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23 Januari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2006 6:59    Onderwerp: 23 Januari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 23. Januar

1914

1915
Eine feindliche Stellung in den Argonnen erobert
Eine russische Niederlage in der Bukowina
Rückeroberung von Kirlibaba durch österreichisch-ungarische Truppen

1916
Eine feindliche Stellung bei Neuville genommen
Die Adriahäfen Antivari und Dulcigno besetzt
König Nikita von Montenegro auf der Flucht
Nikitas Friedensgesuch eine Hinterlist

1917
Die Donau bei Tulcea von den Bulgaren überschritten
Artilleriekampf bei Riga
Seegefecht in der südlichen Nordsee
Erfolgreicher Vorstoß bei Görz

1918
Gesteigerter Feuerkampf an der flandrischen Front
Feldmarschalleutnant v. Hoefer gestorben

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2006 7:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 23

1920 Netherlands refuses to extradite Kaiser Wilhelm to the Allies


On this day in 1920, the Dutch government refuses demands by the Allies for the extradition of Wilhelm I, the former kaiser of Germany, who has been living in exile in the Netherlands since November 1918.

By early November 1918, things were looking dismal for the Central Powers on all fronts of the Great War. The kaiser was at German army headquarters in the Belgian resort town of Spa when news reached him, in quick succession, of labor unrest in Berlin, a mutiny within the Imperial Navy and what looked like the beginnings of full-fledged revolution in Germany. From every direction, it seemed, came calls for peace, reform and the removal of the kaiser. Wilhelm I was told that the German General Staff would make a unified, orderly march home to Germany when the war ended, but it would not defend him against his internal opponents.

Faced with this lack of support, the kaiser agreed to abdicate his throne on November 9, 1918. Shortly after that, Wilhelm, the last of the powerful Hohenzollern monarchs, traveled from Spa to Holland, never to return to German soil.

In January 1920, Wilhelm headed the list of so-called “war criminals” put together by the Allies and made public after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The Netherlands, under the young, strong-willed Queen Wilhelmina, refused to extradite him for prosecution and Wilhelm remained in Holland, where he settled in the municipality of Doorn. Personal tragedy struck when his son, Joachim, committed suicide later in 1920. Augusta, his wife and the mother of his seven children, died barely a year later. In 1922, Wilhelm remarried and published his memoirs, proclaiming his innocence in the promotion of the Great War.

Unlike Wilhelmina and the rest of the Dutch royal family, Wilhelm turned down Winston Churchill’s offer of asylum in Britain in 1940, as Hitler’s armies pushed through Holland, choosing instead to live under German occupation. He died the following year.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Fritz Kempf
Ere WikiMusketier


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 0:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 - Duitse vliegende aas Hans Imelmann sneuvelt, nadat hij werd geraakt door een RAF B.E.2c en zijn brandstoftank vuur vatte.
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Ypres Salient on Pictures
Discover the Salient - Meet the men


FHSW Wikia
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 9:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pvt Bura Haney, Evacuation Hospital Nr 25, US Army Hospital Corps.

Born at Lizton, Hendricks County on 31 January 1897, Bura (a clerk in civilian life) enlisted into service at Indianapolis on 19 March 1918 and was trained at Jefferson Barracks and Camp Dodge.

He was posted to France on 11 November 1918, but died of Typhoid in Mobile Hospital Nr 11 at Donjeux on 23 January 1919. Pvt Bura was initially buried in the American Cemetery at Riaucourt, but his body was repatriated back to the USA at a later date.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/component/content/1094.html?task=view
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant
Donderdag 23 Januari 1919.


Valkenswaard - Zondag werd door ’t comite voor Recht en Orde eene vergadering belegd bij de kind. Kanen alhier welke goed slaagde. Door den voorzitter werd op duidelijke wijze uiteengezet het doel ter oprichting eener burgerwacht. Hierna werd door den Eerw. heer v.d. Zanden nog een kleine toelichting gegeven. Een vijftigtal personen gaven zich op voor de burgerwacht. Gistermorgen kon zich ook ieder opgeven op ’t gemeentehuis, terwijl nog dagelijks gelegenheid is zich hiervoor op te geven bij den voorzitter der R. K. Werkliedenvereeniging alhier.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 10:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting 23 January 1918

CONSCRIPTION OF WEALTH.

HC Deb 23 January 1918 vol 101 c978 978

46. Mr. LYNCH asked the Prime Minister whether, in order to respond to the demand for equality of sacrifice, he will take immediate steps to prepare a scheme for the conscription of wealth and of all capitalistic plant in the country?

Mr. BONAR LAW The answer is in the negative.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jan/23/conscription-of-wealth
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 11:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In oorlogsnood
Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918


...Onlangs is de koning van Beieren in Gent geweest; groote parade op het St.-Pietersplein, waar hij de troepen in oogenschouw nam en toesprak.
Opnieuw allerlei vertelsels: de duitsche regimenten te Wervicq hebben op elkaar geschoten. Würtemburgers, die te Deinze ingekwartierd waren, moesten voor aankomende Pruisen hun bedden afstaan en de eerste bezitters werden op stroo gelegd. Groot misnoegen bij de Würtemburgers.
Te Meigem hadden in de bovenherbergzaal, waar de muziek maatschappij hare repetities hield, negen en vijftig soldaten nachtverblijf gekozen, weldra moesten ze naar 't front. Korte dagen daarop had de kastelein gelegenheid nieuws van hen te vernemen, negen waren er reeds dood.
Het wordt geweten, dat de vermoorde man te Schaarbeek, dezelfde was, die miss Cavell voor het gerecht dagen deed....

Lees haar verslag van heel de 23ste januari 1916: http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1916-01-23.htm#d_1916-01-23entry1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 15:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 januari 1917

Het vrachtschip ss. 'Salland' (1905) van de Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd, op weg van Amsterdam naar Buenos Aires, onder kapitein A. Vreugdenhil, wordt op de Noordzee door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'U 55' getorpedeerd.

Alle opvarenden kunnen worden gered en aan boord worden genomen van de Britse torpedobootjager HMS 'Hope' en vervolgens te Plymouth aan wal worden gezet.

Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De Nederlandse koopvaardij in WO I (1917)' in: 'DBW' jrg. 57 nr. 9 (2002)

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/
Gevonden via http://www.startlog.nl/article/850140/23-januari-1917.html
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 16:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE LONDON GAZETTE, 23 JANUARY, 1914

War Office,
23rd January, 1914.

REGULAR FORCES.

COMMANDS AND STAFF.
Captain Geoffrey M. Paget, Coldstream Guards, from Aide-de-Camp, to be Assistant Secretary for Military Affairs to the Right Honourable Viscount Gladstone, G.C.M.G., Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Union of South Africa and High Commissioner for South Africa. Dated 2nd December, 1913.

The appointment of Lieutenant Thomas R. Eastwood, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own), as Aide-de-Camp to Lieutenant-Colonel Earl of Liverpool, K.C.M.G., M.V.O., Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of New Zealand, is antedated to the 1st July, 1913.

http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/28795/pages/602/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 16:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 januari 1924

De dood van Lenin

Algemeen Handelsblad

Pagina met leesbare koppen (40 tot 90 kB, in nieuw venster)
http://www.nrc.nl/redactie/eeuwpagina/1924_20cm.jpg

Pagina met leesbare tekst (250 tot 600 kB, in nieuw venster)
http://www.nrc.nl/redactie/eeuwpagina/1924_50cm.jpg

http://www.nrc.nl/krant/article1545173.ece/1920-1929
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"SLUMS: A SOCIOLOGICAL RETROSPECT OF THE CITY OF DUBLIN."
By S. SHANNON MILLIN, ESQ.

[Read Friday, 23rd January, 1914.]

http://www.tara.tcd.ie/jspui/bitstream/2262/7937/1/jssisiVolXIII130_159.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BC Federationist, 23 Jan 1914, p. 1

The BC Federationist was the official paper of the BC Federation of Labour. A relatively new body, the BC Federation of labour had taken over for the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council as the primary labour body in the province. Thus, the Federationist can reasonably be thought of as the voice of the labour leadership in BC, to the extent that such a unified voice was possible.

Death of Youthful Miner at Prison Farm

J. Mairs Dies in Jail His Relatives Were Not Notified

Jury Scored Present System of Medical Attention to Prisoners


Joseph Mairs Jr., the 21-year old miner who was found guilty on charges in connection with the cronbies at Ladysmith last year and who was sentenced by Judge Howay to one year’s imprisonment with a further four months in default of payment of a fine, died Tuesday morning at the prison farm, Burnaby. Deceased had been ill for some days, but did not receive medical attention until Sunday afternoon, and it was not until Monday afternoon that the medicines ordered by the prison surgeon were administered to him. It also transpired that another prisoner—a barber—who is in charge of medicines at the institution, had given the deceased hot mustard pills, salts and cod liver oil in addition to prescribing his diet for him. Death, however, took place at 8:20 the following morning. At the inquest the jury severely scored the system prevailing at the prison farm regarding laxity in attending sick prisoners and recommended that a resident doctor be provided. A sad feature of the case was the fact that the relatives of the deceased were not informed of his condition until after his death.

