entrenched for the night. I and Davis took first watch with the lamp from eight until half past one. It was the coldest time I have ever put in in my life. We went down to the camp but as it was too cold to sleep I went over to the cook's fires and tried to get warm there. But it was no use so I went back and took on sentry go over the rifles.

http://www.dailyadvertiser.com.au/story/2865834/diary-of-digger-john-christian-stephenson-february-9-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 12:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Destrubé family - Letter to Dear Ones from Paul, February 9, 1917, "Somewhere"

This letter must have been written a day previous to Mumps breaking out in George's tent. He will therefore be unable to rejoin the boys yet outside.

"Somewhere" Feb. 9th 1917 Dear Ones, We have received several letters from you. The last dated the 4th inst., for which many thanks. From Georges we received news to the effect that he expects to rejoin us in a day or two. Dear Syl. You still harbour a few illusions regarding the Army & it's sense of justice. Georges was crimed & received 10 days for championing a worthy cause, but we are not the least surprised or even disturbed by such jurisdiction. It's quiet

https://exhibits.library.uvic.ca/spotlight/wwi/catalog/1-3674
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 12:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1917, SUPPLEMENT 1, THE WORLD WAR

The Ambassador in Great Britain ( Page) to the Secretary of State [Telegram], London, February 9, 1917, 6 p.m.

Instruction in first paragraph promptly followed. The future of the commission is under constant discussion between commissioners here, Spanish Ambassador, myself, and British Government and German Government through Spanish Ambassador and his Government. There is hope that working arrangement may be restored if we keep out of war. In case Americans are forced to leave Belgium the most probable course of events will be as follows: the Hoover Commission will be liquidated, the British, French, and Belgian Governments will provide for future work. We shall advise with them as far as they desire and permit. The Spanish Ambassador will expect, under direction of his Government, to remain on the reorganized commission and to help [Page 635]constitute it. He has so informed the British Government and me. His view is that if Americans are forced off the commission, the commission will still exist in spite of liquidation and consist of him and his Spanish associates together with other diplomatic patrons and members except me. The real reconstruction of the commission it seems to me must rest upon the three governments most directly concerned, namely British, French, and Belgian who will then take up question of reorganization with the Spanish Ambassador and other diplomatic members.

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1917Supp01v01/d894
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 12:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Congress eulogizes Theodore Roosevelt, Feb. 9, 1919

Members of Congress from both wings of the U.S. Capitol gathered in the House chamber on this day in 1919 to pay their respects to Theodore Roosevelt, the nation’s 26th president, who served in that office from 1901 to 1909. He had died on Jan. 6 at his home in Oyster Bay, New York, at age 60, after a blood clot had detached from a vein and traveled to his lungs.

Roosevelt died in his sleep after apparently suffering a heart attack, which was preceded by a 10-week illness diagnosed as inflammatory rheumatism. Despite his declining health, Roosevelt remained active until nearly the end of his life.

After the assassination of Republican President William McKinley in 1901, then-Vice President Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest president in the nation’s history. Roosevelt brought new excitement to the office as he used strong public support to lead Congress in many domestic reforms.

Thomas Marshall, the Democratic vice president, said: “Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight.”

Joining the lawmakers in the chamber were members of the Supreme Court, members of President Woodrow Wilson’s Cabinet, the diplomatic corps, and former President William Howard Taft, who succeeded Roosevelt in office. At the time, Wilson was in Paris negotiating the terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty which concluded World War I.

Henry Couden, the House chaplain, opened the proceedings by remembering Roosevelt as “one of the nation’s noblest sons — a writer, a speaker, a scientist, a patriot, a soldier, a statesman.” In delivering his remarks, Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass.) said, “We cannot approach Theodore Roosevelt’s death along the beaten path of eulogy or satisfy ourselves with the empty civilities of commonplace funeral tributes, for he did not make his life journey over main-traveled roads nor was he ever commonplace.”

The day after he died, The New York Times published a 3,500-word news story, referring to the former president throughout the piece as “Colonel Roosevelt,” a rank he acquired in 1898 as a cavalry officer during the Spanish-American War.

The Times story, which did not carry a byline, reported: “Colonel Roosevelt himself had no idea that he was seriously ill, and was full of interest in everything in the world and full of plans for the future. He was vexed over his two months of invalidism. When he was asked about his health by visitors his reply was a vigorous “Bully!” He deceived not only himself, his family, and his friends as to the seriousness of his condition, but deceived his physicians as well.”

Upon receiving word of his death, his son Archibald telegraphed his siblings: “The old lion is dead.” Following a private farewell service in the North Room at Sagamore Hill, a modest funeral was held at Christ Episcopal Church in Oyster Bay. He was buried on a hillside overlooking Oyster Bay.

https://www.politico.com/story/2018/02/09/congress-eulogizes-theodore-roosevelt-feb-9-1919-391633
Zie ook https://www.walmart.com/ip/Theodore-Roosevelt-Memorial-Addresses-Delivered-Before-the-Century-Association-February-9-1919-Resolutions-Adopted-February-9-1919/215124357
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 12:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medal of Honor Presentation Ceremony - February 9, 1919 at Chaumont, France

Mooie foto! https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Medal_of_Honor_Presentation_Ceremony_-_February_9,_1919_at_Chaumont,_France.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 12:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hampton B. Ball letter to home - February 9, 1919

Still Courcelles [February] 9, 1919 Dear Home, I told you last Sunday that I might be on my way by this time but the order to move has been delayed and I am still here. I understand tho that it will not lengthen our stay in France. I only hope the dope is right. I will just about be leaving France when you get this letter. Nothing has happened the past week so there is very little news.

