Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

Vrouwen tijdens WW1
Ga naar Pagina Vorige  1, 2, 3  Volgende
 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Thuisfront Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Phoenixx



Geregistreerd op: 4-2-2005
Berichten: 3

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Mrt 2005 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En ik heb nog wat interessants voor je: Women's Services, First World War - Military Records Information 74

Have fun!! Wink
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Mrt 2005 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ik ben ZO blij dat ik niets te doen heb Smile

Dank je Phoenixx, echt gaaf dit.
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Richard



Geregistreerd op: 3-2-2005
Berichten: 13292

BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2005 3:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://www.erster-weltkrieg.clio-online.de/_Rainbow/documents/Kriegserfahrungen/binder.pdf

Yvonne, en andere geïnteresseerden: ik denk dat je/jullie met bovenstaande link het hart kunnen ophalen. Het geeft een meer dan voldoende antwoord op de vraag waarmee dit topic startte.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2005 6:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dankjewel!

Dit ga ik meteen lezen.

Die hele site is trouwens zeer interesant!
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Richard



Geregistreerd op: 3-2-2005
Berichten: 13292

BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2005 15:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die site is inderdaad geweldig en op wetenschappelijke basis.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mrt 2005 11:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dankzij de site van Richard begin ik langzaam maar zeker een beter beeld te krijgen.
Ook het boek dat ik van Paul geleend heb is uiterst leessbaar.
Nog een site gevonden met materiaal:
http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/womeninww1/
Maar, wederom engels...
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Linda



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2005
Berichten: 1

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mrt 2005 12:37    Onderwerp: vrouwen en de eerste wereldoorlog Reageer met quote

Ik ben nieuw hier op dit forum, maar ik ben altijd direct te vinden voor discussies rondom het thema vrouwen en WO1. Voor mijn afstuderen heb ik veel onderzoek gedaan hiernaar. Als er nog belangstelling is, dit is een interessant boek over de rol van vrouwen in Nederland tijdens de eerste wereldoorlog:
De levenbrengsters :over vrouwen, vrede, feminisme en politiek in Nederland 1914-1940 van MarijkeMossink.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mrt 2005 13:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ah, dank ja, ik heb het even met google opgezocht en ik ga kijken of ik het nog kan bemachtigen.
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2005 15:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Lawrence

Dorothy Lawrence (1896 - 1964) English reporter who secretly posed as a man to become a soldier during the First World War.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2005 15:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En langzaam maar zeker krijgen we meer vrouwen on WO1...
Ik hoef dus niet te gaan gillen.
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Mei 2005 16:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hauptmann vond dit nog voor ons:

Any more information on these distinctive women, would be great...

Like more back ground on family and deatils on service with the Imperials and the revolution in some cases would help alot.

1. Colonel (Mme.) Alexandra Koudasheva
Sixth Ural Cossack Regiment.

2. Lieutenant Marie Baktscharow, led the first Russian women's battalion in 1917. Alexander Kerensky personally organized the battalion of 250 women from those who had experienced combat while serving as nurses and sent it to the northern front with orders to fight.

3. Princess Sophie Alexandrovna Dolgorunaya, who had obtained her pilot's license in 1914, volunteered for the Air Service in 1917 and flew missions with the 26th Corps Air Squadron for nine months. Because of her connection to the Imperial family she was demobilized after the October Revolution.

4. Natalie Tychnini, a high school girl of Kiev, who has received the decoration of the Order of St. George for distinguished service at the front. She had arrived at Opatow among a detachment of volunteers for the campaign against the Austrians.

5. Princess Eugenie M. Shakhovskaya was the first woman to become a military pilot when she flew reconnaissance missions for the Czar in 1914. She became a member of the secret police during the Russian Revolution and was later named chief executioner of Kiev.

Princess Eugenie M. Shakhovskaya was Russia's first woman military pilot. Served with the 1st Field Air Squadron. Unknown if she actually flew any combat missions, and she was ultimately charged with treason and attempting to flee to enemy lines.

Sentenced to death by firing squad, sentence commuted to life imprisonment by the Tsar, freed during the Revolution, became chief executioner for Gen. Tchecka and drug addict, shot one of her assistants in a narcotic delerium and was herself shot.

5. Princess Eugenie M. Shakhovskaya now she is really interesting!!!!

If I could get a hint of her birth and family!!

The enigma of a Imperial Princess that flew combat aircraft, became a (rumored) executioner and a morphine addict. Strikes me as a powerful character.

The life of Princess Eugenie M. Shakhovskaya:
Her name would have been Yevgeniya, not Eugenie.

The high social position privilage and elevated presence,
to heroine and explorer (Aviation),
then martyr and prisoner,

Then her descent (if not fabricated, or over exagerated)
a tragic anti-heroine and desperate,
addiction and torment,
murderess and executioner,
executed.

If there is something out there and could be found her story would be a tragedy Shakespear, Chekov or Arthur Miller could place on stage.

I am wowed by this woman in a sad way, one could imagine the slow descent and terrible desperation, to make her a choose to be killer and tormentress to live. And if the implication is true of her addiction, the anguish of the memories of a past life and the self loathing, that fueled such a blazing fall from grace, to end as many did with a bullet to the head.

I added the below, this morning as I felt more should be said on my position in regards to this still, remarkable woman.

Of course, to restore her life's tale to a meaningful level, if the truth is much that she was held in prison for a long time, (as this was often the case) and the mention of any of the disparaging words in order to create a case and execute the unfortunate woman. (that story recounted in previous posts fabricated)

I would rather have that the story given is that; she was used as an example and exageration of the Russian noble families, so called, faults and criminality according to revolutionary dogma.

Frankly though, I would like to have her story rise above the previous sensational outline, as the truth has more meaning. As it was during the revolution and afterwards in the Soviet, much was made of the accusations in the courts, that was to sensationalize and 'prove' the victims, guilt.

Such a tale, her life had been.


En Richard, moet ik nog steeds gaan gillen? Smile
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Mei 2005 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://womenshistory.about.com/od/warwwi/
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2005 23:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"My Death for the Motherland Is Happiness": Women, Patriotism, and Soldiering in Russia's Great War, 1914–1917


MELISSA K. STOCKDALE


On June 21, 1917, the citizens of revolutionary Petrograd witnessed a solemn public ceremony unique in modern history, the consecration of the standards of a battalion of women soldiers being sent as combatants to the front. Thousands flocked to watch the 300 women—their hair close-cropped, wearing regular army-issue trousers and boots, rifles gleaming—march from their barracks to the great St. Isaac's Cathedral. Among the military and civilian notables waiting to greet the women were generals Lavr Kornilov and P. A. Polovtsev, Duma president Mikhail Rodzianko, and leaders of various political parties. Two bishops and twelve priests officiated, as the battalion was presented with two icons—gifts of the soldiers of the First and Third Armies—and a banner sent by Minister of War Alexander Kerensky. Afterwards, enthusiastic soldiers and sailors lifted commander Maria Bochkareva onto their shoulders, crowds cheered, and orators mounted improvised tribunes to hail the battalion and its head. To the strains of the Marseillaise, the battalion then marched to Mars Field, to honor the graves of those who had fallen in the first days of the February Revolution.

The singularity of this event lay not so much in the appearance of women soldiers armed for combat, for individual women in Russia had been fighting as regular soldiers, with and without formal approval, since the very start of the war. Moreover, there had been instances of women in other times and places fighting alongside men in extraordinary circumstances, often as partisans or in civil wars.2 Rather, the event's significance lay in its public celebration of a female combat unit formally sanctioned by the authorities—not only civil authorities but, as this ceremony demonstrated, military and religious as well. In the opinion of one American observer, these women marked the true debut of the woman soldier: "Not the isolated individual woman who has buckled on a sword and shouldered a gun through the pages of history, but the woman soldier banded and fighting en masse—gun companies of her, battalions of her, whole regiments of her."






Bron:

http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=
http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/109.1/stockdale.html

Met dank aan Hauptmann.


Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 29 Mei 2005 7:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Richard



Geregistreerd op: 3-2-2005
Berichten: 13292

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 0:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Als mannen het recht hebben zich aan te melden als kanonnenvoer, waarom zouden vrouwen dat dan niet hebben? Hitler zette, ruwweg 25 jaar later, bejaarden en pre-pubers in. Waarom ontging hem deze rijke bron aan kapot te schieten vlees en bloed? We hebben het over ongeveer 50% van de bevolking. En waarom werden dergelijke vrouwen niet aan het westfront van 1914-1918 ingezet? Uitstekend matereel dat geschikt is om tegen een paar mitrailleurs storm te lopen lijkt me. Sentimenten?
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 8:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ja sentimenten, onnodige sentimenten.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Rifleman T. Cantlon



Geregistreerd op: 21-2-2005
Berichten: 3350
Woonplaats: The Land of Plenty

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Richard schreef:
Als mannen het recht hebben zich aan te melden als kanonnenvoer, waarom zouden vrouwen dat dan niet hebben? Hitler zette, ruwweg 25 jaar later, bejaarden en pre-pubers in. Waarom ontging hem deze rijke bron aan kapot te schieten vlees en bloed?


Heb je weleens van de term "broedstoven" gehoord? Confused
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Rifleman T. Cantlon



Geregistreerd op: 21-2-2005
Berichten: 3350
Woonplaats: The Land of Plenty

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Yvonne schreef:
Ja sentimenten, onnodige sentimenten.


FALSE, alles gecalculeerd. Vrouwen mochten niet, moesten thuisblijven om zo veel mogelijk ariërtjes te verwekken. Niks sentimenten. Neutral
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Rifleman T. Cantlon



Geregistreerd op: 21-2-2005
Berichten: 3350
Woonplaats: The Land of Plenty

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kom, we kleunen er wat bewijsmateriaal tegenaan Smile

Quote:
Many women did take advantage of the marriage and family loans. By having children they were achieving Hitler's desire of "Having a baby for the Reich." After the delivery of 4 children the loans were cancelled and debts paid by the state.


Bronneke
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Richard



Geregistreerd op: 3-2-2005
Berichten: 13292

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rifleman T. Cantlon schreef:
Yvonne schreef:
Ja sentimenten, onnodige sentimenten.


FALSE, alles gecalculeerd. Vrouwen mochten niet, moesten thuisblijven om zo veel mogelijk ariërtjes te verwekken. Niks sentimenten. Neutral


In 1945, bij de verdediging van Berlijn?
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Rifleman T. Cantlon



Geregistreerd op: 21-2-2005
Berichten: 3350
Woonplaats: The Land of Plenty

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Mei 2005 22:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Richard schreef:
Rifleman T. Cantlon schreef:
Yvonne schreef:
Ja sentimenten, onnodige sentimenten.


FALSE, alles gecalculeerd. Vrouwen mochten niet, moesten thuisblijven om zo veel mogelijk ariërtjes te verwekken. Niks sentimenten. Neutral


In 1945, bij de verdediging van Berlijn?


Ja okee toen de nood dermate hoog was, dan geloof ik wel dat ze vrouwen ook direct in de frontlinie ingezet hebben. Maar ideologisch gezien was het een bewuste keuze om vrouwen niet deel te laten nemen aan het arbeidsproces en derhalve ook niet aan de strijd.

Of bedoel je misschien dat er ZELFS in 45 geen vrouwen ingezet zijn bij Berlijn? Confused Dat zou ik ook niet begrijpen, op militaire gronden. Wat dat betreft zijn we het wel eens Smile Toch?
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2005 6:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zitten we nou ineens in de verkeerde oorlog?
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2005 6:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Richard schreef:
En waarom werden dergelijke vrouwen niet aan het westfront van 1914-1918 ingezet? Uitstekend matereel dat geschikt is om tegen een paar mitrailleurs storm te lopen lijkt me. Sentimenten?


En nu zitten we weer in de goede oorlog, want mijn:

Sentimenten ja, valse sentimenten, sloeg op het inzetten van vrouwen aan het Westfront.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2005 10:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Boekje
http://www.angliabattlefields.co.uk/tours/ww1/womenatwar.html
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2005 10:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hauptmann schreef:
Boekje
http://www.angliabattlefields.co.uk/tours/ww1/womenatwar.html


Excuus, geen boek maar een soort tour die je kunt volgen.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2005 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hoewel Maria Botchkareva al genoemd is bij deze een link met een audio bestandje. Stuk voorgelezen uit haar dagboek.

http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/chapters/ch4_voices1.html
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Sep 2005 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://www.fany.org.uk/history/ww1/

Dankzij hauptmann weer een relevant linkje Smile
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Okt 2005 10:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Heel veel materiaal:
http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/dms/past/ww1/women.html
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Dec 2005 9:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hauptmann @ 19 Jun 2005 14:38 schreef:
Hoewel Maria Botchkareva al genoemd is bij deze een link met een audio bestandje. Stuk voorgelezen uit haar dagboek.

http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/chapters/ch4_voices1.html


Yashka
Maria Botchkareva, known as Yashka, led her all-women "Battalion of Death" in one last fight on the Russian Front in July 1917.
"...The Colonel gave the signal. But the men on my right and to the left of Captain Petrov would not move. They replied to the Colonel's order with questions and expressions of doubts as to the wisdom of advancing.