The inquest took place Wednesday at Messrs Center and Hanna’s parlors, Georgia street, Coroner McQuarrie of New Westminster conducting the examination. Mr. Leighton watched the enquiry on behalf of the United Mine Workers. The First witness called was W.G. McMynn, the prison warder, who stated that deceased was brought from Nanaimo Nov. 3rd and remained at the prison farm till his death. Up to Jan. 12th he had been employed out of doors, chiefly clearing land. As he was a clean lad of exemplary behaviour and suitable for the purpose, he was on the latter date, taken into the kitchen as cookee. There was no hospital at the prison, but a room was set apart as a sick ward, into which the deceased was moved. He always considered deceased enjoying robust health. In answer to Mr. Leighton and the foreman of the jury, the warden stated that the relatives were not notified of his condition. Visitors are allowed to see the prisoners on Sundays, although on the Sunday previous deceased’s aunt had been refused admittance on account of the doctor’s recommendation. There were 209 prisoners in the institution, no hospital, and the prison doctor resident in Vancouver.

At the conclusion of this witness’ evidence the foreman of the jury requested that these answers should be placed on record. This the coroner refused to do, and the enquiry was proceeded with.

W.G. Stackhouse, who had been looking after deceased, was the next witness. He stated that he was a barber and was an inmate of the prison farm. He is in charge of baths and medicines and part of his duty is to enquire into the health of prisoners and giving out medicines. On the night of either the 14th or 15th the guard woke him up and told him that the deceased had cramps. He gave him some hot mustard and in the morning a dose of salts. On Friday night the deceased complained of vomiting, stomach mixture was given him and he was moved out of his cell into the corridor, a bed being made up for him near a steam pipe. Special food was obtained for him from the kitchen. On Saturday his cell companion said medical aid should be summoned, and at night the deceased was given codliver oil. Deceased stated he had no pain and had never asked to see a doctor. The doctor came on Sunday afternoon. Stackhouse said that although the doctor prescribed for Mairs on Sunday the first dose of the medicine was not administered until midday on Monday. Deceased, however, could not keep it down. Between 5 and 6 on Monday, Mr. Haslam removed the patient to the sick ward where he stayed till his death the following morning, witness remaining with him all the time.

Dr. W.T Hayes, medical practitioner in charge of prisoners at the prison farm, said he made his usual trip on Sunday afternoon. He saw deceased and thinking it was a severe case of indigestion, prescribed a simple mixture. It never dawned on him that the case was so serious as it turned out to be. On Monday evening he again saw deceased and thought he looked better, the vomiting had ceased and there was no pain. He gave further instructions and heard nothing more of the case until after death. Deceased had been previously operated on for a similar ailment.

In reply to questions Dr. Hoyes stated that the cause of death was localized tubercular peritonitis of the small bowel—a disease most easily recognized and yet most easily overlooked. He made a trip to the prison every Sunday and at any time when called upon.

Dr. J.S. Conklin gave particulars regarding the autopsy. He said that on examining the body he found it to be well nourished; there being a scar on the abdomen pointing to a previous operation. Death was due to tubercular ulceration of the bowels. The other organs were normal except that the base of the left lung showed an old pleurisy. The malady was of long standing and an operation would have been useless.

Thomas W. Haslam, head jailer, said that deceased reported sick on the 14th and was given stomach mixture and cramp medicine, The doctor gave a prescription on Sunday and on Monday witness went to New Westminster and got it filled. On Monday evening he stayed in the sick ward up to 11 o’clock, and on Tuesday, seeing a change for the worse he went out to get a hot water bottle. On returning, however, death had occurred.

In reply to questions witness said that a number of prisoners reported sick and the officials had to guard against malingering. If a prisoner took his food it was concluded there was not much the matter with him. Malingerers were punished by being put on short rations. Mrs. Dewar was denied admittance on Sunday for routine reasons and not on medical grounds.

Joseph Mairs, sr., testified that he saw his son a fortnight ago. He did not then complain about his health, but spoke about having to put paper on his cot to prevent being bruised as he only had one blanket. He also disliked the presence of a bracket in the cell. An operation had been performed on the deceased in Glasgow about six years ago, since when he had enjoyed good health.

The jury, after a short interval, returned the following verdict:

“We the jury, empanelled to enquire into the death of Joseph Mairs, jr., find that he came to his death by tubercular peritonitis with adhesion causing obstruction of the bowels, while an inmate of the Okalla Prison Farm, Burnaby Municipality. The Death occurred on Tuesday, January 20, at 8:20 a.m. The jury condemns the system in practice, whereby a period of 72 hours elapsed from the time the deceased’s cellmate asked for medical attention until the medicine was administered; and considering that there are 209 prisoners in this institution we recommend that a resident physician be provided.”

In thanking the jurors the coroner said he considered it a proper verdict.

The jury was composed of J.H. McVety (foreman), G. Palmer, G. Almon, D. King, N. Almon and G. Reddie.

http://www.sfu.ca/labour/BCFederationist23Jan1914ready.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Louis, Prince Napoléon

Louis, Prince Napoléon, titular 5th Prince of Montfort, (Louis Jérôme Victor Emmanuel Léopold Marie Bonaparte; 23 January 1914 – 3 May 1997) as Napoleon VI was the claimant to the Imperial throne of France in the Prince Napoléon pretender line from 1926 until his death.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis,_Prince_Napol%C3%A9on
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23-1-1914, Chamonix [skieurs en action]



http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/03503/4D6573CA54B0BE65D4FC3CBB1BBC078E2F8B435D.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Eastern Front during 1915

(...) The Russians had pocketed part of the Austrian army and laid siege to a force of 120,000 men in the fortress of Przemysl. Austrian commander, Conrad, sought with the support of German reinforcements, to relieve them. Conrad began his campaign on 23rd January 1915 in temperatures as low as -15ºC. He failed in his objective to relieve Przemysl, which fell on the 23rd March. Conrad also sustained very heavy losses - 400,000. Most of his experienced officers and NCOs were also killed or wounded. The Russians also sustained casualties of 400,000 men. (...)

http://www.blacksacademy.net/content/4478.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Vlaamse Beweging in 1915

(...) Op 21 december verscheen in Parijs een artikel van de Waal Gerard Harry, L'union morale et verbale des races, waarin deze beweerde dat voortaan Vlamingen en Walen zonder onderscheid voor de Franse taal zouden strijden. Hierop volgde de meest bekende reactie tegen deze verbreking van de godsvrede, het artikel Vlamingen waakt! dat de Antwerpse Atheneumleraar Dr. August Borms in Het Handelsblad van Antwerpen op 23 januari 1915 liet verschijnen. Het was voornamelijk een oproep tot waakzaamheid tegen de aantijgingen en ging nog niet verder dan algemene reacties als ‘noch Duits, noch Frans, maar Vlaams’, zoals Van Ostaijen ook reeds in zijn ongepubliceerd artikel Evolutie geschreven had.

Uit: Gerrit Borgers, Paul van Ostaijen. Een documentatie, http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/borg006paul01_01/borg006paul01_01_0023.php
Zie ook http://www.vlaamsemilitantenorde.com/August%20Borms.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fatty & Mabel at the San Diego Exposition - Release: 23 January 1915

Fatty and Mabel at the San Diego Exposition is a 1915 silent short comedy film, directed by Fatty Arbuckle and starring Arbuckle and Mabel Normand.

Arbuckle and Normand followed the Keystone tradition of showing up at an actual event and using that as background for a largely improvised film. The event in this case was the Panama-California Exposition, held in Balboa Park in San Diego, California in 1915-1916.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Fatty-Mabel-at-the-San-Diego-Exposition/114821971864151
Zie dus: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6FJy_5hXSw
Meer over de San Diego Exposition: http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/90fall/amero.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Jan 2011 14:44, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Accidents 1915-1925 - Scottish Mining Website

23 January 1915: Lanark – Peculiar Mining Accident – A peculiar mining accident was reported to the police at Lanark on Saturday as a result of which Joseph Davidson, miner, residing at Kirkmuirhill, Lesmahagow, received serious injuries. Late on Friday night Davidson was employed on a double shifted place of the splint coal seam in Bellfield Colliery, Coalburn, and was working on the back shift. At a previous shift the miner working in the same place had laid an explosive charge in the coal, this charge missing fire. It is stated that Davidson was informed of this, and fired a shot near to the original charge for the purpose of exploding it. This seems to have failed and while Davidson was hewing at the coal he seems to have struck and set off the unexploded charge, with the result that he was severely injured about the head and breast. He was removed to the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow.

http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/342.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Dogger Bank 1915

Following the Germans attack on the british towns of Scarborough and Hartlepool the british forces intensified their operations in the North Sea. The purpose was to lure the Germans to a confrontation and it did not take long before an opportunity to settle the score emerged.