Mooie site trouwens. http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/ref/collection/overthere/id/2861
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 13:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

René Vertongen

Op 9 februari 1918 meldde een correspondent uit Le Havre aan diverse Nederlandse couranten dat de Belgische vlieger-luitenant René Vertongen werd vermist. Vanuit Calais was hij met zijn Hanriot HD1 opgestegen om dit nieuwe vliegtuig naar het front te brengen. Waarschijnlijk was hij door dichte mist met zijn vliegtuig in zee gestort. Een visser zag het toestel vallen. Pas op 14 april werd zijn lichaam geborgen en vier dagen later begraven in Calais. Op 2 februari 1923 is hij herbegraven op Schoonselhof te Antwerpen.

Staat nog een interessant artikel vóór... http://www.wos.nl/streekhistorie-vliegtuig-bij-ter-heijde-in-beslag-genomen/nieuws/item?998266
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 14:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

KRONIEK VAN BAARLE IN DE EERSTE WERELDOORLOG (1918)

9 februari 1918 - Aanvraag om toelagen voor een derde klas en voor naald- en handwerk in de aanneembare school van de vluchtelingen.
(Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; brief aan M. Poullet in Le Havre, 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

https://www.amaliavansolms.org/1ste-wereld-oorlog/191-09-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 14:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vredeskerkje Bergen aan Zee - Geschiedenis

Door het burgemeestersechtpaar Van Reenen-Völter werd het dorp Bergen aan Zee als een volwaardig dorp ontworpen. Uiteraard was het toerisme een belangrijke drijfveer, maar er moesten mensen kunnen wonen en leven met alles wat daarvoor nodig was. Daarom wilde het paar dat er niet alleen hotels kwamen, maar ook een school en vooral een kerk. Die laatste belangrijke wens ging in 1918 in vervulling. Toen werd het Vredeskerkje gesticht. Het zou een kerk voor iedereen worden, niet bedoeld voor een specifieke geloofsovertuiging. Daarom nam Marie van Reenen zelf het initiatief tot deze kerkbouw en zocht zij geen verbinding met de in Bergen al aanwezige kerkgenootschappen.

Op 9 februari 1918, in het laatste jaar van de Eerste Wereldoorlog, werd de eerste steen gelegd en al op 28 juli 1918 kon het als kerk worden ingewijd. (...)

Lees verder op http://www.vredeskerkje.nl/geschiedenis
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 14:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 februari 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Maurice Desmicht is op 13 juni 1896 geboren in het West-Vlaamse dorp Izenberge, nu een deelgemeente van Alveringem. De ongehuwde zoon van Pierre Désiré en Maria Louisa Callens, treedt in 1914 als oorlogsvrijwilliger in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Op 9 februari 1917 wordt hij door granaatscherven in het hoofd en de linkerarm gedood in Boezinge. Het slachtoffer wordt op 12 februari 1917 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Westvleteren, grafnummer 347, en daar later herbegraven onder het grafnummer 332.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/9-februari-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2018 14:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 februari 1917 - Operatie Alberich

Start van de strategische terugtocht van de Duitse troepen tot de Hindenburglinie, een goed versterkte verdedigingslinie ten Oosten van de Somme, tussen Arras en Laon.

Deze terugtocht was voor de Duitsers van levensbelang geworden : door de lengte van de frontlinie te verkorten, nam het aantal soldaten af, die nodig waren om de verdedigingslinies te bemannen. Begin 1917, telden de Duitsers 154 divisies tegenover 190 geallieerde divisies! Toen de Duitserrs zich terugtrokken pasten zij het tactiek van de verschroeide aarde; zij vernielden bruggen, spoorlijnen en stations, vergiftigden de waterbronnen en de watertorens en ondermijnden wegen en woningen. Zij deporteerden ook alle gezonde mannen naar hun nieuwe verdedigingslinies in Noord-Frankrijk en lieten vrouwen en kinderen achter met juist genoeg voedsel om niet van honger om te komen.

De Bondgenoten dachten wel dat de Duitsers zich zouden terugtrekken. Maar het was pas in de nacht van 14 op 15 maart 1917 dat de Britten de eerste verlaten Duitse loopgraven vonden. Vanaf nu kon de Britse opmars beginnen : voor hen werden de vijandelijke loopgraven door een achterhoede verdedigd. Zo bezetten de Britten de achtergelaten Duitse loopgraven. Op 18 maart 1917 viel de stad Péronne in hun handen. Bapaume werd op 17 maart door Australiërs bezet, maar zij hebben enkele dagen nodig gehad om alle Duitse "boobytraps" onschadelijk te maken. De twee kampen kraaiden victorie; de Duitsers want zij hadden hun terugtocht zonder enig probleem voltooid; de Britten want zij hadden terreinwinst van enkele kilometers geboekt!

http://www.14-18.bruxelles.be/index.php/nl/nieuws-van-het-front/oorlogsverrichtingen/galerij-krijgsverrichtingen/2601-9-februari-1917-operatie-alberich
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