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21 Januari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2006 7:38    Onderwerp: 21 Januari Reageer met quote

1914

1915
Erfolgreiche Kämpfe bei Pont-à-Musson
Der Luftkrieg gegen England
Erzherzog Karl Franz Josef im deutschen Hauptquartier
Generalleutnant Wild v. Hohenborn Kriegsminister

1916
Russische Vorstöße bei Pinsk abgewiesen
Die Unterseebootserfolge im Dezember
Kampfpause an der Bukowinafront
Kein österreichisch-ungarisches U-Boot beim Untergang der "Persia" beteiligt
Besetzung Sultanabads durch die Russen
Fahrt der Königin Milena nach Frankreich
Der Abbruch der Friedensverhandlungen Montenegros

1917
Die Erstürmung von Nanesti in heißem Häuserkampf
Erfolgreiche Fahrt eines deutschen U-Boots
Kämpfe bei Kut el Amara

1918
Ein englischer Vorstoß bei Vendhuille abgeschlagen
Die U-Boot-Beute im Dezember: 702 000 Tonnen
Die Auflösung der russischen Konstituante
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2006 7:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 21

1924 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin dies

In Moscow on the evening of January 21, 1924, shock and near-hysterical grief greets the news that Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik movement that toppled the czarist regime in 1917 and head of the first government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), had died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage.

Influenced early on by Karl Marx’s seminal text Das Kapital, Lenin was radicalized further by the execution of his older brother, Alexander, for conspiring to kill Czar Alexander III in 1887. The brooding, fiercely intellectual Lenin married the principles of Marxist thought to his own theory of organization and the reality of Russian demographics, envisioning a group of elite professional revolutionaries, or a “vanguard of the proletariat,” who would first lead the agrarian masses of Russia to victory over the tyrannical czarist regime and eventually incite a worldwide revolution. He laid out this theory in his most famous treatise, What Is To Be Done?, in 1902. Lenin’s insistence on the necessity of this vanguard led to a split in Russia’s Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903 between his supporters—a small majority that was thereafter known as the Bolsheviks—and his opponents, the Mensheviks.

After the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Lenin—then living in Switzerland—urged his Bolshevik supporters in Russia to turn the “imperialist” conflict into a civil war that would liberate the working classes from the yoke of the bourgeoisie and monarchy. With the success of the February Revolution and the abdication of Czar Nicholas II in March 1917, Lenin managed, with German help, to travel back to Russia, where he worked with his deputy, Léon Trotsky, to orchestrate the Bolshevik seizure of power from the unsteady provisional government that November. Lenin declared an immediate armistice with the Central Powers and acted quickly to consolidate the power of the new Soviet state under his newly named Communist Party; to that end, in a brutal civil war, his supporters, the “Reds,” had to combat “White” rebellions that sprung up all over Russia.

In his six years in power, Lenin struggled with the difficulty of implementing his utopian vision within the borders of the Soviet state as well as the failure of his predicted international revolution to materialize. Together, Lenin and his circle of advisers, or Politburo—which included Trotsky, his faithful henchman during the civil war, and Joseph Stalin, the general secretary of the Communist Party—worked to ruthlessly and systematically destroy all opposition to Communist policies within the new U.S.S.R., proclaimed in 1922. Instruments in this repression included a newly created secret police, the Cheka, and the first of the gulags, or concentration camps, that Stalin would later put to even more deadly use.

Lenin suffered a stroke in May 1922; a second one, more debilitating, came in March of the following year, leaving him mute and effectively ending his political career. At the time of his death, The New York Times reported that “it is the general opinion that Lenin's death will unify and strengthen the Communist Party as nothing else could do. No one who knows them both doubts that Trotsky and Stalin will bury the hatchet over his grave.” This would not be the case: Stalin worked quickly to control the situation, encouraging the deification of Lenin—who before his death had called for Stalin’s dismissal—while simultaneously working to discredit (and eventually destoy) Trotsky and the rest of his rivals in the Politburo. By 1930, Stalin stood alone at the head of the Soviet state, with all the terrifying machinery Lenin’s revolution had created at his disposal.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 - Oprichting van de Kampfgeschwader 1.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 19:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Military document, 21 January 1918
in British Forces in the Middle East


http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/military-document-21-january-1918-0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 januari 1916

Het vrachtschip ss. 'Apollo' van de KNSM, op weg van Lissabon naar Amsterdam, loopt bij het lichtschip 'Galloper' op een mijn en zinkt direkt.
Hoewel het schip zinkt, slagen de opvarenden er toch in om met beide reddingssloepen van het schip af te komen.