At 4.45 pm (GMT) on the 23 January 1915 Rear-Admiral Hipper sailed from the Jade with the 1st Aufklärungs Gruppe consisting of the three battlecruisers "Seydlitz" (Vizeadmiral Hipper), "Moltke", "Derfflinger" and the large armoured cruiser "Blücher", and the four light cruisers from the 2nd Aufklärungs Gruppe, "Graudenz", "Rostock", "Kolberg" and "Stralsund", to scout the Dogger Bank region of the North Sea and attack any British light forces that were to be observed in the region.

Unfortunately for the Germans the order to Hipper from Admiral von Ingenohl, head of the German navy, was intercepted and decoded by the British Admiralty's deciphering service Room 40. As a consequence to the intercepted intelligence Vice-Admiral Beatty with his Rosyth based 1st and 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron and 1st Light Cruiser Squadron, in cooperation with the Harwich Force of light cruisers and destroyers from 1st and 3rd Destroyer Flotilla under Commodore Tyrwhitt, was ordered to rendezvous at Dogger Bank at 7.00 am on the 24 January. The British units left port only minutes after the German fleet that were total unaware of the British knowing the content of their plan...

http://www.nolimitsdiving.dk/NLD/Projekter/Jyllands_Slaget/Projekt%20generelt/Doggerbankeslaget/js_doggerbanke_start_uk.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Malawi History

A Resistance movements began to rise in Africa. In colonies with a growing number of settlers, the demand for more land and labour increased tensions between colonial authorities and the white communities that had settled in the colonies. More land was taken from African people and given to Europeans for settlement. In response to these developments, some chiefs organised rebellions against colonial authorities.

In 1913 a famine caused hardship, and people from neighbouring Mozambique moved to Nyasaland. Chilembwe was upset by the way his parishioners and the refugees were exploited by plantation owners. Workers were denied wages, and beaten. William Jervis Livingstone, a plantation owner, burned down rural churches and schools established by Chilembwe. Chilembwe also was affected by the conscription of local men to fight for Britain in Tanganyika (Tanzania) against the Germans in World War I, for no immediately foreseeable benefit to Africans. He complained of racism and exploitation.

On the 23rd of January 1915, Chilembwe staged an uprising: he and 200 followers attacked local plantations that they considered to be oppressing African workers. Chilembwe's plan involved the killing of all male Europeans. They killed three white plantation staff, including William Livingstone, whom they beheaded in front of his wife and small daughter. Several African workers were also killed, but they did not harm any women or children on orders of Chilembwe. When the uprising failed to gain local support, Chilembwe tried to flee to Mozambique; however he was killed by officials on February 3rd, 1915.

http://www.wawamalawi.com/history
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Essex County Standard, January 23rd, 1915

GERMAN'S CHRISTMAS EVE GREETING: Writing to relatives at Colchester, Pvt. F.J.Podd, of Scottish Rifles (Cameronians), describes his experiences at the front, and says:- “We had a fire in the trenches on Christmas Eve and were singing, not taking the precautions we usually do. We were standing up and were visible to the enemy, when a machine gun was turned on us. Not much damage was done, but a bullet just skimmed the top of my head. On Christmas night I was on picket from five p.m. till six a.m. There was a sharp frost that night and I was frozen to the bone.”

http://www.christmastruce.co.uk/essex.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Horace Brewer 1887-1918 - 5th Dragoon Guards British Expeditionary Force

Horace (Harry) Brewer was born in Granton, Ontario in 1887. He enlisted in the British Army in 1905. On the 30th of March 1918 he was reported missing and presumed killed. His body was never found.

Dear Mother and Dad.

Pleased to receive your letter this evening and hear you are still keeping well. I also got the slip of paper of young Ardley's death. Yes I could tell you where it was but am afraid to just yet but anyway he was shot through the jaw and didn't last very long and about the letter you see in the paper from that fellow of ours at Ypres is quite true as I was there at the time. It was terrible.

Well I had several letters and parcels from them all at Pathisurch so am going on fine. Now mother dear you say you would like me to tell you of some of the sights out here but it does not do.

By chance a letter might get through, but its not worth chancing. I received all your cards at Christmas. Now dear I must draw this letter to a close with fondest love to you all.

Your loving son Harry

British Expeditionary Force
January 19th, 1915.


Dearest Mother and Dad.

Received your letter this evening and enclosed letters from Mrs. Keeling, etc. I think the cards Mrs. Keeley sent you are very good I will bring them over to you after this little fight is over, but its not half finished yet, the devils! I would like to be able to shoot the lot, but never mind we shall beat them in time.

I also got Harry Ardley's photo. It is very good of the poor lad too, but it was very hard luck to get killed so soon as he did. But I expect it was just his luck. We all have to go some day. Every minute of our life is in danger, but it doesn't do for us to think so, but just go along merry and bright.

Now Mother dear I have no time to write more just now so must draw to a close hoping to find you all in the best of health.

From your loving son, HARRY.

British Expeditionary Force.
January 23rd, 1915.

http://web.viu.ca/davies/H482.WWI/letters.Cdn.HoraceBrewer.2.WWI.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 14:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOLDIER AND DRAMATIST, BEING THE LETTERS OF HAROLD CHAPIN, AMERICAN CITIZEN WHO DIED FOR ENGLAND AT LOOS ON SEPTEMBER 26TH, 1915.

HATFIELD, Jan. 23rd, 1915.

DEAREST,

Quite well---but oh this God forsaken hole You never saw such a filth spot.

I have quit the Cook House and got a job as Hospital Orderly. Serjeant King who is" Nursing Duties " having asked for me. A great bit of luck. The Hospital as a Hospital is pretty poor (it is the station waiting room, the orderly rooms being the rooms off it) but as a billet it is the only dry place in the town apparently and, until it fills up (we have 3 patients and 8 beds to date), we orderlies sleep in the beds. No sheets of course, but still beds.

You are not hideous---you are sweetly pretty---if the Cinema makes you look hideous that is only another proof what a failure it is.

I love the bits about Vallie in your letters. More please. Hope for leave to-morrow week.

Heaps of love my dear one.

http://www.gwpda.org/memoir/Chapin/Chapin01.htm#26
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eruera Kawhia & Potene Tuhoro

Brothers Eruera Kawhia and Potene Tuhoro from Rangitukia on the East Coast were so keen to do their bit for King and country that they ran away from home, jumped on a steamer and headed for Auckland to join the Maori Contingent.



Eruera left home first, he signed up in Kahukura on the 10th October 1914. Potene followed nine months later, he signed up in Auckland on 6th July 1915. Whanau on the East Coast didn’t want them to enlist. Eruera and Potene lied about their age to enlist. They were just 15 and 16 years of age. Neither of them came home.

Eruera said he was born in 1893, 21 years old, a farmer, and at 6 foot and 14 stone 2 pounds he was clearly a fit young man. There is a photograph, a head and shoulders portrait, Eruera is wearing a very large hat. He left New Zealand with the “first 500”, officially the Native Contingent, they were known as the 1st Maori Contingent and their motto - Te Hokowhitu a Tu.

Potene said he was born in 1896, 19 years old, a self employed farmer with school cadet experience. His description is missing from the service record and there is no photograph. He too was judged fit and he left New Zealand with the 2nd Maori Contingent.

Eruera was in training in Auckland for 112 days. On the 10th February he marched through Queen Street to the transport Warrimoo , then sailed to Wellington and marched again through the streets before finally embarking for the Suez, Egypt on the 14 February 1915. On arrival in Egypt the 1st Maori Contingent presented an autographed scroll to the Commander of the transport. Eruera’s signature is clearly written. In 1970 this scroll was presented to the Auckland War Memorial Museum by Mairatea in memory of her late husband Pirimi Tahiwi. Pirimi wrote home to Otaki describing the 1st Contingent on that voyage “boys … in excellent condition, all well”.