The cowards!

We decided to advance in order to shame the men, having arrived at the conclusion that they would not let us perish in No Man's Land. ...Some of my girls were killed outright, many were wounded... We swept forward and overwhelmed the first German line, and then the second… our regiment alone captured two thousand prisoners."
-- Maria Botchkareva - Yashka, My Life as Peasant, Officer and Exile


Maria Botchkareva led Russia's "Battalion of Death." Recruited in 1917 by special permission of the Provisional Government, this all-woman unit of the Russian Army was organized to show that women, too, could fight and die for the fatherland. They were also sent to the front to humiliate the men and increase their will to fight the Germans. In July, Alexander Kerensky launched the last Russian offensive of the war, throwing Yashka and her battalion into battle. The strategy failed completely when a German counter-offensive broke the Russian lines. Maria Botchkareva survived the war, spent time in New York City where she wrote her memoirs, and was later shot as a traitor when she returned to Russia.

http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/chapters/ch4_voices1.html
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Sep 2006 7:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

`Farmerettes' helped defeat Kaiser `Bill' in World War I
By Sid Gally Correspondent

PASADENA - In 1918, so many men were in the armed forces and in war-related work that the Women's Land Army, volunteers from all over the country, were called on to fill the gap.

On June 29, 1918, the Pasadena Star-News ran a headline "Pasadena Farmerettes Will Go on Ranches to Work Next Week."

About 100 women had enlisted from Pasadena and the first contingent of 29 had passed a physical exam and were about to leave for a five-day stint in the fields.

The paper wrote, "They are providing their own uniforms, a sensible khaki outfit comprised of a long coat, khaki trousers, puttees or boots and a military hat.

"The women will be sent to various ranches, orchards, drying plants and dairies to do their share in harvesting crops, picking fruit, canning, drying and milking, taking the place of men who have gone to war."

Most of the Pasadenans were professional women, teachers, nurses and a doctor, so how effective they were as farmerettes is unknown.

The Occidental College student unit was going along. Marjorie Cregar, Florence Macdonald and Alice Youn were the Oxy farmerettes from Pasadena.

The Star-News re- ported in mid-September that a bevy of Occidental students had returned from nine weeks of work in the Lake Elsinore area. Among their tasks were picking and pitting apricots, picking potatoes and picking and shucking

They continued here washing windows and floors at the high school. The students were paid for their summer's work.

One student, Katherine Finchy, wrote a poem, "With the Farmerettes." Her reference to "Bill" means Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, and "Hun" was the term used to denigrate the German soldiers. Her poem ends:

"Yes, I've worked ten days with the farmerettes

in the heat of a sweltering sun,

And I tell you I'm learning as time goes by

what it means to be fighting the Hun.

But I wouldn't give up or exchange my job

for the throne of king or queen,

For the days I've spent as a farmerette

are the very best days I've seen.

And I'm here to stay with the rest of the crew

And dig in the dirt until

We've finished our task for Uncle Sam

And the boys have finished Bill."

Sid Gally is a Pasadena Museum of History volunteer. Write him at skg@pacbell.net.
http://www.pasadenastarnews.com/news/ci_4284214
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2006 7:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women and Espionage in the First World War

Tammy M. Proctor. Female Intelligence : Women and Espionage in the First World War. New York and London : New York University Press, 2003. xvi + 205 pp. Illustrations, tables, maps, notes, bibliography, index. $30.00 (cloth), ISBN 0-8147-6693-5.

Reviewed by Sophie de Schaepdrijver, Department of History, The Pennsylvania State University. Published by H-Women (March, 2004)

Underground Diligence : Women’s Secret Service Work in World War One A French perfume house, some years ago, launched a scent named "Clandestine," as in "clandestine woman." The advertising slogan assured prospective buyers that "there’s something clandestine in every woman." The ad, then, drew on a specific cultural trope, that of an ineffable link between secrecy and femininity. This trope’s most forceful image is, of course, that of the sexy woman spy, the ultimate embodiment of an underground feminine mystique. From Mata Hari onward, the spy/seductress, epitomizing as she does women’s supposed "natural skills for duplicity," has become a cultural icon "that still informs our visions of gender, secrecy, and sexuality today," writes the historian Tammy Proctor in her fine study of women’s intelligence work in World War One (pp. 7, 5). In this book, Proctor looks at the gendered representations of intelligence work. (A telling example is that "the International Spy Museum in Washingon, D.C., features an exhibit on women spies that has at its center a boudoir with a phantom Mata Hari’s face speaking from a mirror" [p. 3].) But Proctor also, and importantly, studies the reality of women’s intelligence work : from the painstaking spy-tracking at Secret Service offices in London to the long nights of observing train movements in occupied France and Belgium, a task both dull and deadly, with nary a boudoir in sight. World War One consolidated the practice of professional intelligence work in the service of the British state. And the British intelligence service relied, as Proctor points out, on women’s work : "there were many strong, educated women who were patriotic and willing to ’do their bit’ for a low salary, and it was these female workers on whom the British intelligence establishment precariously balanced." The example of MI5, the counterespionage service, is instructive : the small spy-tracking office established in 1909 grew into "a massive information clearinghouse" (p. 53), thanks to the work of six hundred young, educated women (in 1916 ; up from only four secretaries in 1914) who worked nine-hour days, seven days a week, staffing the vast Registry, a card file of suspects. The department, as its chief wrote, "increased its value by employing a staff of women" at what Proctor describes as "the mundane work of listening to, sifting, recording, and maintaning mounds of detailed personal information in an age of carbon copies and file cards" (p. 72). Besides designing and running the spy-tracking paperwork networks, women also operated postal censorship, and contributed to developing propaganda and cryptography. In short, "the intelligence community, popularly understood as a male preserve, rested on the backs of female laborers" (p. 55). The Postal Censorship Branch, for example, employed over 3,500 women in November 1914 (and only 1,300 men). These women worked as examiners, clerks, translators, censors, and testers for chemical ink. The chief censor pointed to women’s "special abilities" (p. 56) by which, presumably, he meant a high tolerance for repetitive work, not to mention mediocre pay. Even at the top level, the female staff at the censorship office was paid by the week. They were hired on a temporary basis, outside of the established civil service system--whereas the men were paid per annum, and at nearly double the salary. This discrepancy characterized the entire intelligence community. Women in intelligence, hailing as they did from flawlessly patriotic and patrician backgrounds, were tacitly assumed to neither want nor need proper remuneration for their efforts. Even the typists were, as an observer wrote, "ladies passed under the microscope of every kind of social and political scrutiny" (p. 57). Among the actual spies recruited to gather information behind enemy lines, the female constituent was equally crucial to the success of the enterprise. Women, Proctor points out, "often provided an important component to intelligence and escape networks because their movements aroused fewer suspicions than the activities of men" (p. 75). She concentrates on one specific intelligence network by the name of La Dame Blanche (LDB). The legendary "White Lady" was a specter whose appearance was held to spell the end of the Hohenzollern dynasty. The network was founded in occupied Liège in 1916 and funded and managed by the British War Office through representatives in neutral Holland ; it employed over a thousand agents in Belgium and Northern France. Women made up around 30 percent of the total. Importantly, the network’s leaders in Belgium devised a service that, in case of arrests, could run entirely on womanpower ; a women’s shadow executive body was created which performed leadership functions and could, if need be, take over completely. In order to reconstruct the composition of LDB, Proctor focuses on one particular "Batallion" (the network organized itself along military lines), based in Brussels, headed by Laure and Louise Tandel, two sisters in their forties who ran a school. The Tandels’ batallion employed 190 agents, 59 of whom were women. Of these, over two-thirds were not married, and most of them were in their thirties and forties. They were independent, slightly older women, of by and large "respectable" backgrounds, ranging from the middle class to the aristocracy (the network’s men came from comparable backgrounds). What attracted women (and men) to this dangerous service ? Recruitment often proceeded along lines of kinship, with entire households or extended families enrolling simultaneously. One widow who had lost a son in battle joined up together with her four daughters, working as couriers, transcribers, and "letterboxes" (receiving and passing on messages). Another family pattern was that of the so-called "trainwatching cells" (cellules ferroviaires), families working in shifts to ensure twenty-four-hour surveillance of rail lines. A third example is the Tandel Batallion’s "Platoon 49," a network of aristocratic kinswomen who provided a crucial connection between Liège and the French border. The patriotism that sustained LDB agents also motivated them to "do their bit," even under occupation, and to be considered, as one young woman called it, as "soldiers without uniforms" (p. 75). LDB granted its agents military status (recognized by the War Office), which constituted, Proctor notes, a "powerful motivating force." Members swore an oath to "enlist in the capacity of soldiers in the Allied military observation service until the end of the war" (p. 89). The taking of this oath, later described by members as a moment of great importance, elevated intelligence work to the level of soldiering, clearing it of all stigma. Significantly, LDB’s directors forbade members to call themselves "spies." They were "agents" or "soldiers." For these "soldiers," the term "home front" took on a specific meaning : "their own homes," Proctor astutely notes, "became fronts," fronts that were almost as lethal as the military front, and certainly as mind-numbing (p. 98). Witness the case of the brother-and-sister "trainwatching cell" in its rented room next to a train line, working twelve-hour shifts watching German troop trains. The young girl later described her life thus : "There is nothing more horrible than long winter nights in a room without lights in forced idleness ... fighting drowsiness and fearing to fail in one’s duty. The next day taking up again the same life, with nothing, not relaxation nor distraction to come break the somber monotony of this existence" (p. 86). LDB’s spymasters insisted that women were at least as competent at these dangerous and thankless tasks as men. Yet this did not prevent an intelligence officer from stating in a 1926 newspaper article that "Women are fundamentally inaccurate. They experience a constant ’urge’ to be working in the limelight, jibbing at the patient compilation of dull details which forms the basic job in spying" (p. 50). Postwar recognition of women’s intelligence work was hampered by the elaboration of a dichotomous imagery of "women in intelligence" : on the one hand, the chaste martyr ; on the other, the sexy traitor. The elevation to iconhood of the austere head nurse Edith Cavell (shot in Brussels in 1915 for her role in an escape service for Allied soldiers) set the tone for the commemoration of female commitment. What was celebrated was not efficiency, and certainly not wiliness--much as one might consider this a crucial quality in an underground agent--but on the contrary, the virtues of honesty, chastity ("key to her image was her purity," Proctor writes [p. 106]), and an unflinching willingness to die for the cause. For Cavell, as for other executed women, "the real celebration was of their ... deaths, not their ... ingenuity" (p. 107). She was, moreover, portrayed as a merciful angel, which enforced her image as a victim. As with other fusillées, the actual merit of her war work was obscured in postwar accounts. Women like Cavell "became a useful counterpoint to the enemy within expressed in the alternative account of female spies as unpure and treacherous women" (p. 109). Cavell’s counter-icon, the alleged spy Mata Hari (the Dutch exotic dancer Margaretha Zelle, executed in Paris in 1917 on inflated charges of selling state secrets to the Germans) epitomized the ever-present dread of women’s sexual complicity with the enemy. In between these two highly gendered clichés there was virtually no space to honor women’s wartime role as active, intelligent patriots. "I was a Secret Service agent, not a ridiculous young girl," stated the distinguished Belgian agent Marthe McKenna in 1932 (p. 1). It is telling that such a first-rate resistance worker had to assert the seriousness of her commitment with such energy. Proctor’s book is a genuine contribution to our understanding of women’s work and war experiences in the twentieth century, not least because it shows so well how the undervaluation of so much women’s work obtained with equal force in the field of state intelligence services. Reading her accounts of barely acknowledged drudgery, one is reminded of the scene in Michael Apted’s 2002 World War Two thriller Enigma, when one of Bletchley Park’s telegraph operators approaches the brilliant mathematician hero (played by Dougray Scott), asking whether her and her co-workers’ efforts really matter because "all we hear all day is beep beep bloody beep." This thriller is instructive on other counts as well : for, towering above the rows of drudges, who else should appear but the tall blond trope of the inescapable clandestine (Saffron Burrows), a sexually generous beauty who may or may not be a traitor ? There is, however, another female role : in a memorable turn, the hero’s Girl Friday (played by Kate Winslet) sets her underappreciated mind to work in uncovering the dark conspiracy that is at the heart of the drama. There may, then, be some cultural hope for "female intelligence" yet.