Nadat appel is gehouden blijkt dat drie man worden vermist.

De volgende dag kan de bemanning worden gered door de veerboot 'Prinses Juliana' van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij 'Zeeland', op weg van Tilbury naar Vlissingen.

De 'Apollo' is het vierde schip van de KNSM dat tijdens de oorlog verloren gaat.

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/01/21-januari-1916.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fkoopvaardij%2Fkoopvaardij+%28Koopvaardij%29
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 23:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 - U.S.A. - Censorship

21st January, 1916 : National Board of Censorship made up of film fans representing movie studios that served as an industry watchdog to help studios avoid government censorship, says it will not accept nudity in films.

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/january21st.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SERBS ON CORFU 1916 – 1918

... The Allies had not had enough time to make provisions for adequate care of such a great number of people. There was lack of food, clothes, tents and heating. For 8 days after their arrival, the cold rain would not stop. Without tents, suffering solders began to die en masse.

On 21 January 1916, the army hospital units from Morava, Pirot and Cacak were the first to land on the rocky island of Vido. Soon afterwards, a couple of thousands of young boys – recruits arrived on the island. Most were seriously ill and on the verge of death.

In the beginning (those first days), up to 300 soldiers were dying every day. Twelve hundred of them were buried in the island shores, whereas later (because of lack of burial grounds), the boats from the French hospital ship “St. Francis of Asisi” would carry the dead bodies and drop them in the Ionian Sea, a few kilometers away from the island, in what was called “the Blue Graveyard”...

Lees verder op http://serbianna.com/blogs/michaletos/?p=22
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 23:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Hanna, 1916

Having failed twice earlier in the month of January 1916 to relieve Sir Charles Townshend's beleaguered force at Kut-al-Amara, General Aylmer was nevertheless ordered by Sir John Nixon, the regional British Commander in Chief, to continue with his increasingly unsuccessful operation.

Aylmer's force of 10,000 men, in order to reach Kut, was travelling upstream on the River Tigris. Blocking his way were some 30,000 Turkish troops commanded by the increasingly confident Khalil Pasha. With the Turks sited on the Hanna Defile slightly upstream from the Wadi - now in British hands - Aylmer could not hope to relieve Townshend without first defeating Khalil's force.

Thus on 21 January 1916 - a bare week after his last failure during the Battle of the Wadi, and coming after subsequent repeated attempts in heavy rain (during the flooding season) to take the Hanna Defile, all ending in dismal failure, Aylmer launched a fresh attack.

Nixon had days earlier vetoed Aylmer's suggestion - supported by Townshend (who had also announced he had fewer than three weeks of rations remaining) - suggesting the latter arrange for his healthy troops to escape from Kut by boat and attack Khalil's force from behind, leaving the sick and wounded behind at the Kut garrison.

Aylmer's attack began with an advance by 4,000 troops of 7th Division, preceded by short artillery bombardments at noon on 20 January and on the morning of 21 January. The sole effect of the weak bombardment - which fired a miserly 12,000 rounds - was to warn Khalil of an approaching attack.

Consequently around 60% of the attacking British force - advancing through a No Man's Land deep in 600 yards of water - was cut down by carefully sited machine gun positions. No ground was gained.

Intending to resume the attack on the following day General Aylmer called off operations once he witnessed at first hand the critical condition of his force's injured and sick. The failed attack had resulted in a further 2,700 British casualties. Medical supplies were, as ever during the Mesopotamian campaign, pitifully under-provided.