Eruera’s service record is very brief. He was in Gallipoli in 1915. Gallipoli broke men down with exhaustion, dysentery and enteric fever. By the 7th of November Eruera was ill with enlarged neck glands and evacuated to Camp in Mudros, then sent by the Hospital Ship Aquitania to England, and admitted to 1st General Hospital in Birmingham. At the end of December, six weeks later, he had recovered sufficiently to be on furlough in London. Kahiti reports him in the Gallipoli casualty list. In mid January 1916 Eruera was still convalescing at Hornchurch. It took three months, until April, to recover fitness and return to active service. Then he was sent to France.

Potene had just 75 days training in Auckland. He left New Zealand with the 2nd Maori Contingent on the 18th September 1915 on the transport Waitemata arriving in Egypt on the 26th October 1915. He was in training or aboard ship whilst his brother, Eruera, was in Gallipoli. Potene’s service record is also very brief. On the 10th December 1915 he was admitted to the New Zealand General Hospital in Cairo with enteritis. After a month he had recovered enough for a few days in a convalescent home before a week’s light training at the army base in Ghezireh, Cairo. He was then attached to the Canterbury Infantry Battalion at Moascar from the 23rd January 1916 until 7th April 1916 when he embarked for France with the 2nd Maori Contingent in the newly formed New Zealand Pioneer Battalion.

By late April 1916 both brothers were in France. There are few details about their exact whereabouts. Potene landed with the New Zealand Pioneer Battalion in Marseilles on 9th April 1916 and they then went to billets in northern France. Eruera, on the 17th April 1916 was attached to strength, No 14 Infantry Base Depot in Etaples.

On the 15th May 1916 the Pioneers moved into the combat zone at Armentiéres. Nothing is recorded for Potene. Eruera’s service record for the 17th May 1916 says he is rejoining the Pioneers and, on a different page, that he is located in Armentiéres and admonished for absence without leave. Trench work at Armentiéres was now being done under heavy shelling. The remaining information on his service record is written over two days: 10th June 1916, reported by the Officer in Charge Pioneers, died of wounds, Armentiéres; and the confirmation is dated 11th June 1916, reported by the 2nd New Zealand Field Ambulance, admitted to hospital multiple wounds, died of wounds received in action 8th June 1916. The details are recorded by James Cowan. Eruera Kawhia is buried at Cite Bonjean Military Cemetery, Armentiéres, France.

There is no information about Potene until 10th September 1916 when he incurred stoppage of pay for the loss of ammunition in the field. The Pioneers were on the Somme in the mud, amidst the shelling, working through the shell holes in relay teams. Three weeks later in October Potene was ill with debility and diarrhoea which developed into tuberculosis and pneumonia. He spent a month in St Omer Hospital before being evacuated to England. On 3rd December 1916 he was admitted to New Zealand General Hospital No. 1, Brockenhurst and seriously ill. Potene died six weeks later on the 13th January 1917 of tubercular peritonitis and was buried three days later in St Nicholas Churchyard, Brockenhurst, Hampshire, England.

Both sons lied about their age when they signed up but they named their father Raniera Tuhoro Kawhia and their home address wasn’t too wrong. Raniera and Heni Kohao, their mother, didn’t want their sons to enlist but they were involved with the Maori war fundraising efforts at home on the East Coast.

At Christmas 1914 both boys were fine. At Christmas 1915 both boys were sick. At Christmas 1916 only Potene was alive and seriously ill. Heni knew when Potene had died because she saw him at home. She was in her room at night and Potene walked out of the wardrobe in her room. So she knew he had gone. Whanau talk of Raniera and Heni being confronted in Church. The people were cruel, they said that their son was just playing rugby and got hurt and died and that he wasn’t fighting.

Eruera and Potene came from a family of 10 children. There was always a picture of Eruera at home but none of Potene. Their parents, Raniera and Heni, had two more boys, younger sons; one was named Eruera Armentiéres Tuhoro and the other Potene Brockenhurst Tuhoro. One namesake, the younger brother, Eruera, went off to war too. He went with the Maori Battalion, C Company. He came back.

Eruera and Potene are also remembered on the Gisborne War Memorial, the Memorial Board inside St Mary’s Church, Tikitiki near Rangitukia and on the Tairawhiti Marae gates at Rangitukia, East Coast, New Zealand.

Reading:
Carkeek, R. (2003). Home little Maori home : a memoir of the Maori contingent 1914-1916. Wellington, N.Z.: Totika Publications.
Church, C. (2002). New Zealand graves at Brockenhurst : 93 New Zealand soldiers remembered from World War One. Lymington, Hampshire: The author.
Cowan, J. (1926). The Maoris in the Great War : a history of the New Zealand Native Contingent and Pioneer Battalion : Gallipoli, 1915, France and Flanders, 1916-1918. Auckland, N.Z.: Maori Regimental Committee by Whitcombe and Tombs.
Digitised copy at URL: http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CowMaor.html
Ko te Kahiti o Niu Tireni : The New Zealand gazette; official government gazette for Māori
Photograph of Heni Kohao. URL: http://www.manueljose.org.nz/kohao/whaka_kohao.html
Pugsley, C. (1995). Te Hokowhitu a Tu : the Maori Pioneer Battalion in the first World War. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed.
St Mary's Church. URL: http://www.historic.org.nz/magazinefeatures/2004Autumn/2004_autumn_maoribattalion.htm
St Nicholas Churchyard, Brockenhurst, Hampshire, England. Photographs: Graves c.1918 ; Graves today
Truttman, L.J. (2005). Waiatarua: The Training Camp for the First Maori Contingent at Avondale (1914-1915). Auckland, N.Z.: The author.
Digital copy
http://www.scribd.com/doc/7543194/The-Maori-Contingent-at-Avondale


http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/832/eruera-kawhia
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOUTH AFRICA IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR

North Africa and Europe
In August and September 1915 an infantry brigade
was raised in Potchefstroom for service overseas.
The four battalions (or regiments), numbering 160
officers and 5,648 men drawn from the various
provinces of South Africa, went first to the United
Kingdom where they were quartered at Bordon in
Hampshire, but in December 1915, rather than
proceeding as planned to the Western Front, they
were diverted to Egypt, at that time a British
protectorate. There they joined the newly formed Cape
Corps and British units in operations against Senussi
tribesmen and Turkish forces who were threatening the
vital supply and communication route provided by the Suez
Canal. The brigade saw its first action at Halaxin on 23
January 1916 and fought a second decisive engagement at
Agagia on 26 February before being withdrawn for duty in
France. The Cape Corps remained, seeing further action
in Egypt and Palestine.

http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_southAfrica.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 Jan 1916 to 27 Nov 1916: 42 Zeppelin Raids on English Towns Kill 426 and Injure 864

The Germans in 1916 hoped to lay both London and Paris in ashes, and win the War, with the aid of their giant dirigible balloons, known as Zeppelins, but as a war weapon the Zeppelins proved a disappointment, because of the effective air defenses set up by the British and the French. Their chief use was in raiding unprotected towns and striking terror among the civilian populations.

The English finally put a quietus on the Zeppelins by inventing an arrow-gun, tipped with an explosive bullet, that penetrated the balloons and ignited them. To avoid these guns the Zeppelins were forced to fly so high that careful aiming was impossible, the result being that most of the bombs that were released fell in open fields or into the sea.

Out of 53 Zeppelins put into commission since 1914, 35 had been totally destroyed at the close of 1916, five others had been damaged, and only 13 remained in service. Thenceforward the Zeppelins were used chiefly for observation purposes in the North Sea area and for training purposes.

Still the Zeppelins wrought much damage to property, besides taking a large toll in human life, before the means were found to combat them successfully. During the year 1916, there were 42 Zeppelin raids in England alone, resulting in the deaths of 426 persons, mostly women and children, and injury to 864 others. Almost as many raids took place in France.

On January 23, 1916, a Zeppelin attacked Kent, killing six men, women and children. On February 6, 1916, two German airplanes dropped bombs on Ramsgate. A series of Zeppelin raids occurred, between March 31, 1916 and April 5, 1916, along the entire Eastern coast of England, the main object of which was to discover the whereabouts of the main British battleship fleet. These raids resulted in 12 deaths and 33 injuries.

A pitched battle between Zeppelins, battle cruisers and submarines on the German side, and destroyers, land batteries, airplanes and seaplanes on the British side, took place on April 26, 1916, near Lowestort. Three British planes were severely damaged in this fight. A squadron of German planes bombed London on June 14, 1916, killing 97 persons and injuring 437, including 120 women and children.

Twenty German planes bombed London on July 7, 1916, killing 37 and injuring 141. Six Zeppelins raided the east coast of England, on August 9, 1916, killing 23. Eight persons were killed and 36 injured in a Zeppelin raid on England, August 25, 1916. Thirteen Zeppelins invaded England, September 2, 1916, but only three reached London, where two persons were killed and 11 injured. One Zeppelin fell like a flaming torch and the crew was burned to death.