Library of Congress call number : D639.S7 P76 2003 Subjects : • World War, 1914-1918--Secret service--Great Britain. • Women spies--Great Britain--History--20th century.

Citation : Sophie de Schaepdrijver. "Review of Tammy M. Proctor, Female Intelligence : Women and Espionage in the First World War," H-Women, H-Net Reviews, March, 2004

http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=189931084098202
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2006 7:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women Spies of WW1...

Summary:

Mata Hari is remembered as the great seductress-spy of history. Much less well-known are the thousands of other women involved in espionage during the First World War. A new history uncovers the women who worked for the fledgling British Secret Service - from English Girl Guides to Belgian grandmothers.

More than 6,000 women worked for British intelligence (later to be known as MI5 and MI6) from its establishment in 1909 until war demobilisation in 1919. Yet this was a time when women didn't have the vote, were often thought of as gossipy and indiscreet, and not considered capable of the "platonic patriotism" that typified male spies. No wonder these women often found themselves in paradoxical positions!

Details or Transcript:

[Music]

Amanda Smith: This song, 'Mata Hari', was Norway’s entry in the 1976 Eurovision Song Contest. And female spies are the subject of Book Talk today. Hi, I’m Amanda Smith. The legend of Mata Hari is, for sure, the most enduring image of the female spy – the vamp who wheedles state secrets out of men by her seductive charms. But the legend also obscures the fact that thousands of other, rather less exotic, women worked for the secret services – in intelligence and espionage – in the first decades of the 20th century.

Tammy Proctor is an American historian and she’s the author of Female Intelligence: Women and Espionage in the First World War. In the book, Tammy tries to get beyond the stereotype of the seductress spy and into the realities of the secret service work women were doing during this period, on both sides of the conflict. It was a chance discovery that led her into writing about this; a detail far removed from the Paris boudoir of Mata Hari.

Tammy Proctor: I stumbled across the subject because I was doing a book on Girl Guides and Boy Scouts, and I found a stray reference to Girl Guides working at MI5 headquarters, counter-intelligence headquarters, during the First World War. It surprised me because I thought about today and wondered if FBI headquarters would hire 14-year-old girls to carry messages in the secret intelligence agency. I thought not, so I wanted to follow up with this and find out what was going on that these girls were hired to work in MI5.

Amanda Smith: Indeed. So what was your intention in writing this wider history, beyond the Girl Guides, this history of women and espionage in the First World War?

Tammy Proctor: I think I wanted to give voice to, what seemed to me, a forgotten subject. The records only opened in 1998. For MI5 from the First World War there’s a classification that lasts for 80 years. So, many of these records were new and were exposing a side of the war and Britain’s social history that I thought needed to be explored.

Amanda Smith: Spying is, of course, known as ‘the second oldest profession’, but when was a secret service formalised and professionalised in Britain?

Tammy Proctor: It was really quite late. 1909 is when the first real permanent secret service was put into effect.

Amanda Smith: And how did women gain entry into working for this secret service in Britain, given that this was a time when women didn’t even have the vote?

Tammy Proctor: Basically there was a vetting process where women got entry into intelligence work because there was a need during the war for educated intelligence workers. They were vetted often through their husbands or brothers or father. Class played an important role, particularly in the clerical kinds of occupations at MI5, in cryptography. And occasionally through the ‘old girls’ network of the Oxford and Cambridge women’s universities or through women’s public schools.

Amanda Smith: What you do in your book is to contrast the realities of the many with the mythologies that have grown up around the very few women who came to prominence as spies during this period – and the most famous of all time is Mata Hari. And while I think most people know that she was a dancer and a seductress and a spy, I also suspect that most of us are pretty hazy on who she actually was or even who she spied for. What are the facts, as we know them, of Mata Hari?

Tammy Proctor: Mata Hari was actually born in the Netherlands in the 1870s and she had a fairly ordinary background in that she married an army officer and moved out to the Empire. After the turn of the century, her marriage fell apart and she became an exotic dancer and that’s when the mythology of Mata Hari arose. She was a dancer in Paris, she was a courtesan, and then, during the war (and here’s where the stories vary) basically she offered to spy for both the French and the Germans. Her story was that she was spying for the Germans in order to help France, that she was playing them off against each other, but in fact it was the French who arrested and ultimately executed her for espionage. It seems that she was not a very successful spy. There isn’t much evidence that she passed a lot of information that was any use, despite some quite wild claims to the contrary at the time.

Amanda Smith: And it wasn’t really until after her execution in1917 that her legend was really born and all sorts of stories and rumours began to circulate about Mata Hari. What sort of stories did emerge and what purpose did they serve?

Tammy Proctor: I think that the timing of her execution was important in that, in 1917, morale was low, it was the time of the French army mutinies, although those weren’t widely known. And so I think that she became a focus for a lot of anxiety about how poorly the war was going. So, some of the stories that emerged were – she escaped from the firing squad, or perhaps she was responsible for the deaths of 50,000 men. All of these claims were quite false but they did add to the mystique. Pictures that were published of Mata Hari were always showing her at a younger age when she was an exotic dancer, dressed in her dancing costume; not as she was at the time of her execution where she was dressed quite soberly in a black, long dress. Her mystique went on, in an odd way, in that no one claimed her body after her death in1917 and her body was donated to the University of Paris for medical research. Her head was put on display at the Museum of Anatomy in Paris in 1918. Even as late as 2000 it was assumed that the head was still there, and then in 2000, news stories came out saying that it had been stolen. So there are still bits of Mata Hari circulating, just as the stories still seem to pop up every time there’s a female spy in the news.

Amanda Smith: And she did, of course, also become the great archetypal seductress spy.

Tammy Proctor: Yes, and I think that the sexiness of the story was part of it. I think the Greta Garbo movie in the 1930s played a really important role in popularising her story, even though the movie strayed quite a lot from the historical facts of what had happened to Mata Hari.

Amanda Smith: Tammy, you also write about the counter-archetype to the Mata Hari seductress spy of the first world war, and that’s the spy martyr, as you call it. The most celebrated spy martyr was Edith Cavell. Now, who was she and what happened to her?

Tammy Proctor: Like Mata Hari, in an odd sort of way, Edith Cavell wasn’t really a spy, even though she’s often categorised that way. She was a British nurse, again, in her forties during the war, living in Brussels, running a nurses training school. She got caught up in running an escape network for allied soldiers who were caught in occupied territory. She helped get them into neutral Holland and hid them in her school while they were trying to arrange couriers to move the people along. Some of the others in her network were involved in intelligence work and resistance work but she, herself, really was mostly involved with this escape network, not with gathering intelligence for the British. So she’s known as a spy, yet she was really never engaged in that work and that’s one of the things that’s interesting about her, I think.

The archetype part of this, though, seems to come from the fact that she was one of only a couple from this network who were executed by the Germans in 1915 for their participation in this network. Her execution was something that the Germans justified because she was in occupied territory and she was breaking the law of the occupiers – she was running this network. But her execution was widely portrayed by propagandists for the allied cause in Britain, in the Empire in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and even in the neutral United States, as a war time atrocity. Some of the postcards show her being shot point-blank by a soldier. Often she’s lying prone before an evil looking German firing squad. She served as a kind of virginal representation of the good women that, by the end of the war, was being juxtaposed against the very bad Mata Hari types.

Amanda Smith: Both Edith Cavell and Mata Hari became famous and infamous respectively because they were caught and executed as spies, but the most mysterious of the famous female spies was ‘the lady doctor’. Now, who was she?

Tammy Proctor: The lady doctor had quite a few different names. She was known as the ‘Fraulein doctor’, the tiger lady, the list of names goes on and on. The only thing that’s really clear about this woman is that she ran some kind of a spy training network at Antwerp for the Germans, so she was working for German intelligence. There are a couple of theories about what her real name might be but there’s no real conclusive evidence about who this woman was. She’s often portrayed as a kind of third archetype – which is the sadistic, yet seductive, woman spy – that later shows up again in popular consciousness about women spies.

Amanda Smith: What happened to her? She was never exposed or discovered?

Tammy Proctor: No, not by the allied side and, again, her identity is under dispute. So, there were some claims that the real lady doctor was exposed in the 1930s, in fact there were counter arguments proposed by two different newspapers of two different women as the lady doctor, but it’s still a bit of a mystery who she really was. So she was successful, in a way that Mata Hari and Edith Cavell were not, in keeping her activities somewhat hidden.

Amanda Smith: Tammy, let’s turn now to the reality for many women involved in intelligence work at this time. One of those realities, as you’ve mentioned, and although this sounds so cute and comic, is that MI5 had the Girl Guides working for it. How did the Girl Guides get to work in intelligence for Britain and what did they do?

Tammy Proctor: The short answer is that the Boy Scouts were too troublesome. Because when the war broke out they needed messengers to work in the War Office and the War Office hired a lot of Boy Scouts to serve in this capacity. The intelligence offices decided that the Scouts were quarrelsome and difficult to manage and so substituted girls for boys. The girls in the Guide companies that worked for MI5 were roughly 14 to 18 years old, some of them into their early 20s and they ran messages and patrolled on the roof of MI5.

Amanda Smith: And they were paid 10 shillings a week plus dinner and they had to take a pledge of secrecy.

Tammy Proctor: Yes, as did all of the employees of MI5 but certainly it was part of the thrill for the Girl Guides that they got to do important war service and also to pledge, on their honour, to keep this a secret.

Amanda Smith: Well apart from the Girl Guides, how many women were working for MI5? What did they do and what impact did they have on the counter-espionage work of MI5?

Tammy Proctor: Women worked in a lot of the different intelligence offices, but at MI5 itself there were roughly 800 women throughout the war period who worked, mostly doing clerical work. In that age before computers, there was a massive registry of known spies that had to be meticulously maintained. Literally, these women (and they staffed the registry entirely, there were no men in the registry), held in their hands the counter-espionage files of the nation, as of 1916 and 1917.

Amanda Smith: So I imagine this is another example of the way women were able to get work opportunities in war time that they were mostly denied in peace time. Is that true?

Tammy Proctor: Yes, most of the women who worked in intelligence were turned away at the end of the war or they were able to find some other occupations in the civil service if they wanted to continue and if they were single. Part of what the intelligence offices did was they hired quite young women. They preferred women under 30 who would not be inclined to want work permanently. They were also justified then in paying them less. So there was the assumption that this would be for the duration of the war, and in fact the intelligence offices shrunk after the war, they became quite small, and so men also were released from that work, but women across the board were released – and then rehired in World War Two to do some of the same kind of work.

Amanda Smith: The other group of women working in intelligence for the allies in the First World War was out in the field, much more dangerously, women who were in the occupied territories, in Belgium and in France, who were involved in resistance work and spy networks and sabotage. La Dame Blanche, the white lady, was the name of one of these spy networks. Who were they and what were they doing?

Tammy Proctor: Women got involved in a variety of ways, sometimes for patriotic reasons. Most of the women involved in intelligence work were Belgian and French women living in occupied territories. There were women who got involved for family reasons because they had husbands or brothers or sons who were involved in military service. Sometimes it was for the thrill of the adventure, the feeling of doing something important. I think that there really was a variety of reasons for getting involved and a variety of women. Women sometimes spied for the allies because they could get good pay. Sometimes 80-year-old women volunteered to watch trains and to pass on information because they wanted to keep their families safe.

Amanda Smith: There’s one story that you include, of members of a Belgian family working for ‘the white lady’ in surveillance, who – I like this – they disguised their intelligence reports on German troop movements as shopping lists. How did they do that?

Tammy Proctor: They basically divide up the things they’re supposed to be counting. So, they’re watching a train line and they’re trying to keep track of all of the trains that go by and all of the armaments and all of the soldiers. So instead of trying to write out – so many guns, so many soldiers – they used coffee and chicory and beans and other kinds of substitutes as a secret code for the important movements that they’re tracking.

Amanda Smith: These women, who were working for the British war office in the occupied territories in resistance and in espionage, were often in terribly difficult moral binds as well as physical danger. I’m thinking about women you talk about, like Marthe McKenna. Can you take us through her story, by way of example of this?

Tammy Proctor: I think that women were in a particularly ambiguous position in occupied territory, although I suppose all civilians felt the strain of living under occupation, because in order to live they often had to in some ways collaborate with the German occupiers. For instance, Marthe McKenna’s family ran a café, and when the occupation came they continued to sell victuals and liquor to the Germans, yet it was, perhaps, war profiteering. There’s a fine line between making a living and helping out the enemy.