Aylmer decided that it was becoming impossible to arrange relief for Townshend's force. His force of less than 10,000 was now outnumbered by at least five-to-one in the area; he therefore saw no possibility of success. Incoming regional Commander-in-Chief Sir Percival Lake - replacing Nixon through illness - nevertheless ordered Aylmer to try again, at the Battle of Dujaila.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/hanna.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2010 0:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Today in Armenian Genocide History

Wednesday, January 21, 1920
Turkish Nationalist forces affiliated with Mustafa Kemal attack Marash.

Friday, January 21, 1921
The trial on Erzerum massacres is reviewed by a new and higher court.

Friday, January 21, 1921
Naim Jevad, an accused war criminal, is sent by Enver as an envoy from Moscow to Constantinople.

http://www.genocide1915.info/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 9:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Declaration of independence

Dublin, 21 January 1919

Whereas the Irish people is by right a free people:

And Whereas for seven hundred years the Irish people has never ceased to repudiate and has repeatedly protested in arms against foreign usurpation:

And Whereas English rule in this country is, and always has been, based upon force and fraud and maintained by military occupation against the declared will of the people:

And Whereas the Irish Republic was proclaimed in Dublin on Easter Monday, 1916, by the Irish Republican Army acting on behalf of the Irish people:

And Whereas the Irish people is resolved to secure and maintain its complete independence in order to promote the common weal, to re-establish justice, to provide for future defence, to insure peace at home and goodwill with all nations and to constitute a national polity based upon the people's will with equal right and equal opportunity for every citizen:

And Whereas at the threshold of a new era in history the Irish electorate has in the General Election of December, 1918, seized the first occasion to declare by an overwhelming majority its firm allegiance to the Irish Republic:

Now, therefore, we, the elected Representatives of the ancient Irish people in National Parliament assembled, do, in the name of the Irish nation, ratify the establishment of the Irish Republic and pledge ourselves and our people to make this declaration effective by every means at our command:

We ordain that the elected Representatives of the Irish people alone have power to make laws binding on the people of Ireland, and that the Irish Parliament is the only Parliament to which that people will give its allegiance:

We solemnly declare foreign government in Ireland to be an invasion of our national right which we will never tolerate, and we demand the evacuation of our country by the English Garrison:

We claim for our national independence the recognition and support of every free nation in the world, and we proclaim that independence to be a condition precedent to international peace hereafter:

In the name of the Irish people we humbly commit our destiny to Almighty God who gave our fathers the courage and determination to persevere through long centuries of a ruthless tyranny, and strong in the justice of the cause which they have handed down to us, we ask His divine blessing on this the last stage of the struggle we have pledged ourselves to carry through to Freedom.

http://www.difp.ie/docs/volume/1/1919/1.htm

("Documents on Irish Foreign Policy")
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn liefste lief. Brieven van Jean-Louis Pisuisse aan Fie Carelsen

Berlin, den 21 Januari 1914.
Hotel Hof von Holland

J. van Veelen
Berlin nw. 6
Louisenstr. 38

Mijn allerliefste kleine Vrouwtje, mijn arme ‘ziekje’, hoe graag zou ik vanavond inplaats van dit epistel zèlf naar Amsterdam zijn gespoord om mijn zieke ‘Lievje’ 'n beetje te troosten in haar leed, hier staat ‘Leed’ en niet ‘bed’, hoor! maar... 't werk verbiedt het. Er is hier 'n hoop voor ons te doen en 't blijkt me nu, dat we samen toch beter in zaken opschieten, dan Max alleen. En deze impresario moet op de allerhevigste manier achter z'n broek gereden worden, want tot nu toe heeft hij niets voor ons gedaan. 't Is 'n hoogst-ongunstig type, veel minder aantrekkelijk dan Guttmann en er moet nog veel gebeuren vóór ik hem ook maar voor 'n cent vertrouw. Toch zal ik hem voorloopig nog voor heel veel centen moeten vertrouwen, want Duitschland moet nu eens goed worden aangepakt. Dàn geloof ik - nèt als m'n Fietje - dat het hier òòk wel gaan zal. Vóór alles echter moet er geld wezen en daarom ga ik dadelijk als ik in Holland terugkom met mijn vennootschapplannen door. We moeten nu namelijk 'n tourneé hier door Duitschland maken, maar hebben zeker 'n 6000 Mark, zeg f 4000.- kapitaal noodig. Ellendig, dat Max en ik daar nu zelf niets aan kunnen bij dokken, maar, enfin, we zullen maar zeggen: wij brengen de kunstemakerij als kapitaal in. - 't Succes was gisteravond enorm, zóó zelfs dat ik eerst dacht, dat er te veel ‘claque’1 in de zaal zat, door vrijbiljetten gevormd, maar achteraf bleek, dat 't publiek heusch zelf zoo enthousiast was. Tot nu toe zag ik maar twee kritieken, maar die zijn prachtig. We moeten nu in godsnaam maar doorzetten. 'n Prettig idee voor mij, dat ik zoo'n flinken moreelen steun achter me heb in den - min of meer mageren! - vorm van mijn Vrouwtje!