Twelve Zeppelins reached the outskirts of London, September 23, 1916, killing 38 and injuring 125. Six airships attacked English coast towns, September 25, 1916, killing 36 and injuring 21. Ten Zeppelins attacked London and the eastern coast, October 1, 1916, but only one death resulted. One Zeppelin caught fire and its crew of 19 were burned alive. Two Zeppelins, while raiding Yorkshire, on November 27, 1916, were brought down and both their crews perished.

King’s Complete History of the World War, W.C. King, published 1922, pages 261 - 262, http://timelines.com/perspectives/b4cc11801bdc461fcf0c54b5d345c751
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

23 januari 1917 - De onrust om de weggevoerde werkelozen duurt voort - ik heb een aantal briefkaarten gelezen die de ongelukkigen naar huis schrijven - allen vragen om eten - anderen hebben door overeengekomen geheime tekenen te verstaan gegeven dat het heel slecht is. De manier waarop ze dat te kennen geven is soms heel spitsvondig. Over 't algemeen gebruiken zij de naam van een gekende bakker of slachter en zeggen dat ze hem niet te zien krijgen. Enkelen nemen het al de lustige kant op en steken de draak met de soep. De onbeholpenheid van de stijl waarin de gevoelens gesteld zijn verhoogt de tragiek - 't zijn meestal mannen die nooit geschreven hebben - ze verhopen van U lieden hetzelfde als ze hun miserie uiteengedaan hebben en een sluit zijn schrift met ‘Uwe groeten!’

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0029.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 23. Januar 1917: "Seegefecht in der südlichen Nordsee (Zwei englische Zerstörer vernichtet)"


Das in Ymuiden eingelaufene deutsche Torpedoboot V 69

Berlin, 23. Januar. (Amtlich.)
Bei einer Unternehmung von Teilen unserer Torpedostreitkräfte kam es am 23. früh in den Hoofden zu einem Zusammenstoß mit englischen leichten Streitkräften. Hierbei wurde ein feindlicher Zerstörer während des Kampfes vernichtet, ein zweiter wurde nach dem Gefecht von unseren Flugzeugen in sinkendem Zustande beobachtet. Von unseren Torpedobooten ist eins durch erlittene Havarie in Seenot geraten und hat nach eingegangenen Meldungen den holländischen Hafen Ymuiden angelaufen. Unsere übrigen Boote sind vollzählig mit geringen Verlusten zurückgekehrt.
- Der Chef des Admiralstabs der Marine.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_01_23.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cultusobject: H. Antonius Abt

Paus Leo XIII verleende op 7 maart 1901 een volle aflaat aan iedereen die na gebiecht en gecommuniceerd te hebben op 17 januari of tijdens het octaaf de Antoniuskapel te Lomm bezocht en daar bad voor de voortplanting des geloofs. De Limburger Koerier van 23 januari 1917 schrijft dat 'vanouds' elk jaar honderden pelgrims uit Duitsland naar Lomm komen om Antonius te vereren. Aangezien echter de grenzen gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog gesloten waren, konden de Duitsers die jaren niet meer komen. Toch was het aantal pelgrims, dat alleen uit Limburg kwam, in 1917 'buiten verwachting groot'.

http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/bedevaart/bol/plaats/1299
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Agriculture 1916-1921

Until 1916, food production essentially remained in its pre-war form - unregulated and uncontrolled. Germany's submarine warfare resulted in massive losses of food imports to Britain. Combined with international factors, this meant food shortages became commonplace in Britain from 1915.

Related documents

Cabinet Conclusion 1. Agriculture. 23 January 1917
http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-23-1-wc-41-41.pdf

Cabinet Conclusion 6. Manpower: Agriculture. 23 January 1917
http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-23-1-wc-42-42.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn liefste lief. Brieven van Jean-Louis Pisuisse aan Fie Carelsen

Nijmegen, 23 Januari 1918.

hotel metropole

Café-Restaurant 1e RANG
Nijmegen
Lange Burchtstraat 22.

Mijn allerliefste Vrouwtje,

Hier in het - goede! - Hotel Métropole, schuin tegenover ‘Boggia’ zit ik in den uchtendstond in een gezellige ontbijtzaal, waar Sassemus een ochtendpianoconcert geeft, als een Vader te midden van mijn internationaal gezin, keurig en kleurig gehuld in mijn coin-du-feu-tje, (dat ik van Fietje kreeg) en ga nu even een van de beloofde briefjes schrijven, ofschoon 't moeilijk wordt mijn gedachten erbij te houden, wijl nu Lucienne d' Esling de ‘Grand Frisé’ gaat repeteeren. -

In Zutphen hadden we 'n aardigen avond met een - voor Zutphen - zeer talrijk en hoog-chique publiek en gisteren, hier in Nijmegen was 't werkelijk zeer vol. 't Succes is overal phenomenaal: ovaties enz - en 't programmaatje zit dan nu ook heel aardig in elkaar. - Zoo langzamerhand komen we er wel uit. -

Van Dirk Witte kreeg ik een langen brief, waaruit mij bleek, dat hij werkelijk zeer veel zin heeft in 't baantje van gedelegeerd commissaris. Ik zou 't fijn vinden, als hij 't deed. - Rustig voor mij en 'n goed zakenmensch. -

Den eersten dag op reis had ik reden te vermoeden, dat ik een tik van jouw darmcatarre te pakken had, maar gelukkig zijn die verschijnselen nu weer geheel geweken. - En hoe gaat het met jou kleine gezondheidje? Beter? Ik hoop 't uit je volgende briefje te vernemen. - Je hebt zeker al gehoord, dat er kans bestaat, dat ik ook Zondagmiddag moet werken. - Maar in elk geval ben ik Zondagavond thuis en hoop je dan gezond en wel, vroolijk-als-altijd en verheugd over 't weerzien van je ‘lieve Man’ aan te treffen. -

En nu maak ik er een einde an, want de lui maken zoo'n geweldige heibel om me heen - Collin studeert n.l. een Japansch Fransch chanson in en de anderen maken er ‘geisha’ dansen bij! - dat ik er m'n kop niet bij kan houden. -

Zooeven belde Hannie Romeny me op, die gisteren met veertien van haar Kornuitjes ‘genoten’ heeft, en verzocht me je hartelijke groeten te doen. -

Dag, lieve Schat. Heel veel lieve gedachten en teedere poensjes van je

Swiepje

Groet Nies en de kattenfamilie!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/pisu001mijn01_01/pisu001mijn01_01_0013.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918

The All Russian Council or Sobor of 1917-1918, properly the All Russian Local Council, was the culmination of the reform movement in the Church of Russia that had its beginnings during the late nineteenth century, The Council began on August 15, 1917 (os), during the period of freedom under the Provisional Government and continued until September 20, 1918 as the repressions of the Bolshevik government destroyed the Church's new found freedom from government control.

(...) The Council's ideas quickly became irrelevant as the new Bolshevik government issued a decree on January 23, 1918, separating church and state. Additionally, the decree denied the existence of the Church as a juridical entity and denied it any right to own property. The difficulties the Church experienced which were serious with the loss of finances when the Provisional Government failed became insurmountable as the Bolsheviks began to confiscate cash, monetary assets, and property. Included in the property seizures were those of printing presses which quickly made it impossible for the Church to communicate to the faithful and extended Church. Further, the clergy was disenfranchised and subject to persecution. The Church found quickly that it did not have any influence or power to object to the new government.

The clergy, having been disenfranchised, lost civil rights and found itself without recourse, with the prospect of being drafted into the Red Army. In January 1918, the Council began to hear of many cases of clergy, including bishops, being placed into prison and martyred. These included many members of the Council such as Metr. Vladimir of Kiev, who was the chairman of the Section on Church Discipline; Archbishop Andronik of Perm, who was chairman of the Section on Legal and Economic Status of the Clergy; and Bishop Germogen of Tobol'sk.