So Marthe was in an interesting quandary, in that she was serving and interacting with Germans in the café that her parents owned – some of them were even billeted with her family – while she was spying for the British and while she was doing an additional stint as a nurse in a German hospital. So she was in a great position to gather information about the German troops and to pass it on to the British, and perhaps the best example of this sort of moral quandary is that she was awarded medals by both the German army and by the British army. So she had to hide her allegiances, I guess.

Amanda Smith: Yes, so she was a double agent. But what happened to her?

Tammy Proctor: She was imprisoned for part of the war but she survived and in fact became a successful spy writer. She wrote about her experiences and then wrote a whole series of books on espionage, some more factual than others, but basically made her living in the trade later on.

Amanda Smith: From the stories and the evidence that you’ve looked into of the involvement of women in the secret services in the First World War, their roles do often seem to have been, in different ways, quite tricky and paradoxical, perhaps in ways that their male counterparts wouldn’t have had to contend with.

Tammy Proctor: It’s a hard question, I think, because I think that spies carry a stigma with them, whether the spies are men or women, but for women they are perhaps even more suspect because there does seem to be this deliberate sexual overtone to the work that they’re doing – this suggestion that they’ve sullied their virtue, not just their patriotism, by involving themselves in intelligence work, that they’ve somehow trampled on their femininity. So I think there is some kind of an added dimension to the ways in which women suffer the stigma of working in intelligence.

Amanda Smith: Does that play into the idea of woman as duplicitous? I think you write about the way that women, in that time at least, were seen as disguising their cleverness and using their seductive powers to gain knowledge, which was both a good thing and a bad thing I suppose.

Tammy Proctor: There is a kind of odd juxtaposition in a lot of the male writing in Britain, the male intelligence officers writing about women spies. They show a certain amount of admiration for the devious things that they perceive women to be doing but, on the other hand, they decry that same duplicitousness, as you said.

Amanda Smith: You quote from a 1915 book about espionage, where the author says that women aren’t much good at being secret service agents because they’re incapable of the platonic patriotism that drives men. Can you talk to that quote?

Tammy Proctor: That quote gets at the heart of the problem of women in espionage which is that women have a fragile relationship to the state, especially in this period. In Britain their nationality is tied to their husband’s nationality, so it’s really almost impossible for a woman to be patriotic in the sense that a man is, because if she marries a foreigner she loses her nationality. There’s that aspect that’s at play, but I think that the other aspect is there’s a sense that women are always doing it for the love of a man – either a man has spoiled them or they’re trying to get in a man’s good graces. There always seems to be some implication that women can’t just be doing it for patriotism, there has to be something else, some other explanation.

Amanda Smith: Do you think those doubts and questions still apply for women working in intelligence these days?

Tammy Proctor: Certainly the media portrayal of women in intelligence suggest that they are still at play. Well over 50 per cent of MI5 agents in the 1990s are women, yet there is still this understanding of the intelligence agent as the guy in a suit. The stories that do emerge of women in intelligence work often centre around sexual discrimination cases that they filed, or, recently with some of the scandals in the United States, the exposure of a female FBI agent as a way of getting back at her husband for his political missteps.

So there does seem to be, at least in the popular portrayal, the same sort of stereotypes at work. In fact, recently, the new and much heralded International Spy Museum in Washington DC does feature an exhibit on women spies. However, the exhibit is set in a boudoir and it features a larger-than-life mirror with women’s faces and images speaking out of it. The women who are featured coming out of this mirror are of course Edith Cavell and Mata Hari, which I guess encapsulates the message of the book – that these stereotypes from World War One, these myths of the spy seductress and the spy martyr, are still alive and well in popular culture.

Amanda Smith: Tammy Procter. And her book, Female Intelligence: Women in Espionage in the First World War, is published by New York University Press. Tammy is the chair of the History Department at Wittenberg University in Ohio, in the United States. Book Talk is produced by Martin Lawrence and I’m Amanda Smith.




Publications:

Female Intelligence: Women and Espionage in the First World War
Author: Tammy Proctor
Publisher: New York University Press (2003) ISBN 0-8147-6693-5

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/arts/booktalk/stories/s1112172.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2006 7:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alice Therese Emma Schalek, Pseudonym Paul Michaely, (* 21. August 1874 in Wien; † 6. November 1956 in New York, (NY)) war eine österreichische Journalistin, Fotografin und Autorin. Sie war der einzige weibliche Kriegsreporter im 1. Weltkrieg.

Alice Schalek stammte aus einer bürgerlichen jüdischen Familie. Ihr Vater Heinrich Schalek besaß eine "Annoncen-Expedition", eine Art Werbeagentur. Sie besuchte das Lyzeum des Wiener Frauenerwerbsvereins und lernte mehrere Fremdsprachen. Schon früh interessierte sie sich für andere Länder. 1902 veröffentlichte sie unter dem männlichen Pseudonym Paul Michaely den Roman Wann wird es tagen? 1903 fing sie als Journalistin im Feuilleton der Neuen Freien Presse in Wien an, für die sie insgesamt über 30 Jahre lang tätig sein sollte. Ein Jahr später konvertierte sie zum protestantischen Glauben.

1903 unternahm Alice Schalek ihre erste größere Auslandsreise nach Norwegen und Schweden, 1905 folgen Algerien und Tunesien, 1909 reist sie unter anderem durch Indien. 1911 folgt eine ausgedehnte Tour durch Ostasien, 1913 eine kleine Weltreise durch zahlreiche Länder. Nach ihrer Rückkehr schreibt Schalek umfangreiche Reiseberichte für die Neue Freie Presse, die später auch in Buchform erscheinen. Auf jeder Reise macht sie außerdem zahlreiche Fotos. Die Journalistin hält auch Vorträge über ihre Reisen, unter anderem bei der Urania in Wien und Berlin. Sie wird als erste Frau in den Presseclub Concordia aufgenommen. Außerdem ist sie Vorstandsmitglied des Vereins der Schriftstellerinnen und Künstlerinnen in Wien und des PEN.

1914 gehört sie zu den Gründern des Schwarz-Gelben Kreuzes, einer Wohltätigkeitsorganisation. Auf ihren ausdrücklichen Wunsch wird sie dann 1915 als Kriegsberichterstatterin zugelassen und beim Kriegspressequartier in Österreich akkreditiert. Sie berichtet über die Kämpfe in den Dolomiten, über den Serbienfeldzug und die Isonzofront. Schalek war auch eine begeisterte Bergsteigerin. Der Kriegseinsatz der Journalistin und ihre begeisterten patriotischen Berichte stießen in der Öffentlichkeit auf ein geteiltes Echo. Karl Kraus gehörte zu den schärfsten Kritikern; er warf ihr "Kriegsverherrlichung" vor und setzte ihr in seinem Werk Letzte Tage der Menschheit ein Negativdenkmal. Schalek erhob eine Beleidigungsklage gegen Kraus, die sie 1917 aber zurückzog. Für ihren Kriegseinsaz wurde sie 1917 mit dem Goldenen Verdienstkreuz mit Krone am Band der Tapferkeitsmedaille ausgezeichnet - eine sehr ungewöhnliche Auszeichnung für eine Frau. In diesem Jahr beendete sie auch ihre Tätigkeit als Kriegsreporterin, vermutlich auf Grund des öffentlichen Drucks.

Ab 1923 war Alice Schalek wieder als Reisejournalistin unterwegs, 1930 besuchte sie die USA. Ende der 1920er Jahre sympathisierte sie offen mit dem Kommunismus und rechtfertigte zum Beispiel die Verfolgung der Kulaken. Ihr Buch Der große Tag erschien 1930 in Moskau. 1939 wurde sie von der Gestapo verhaftet mit der Anschuldigung, "Greuelpropaganda" gegen das Regime zu verbreiten. Mit Hilfe von Beziehungen kann Schalek ihre Freilassung erreichen und über die Schweiz zunächst nach London fliehen. Von dort emigriert sie 1940 in die USA. Dort lebte sie zurückgezogen und starb 1956 in einem Pflegeheim in der Nähe von New York.
Veröffentlichungen (Auswahl) [Bearbeiten]

* Wann wird es tagen?, Roman in zwei Bänden, 1902 (unter Pseudonym)
* Auf dem Touristendampfer, Novellen, 1905
* Von Tunis nach Tripolis, Reiseberichte, 1906
* Schmerzen der Jugend, Roman, 1912
* Südsee-Erlebnis, Reiseberichte, 1914
* Indienbummel, Reiseberichte, 1912
* Tirol in Waffen, Berichte über die Dolomitenkämpfe, 1916
* Am Isonzo, Kriegsberichte, 1916
* In Buddhas Land, Reiseberichte, 1922
* Der große Tag, 1930

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_Schalek
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2007 5:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Boeken:
http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/toppicksbooks/tp/tpww1women.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2007 6:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women Warriors in the Dardanelles

t is obvious that, there are many unknown aspects of the Dardanelles campaign. For example; Turkish women warriors, whom fought side by side with Mehmets, is a fact never been revealed yet.

In New Zealand and Australian archives and in the Anzac letters, it is possible to trace the hints of this subject. Here is the Australian newspaper The Ages' headline dated 8 September 1915:

"A woman sniper: had been shot in first action. A soldier called J.C. Davies in his letter addressed to his mother says:
".... On 18 May when I was shot, there was a sniper Turkish girl. She was beautiful, huge and aged 19 or 20. Throughout the day, she continuously fired her gun. Although she shot many of us, I felt sorry when an Australian has shot her. As we have caught her dead body, we found a man's body by her side. There were 52 bullets in her body. This war is horrible."

In the archives, there are some other letters and diaries about this subject. At this point, it is possible to think that the women snipers could be illusions the soldiers dreamed because of long-term wars. However, the comparisons between the letters mentioning the "Turkish Women Snipers" or the "Turkish Women Warriors" show that they were most probably real. In short, there is much concealed point in the Dardanelles Campaign waiting to be illuminated.
http://www.canakkale.gen.tr/eng/closer/closer.html
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2007 7:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Garrud opened a dojo for jujutsu close to Oxford Circus.She trained a group of "fighting suffragettes", the bodyguard unit for Mrs Pankhurst.
(source History of Budokwai)

Mme Arno organized a regiment of Parisian women to fight the Germans in 1915.
(source Women Warriors of the 20th Century)

Helene Dutreux was the first of a number of women the French government officially permitted to become military pilots during WW I. 1914-1918 Israeli soldier, 1948
More than 200 women fought in the Polish legion in 1916, among them were Sophie Jowanowitsch and Stanislawa Ordynska. Israeli soldier 1940s
Countess Markievicz (Constance Georgina Gore-Booth) fought in the Easter Rising of 1916 in Ireland as well as the Civil War which followed the partition of Ireland. She was the MP for Dublin St. Patrick's from 1918 to 1922.
(source About.com Modern History of Ireland)

Flora Sanders, an Englishwoman in her forties fought in the trenches with the Serbian army during WW I. awarded Serbia's highest military decoration, the Kara George Star
(sse also Women Warriors Around the World)

Serbian peasant women were also fighting in the Serbian Army during WW1

The Turkish army at Gallipolli had women snipers.

Helen Ruz, a 19 year old corporal in the Voluntary Ukraine Legion, fought at the front in the Carpathian Mountains and during the Galcian campaigns. She won two medals WW1

Sophie Haletchko was a decorated sergeant major in the Ukranian cavalry. WW1

Zoya Smirnow was the only survivor of a group of 12 teenager girls who disguised themselves as boys and joined the Russian army. They fought in Galacia and the Carpathians. WW1

Most Russian Cossack regiments in WW I included a few women.

Olga Kokovtseva was a captain with the 6th regiment of the Ural Cossacks who fought in Serbia. She was wounded in two battles and received the St. George Cross.

Lieutenant Marie Baktscharow, led the first Russian women's battalion (of 250 women) in 1917.

A Russian womens batallion led by the much decorated Maria Botchkareva (Yashka), was dubbed the "Battalion of Death", Volkensteli and Ludmilla Kornilov served in its ranks.
(see also Women's Battalion of Death Bibliography and Russian Command Photos)
Princess Eugenie Shakhovskaya was the first woman to become a military pilot when she flew reconnaissance missions for the Russian Czar in 1914.
(see Women Military Pilots)

Princess Sophie Alexandrovna Dolgorunaya, who had obtained her pilot's license in 1914, volunteered for the Air Service in 1917 and flew missions with the 26th Corps Air Squadron.
(see Women Military Pilots)

The Indian National Army (INA) had an all women regiment called the Rani of Jhansi Regiment during WW2. They were involved in active combat in Burma. (info provided by Tina R. Fox)
(see also an interview with Doctor/Colonel Lakshmi Sahgal)

David Truby, in "Women at War, A Deadly Species", quotes unnamed allied POW's repatirated in 1918 who reported seeing female soldiers in German machine gun crews toward the close of WW1.