Er waren gisteravond véél Hollanders en op de eerste rij zat ‘Tuddie’ von Schmidt. Zij had mij in m'n kleedkamer 'n bloemstukje met de Holl. kleuren laten neerzetten en hing vanochtend juist aan de telefoon toen jij uit A'dam begon te spreken. Nu kreeg ik juist van haar wéèr 'n langen brief.... ‘Noe zeg tog eis: wat woel de maid?!’....

Dank je wel, hoor Muis voor de spoedige verzorging van 't Kirschstein-adres. Wil je me vooral gauw wat boorden, overhemden, jaegertje, nachtpakken, muziek van ‘Andere Morgen’, pastilles d'orateur enz. enz. zenden? Met ‘enz, enz’ bedoel ik alles wat jij denkt, dat ik hier nog noodig kan hebben. Oòk m'n claque2!

Wat 't geld betreft, die f 1500.-, ga daarmee naar de Bank en stort het; vraag dan verder of zij voor mij willen verzenden naar den heer L.E. van Raalte, Huize ‘Ophir’, Badhuisstraat Vlissingen f 1500.- Dat kunnen zij makkelijker doen dan jij. Schrijf dan meteen aan Lo, dat ik in Duitschland zit, maar dat ik het geld alvast verzonden wou hebben; dat ik hem later nog wel schrijf.

Doe vooral mijn hartelijke groeten aan ‘Coba3 en Ada4’, hoor. De schatten! Mijn lessen van Sabelson en van Woudhuysen (beider telefoonnummers in 't adressenboekje!) moeten worden afgetelefoneerd.

En nu, Schatteke moet haastig deze brief op de post. Ik blijf natuurlijk schriftelijk en telefonisch met je in verbinding. Dat gaat beter, dan vanuit Indië, Wat? Bovendien, in 'n weekje ben ik weer terug. Dag, mijn lieve, groote Schat. 't Beste met 't buikje en 't poekje en 't hoofdje hoor. In gedachten zoen ik je op je lieve trouwe snuit. Zal je voor je Mannie blijven bidden. Helpen doet dat vast.

Dag, kindeke. Heel, heel, héél veel liefs van je trouwe Man.

In potlood daaronder:

Ik heb hier beestachtig vloeipapier, je brief heeft me nu bereikt. 't Adres was blijkbaar niet duidelijk genoeg. Schrijf het altijd heelemaal van 't brievenhoofd over. Vooral Louisenstrasse 38. Berlin n.w. 6.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/pisu001mijn01_01/pisu001mijn01_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1914



21 januari 1914 - Op de Rozengracht bij ’t Lootsje' wordt om ongeveer kwart voor zes in de middag een ongeveer 40-jarige vrouw, die haar zoontje van drie jaar op de arm heeft, ten gevolge van onvoorzichtig oversteken - achter een stilstaande tram om - door een tram van lijn 3 gegrepen. Op het laatste moment weet zij het kind nog van zich af te gooien, zodat dat het het ongeluk met slechts enkele schrammen overleeft. Het duurt bijna 20 minuten voordat de tram zover opgevijzeld is, dat de vrouw er onder vandaan gehaald kan worden. Zij leeft nog, maar overlijdt kort daarop in de apotheek van Het Witte Kruis. Men vraagt zich af waarom het zo lang moest duren voordat zij bevrijd kon worden, en of haar leven niet gered had kunnen worden. Kan de tramdirectie er niet iets aan doen om die vertraging een volgende keer te voorkomen?