The Council continued to issue decrees in an attempt to unite clergy and parishioners in the defense of church property, to help free those arrested, to aid their families, to communicate with political authorities, but with little effect.

http://orthodoxwiki.org/All-Russian_Church_Council_of_1917-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Wachusett (ID-1840)



(...) Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service (NOTS) as an United States Army account, she was fitted out for naval service as a cargo ship. She put to sea on 19 January 1918, laden with a cargo of general U.S. Army supplies bound for Brest, France. On 23 January 1918 urgent need for repairs to her radio and engine forced her out of her convoy and into port at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. She completed those repairs on 9 February 1918 and resumed her transatlantic voyage that same day. Her convoy arrived in Brest on 24 February 1918, and Wachusett discharged her cargo. On 18 March 1918, she set out on the return voyage and arrived in New York City on 1 April 1918. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Wachusett_(ID-1840)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 15:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cuperly, France

Wednesday, January 23, 1918 -- The first ascent by an AEF balloon is made at the balloon school in Cuperly, France.

http://www.afa.org/

January 23, 1918 The first U.S. Army balloon ascends in France

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/classic/world-war-i-flight-timeline3.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Jan 2011 16:10, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BERKSWICH WAR MEMORIAL - Near STAFFORD, STAFFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND

CAPPELL James Leitch, Chaplin 4th Class, Army Chaplains’ Department attached to 1/9th Royal Scots died 23 January 1918 age 41. Son of Thomas and Mary Cappell, of Crieff, Perthshire; husband of Alice E. Cappell, of "Vine House," Revidge Rd., Blackburn, Lancs. Buried at Ste. Marie Cemetery, Le Harve, France

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=80192&st=325
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Illustrated War News -23/1/1918



http://cgi.ebay.co.uk/Illustrated-War-News-WWI-First-World-War-23-1-1918-/270695407652
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canada: Mining Disasters

(...) Experts considered the Allan Shaft the most dangerous coal mine in the world. In the explosion of 23 January 1918, 88 died, leaving barely a family in the community untouched by the disaster.

The tragedy of coal mine disasters was not only in lives lost, but also in the destitute families left to support themselves in a society with little, if any, compensation, and no government-sponsored income security programs. Moreover, many were permanently injured in these incidents, never to work again. Destruction of a mine left miners unemployed. In 1929 the Allan Shaft was wrecked by another explosion (fortunately without casualties) and was not reopened for 2 years. (...)

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0002313
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: "Speech To Propagandists On Their Way To The Provinces"
Delivered: 23 January, 1918

Comrades, you all know that Soviet power has been recognised by the majority of the workers, soldiers and peasants of the Russian nation and of other nations which in the old days were part of Russia by compulsion and are now parts of the free Russian Republic. We now have before us a short struggle against the pathetic remnants of Kaledin's counter-revolutionary troops, who, it seems, has to save himself from the revolutionary Cossacks in his home Don area.

Now that the last bastion of the counter-revolution is about to collapse it is safe to say that Soviet power is growing stronger and it will be consolidated. Everyone can understand this, for there is compelling proof that only this power—the workers, soldiers and peasants in their Soviets— can lead Russia to a free working people's community.

We are confronted with two powerful enemies, the first of which is international capital. There it stands raging at the consolidation of Soviet power it hates. There is no doubt that these multi-millionaires must wage war over an extra piece of the pie grabbed from someone else. There is no doubt either that they are as yet stronger than the Soviet Republic.

But it turns out that although the capitalists are stronger than we are, they have already been sending their men to our Commissars, and might even recognise Soviet power and, what is more, our repudiation of the loans, which for these tightwads would really be a most painful and terrible blow. The fact that the agents of the international financial oligarchy have broached the subject shows that the capitalists of the world have reached an impasse. They would love to extricate themselves from the war and throw their full force against the hated Soviet Republic, which has started a conflagration all over Europe and America, but they cannot.

Our revolution sprang from the war: but for the war, we would find the capitalists of the world banded and ranged against us. Their only worry is to prevent the sparks of our fire from falling on their roofs. But you can't throw up a Chinese Wall around Russia. We have yet to hear of a workers' organisation anywhere in the world that is not elated at our decrees on land, nationalisation of the banks, etc.

We may be faced with a stiff fight in the future, but you should never forget, comrades, that in most countries the workers, oppressed by their capitalists, are already awakening, and the Kaledinites of all countries, no matter how they rave, will never be able to consolidate their positions, even if they manage to get in a blow at Russia. Upon the other hand, our position is sound because we have the workers of all countries behind us. (Applause.)

Chaos is our other enemy. It has to be fought with greater vigour now that the position of the Soviets has become stronger. That struggle, comrades, is one you must promote. Great importance now attaches to your trip, the trip of propagandists from both government parties now at the head of Soviet power. I believe that in the backwoods you will derive a great deal of satisfaction from persistent efforts to build up Soviet power and spread revolutionary ideas in the villages, eliminate the chaos and liberate the toiling peasants from the village kulaks.

We are faced with some very hard work in healing the wounds of war-The bourgeoisie of other European countries had made better preparations than ours did. Over there they had a correct distribution of foodstuffs, which is why they now have it easier; they also had a system of rotating the soldiers at the front. Nothing of the sort had been done by the tsarist regime or by the Kerensky government, which was a vacillating, conciliating bourgeois regime.

That is why Russia now finds herself in such dire straits. To lay the foundation of socialist society on the ruins she must solve the tasks of organisation and struggle against those who are war-weary and against the criminal elements who play up the chaos for their own benefit.

Comrades, you have before you some very difficult but, as I have said, satisfying work which boils down to getting the rural economy running and building up Soviet power. But you have assistants, for we know that every worker and peasant earning his own livelihood feels, deep down in his heart, that there is no salvation from famine and ruin but in Soviet power. We can save Russia. There is every indication that Russia has the grain, and it would have been available if we had taken stock of it in good time and distributed it fairly. Cast your mind's eye over the boundless expanses of Russia and her disrupted railways and you will realise that we need to tighten up the control and distribution of grain, if this famine is not to be the end of us all. This can be done only on one condition, which is that each worker, each peasant and each citizen must understand that he has no one to look to but himself. Comrades, no one is going to help you. All the bourgeoisie, the civil servants, the saboteurs are against you, for they know that if the people manage to share out among themselves this national wealth which had been in the hands of the capitalists and kulaks, they will rid Russia of the chaff and the drones. That is why they have mustered against the working people all their forces, ranging from Kaledin and Dutov to the saboteurs, the bribed vagrants and those who are simply weary and are habitually unable to put up any resistance because they are mesmerised by the exploiting bourgeoisie. One day they bribe ignorant soldiers to raid wine and spirit warehouses; the next day they get railway officials to hold up freights or shipowners to hold up grain barges, etc., on their way to the capital. But when the people come to realise that organisation alone will bring cohesion and the conscious discipline of equals, they need have no fear of any tricks on the part of the bourgeoisie.

That is the job you have, that is where you must work to unite, organise and establish Soviet power. Out there in the countryside, you will come across "bourgeois" peasants, the kulaks, who will try to upset Soviet power. It will be easy to fight them because the mass will be on your side. They will see that it is not punitive expeditions but propagandists that are sent from the centre to bring light to the countryside, to unite those in every village who earn their own livelihood and have never lived at the expense of others.

Take the question of land: it has been declared public property and all types of private property are being abolished. This marks a great step towards the elimination of exploitation.

There will be a struggle between the rich and the working peasants, and it is not bookish help that the poor need but experience and actual participation in the struggle. We did not take away the land from the landowners to let the rich peasants and the kulaks get it. It is for the poor. This will win you the sympathies of the poor peasants.

You must see to it that farm implements and machines do not remain in the hands of the kulaks and rich peasants. They must belong to Soviet power and be temporarily allotted to the working peasants for their use, through the volost committees. They themselves must see to it that these machines are not used to enrich the kulaks but to cultivate their own land.

Every peasant will help you in this difficult task. You must explain to the people in the villages that the kulaks and sharks must be pulled up short. There is need for an even distribution of products so that the working people can enjoy the fruits of the people's labour. Ten working people must stand up against every rich man who stretches out his avaricious paw towards public property.

The Soviets have a revenue of 8,000 million and an expenditure of 28,000 million. With such a state of affairs we are naturally going to fail, unless we manage to pull the state chariot out of the bog into which the tsarist regime drove it.

The external war is over or nearly so. There is no doubt on that score. It is an internal war that is now before us. The bourgeoisie, its plundered goods hidden in its chests, is not worried and thinks: "We shall sit this out." The people must ferret out the sharks and make them disgorge. This is your task in the localities. If we are not to collapse, we must get at them in their hideouts. It is not the police who must make them disgorge—the police are dead and buried—the people themselves must do this, and there is no other way of fighting them.

One old Bolshevik gave a correct explanation of Bolshevism to a Cossack.

The Cossack asked him: "Is it true that you Bolsheviks plunder?" "Yes, indeed," said the old man,"we plunder the plunder."[The reference is to the fact cited in a report to the Third Congress of Soviets on January 16 (29), 1918, by a participant in the Cossack Congress in Kamenskaya.]

We shall sink in this sea unless we manage to extract from those coffers all that is stored in them, all that has been amassed through plunder over the years of ruthless criminal exploitation.

We in the Central Executive Committee will soon adopt a law on a new tax on the property holders, but it is up to you to put this through in the localities and get the working people to lay their hands on all the hundred ruble notes tucked away since the war. But this should not be done by force of arms: the shooting war is over but this one is ahead of us.