Constance Markievicz, an Irish nationalist, founded a paramilitary order called the Fianna Eireann in 1909. She was a captain in the Easter Uprising of 1916
(see Patrick Pearse: Hero of 1916)

http://www.lothene.demon.co.uk/others/women20.html
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2007 7:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Some of the best Turkish marksmen, as it turned out, were markswomen. 'Among those discovered was a peasant woman - the wife of a Turkish soldier - who lived with her old mother and her child in a little house near the Irish lines' (referring to Suvla). This particular woman was a good shot who specialised in hitting stragglers on the many trails between the front lines and the beaches. having made sure her targets were dead she would then rifle their bodies. When she was finally identified and captured her house was searched. A large quantity of money was found, but more surprising was the discovery of a number of identity discs. Either she was proud of her work or she was getting paid a piecework rate for the job!"

Michael McDonagh's The Irish at the Front (1916).
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2007 7:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

G Ward, British Red Cross Hospital, Giza, Cairo, Egypt, 22-0801915 –



My Dear Mother –

I am sure you are surprised at not having heard from me for so long, but from the day we landed at Gallipoli up to now I haven't had the remotest chance of writing. I can tell you we got a hot reception too when we did land, as we were making a new landing, but the 6th got through with remarkably few casualties. For the next two days we were employed bringing up stores. Then we went into the firing line, and we advanced to far without support, and the Regiment suffered badly, having something like 300 casualties. Jim Robinson and Bob Carter were both wounded. Where the former is now I cannot tell you. I was wounded on Sunday August 15th., when our lot along with the Munsters and "Skins" took a Turkish trench and about 20 prisoners. A piece of shrapnel went right through my knee. Captain Preston was killed just before I was wounded. I arrived at this place yesterday, so it has taken a week to get here. I got some papers from dad (July 14th and 21st) and a letter from Willie and Harry. This is all I have received. They afforded me an interesting afternoon's read in the trenches. For the whole week I was on the Peninsula we could only get water, bully beef and biscuits. Not even a chance of a wash or shave. I had a beard on me past description. The whole of my kit has gone, but I suppose I will get a reissue. It was a bit of hard luck we weren't taken to England. Our chaplain did tell us we were going to Devonport but it was not to be. Probably the boat that I was just late for did go, as we have not heard of her coming here. The Turks are shelling our Red Cross Hospital too. When I was lying with some others awaiting my turn to be taken to the boat a shell landed about 6 - 8 yards behind us and we weren't able to help ourselves. It certainly is a new experience to be under fire but after a while you get used to it. It is very dangerous to knock about alone. The place is simply walking with snipers, and they paint themselves green. I have heard that some female snipers were captured. How true it is I don't know. -

Your affectionate son,

"RONALD"

http://www.kildare.ie/athyheritage/Kildare...verSept1915.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2007 7:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beyond the plain a number of stunted oaks, gradually becoming more dense farther inland, formed excellent cover for the enemy's snipers, a mode of warfare at which the Turk was very adept. Officers and men were continually shot down, not only by rifle fire from advanced posts of the enemy, but by men, and even women, behind our own firing line, especially in the previous attacks. The particular kind of tree in this part, a stunted oak, lends itself to concealment, being short with dense foliage. Here the sniper would lurk, with face painted green, and so well hidden as to defy detection. Others would crouch in the dense brushwood, where anyone passing could be shot with ease. When discovered, these snipers had in their possession enough food and water for a considerable period, as well as an ample supply of ammunition."....

The 1st Battalion Essex advanced well and lost few men. The other battalions, who had delayed, suffered more severely. All we could do was to keep down the fire of the snipers by shooting into the trees. Rumour has it that some of these snipers were tied to trees, with water and food within reach. Women snipers have been caught within our lines with their faces, arms, legs, and rides painted green.

http://user.online.be/~snelders/sand.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2007 18:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The military records of the first British women to serve in a combat zone are being made available online to coincide with International Women´s Day.

The National Archives has digitised more than 7,000 records of the Women´s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), 1917-1920, and made them available on DocumentsOnline.

The Women´s Army Auxiliary Corps were the:

(a) first of the British women's military services to be set up – in January 1917
(b) first women to wear a military uniform (hence the phrase 'Khaki women')
(c) it could be argued, the first official recognition by the British wartime state that women had a 'right to serve'

Of the 57,000 women who served in the WAAC, 9,000 were deployed in France in areas exposed to direct conflict. While the WAACs were charged with carrying out a variety of non-combatant duties such as telephonists, bakers, waitresses, electricians, cooks, typists, printers, signalers, clerks etc –they still took considerable physical risks.

In May 1918 during an air raid in Abbeville, France, nine WAAC personnel were killed. While three WAACs received the Military Medal for bravery as a result of their rescue efforts during the raid.

Sheila Gopaulen, Manager of Modern Records, said:

"Historians have often focused attention on women's war efforts in substituting for men in the civilian workforce to release them for military service."

"Relatively little research has been carried out on women's military services during the Great War."

Only 7,016 of the 57,000 Women´s Army Auxiliary Corps records remain – after being severely damaged during a German air raid in September 1940 – with the majority comprising lower ranking servicewomen (known as "Workers").

William Spencer, The National Archives Senior Military Records specialist said the files that survived, were some of the most detailed British World War One service records in existence. As well as giving details of a woman´s military service, they describe her physical appearance, age, marital status, family details, civilian employment and even references of good character.

"From a social history perspective, it was fortunate that these 7,000 odd files were the ones that survived.

"Low ranking servicewomen were more likely to come from working class backgrounds, and this is the demographic that appears the least in historical records."

Making these documents available online allows the public easy access to the broad detail contained uniquely in these service records. You can search the records by name (including maiden name), place of birth and date of birth.

William said:

"It´s rare that war records give such insight into a recruit´s existence beyond the scope of their time in service.

"These records provide a flavour of daily life for these women before they joined the armed services."

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/news/stories/105.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Sep 2007 8:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Van een weblog:
Tuesday, September 18, 2007
WOMEN AND WAR

1. Women had different roles in each war, in the first world war they still mainly worked in volunteer positions, a few women worked outside the home in paid income but that was mainly in the clothing/textile industries. WWI 1914-1918. In WWII 1939-1945 women were encouraged to work in factories, and to basically take over the jobs that men had left to go to war. They also ran the Womens Land Army which was a huge organisation which used to run the farms.
2. WWII is when things really started to change for women, there was a major advertising campaign to get women into the Services, Nursing, Womens Land Army. Also into the factories they were finally allowd into the typically male dominated positions, although of course for a lot less pay.
3. In World War I women were expected to stay home and look after the children while the men went off to fight in the war. They were of course expected to help with volunteer positions like Red Cross etc.. Some women did seek paid employment but most stayed home and took over all the household duties. Those who did enter the paid workforce were not encouraged to continue after the war ended.
4. The Australian Comforts Fund made socks and sent them over to the men in the trenches, as they had no way of drying their socks.
5. In WW1 women were expected to fill their traditional roles with a few extras added on. But in WW2 things really changed for women, they were asked to fill traditionally male roles and work outside the home and not just in volunteer positions like in WW1.
6. I will send this to you in a word doc!!!!!!!!
7. The Womens land army was a voluntary group who moved into the rural communities and did the work on the farms so that the men could either go to war or work in the jobs they were needed in. You had to be between the ages of 18 and 50 and be a british subject to be able to join.
8. Vivian Bullwinkle was a South Australian nurse who enrolled in the war when she was 25. While trying to escape the area her ship was sunk and 22 nurses floated to shore, where they were massacred in the sea. She was the sole survivor and made it back to land where she cared for an injured solider for 12 days before he died. She then gave herself up to the japanese making no mention of the massacre she had been involved with. She was held captive for three years until the end of the war.
9. These men were a group of pilots that Bowen sketched in front of their bomber plane, before she could finish the group portrait the men were Missing in action, presumed dead and she had to finish from photographs and sketches. One of the men did eventually turn up at the end of the war after being held POW by the Germans.

http://vickisideas.blogspot.com/
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2008 13:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



Arbeiterinnen und Arbeiter des Eisenwerks im Ersten Weltkrieg
© http://www.alte-schmelz.de/Ansicht/Hauptseiten/_Geschichte.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2008 13:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



Die Szene geschieht in Frankreich.

Es ist eine Postkarte, wo es eine Frau mit Soldaten gibt.
Diese Szene passiert sich während der ersten Weltkrieg. Es passiert sich auf dem Land.
Die Frau ist eine Bäuerin, die von Soldaten angriffen ist. Auf dem Bild, ist die Bäuerin nicht einverstanden.
Die Szene ist gewalttätig, weil drei Soldaten an eine Frau greifen, die allein ist. Die Gewalt von den Soldaten ist fest, weil sie den Korb der Frau gefallen lässt. Auf dem Bild der Soldaten sind es viele traurige und dunkele Farben wie Feldgrau. Es gibt nur die Frau, die mit hellen Farben angezogen ist. Die weisse Farbe stellt die Arglosigkeit dar. Die rote Farbe symbolisiert das Blut. Die Hahne haben Angst deshalb sie wegfliegen. Die Frau hat keine Schuhe, denn sie ist bei ihrem Hause. Im Gegenteil haben die Soldaten Lederstiefel. Die nackte Füsse stellen die Schwäche der Frau gegenteil die Lederstiefel der Soldaten, die ihrer
Überlegenheit symbolisiert.
Es bedeutet, dass die deutschen Soldaten das französische Hoheitsgebiet verletzten. Diese Szene ist gewalttätig, weil die Hahne weggeflogen versuchen. Die Frau trifft schwer deutschen Gesten.


Die Szene geschieht in Deutschland.

Auf diesem Bild gibt es eine Frau und zwei Soldaten. Die Frau sitzt auf einer Bank und sie lächelt. Sie trägt schöne Kleider und Schuhe, sie ist schön und sauber. Es gibt neben sie ein Korb voller Äpfel. Ein Soldat ist vor sie und er umschmeichelt sie. Die Frau scheint froh, dass ein Deutschen Soldaten sie an redet. Wir sehen, dass der Man auf dem Boden gekniet, ist ein Soldat des unteren Dienstgrades, der nicht im Front ist. Diese deutsche Postkarte erklärt die position der Frauen in Deutschland während die erste Krieg. Sie haben die Männer am Arbeit vertreten. Nun die Frau auf diese Bild keine arbeiten Kleiden trägt. Es bedeutet, dass in Deutschland man immer die Frauen wie Gegenstanden betrachten.

© http://www.crrl.com.fr/Ressources/cartes_allemandes/accueil.htm#mar
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Paddy



Geregistreerd op: 9-11-2007
Berichten: 9280
Woonplaats: Idiot Trench, Dendermonde

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2008 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Titel De vrouwen van de Eerste Wereldoorlog
Auteur Denise de Weerdt
Uitgeverij © Stichting Mens en Kultuur, Gent; 1993; 303 bladzijden
ISBN 90 72931 48 3

Synopsis
Over de rol van de vrouwen tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog in België is tot hiertoe weinig geschreven. Denise de Weerdt heeft vijfenzeventig jaar later de sluier opgelicht.

Het leek wel alsof de vrouwen gedurende vier jaar stil hopend en verlangens, daarna moedeloos hadden zitten wachten op de terugkeer van hun mannen in hun leven. Dit stereotiepe beeld van de vrouw in oorlogstijd staat in scherp contrast met de werkelijkheid.

De burgervrouw wordt actief in allerlei domeinen. In de hulpverlening, in de verpleging, maar ook in het verzet kan zij zich voluit laten gaan. Verpleegsters belanden in 'Flanders Fiels', en schrijven nog jaren later de hartverscheurende taferelen en de walg van zich af in romans en memoires. De arbeidsters van hun kant moeten gedwongen door de enorme werkloosheid weer naar huis. Worden zij inactieve huisvrouwen? Ontelbare vrouwen meldden zich aan bij het verzet: inlichtingendiensten, ontsnappingslijnen, als koeriersters of als geheime agenten.

Van hen werden helaas ook honderden Belgische en enkele Noord-Franse vrouwen werden opgepakt en veroordeeld waarvan een zestigtal de doodstraf kregen. Naast Edith Cavell (G-B) en Gabrielle Petit (voor spionage) werden nog 9 andere vrouwen effectief terechtgesteld op Belgisch grondgebied tijdens de bezetting door de Duitsers: Louise Derache, Mathilde Desmet, Emilie Dhondt, Elise Grandprez, Marie Preenen, Leonie Rammeloo en Emilie Schatteman. Onder hen ook 2 Franse vrouwen: Anne Bénazet en Flore Lacroix.