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Colorado Coalfield War, 1913-1914

The winter of 1913-1914 was one of the worst in recorded Colorado history. Food was scarce and the tents were cold and wet. In January 1914, Mother Jones arrived in Trinidad. Even though she was over 80 years old, the mine owners had her arrested immediately and confined in a psychiatric ward at Mt. San Rafael Hospital (the police said she was crazy and they were arresting her for her own protection: she must have been crazy, she very vocally opposed John D. Rockefeller).

On January 21, 1914, some of the miners' wives and children organized a parade to protest her arrest. Adjutant General Chase, commander of the Colorado Militia, was so furious he confronted the women and, in the excitement, fell off his horse. The women laughed and humiliated him with derogatory remarks about his prowess as a horseman. Embarrassed, he gave orders to "Ride down the women!" His mounted troops then attacked the women and children with their sabers drawn and injured quite a few.

http://www.sangres.com/history/coalfieldwar01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Military document, 21 January 1918



"Movement order. Kantara Military Railway"; special leave to Egypt, issued by London Regiment to W. Bailey, 2/15th Battalion, London Regiment

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/military-document-21-january-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Executive Order 1880 - To Prevent the Corrupt Influencing of Agents, Employees or Servants in the Canal Zone - January 21, 1914

By virtue of the authority vested in me I hereby establish the following Executive order for the Canal Zone:

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person to give, offer or promise to an agent, employee or servant, any gift or gratuity whatever without the knowledge and consent of the principal, employer or master of such agent, employee or servant with intent to influence his action in relation to the business of his principal, employer, or master; or for any agent, employee or servant, without the knowledge and consent of his principal, employer or master, to request or accept a gift, or gratuity, or the promise of any gift or gratuity whatever beneficial to himself, under an agreement or with an understanding that he shall act in any particular manner in respect to the business of his principal, employer, or master; or for any agent, employee or servant authorized to procure materials, supplies or other articles either by purchase or contract for his principal, employer or master, or to employ servants or labor for his principal, employer or master, to request or accept or agree to accept, for himself or another, directly or indirectly, a commission, discount or bonus from the person who makes the sale or contract, or furnishes such materials, supplies or articles or from the person who renders such service or labor; or for any person to give or offer to such agent, employee, or servant such commission, discount or bonus.

A violation of any of the provisions of this order shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in jail for not more than one year, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the Court.

Sec. 2. This order shall take effect thirty days from and after its publication in the Canal Record.

WOODROW WILSON
THE WHITE HOUSE,
January 21, 1914.

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=75353
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (21-01-1915)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1915/0121
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, Volume LXXXIX, Issue 17, 21 January 1915







http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19150121.2.14
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rugby at War

World War I ended in 1918 and left 10 million dead in the fields of Western Europe. When one considers the very few players who are honored to play for their country and the numbers of losses shown below, one can only imagine the number of players lost to rugby clubs around the world by the conflict.

Internationals killed in world war I:

■ Percy Dale Kendall; died on 21 January 1915, Aged 34

http://www.rugbyfootballhistory.com/rugbyatwar.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

21 januari 1915 - “Smokkelaars aangehouden in Tilburg. Buit: 100 kg.bloem, petroleum en een partij lege zakken.” (Nieuwe Tilburgse Courant)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:OpmQriSUUlUJ:www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D188%253A06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915%26catid%3D90%253Aoorlog%26Itemid%3D118+21+januari+1915&cd=36&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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History of the Occupation of Hut Point by - New Zealand Antarctic Expedition

At the beginning of their first depot laying journey on 21 January 1915, a party from the Aurora arrived at the Discovery hut and the blubber stove was lit to dry the clothes of Gaze, who had fallen in a tide crack. Stenhouse, the First Officer, recorded that there were plenty of stores but only two sleeping bags. They found Bowers’s stores tally book and some periodicals. A tally was made of stores, which included 15 cases of Spratt’s cabin biscuits and seven cases of self-raising flour. A week later, when the motor sledge broke down, it was hauled to Hut Point and left there until the spring, and some stores were off-loaded from Aurora and stored in the hut.

http://www.nzaht.org/AHT/OccupationbyShackleton/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 De watersnood - Uit het dagboek van de pastoor.