Our revolution will not be overthrown by the force of the exploiters, if we go about this business efficiently, because the world proletariat is on our side.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/jan/23.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 23 JANUARY 1919

One of the saddest sights seen at the ‘boarding’ of the draft of returned soldiers which arrived at Auckland on Monday, was that of a blind man signing the necessary papers. This soldier was guided along the line by a kindly Major who acted as the soldier’s eyes but the officer could not sign the man’s name. He held the papers, however, and helped to guide the hand which moved in what was for the soldier, endless darkness. The sight was a touching one and more than one observer turned hurriedly away.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn23jan1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John MacLean: "Now’s the Day and Now’s the Hour" (fragment)
First Published: The Call, January 23rd 1919

We witness today what all Marxists naturally expected, the capitalist class of the world and their Governments joined together in a most vigorously active attempt to crush Bolshevism in Russia and Spartacism in Germany. Bolshevism, by the way, is Socialism triumphant, and Spartacism is Socialism in process of achieving triumph. This is the class war on an international basis, a Class War that must and will be fought out to the logical conclusion—the extinction of capitalism everywhere.

The question for us in Britain is how we must act in playing our part in this world conflict. Some are suggesting a General Strike to enforce a withdrawal of British troops from Russia and, I suppose, from Germany as well. That, to some of us on the Clyde, is too idealistic. Were the mass of the workers in Britain Revolutionary Socialists they would at once see that their material well-being depended on the peaceful development of Bolshevism in Russia and would, in consequence, strike for the withdrawal of British forces, at the moment attempting the downfall of Russia’s Social Democracy. But the workers are not generally of our way of thinking, and so are unable to see that their material interests are bound up with Bolshevist stability in Russia. It necessarily follows that we will have no success in urging a strike on this issue especially, as the Government has the majority of Trade Union leaders in the hollow of its hand, and can easily manipulate them against us—with comparative safety to the leaders at that.

Some of us on the Clyde, therefore, think that we must adopt another line, and that is to save Russia by developing a revolution in Britain no later than this year. We socialists know that the capitalists can only realise their profits by selling a great part of their goods abroad. We know that America is in exactly the same predicament as Britain, and we further know that America intends to assume the economic position in the world that Germany has just failed to attain. If it is true, as well-informed commercial papers assert, that in 1918 America built more ship-tons than Britain, we may take it that America is in a position to lick Britain in the ‘navy race’.

In five years time such will be the glut of goods on the market that fear of revolution through unemployment and hunger may force these two powers into war. If capitalism lasts, then war is inevitable in five years; yes, and a war bloodier than the present war. Humanity is in a very tight corner, and so those who will be called on to kill in the next war will have to make up their minds whether they will accept the present wage-slavery with its murderous consequences or fight capitalism to death this year. The saving of one’s life calls forth great exertion and it must be our business too see that the exertion is scientifically directed towards Social Democracy.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/maclean/works/1919-ntd.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

39th Infantry Brigade (Light)

The history of the 39th Infantry Brigade (Separate) can be traced back to 1917 when guardsmen from Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas first formed the 39th Infantry Division. The 39th Infantry Division came into being 18 July 1917, when the number "39" was allocate to National Guardsmen from Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. On 3 August 1917 [some sources state 25 August], the unit organized for training at Camp Beauregard, Louisiana and was designated as the 39th Division. After World War I, it was demobolized at Camp Beauregard on 23 January 1919.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/39in-bde.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 16:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dimensions of Military Leadership: The Kinmel Park Mutiny of 4/5 March 1919
Howard G. Coombs

(...) It was originally envisioned that the soldiers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force would embark in France and sail directly to Canada, but a great many Canadians had relatives in the United Kingdom whom they wished to visit prior to leaving Europe. Since transportation to and from the British Isles was problematic it was impractical to grant them leave in the United Kingdom prior to embarkation in France. For that reason, on 23 January 1919 the commander of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, General Arthur Currie, made strong representation to the British Adjutant General and the Secretary of State for War that Canadian Troops should transit to the United Kingdom prior to their repatriation. Consequently, camps were established in England to facilitate the movement of the Canadian Expeditionary Force and one large staging area was created at Kinmel Park, near Rhyl, Wales. Kinmel Park Camp was not a single encampment but a concentration of twenty cantonments organized in eleven autonomous wings mirroring the geographic military districts (MD) of Canada. (...)

http://www.cobwfa.ca/DOCUMENTS/WWI-Kinmel%20Park%20Mutiny%20-%20Canadian%20Army.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters of the Tsaritsa to the Tsar - January 1915

Tsarskoe Selo, Jan. 23-d - 1915

My own beloved Nicky dear, I am lying on the sopha next Baby's bed in the sunny corner room - he is playing with Mr. Gillard. Benkendorf came to me & before that M-me Scalon (Homiakova) - she told me how much one needs sisters out in the the front flying-detachment as the poor wounded are often very badly cared for, having no real doctors & no means of sending off their wounded - its all well arranged to the east & north, but in Galicia & the X. armycorps much ought yet to be done. This morning I sat with Baby; he had not had a famous night - slept fr. 11-12 then woke up constantly, not from very great pain happily. So I had sat with him in the evening - whilst the girls were in the hospital, Isa came to me. In the morning I gave instruments during the operation, & felt happy to be at work again, then I watched the girls a little at work, after which I sat with Ania - met her brother & nice looking bride there. The sun is shining brightly, so I have sent the girls for an hour's walk. - According to the agency telegrams, such a heavy fighting has begun again, & I had, so much hoped there would have been a little quiet. - Ania had slept better, 38.2 yesterday evening, this morning 37.8 - but that does not matter, she hopes you will give over the news of her health to N. A - I think you both must be glad to hear no more grumbling.

Sweetest one I miss you very much & long for your tender love. It is so silent & empty without you. The children have lessons or are in hospitals, I have lots of papers fr. Rostovtzev to finish. - Forgive a dull letter, but my brain is tired. - Baby kisses you many times, but wify yet much more. - Goodbye & God bless you my treasure, my sweetest one - my tenderest thoughts suround you. I am glad you got a little airing at the stations. -

I bless you & kiss you, & remain Y. very own old

Sunny.

Give my love to N. P. & Mordvinov. If there is any interesting news, do tell fat Orlov to let me know, please.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letterstsaritsa/january15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Bert

Mena Camp
23 January 1915

Dear Homefolks
Percy’s letters of Dec 13th to hand on 19th Jan. Well Percy from what we know & the little we are told, there doesn’t appear to be the remotest chance of fighting the Turks as an invasion by Turkey would be very dangerous with no prospect of success. They’d have to cross a large waterless desert so sandy that the transport of guns, ammunition & stores would be very difficult, if not impossible. So there will be no Turks to fight as far as we can see. There does not appear to be any immediate prospect of going to the front. Won’t it be grand if we don’t get there at all, especially when we return covered with – well, dust.

Am glad that you managed to enjoy yourself on your holidays in spite of your ltd cash supply. Of course there is no need to ask you Viv if you enjoyed yours. That’s a foregone conclusion. But I say whatever you do don’t let your desire to enter connubial bliss outweigh my desire to be best man unless I’m detained an unreasonable time. You know, you are getting one in on me going off first, so the least you can do is to allow me to kick you off.

Percy I’m shocked or rather surprised at you saying that 3 weeks is rather long to stay in one place. We’ve been here about 2 months with the prospect of still being here till the war is over.

What have you decided to call the house? It will be quite strange for us when we return going to Rd to look for a strange house. I suppose you are living in it as I write these lines. I try to picture the house with you all sitting down to tea. I can get the tea part OK but the other refuses to materialise.

Oh yes I got both your letter & parcel at Alexandria, that is if the parcel you refer to was the French & German vocabularies. Thank Mr PJJ for his kind wishes & tell him I hope all his family & himself are well & happy.

Last Sunday the 17th of Jan there was rather a romantic wedding celebrated here in camp in the 4th Bn. A young English angel being very much in love followed the object of her affections to Australia & finding that he had enlisted & sailed with the troops & still being very much in love followed him here & at last was rewarded by finding her quarry having a fine old time with the troops. So she decided to put the acid on him & with the aid of the 4th Bn chaplain she did it. The ceremony eventuated in the 4th lines & after the nuptial knot had been tied, the happy pair marched to the taxi waiting on the road. The march which was very impressive, despite the fact that one of them was out of step, was between two ranks of the grooms friends, who with fixed bayonets formed an avenue & arch of glittering steel. There were a large number of snapshotters present & they secured several good pictures of the unique wedding. The happy groom obtained a fortnight’s leave of absence in which to have his honeymoon & considering what a pretty bride he has one could hardly blame him if he forgets to come back.