Een aantal vrouwen, die eveneens de doodstraf hadden gekregen werd dankzij de tussenkomst van prominenten of om bepaalde redenen, zoals hun jeugdige leeftijd, begenadigd. Het waren: Laure Acar, Jeanne en Marie Albert, Marie Amen echtgenote Wauters (NL), Henriette Bernaerts, Lucie Billon echtgenote Collin (F), Marguerite Blanckaert, Jeanne de Beir, Jeanne de Belleville (F), Louise de Bettignies (F), Martha De Munck, Raymonde Denoel, Madeleine Doutreligne, Nelly Gabriël, Romanie Kint, Emma Lamote, Maria Lince, mevrouw Massart, Jeanne Merckx, Alphonsine Ramet, Emma Sabbe, Louise Thuliez (F), Hermine Vaneukem, Jeanne Wilryckx en mevrouw Marcel Witvrouw.

Honderden andere vrouwen belanden voor clandestiene activiteiten in de Duitse gevangenissen; de voorlopers van de concentratiekampen. Zij leren er de solidariteit van de samen beleefde ellende kennen.

In andere westerse landen krijgt de vrouw politieke rechten; zij mag actief deelnemen aan de wetgevende verkiezingen. In België moet zij eerst 'school lopen' in de verkiezingen voor de gemeenteraad; ze loopt een achterstand van 40 jaar op tot pas nà de Tweede Wereldoorlog -in 1948- het Algemeen Stemrecht voor zowel mannen als vrouwen van België uiteindelijk werkelijkheid wordt.

Denise De Weerdt verklaart in haar studie de schijnbare paradoxen van de vrouwengeschiedenis, tussen burgervrouw en arbeidster, tussen vrouwen in een bezet gebied en in vrij land.

Aan de hand van een case-study over spionage, en van de rol van Koningin Elisabeth, toont zij aan hoe mythen ontstaan in oorlogstijd. Haar eindconclusie luidt dat de oorlog de vrouw niet heeft bevrijd, maar ze bewuster heeft gemaakt van haar mogelijkheden.

http://www.verzet.org/content/view/928/69/
_________________
Greetings from a Little Gallant Belgian:-)
Patrick De Wolf
http://ablhistoryforum.be/

There is a very fine line between "hobby" and "mental illness".
"We're doomed, I tell ye!"
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Paddy



Geregistreerd op: 9-11-2007
Berichten: 9280
Woonplaats: Idiot Trench, Dendermonde

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mrt 2008 14:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Titel Ik was een spionne. Het mysterieuze spionageverhaal van Martha Cnockaert uit Westrozebeke
Orig. I was a Spy © 1932 by Marthe McKenna
Auteur Roger Quaghebeur
Uitgeverij © Uitgeverij De Klaproos; 2000; 264 bladzijden; b-cou
ISBN 90 5508 043 0
Synopsis
In 1932 verscheen het boek 'I was a Spy' over de merkwaardige belevenissen van Martha Cnockaert (1892-1966) als spionne in het bezette Roeselare. In 1915 en 1916 werkte Martha als verpleegster inhet Klein Seminarie (toen Feldlazarett) en als dienster in de herberg In de Kroon. Ze ontmoette er veel Duitse militairen en kon zo geheime informatie bekomen die ze doorspeelde aan de Britten. Anderhalf jaar lang zou ze hen inlichtingen verschaft hebben over munitie-opslagplaatsen, wapentransporten, de eerste gasaanval bij Steenstrate enz.

Het boek met een voorwoord van Winston Churchill[!] werd een bestseller zonder weerga (18 drukken), verscheen ook in het Italiaans, Frans en Roemeens, en werd zelfs verfilmd als I was a Spy [1933] en Lancer Spy [1937]. In Groot-Brittannië en ver daarbuiten genoot Martha Cnockaert [Marthe McKenna, nvdr] faam als een heuse oorlogsheldin.

Roger Quaghebeur brengt het levensverhaal van deze boeiende vrouw, die veel bekender in het buitenland was dan in eigen land. Hij beschrijft Westrozebeke en Roeselare in 19114-1918 en situeert er Martha's spionageverhaal. Het is meteen ook de eerste keer dat het boek 'I was a Spy' in het Nederlands verschijnt [!] (vanaf bladzijde 95 t/m 231). Martha Mathilda Cnockaert [in de ganse wereld beter gekend als Marthe McKenna, nvdr] werd op 28 oktober 1892 te Westrozebeke geboren als oudste van vijf kinderen van Felix Cnockaert, landbouwer en Marie-Louise Vanoplinus, huisvrouw. De toekomst voor een landbouwersdochter had in die tijd weinig verrassingen te bieden zodat ook voor Martha een weinig interessant leven in het verschiet lag. De inval de Duitse legers in 1914 besliste daar echter anders over. Net als de meeste Westrozebekenaren vluchtte de familie Cnockaert in januari 1915 weg van het operatiegebied ('de hel') naar het in het etappegebied liggende Roeselare. Na eerst ondergebracht te zijn geweest in het grote huis van een bekende plaatselijke kruidenier aan de rand van de stad, nemen ze in maart het nog steeds bestaande café De Kroon op de Grote Markt over.

Ondertussen had Martha zich als vrijwilligster gemeld bij het plaatselijke Rode Kruishospitaal. Martha's tante, werkzaam als Britse geheimagente voor de Intelligence Service, zag onmiddellijk interessante mogelijkheden in die combinatie van waardin en verpleegster en kon haar nichtje overhalen om ook te spioneren. Anderhalf jaar lang kan zij de Engelsen inlichtingen verschaffen over wapentransporten, munitie-opslagplaatsen, illegale telefoonverbindingen, de eerste gasaanvallen bij Ieper, Zeppelinraids en te bombarderen massabijeenkomsten. Ze volbracht haar taak zelfs zo goed dat ze in mei 1915 het IJzeren Kruis van Hertog Albrecht Von Würtemberg, bevelhebber van het IV° Duitse Leger, mocht ontvangen.

In de val gelokt en door haar eigen onoplettendheid ontmaskerd wanneer ze haar horloge op de plaats van een van haar spionagedaden vergat, wordt ze in november 1916 in de Roeselaarse gevangenis opgesloten in afwachting van haar proces. In de Gentse gevangenis hoort ze in februari 1917 de Duitse Krijgsraad de doodstraf uitspreken. Haar verdiensten die leidden tot het IJzeren Kruis en de getuigenissen van Duitse artsen uit haar Roeselaarse periode over haar toewijding als verpleegster overtuigden de rechters om haar doodstraf om te zetten in levenslang. De bevrijding van Gent in 1918 brengt haar weer op vrije voeten. Bron: Vlaamse detectives

Na de oorlog trok Martha naar Antwerpen. Daar ontmoette ze John McKenna, een legerkapitein bij het Britse Expeditieleger (de British Expeditionary Forces). Ze huwden in Antwerpen op 22 oktober 1921 en kregen samen vier kinderen. Bij het begin van de Tweede Wereldoorlog vlucht het gezin naar Engeland waar ze blijven tot aan het einde van de oorlog. Op 20 juli 1945 keert het gezin terug naar Westrozebeke. Intussen leert John een andere vrouw kennen, Agnes Hoet. Het echtpaar gaat uit elkaar en in 1951 trekken John en zijn nieuwe vrouw terug naar Engeland, Martha blijft alleen achter. John McKenna overleed op 7 april 1961. Martha Cnockaert overleed in alle anonimiteit in Roeselare op 8 januari 1966.

http://www.verzet.org/content/view/952/69/
_________________
Greetings from a Little Gallant Belgian:-)
Patrick De Wolf
http://ablhistoryforum.be/

There is a very fine line between "hobby" and "mental illness".
"We're doomed, I tell ye!"
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Paddy



Geregistreerd op: 9-11-2007
Berichten: 9280
Woonplaats: Idiot Trench, Dendermonde

BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Mei 2008 15:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vergeten wij haar niet!

De "oorlogsmeters", "Marraine's" & "Godmothers"

Bron: De Legerbode n°642, 23 maart 1919


_________________
Greetings from a Little Gallant Belgian:-)
Patrick De Wolf
http://ablhistoryforum.be/

There is a very fine line between "hobby" and "mental illness".
"We're doomed, I tell ye!"
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Paddy



Geregistreerd op: 9-11-2007
Berichten: 9280
Woonplaats: Idiot Trench, Dendermonde

BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Mei 2008 11:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Legerbode n°657 6 Juli 1919



_________________
Greetings from a Little Gallant Belgian:-)
Patrick De Wolf
http://ablhistoryforum.be/

There is a very fine line between "hobby" and "mental illness".
"We're doomed, I tell ye!"
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2008 7:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

My Death for the Motherland Is Happiness": Women, Patriotism, and Soldiering in Russia's Great War, 1914–1917


MELISSA K. STOCKDALE



Een stukje uit een uitgebreid artikel:

From the outset of the war, a small number of Russian women made a still more radical break with their culture's traditional gender roles than did their European contemporaries, by actually taking up arms. 16 Many of these soldiers were the daughters or wives of military men, perhaps because a military connection could more easily open doors for unconventional volunteers. One of the earliest volunteers was Apollovna Isoltsev, who entered the regiment commanded by her father. Alexandra Danilova, wife of a reservist from Baku, wrote in her successful petition to the local military authorities: "Having a strong, burning desire to enter as a volunteer into the army for the defense of the dear Tsar and Fatherland, I request my enrollment in the regular army." Kuban Cossack Elena Chuba, who joined the army after her husband went off to war, was one of a number of Cossack women who gained permission to become soldiers. All these women took part in actual fighting or sorties; several received decorations for bravery. 17 11
Many other women had to resort to subterfuge in order to become soldiers. Anna Alekseevna Krasil'nikova, the daughter of a mineworker from the Urals, disguised herself as a man and enlisted as Anatolii Krasil'nikov; she took part in nineteen battles and was awarded the St. George's Cross for valor. Twelve Moscow gymnaziia students ran off together to the army, gaining support from soldiers who agreed to disguise them as boys, find them uniforms and rifles, and teach them to shoot. As one of them later told a reporter, "It was a bit terrible at first ..., but the desire to see the war and ourselves kill the Germans overcame all other sentiments." By the time the authorities realized their deception, outside Lemberg (L'vov) in Galicia, it was agreed they could continue to serve.18 A number of women disguised themselves so successfully that their sex long remained secret, as was the case with Marfa Malko, a junior officer's wife whose real identity was not discovered until she was imprisoned in a German POW camp. 12
All told, the number of women who served in the Russian army as combatants from 1914 to 1916 was, at a minimum, forty-nine, but probably closer to several hundred, individuals.19 As insignificant as these figures are when compared with the legions of women working for Russia's war effort in other capacities, the appearance of armed female soldiers in the regular army was nonetheless remarkable: with the exception of several women who fought with the Serbs and the Austrians, this phenomenon in World War I was confined to Russia. And it was by no means a Russian tradition, since the imperial Russian army was as exclusively a masculine preserve as were the armies of every other belligerent, and one in which misogyny was strong.20 13
The notable exception in Russia to the exclusion of women from the regular army dated to the Napoleonic Wars. The noblewoman Natalia Durova disguised herself as a man, successfully served as a cavalry officer, and was decorated; in recognition of her patriotism, Tsar Aleksandr I granted her permission to continue serving even after her true sex was revealed. Durova's stirring memoirs were well known to educated Russians, and a number of the young women who petitioned to be allowed to fight invoked her example, as did Elena Iost: "I will be so bold as to remind your Imperial Highness that already a hundred years ago a certain young woman, officer N. Durova, served in the ranks of our glorious army and participated in the battles of the campaigns of 1812."21 What should be noted here is that the example of Durova had previously not inspired women to become soldiers, for only four women are known to have entered the Russian army in the hundred years after Durova did so.22 14
The Great War therefore represented a genuine departure, for now hundreds of women sought to fight, and the authorities, including that most conventional of men, Nicholas II, allowed some of them to do so. Women's petitions for permission to enlist became sufficiently numerous to prompt formulation of a policy on this question. On June 10, 1915, on the recommendation of the minister of war, military authorities decided that during the present conflict exceptions could be made to the law barring women from the army, provided the emperor ultimately approved each petition. A memo evaluating one individual's petition explained that, while allowing women into the army "is, as a general rule, undesirable," it was deemed possible in certain unique circumstances to admit them "in the role of regular troops."23

Lees het hele stuk op:

http://historycooperative.press.uiuc.edu/journals/ahr/109.1/stockdale.html
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2008 7:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/p/226.html

No job for a woman
The effect of war on women's lives in the 20th and 21st Centuries
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Jun 2008 12:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Female Patriotism in the Great War

Nicoletta F. Gullace

But the educated man’s sister – what does “patriotism” mean to her?
– Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas (1938)

While Virginia Woolf felt that “the educated man’s sister” lacked entirely his reasons for “being proud of England, for loving England, for defending England,” she had little choice but to concede that during World War I, such women threw themselves into the war effort with astonishing patriotic fervour. How, Woolf asked, can we explain “that amazing outburst in August 1914, when the daughters of educated men ... rushed into hospitals, some still attended by their maids, drove lorries, worked in fields and munitions factories, and used all their immense stores of charm ... to persuade young men that to fight was heroic, and that the wounded in battle deserved all her care and all her praise? ” Her answer lies in the visceral antipathy she believed middle class women felt towards their insular domestic education. “So profound was her unconscious loathing for the education of the private house ... that she would undertake any task however menial, exercise any fascination however fatal that enabled her to escape”(Woolf, p. 39).

Woolf’s estimation of the motivations of women who threw themselves into war work contained more than a grain of truth. For many middle-class women the opportunity to escape the limitations of their sex roles by engaging in war work was irresistible. Yet for many of these same women, and for the thousands of working-class women who took up war work in munitions factories, in transportation industries, and on the land, the lure of wartime wages, along with a love of country shared with their men – however undeserving “England” may have been of such affection – motivated those who undertook the myriad of activities recorded in this unique collection of documents and photographs [Volunteer Corps 1-9]. Suffrage activists like Millicent Garrett Fawcett recognized that engaging in patriotic work might strengthen women’s bid for the vote, which, indeed, they gained on a limited basis directly after the war [Suffrage and Politics I-III]. Others, particularly middle-class and aristocratic women of means, threw themselves into unpaid charitable work. They often raised large sums of money for benevolent causes, such as hospitals, comforts for the troops, and charitable relief for refugees displaced by war [Belgium 1-16; Benevolent Organizations 1-8; Relief Funds I-II]. Indeed charitable work was appealing to a variety of women, including those who were on principle opposed to war but wished to offer assistance to the men and women displaced by it. This collection documents the activities undertaken by British women, at home and abroad, during World War I. The following essay will attempt to put their patriotic contribution within its historical and scholarly context.



War or Peace?: The Scholarly Debate over Women’s Attitudes

Scholars studying the history of women during World War I have varied greatly in their assessment of the degree, sincerity, and importance of female patriotism. During World War I, women were warmly praised for their intense patriotism and their loyal response to the war [Employment 18]. Contemporaries pointed out that women had sacrificed husbands and sons to the war effort and had volunteered their time, money, and labour in support of Britain’s cause. Feminists pointed to women’s patriotic activity as evidence of women’s entitlement to the vote, while even many Conservatives came to recognize women’s unique patriotic contributions. The enthusiasm with which women undertook war work has often been interpreted as a telling sign of their unequivocal support for the war. Not only did women sign up for Red Cross work, enter munitions factories, and devote their energies to charitable causes, but by the end of the war thousands had donned uniforms, enlisting in military auxiliary units and in female police forces [Army 3-6; Volunteer Corps 1-9; W.R.A.F. 1-2; W.R.N.S. 1-20].

Despite the patriotic sentiments expressed by millions of British women, however, women were also strongly represented in the small and much-abused pacifist movement that worked indefatigably for a compromise peace [Suffrage and Politics II, 8]. Involvement in the pacifist movement split the leadership of the largest suffrage organization in Britain as pacifist members of the National Union of Suffrage Societies pressed their organization to sponsor their attendance at an international women’s peace meeting to be held at the Hague in 1915.

The heroic actions of these pacifist women have interested scholars who have studied the feminist roots of British pacifism and who have argued that anti-war activities were more significant to the development of British feminism than the patriotic response of those who supported their government. The literary contributions of pacifist women have also been widely studied and make up an important part of the literary and poetic cannon of World War I. Because this document collection was compiled by the Imperial War Museum in the years following the war to record women’s contributions to the war effort, patriotic activity will generally be more prominently represented than pacifist activity. Students interested in women’s antiwar activity are invited to look up the Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom and to refer to the notes in this essay for further reading.



Patriotism and domesticity

Women’s patriotic activity during World War I began in the home. Government propaganda persuaded women to conserve food, to buy war savings bonds, and to encourage their men to enlist. Both pronatalists and feminists regarded motherhood as a contribution to the State, and a variety of organizations encouraged women to bring up boys fit to become soldiers. These traditional activities turned the home itself into a sort of surrogate battle-front as women were reminded that “The Kitchen” was “Key to Victory,” or that she who saved two slices of bread helped “defeat the U-boat” [Education 4; Food 1-24].


Perhaps the most problematic expectation for women was the widely held idea that they should encourage their men to enlist. During 1914 and 1915, Great Britain, alone among the major powers, maintained a volunteer army, necessitating a massive recruiting effort to supply the army with soldiers. Offering such encouragement could result in the irreparable loss of a son or lover or his return home disfigured and battle-scarred. Despite such potentially heartbreaking consequences, government propaganda posters encouraged the “Women of Britain” to “SAY GO!” and many organizations took it upon themselves to preach to women of their patriotic duty to send men to war. Women participated in recruiting drives, giving speeches at Trafalgar square and Hyde Park, as well as speaking at music halls and in other venues where men congregated to seek entertainment [Army 0]. This milieu, however, also fostered the notorious white feather movement, where women – particularly young flappers – went through the streets bestowing the “white feather of cowardice” on men wearing civilian clothes.


During World War I, virtually every “private” domestic activity was militarised, as food, fertility, and moral authority were all to some extent commandeered by the State. In this way, even women who remained at home with young children were encouraged to make patriotic sacrifices and to contribute to the war effort through their domestic management. Some would hang signs outside their doors informing passers-by how many men from that house were on active duty; other signs would proclaim the woman inside to be a patriotic conserver of eggs or a contributor to a “Win the War” fund. The home was thus linked to the front through family connections, postal correspondence, and symbolic professions of patriotism.



New Female Labour Forces

No aspect of women’s patriotic contribution to the war effort has received more attention than their enlistment in formerly male occupations [Employment 1-82]. Photographs of women in wartime collected by the Imperial War Museum show the voluminous documentation of women doing non-traditional jobs, such as filling shells, collecting tickets, shovelling coal, or cultivating fields. Their novel dress – often trousers – gave these changes a startling visual quality that made the changes in women’s roles seem truly revolutionary. While women from the labouring classes were well represented in the workforce long before the Great War, they were congregated in traditionally female trades such as the garment industry, laundry work, unskilled industrial labour, and service industries. The Great War removed able-bodied men from the home-front, causing labour shortages and fuelling proposals to allow women into traditionally male occupations. In July 1915, Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst, a prominent pre-war suffrage activist, received a subsidy from the government to organize a “great parade” in which women would demand “the right to work” [Employment 13]. The overwhelming willingness of women to sign-up for industrial and other types of work gave ammunition to the government which was able to persuade labour unions to relax rules against “dilution” – the filling of skilled positions by non-union labourers. During 1916, with the advent of conscription in Britain and ever-increasing demands for manpower among all the belligerents, women began to replace men on production lines in unprecedented numbers [Munitions I, 1-14, 15-17.]. Advocates of women’s work reminded the public that shells made by a wife could “save her husband’s life,” rhetorically placing the welfare of both family and nation in the hands of patriotic working women. Female munitions workers, in turn, considered themselves to be the loyal supporters of the men at the front, some referring to themselves as “Tommy’s sisters,” highlighting their intimate connection to their enlisted “brothers.”


While World War I saw an unprecedented movement of women into formerly male occupations, many of these gains did not last. Women were promptly demobilized from their industrial and transportation occupations as the war began to wind down in 1918. Governments were concerned that returning soldiers be able to find jobs and, despite the protests of feminists, many women were turned out of the jobs they had done during the war. A number of changes nevertheless remained. It was at this time that clerical work came to be heavily assumed by women, and wealthy Britons complained frequently after the war that they were never again able to find such docile and cheap servants. The experience of assuming what many women considered to be interesting, skilled, and well-paid work would leave its mark on women, despite a post-war embrace of the reassuring normality of family and home [Munitions IV-VII].



Red Cross and Medical Work

Perhaps the most glamorous memory of women’s participation in the Great War revolves around their work as nurses on or near the front lines. Film adaptations of Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms or the image of Julie Christie as the nurse Lara in Dr. Zhivago have helped to perpetuate a vision of glamorous young nurses bravely serving the wounded against the backdrop of romance and war. Indeed non-fictional accounts like Vera Brittain’s Testament of Youth also helped create and sustain such images. While Red Cross work attracted many provincial girls to activities no more exciting than rolling bandages at a local church, it offered an extraordinary outlet for female patriotism. Many middle class women like Vera Brittain volunteered to become VAD nurses, some of them actually serving – as Brittain did – under fire in France and in Eastern Europe [British Red Cross Society 8-16]. Among the photographs and documents in the Imperial War Museum Collection are pictures of women engaged in some of the most dangerous types of female medical work [British Red Cross Society 1-27]. Women served in World War I as field nurses, as ambulance drivers, and as stretcher bearers, often receiving honours and decorations, formerly reserved for military men, for their acts of bravery in the field [Decorations and Honours 1-8]. Edith Cavell was a nurse who was shot as a spy by the Germans for smuggling allied prisoners to safety, while Lady Muriel Paget ran a mobile hospital unit on the Russian front [Russia I]. The activities of medical women – whose labour was spurned by the British government at the beginning of the war – helped to establish medical women and gain them new respect in the eyes of the public as well as among the men whose lives they saved.



Patriotism and the Vote

The relationship between women’s patriotic support of the Great War and the awarding of women’s suffrage has been frequently debated in the scholarly literature. Contemporaries almost universally attributed the passage of women’s suffrage to the new-found respect women had gained through their loyalty, patriotism, and material assistance to the war effort [Suffrage and Politics II & III]. Indeed, women’s patriotic support of the war undoubtedly undercut the case against the woman’s vote by demolishing pre-war arguments that denied women’s military and imperial importance. As the essay on suffrage in this collection shows, however, many scholars have challenged this idea, pointing out particularly that younger women, who made up the majority of female war workers, did not get the vote. Since the vote was only awarded to women over thirty, many women whose patriotic efforts had contributed to the reappraisal of female enfranchisement did not get a say in national elections. Furthermore, the gains they had made in the workforce were soon rolled back with demobilization and the return of jobless soldiers. How sincere, then, was the praise and gratitude that Britain showed to its women? The documents in this collection will help students to evaluate the extent to which women redefined themselves with their patriotic support of the war effort. It will also offer students the opportunity to form first-hand judgements on the many questions that surround the history of female patriotism in the First World War.



Bibliography

Braybon, Gail. Women Workers in the First World War. London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Brittain, Vera. Testament of Youth: An Autobiographical Study of the Years 1900-1925. [1933] London: Penguin, 1989.

Cahalan, Peter. Belgian Refugee Relief in England During the Great War. London: Taylor & Francis, 1982.

Grayzel, Susan R. Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France During the First World War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

--------- Women and the First World War. New York: Longmans, 2002.

Gullace, Nicoletta F. ‘The Blood of Our Sons’: Men, Women and the Renegotiation of British Citizenship During the Great War. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Haste, Cate. Keep the Home Fires Burning: Propaganda in the First World War. London: Allen Lane, 1978.

Higonnet, Margaret R., Jane Jenson, Sonya Michel, and Margaret Collins Weitz eds. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

Holton, Sandra Stanley. Feminism and Democracy: Women’s Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain 1900-1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Kent, Susan. Making Peace: Gender Reconstruction in Interwar Britain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Marwick, Arthur. Women at War 1914-1918. London: Croom Helm, 1977.

Mitchell, David. Women on the Warpath: The Story of Women of the First World War. London: Jonathan Cape, 1968.

Robb, George. British Culture and the First World War. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Strachey, Ray. The Cause: A Short History of the Women’s Movement in Great Britain. Bath: Cedric Chivers, 1928.

Summers, Anne. Angels and Citizens: British Women as Military Nurses 1854-1914. London: Routledge, 1988.

Tylee, Claire M. The Great War and Women’s Consciousness: Images or Militarism and Womanhood in Women’s Writings, 1914-64. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1990.

Vellacott, Jo. “Feminist Consciousness and the First World War.” History Workshop 23 (Spring 1987).

Wiltshire, Anne. Most Dangerous Women: Feminist Peace Campaigners of the First World War. London: Pandora, 1985.

Watson, Janet S. K. “‘Khaki Girls, VADs and Tommy’s Sister: Gender and Class in First World War Britain.” International History Review 19 (February 1997).