On Monday there was a tactical scheme chiefly to test the lines of communications in the attack. Of course it was a coy affair & we siglrs were the aforesaid lines. If the messages had been P.O. ones they would have been marked “Delayed by interruption to lines”_ _ _. As it was they were marked with shocking language. Never in my wildest dreams did I think that Capt Brown was so very fluent_ _ _. No 2 and 4 platoons had to attack Nos 1 and 3 to be reserve. I gave my siglrs careful instructions as to what to do till the Ds came. Myself & 2 others had to be with the Capt while one was with each Platoon. The Capt ordered one of his 3 to remain on a ridge a bit in front & keep the guiding platoon in the right direction, as the position was often out of sight for a good while. The Capt galloped madly to the front not telling us to follow so I thort he’d be back in a sec so I staid where I was – with the 2 ptns in reserve. Well when Brown got to the front he started calling in semaphore using the general call instead of the proper calls. The guiding siglr & No 4 ptn siglr both answered & Brown sent “signaller come here” he evidently meant me, No 4 man doubled over to him. He then signalled to No 4 ptn which was signallerless & the guiding man answered, & for some reason or other got a bit mixed & Brown lost patience & sent another message for me to him which I read & doubled over to find the Capt ropeable. He ordered me to march them straight back to camp as they were no ___ good, then altered his mind & told me to take them to the top of a nearby hill & drill them where he could see them, remarking that he’d do without signallers. He then went to the Coy & told them at great length what he thort of us. It isn’t printable. He was partly to blame as I was going to tell him the ptn calls & he said he didn’t want to know them. If he had known them & wanted me all he had to do was to give my call & it would be OK. I saw G.A. about it afterwards & he must have explained things as it was OK next day so far as I was concerned. Of course we got nothing when we got back. I nearly had a fight with a chap in my tent that started slinging mud. I told him if he was half a good a soldier as I was a siglr he’d be about 10 times better than he was & that from me to him, a man who saw service in S.A. of course got him riled, but luckily (for me_ _ _.) it got no further than words. The beggar is more often in the guard tent than out of it, so he had no room to talk. The next morning when we were being inspected the Capt stopped opposite to Smillie, one of the men in the messup & saw two crossed flags in his hat which someone had put there for a joke. After looking Smillie up & down asked him what he had in his hat. Smillie thort a while & then took his hat off & looked. The Capt then said “Take that ## off. You aren’t entitled to wear that. You are not QUITE a signlr yet”. Smillie is out for gore now. The gore of the man who played the joke_ _ _. On the Wednesday another scheme was carried out exactly similar & everything went off smoothly except one man made an awful blunder in a message & got the Capt going again. The rest of us were OK.

On Tuesday we did a ten mile route march the last 2 throu the sand. Had to carry everything that we’d need on the field. The whole of the 1st Brigade turned out. Infantry, Artillery, Machine guns, transport, A.M.C. & the rest of the whole __ family.

Thursday morning we did very little & it was a holiday for all the 3rd that weren’t on duty. No 1 Platoon was on duty & tho I was not actually doing guard being a signaller, I was not allowed out. We are getting leave tomorrow 9a to 9p instead so that is better still. During the day nearly had another fight cos I exercised my authority & ordered a chap to tidy up his kit. However it again blew over. Its very little use asking some of the beggars to do anything & if you tell them & make them do it they want to fight you _ _ _. I can see myself getting two lovely eyes one of these days & then having the pleasure of sitting the chap in the guard tent _ _ _.

Yesterday & today we had more attack schemes & tho I was two men short (Smillie in the guard tent throu breaking camp & another absent without leave) we got on OK. The Capt was quite nice & was chatting a treat. He told me that if I showed myself competent I’d get promotion the same as any one else in the Coy. I must be getting into his good books again.

I’ve got a new nickname which is spreading through the Coy. It is “PD” – pronounced Pip Don” – the phonetical pronunciation. I was instructing a squad & some of my tent heard me using them & it tickled their fancy & there you are. Now the strangeness had worn off & it is getting quite familiar. I am getting it everywhere. Its Pip don this & Pip Don that all day from my tent & when on the march.

It almost breaks me up trying t do anything with A Coy siglrs. 4 are very will & all that but out of them, 1 only is any good. The other two are good Morse men but poor on semaphore & on top of that are often out of camp without leave & when they get back they have several days in the guard tent, then they get some other punishment. And to cap it all the siglrs are wanted almost every day on different schemes & consequently cannot give them any proper practise. If ever we go to the front I’ll try & get a photo taken of us. We are the biggest lot of outlaws you could imagine. If they don’t improve soon I’ll have to get them exchanged if possible tho its rather late to train new men. One of them wants to go back to the ranks & says he is going to make big blunders in any schemes that are on until they kick him back. He started off well the other day. It won’t need a dozen more like it to get him sacked.

Carrying the packs all day over the heavy sand here is playing up with the men a lot. About sixty of them are in the hospital suffering with hernia & as our drill has now been extended to 5pm instead of 3 I suppose there will be more cases. We now fall in at 8.30. March off at 9 & back to camp at 5p. I might say A Coy is the only one that falls in at 8.30, in fact we fall in at 8.25, all the others do not fall in till 8.45. I think it is so that the Sgts will have their states ready for the O.C. at 8.45 when he comes along.

Well I’ve no more news this time so will close with heaps of love to you all, hoping you all are well & happy as we are here.

Your loving son & brother Bert.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/15_3.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2014 9:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 23. Januar 1917: Der deutsche Heeresbericht

Die Donau bei Tulcea von den Bulgaren überschritten
Großes Hauptquartier, 23. Januar.

Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Nordöstlich von Armentières drangen Erkundungsabteilungen bayerischer Regimenter in die feindlichen Gräben und kehrten mit einigen Gefangenen und Maschinengewehren zurück.
Gegen unsere Stellung nordwestlich von Fromelles vorgehende englische Trupps wurden abgewiesen. Im übrigen behinderte nur zeitweilig nachlassender Dunst die Artillerie- und Fliegertätigkeit.

Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Längs der Düna und nordwestlich von Luck steigerte sich vorübergehend das Artilleriefeuer. Westlich von Dünaburg vertrieb unsere Grabenbesatzung eine russische Streifabteilung, die im Morgengrauen in die vorderste Linie eingedrungen war.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Joseph:
An einigen Stellen der Waldkarpathen und des Grenzgebirges der Moldau kam es bei sichtigem Frostwetter zu regeren Artilleriekämpfen. Bei Vorfeldgefechten nahmen deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Truppen dem Gegner zwischen Slanic- und Putnatal 100 Gefangene ab und schlugen südlich des Casinutals stärkere feindliche Vorstöße zurück.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Am unteren Putnalauf hatten Vorpostengefechte ein für uns günstiges Ergebnis. In der Dobrudscha überschritten bulgarische Truppen bei Tulcea den südlichen Mündungsarm der Donau und hielten sein Nordufer gegen russischen Angriff.

Mazedonische Front:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister

Ludendorff.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_01_23.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2014 9:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 January 1918: Smn John Raymond Lyon, US Navy.

A machinist from Brown Township, Martin County, John was born on 3 October 1899. He enlisted into the US Navy at Terre Haute on 7 January 1917 and served on the USS Rhode Island after completion of training. Whilst engaged in anti-submarine patrols off Tangier Island, Maryland, John fell ill and was evacuated to the Naval Hospital at League Island, Pennsylvania, where he died of pneumonia on 23 January 1918. John is now buried in Mount Calvary Cemetery, Loogootee, Indiana.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/2848-23-january-1918-smn-john-raymond-lyon.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2014 12:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from James Finn to May Fay, 23 January 1916

http://dh.tcd.ie/letters1916/diyhistory/items/show/436
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2017 12:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Solar eclipse of January 23, 1917

A partial solar eclipse occurred on January 23, 1917. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse_of_January_23,_1917
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2017 12:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary January 23, 1916

Air War First Royal Flying Corps all-FE2b two-seat pusher squadron (No 20) reaches France (No 25 on 20 February; No 23 on 16 March; No 22 on 1 April).

Western Front Artois: Violent German attack near Neuville-St-Vaast, renewed on January 25 and 26 with mine explosions.

Middle East Armenia: Grand Duke authorizes attack on Erzerum. Yudenich has 20 aircraft (the first ones in this theatre), motor convoys and 34 siege guns to help.

African Fronts Western Desert: Major-General Wallace (322 casualties) beats 6,000 Senussi (700 casualties) at Halazin and captures their camp (25 miles southwest of Matruh).

Politics King of Montenegro arrives at Rome; his son Prince Mirko accepts Austrian terms on January 25 which King disowns on May 24.

http://ww2-weapons.com/diary-january-23-1916/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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