Woolf, Virginia. Three Guineas. [1938] London: Harcourt Brace Jovanocich, Inc.,1966.

Woollacott, Angela. On Her Their Lives Depend: Munitions Workers in the First World War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

© http://tlemea.com/Gullace.asp

Voor enorm veel foto's behorend bij het artikel:
http://tlemea.com/index.htm
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Jun 2008 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women’s Voluntary Organizations in World War I

Jacqueline de Vries


The outpouring of voluntary service by Britain’s women during World War I was extraordinary, especially when seen from the vantage point of the contemporary western world in which we leave the particulars of war to the paid professionals. Our militaries have developed their capabilities to the point where volunteer help is rarely, if ever, needed. In contrast to our own contemporary situation, the flood of volunteers in 1914 to help with the war effort was immediate and necessary. Just hours after the official war declaration, social and civic organizations all across the land offered to help. Within days, dozens of new organizations appeared to fill the many gaps in the mobilization process.


The Women at Work Collection in the Imperial War Museum offers researchers an abundance of materials on women’s volunteer organizations and philanthropic activities during the war. While the sections on Belgium (1-16) and Benevolent Organisations (1-8) contain the most concentrated collection of materials, other relevant documents are scattered throughout. One might also wish to explore the materials relating to women’s voluntary medical service in the sections on the British Red Cross (1-27), their efforts to maintain a healthy and well-fed home front in the section on Food (1-6), Land (1-9) and Local Records (1-460), as well as their voluntary military service, chronicled in the section on Munitions (I-VII).


The very act of preserving documents for the Women at Work Collection is evidence of the critical role of women’s voluntarism during World War I. At the beginning of the war, with little government recognition of their potential for service, women enjoyed unprecedented freedom and scope for organizing. The ad hoc nature of most women’s voluntary efforts is striking; women simply responded, out of a sense of duty to their country and communities, in the ways they were able, utilizing the skills they had acquired in peacetime, such as raising money, running charities, knitting, sewing, gardening, cooking. Gradually, as the contributions of these groups became essential, the government began to coordinate and regulate their efforts.


The mobilization of volunteers in Britain benefited from a pre-war membership boom in women’s social, service and political organizations, which provided what sociologists today call the “social capital” necessary for winning war. Prior to the war, women donated their time and connected with their communities through their parish organizations, the Mother’s Union, the Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild, or one of the hundreds of other service organizations staffed and run by women. Thousands of girls and young women belonged to the Girl Guides, Girls’ Friendly Society, and the YWCA, which imbued them with leadership skills, civic consciousness, and a commitment to service. In addition, tens of thousands of members of the women’s suffrage societies had developed during their years of campaigning a finely tuned sense of their place within the nation. For these women, the step to war service was relatively easy.


Scholars have focused less attention on women’s voluntarism during World War I than they have on women’s entrance into waged work, even though voluntary service was the main way (aside from sacrificing husbands and sons) in which middle and upper-class women contributed to the war effort. [Braybon, Grayzel, Gullace, Marwick, Wilson] Historians still debate the significance of women’s voluntarism to the progress of women’s emancipation from restricted Victorian roles. Some historians view women’s service sceptically, pointing to their knitting and sewing as simply an extension of their traditionally subservient roles. Others argue that the leadership and ingenuity demonstrated by volunteers was personally liberating and contributed to women’s newly recognized status within the nation at the war’s end. Leaders of the women’s movement at the time were certainly eager to connect women’s war service with their emancipation. At the first outbreak of hostilities, Millicent Garrett Fawcett, President of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, urged suffragists to find positions of service in order to “Let us prove ourselves worthy of citizenship.” Historians will certainly continue to debate the ways in which women’s wartime voluntarism and philanthropy transformed or re-inscribed women’s expected roles and behaviours. However, the importance of voluntary service to Britain’s victory in 1918, as well as its personal significance to Britain’s women, is plainly evident from this collection.


In September 1915, thousands of voluntary associations were drawn together under the office of the Director General of Voluntary Organizations (DGVO), which provided coordination and guidelines to local groups. Exact instructions were provided, for example, to the nearly 100 branches of the Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild for knitting socks and sewing nightshirts according to military standards (supposedly bringing an end to mismatched regiments.) [Benevolent Organisations, 2.2] As each organization was officially recognized, they were invited to submit documents to the Imperial War Museum for the sake of later researchers. A year after the establishment of the DGVO, further regulation became necessary when scam artists and swindlers began to prey upon the generosity of Britons. After August 1916, all charities engaged in war fund-raising (with the exception of religious institutions taking collections during regular services) had to register under the War Charities Act. The result for researchers is a marvellously detailed list by region and town of all organizations in England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales that applied for a license. (Benevolent Organisations, 1/1)


Women’s voluntary organizations met needs both at home and at the war front. Medical supplies were a top priority. Prior to August 1914, the government had made few plans for supplying hospitals with basic necessities and providing comforts to soldiers. The Regimental Association, British Red Cross and Order of St. John performed some of these services but were soon overwhelmed by the level of need. The section on “Benevolent Organisations” provides a wealth of information about the voluntary organizations that sprang up or retooled to meet these needs. Women were the main volunteers in hundreds of supply depots, which served as collection and distribution centres for donations of clothes, bandages, medicines and other comforts. Each regiment – from the Welsh Troops to the Royal Scottish Fusiliers – had its own fundraising association, staffed predominantly by women. Colonial troops were not neglected either. Even British women living as far away as Peru, Chile and Mexico sent donations gathered from their communities abroad. [Benevolent Organisations, 2/14] Adventurous women could travel to the frontlines to distribute the donations. On behalf of Lady Hamilton’s Dardanelles Fund, for example, Mrs Vans Agnew and Miss Phyllis Keyes opened a depot at Mudros on the Island of Lemnos in September 1915, remaining through December when the island was evacuated. They distributed cigarettes, towels, handkerchiefs, soap, stationery and candles, in addition to basic food and clothing [Benevolent Organisations, 2/12]


Whole towns mobilized to support their local regiments and area hospitals. The section on “Local Records” reveals with great detail the contributions made by thousands of women from communities large and small. In the tiny but prosperous Cheshire town of Alderley Edge, for example, women quickly organized new groups like the Surgical Requisite Guild [Local records 10/5] which began to raise money and sew items necessary for soldiers in hospital. Like volunteer groups elsewhere, the Alderley Edge women formed unexpected partnerships, teaming up with the boys at the nearby Royal School for Deaf and Dumb to supply more than 90 hospitals with splints. And elsewhere in the town of Alderley Edge, Girl Guides ran a laundry and raised vegetables for the local Red Cross hospital. Women’s ingenuity and initiative are abundantly evident in these records.


Through their volunteerism and philanthropy, women attempted to bring colour and comfort to the grim reality of soldiers’ lives. Volunteers for Lady Smith-Dorrien’s Hospital Bag Fund, sewed between 40,000 and 60,000 small, colourful bags a month to hold the valuables of wounded soldiers while they were in hospital. [Benevolent Organisations, 2/19/36] Board members of the Princess Mary’s Soldiers and Sailors Christmas Fund, including the Duke of Devonshire and numerous titled women, donated great sums of money and deliberated for weeks over the choice of Christmas gifts to send to all men in active service, including Britain’s colonial troops. [Benevolent Organisations, 2/1/7] Funds were raised to send books and newspapers to Australian, Indian and Canadian troops stationed overseas. Even such organizations as the Ladies Alpine Club, which before the war was a social club for women mountaineers, undertook war service. [Benevolent Organisations, 2/21/5] Mrs Aubrey Le Blond, perhaps its most celebrated member, volunteered as an orderly in Dieppe and raised money for an “Alpine Motor Kitchen” to serve meals on wheels to soldiers stationed in the Vosges. Those on the home front whose livelihoods and living situations had been affected by the war were also the recipients of women’s aid work. The Plum Pudding Fund in Aberdeen was just one of many organizations that distributed food, clothing and gifts to the families of soldiers and sailors, as well as to women displaced from their homes by wartime service.


One of the most pressing issues in the early months of the war was the housing and feeding of more than 200,000 Belgian refugees displaced by the German invasion of their country. The section on “Belgium” [Belgium, 1-16] documents Britons’ voluntary responses, both large and small. In mid-August 1914, two eminent women – Lady Lugard and the Hon. Mrs Alfred Lyttelton – helped to form the War Refugees Committee (WRC) based in Aldwych, London, to co-ordinate the relief efforts. Thousands of individual volunteers, as well as numerous private organizations, lent time, space and money. Even organizations as disparate as the Women’s Tariff Reform League and the Ladies Automobile Club offered to help. While the Local Government Boards later assumed much of the work of coordination, Lady Lugard continued to donate her time to the Belgian Hospitality Committee, which met 6 days a week throughout 1915 and 1916 to distribute financial relief to thousands of individual refugees. [Belgium 3/12]


Hundreds of communities across Britain established committees or funds to address the refugee problem. Records from individual municipalities, like the city of Folkestone in the south of England, provide a glimpse of the scope of the effort. [Belgium 1/5/2] Swamped with refugees first, and then later with wounded soldiers, volunteers put in 14 hours per day, seven days a week, providing beds and meals for the needy. Local branches of the Salvation Army, Friends’ Meeting House, and a local Catholic mission, pitched in to provide beds for nearly 9,000 refugees and serve almost 71,000 meals in the six-week period between December 20, 1914, and February 6, 1915. Local branches of other organizations, such as the Girls Friendly Society, helped by raising vegetables and providing wholesome activities for young refugee women. By the war’s end, this small city had served 500,000 meals to 120,000 Belgian refugees and 420,000 wounded soldiers. The collection’s materials reveal similar efforts in many other municipalities, from Bristol to Ely, Falmouth to Glasgow. Letters, organizational records, news clippings, and other official documents reveal this often-neglected story of World War I.


The unity of community efforts during this crisis is indeed remarkable, but researchers will also notice the persistence of old class, religious and ethnic prejudices at work in these documents. Canteens and kitchens served different menus to wounded soldiers and refugees of different class backgrounds. Indian troops were deemed less likely to appreciate certain Christmas gifts and were given a paired-down version of the packages distributed to British troops by Princess Mary’s Christmas Fund. Yet, despite the continuation of social differentiation, World War I is often characterized as a turning point in class relations and a catalyst to the decline of aristocratic privilege. With its focus on women, this collection offers a unique insight on this process. Upper-class women, for example, took a front-line role in the organization of war relief. Examples abound of aristocratic women who turned their social position and wealth toward war service. The Duchesses of Westminster and Sutherland set up hospitals abroad, and Lady Hamilton (wife of General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean) coordinated specific funds and relief efforts in support of her husbands’ troops (in her case, the Dardanelles Fund) [Benevolent Organisations 2.12/3]. Analysis of these women’s war service and its reception will help illuminate the social changes emanating from the war.


Finally, while the collection is heavily focused on organizational records, numerous stories of individual women also emerge. Diaries, memoirs, speeches and news clippings help to reconstruct biographical portraits of forgotten heroes. Moved by the sight of refugee children at Tilbury Docks, for example, Mrs. J. S. (Alexander) Henry of Gravesend distributed 1,000 scones per day for the first 18 months of the war, along with hot chocolate, coffee, clothes and blankets. Sometimes she invited into her home the most destitute refugee families. Widely recognized by local authorities, her work was later assumed by the YWCA. [Belgium, 1/9/3]


The overwhelming response of Britain’s voluntary organizations proved critical to the war effort, since despite years of planning, the British Army was quite unprepared for the strain on resources that quickly ensued in 1914. Britain’s wars in the prior half-century had been relatively short in duration and contained in scope, but, in stark contrast, the swiftness of mobilization and the brutality of tactics in August 1914 required new responses. At a time when government resources were fewer than they are today, Britain relied on its civilians as much as its soldiers to win the first “total war” in history.


Bibliography

Braybon, Gail. Women Workers in the First World War: The British Experience. London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Braybon, Gail and Penny Summerfield. Out of the Cage: Women’s Experiences in the Two World Wars. 1987.

Condell, Diana and Jean Liddiard. Working for Victory? Images of Women in the First World War, 1914-1918. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.

Grayzel, Susan. Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France During the First World War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Gullace, Nicoletta F., “The Blood of Our Sons”: Men, Women, and the Renegotiation of British Citizenship During the Great War. New York and Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Marwick, Arthur, The Deluge: British Society and the First World War. London: The Bodley Head, 1965.

Wilson, Trevor. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War, 1914-1918. Oxford: Polity Press, 1986.

http://tlemea.com/devries.asp
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Thuisfront Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Ga naar Pagina Vorige  1, 2, 3  Volgende
Pagina 2 van 3

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group