Vrijdag 21 januari 1916: altaar opgeslagen in de zaal van de pastorie, daar doe ik samen met een van de kapelaans de H. Mis en laat daarbij zoveel mogelijk mensen toe. Al in de eerste dagen werd besloten, dat een van ons ‘s nachts in een huis op de dijk zou logeren met het Allerheiligste en de H. Olie bij zich, voor eventuele bedieningen. Kapelaan van Baaren nam dat graag op zich. Hulde aan de soldaten, die zo kranig bij de overstroming geholpen hebben door de kinderen, ouden van dagen en zieken in veiligheid te brengen. Door de grote zorg van de heer Beaufort, consulent van de pluimveeteelt, werden 50.000 eenden naar Amersfoort gebracht. De bewoners in de Streek tussen Hoorn en Enkhuizen, hebben veel slaapplaatsen aangeboden, maar het is niet gemakkelijk de vrouwen weg te krijgen uit Volendam. Tachtig kinderen gaan naar de vakantiekolonie van pater Zuidgeest.

http://volendaminvogelvlucht.wordpress.com/boekfragmenten/1916-de-watersnood/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maurice Vincent Buckley



Maurice Vincent Buckley VC, DCM (13 April 1891 - 27 January 1921) was an Australian soldier serving under the pseudonym Gerald Sexton who was awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War. This is the most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

(...) He joined the 13th Light Horse Regiment on 18 December 1914 shortly after the outbreak of the First World War at Warrnambool, Victoria. He was sent to Egypt but was subsequently returned for discharge on medical grounds to Australia having been diagnosed with and treated for a venereal disease in September 1915. Buckley deserted on 21 January 1916 from Langwarrin Camp.

On 6 May 1916 he enlisted again, this time in Sydney, using the name ‘Gerald Sexton’ — his brother’s first name and his mother’s maiden name. He was sent to France in early 1917 where he fought on the Western Front. Following the award of the Distinguished Conduct Medal he was promoted to sergeant in August 1918 and involved in the advance on the Hindenburg Line.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Maurice-Vincent-Buckley/108039075884193
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Gapon, letter to Nicholas II (21st January, 1905)

The people believe in thee. They have made up their minds to gather at the Winter Palace tomorrow at 2 p.m. to lay their needs before thee. Do not fear anything. Stand tomorrow before the party and accept our humblest petition. I, the representative of the workingmen, and my comrades, guarantee the inviolability of thy person.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSsunday.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nicholas II, diary entry (21st January, 1917)

There was much activity and many reports. Fredericks came to lunch. Went for a long walk. Since yesterday all the factories and workshops in St. Petersburg have been on strike. Troops have been brought in from the surroundings to strengthen the garrison. The workers have conducted themselves calmly hitherto. Their number is estimated at 120,000. At the head of the workers' union some priest - socialist Gapon. Mirsky came in the evening with a report of the measures taken.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSsunday.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1 Letter From the Front - Gunner Bert Cox

Whitley Camp
Sunday January 21, 1917

My Dear Mabel,

Should have written you before going to Salisbury Plains but could not make it, and here we are again; back at Whitley Camp; it feels like being back home. It's one awful camp up there, nothing but mud, and cold and damp. 1800 Canadians died there from the 1st contingent of 20,000 men.

We had a very successful shooting. More effective shots than any other Battery in the Brigade. Our hut was only a 75 minute walk from Stonehenge. 3600 years old. It's certainly wonderful how they got those stones up there in those old days.

Have been on horseback nearly every day for the past month, and very often morning and afternoon and certainly have a peach of a horse. I think it has a smoother gait than any in the stable; but there's awful news in the air, so will hold this letter over until something definite is known, anyway we hope to be in France in a couple of weeks. (note: switch to 60th Battery)

Received long letters from Ina and Herbert this AM all about your Xmas. Just wish that I had been there to help you celebrate.

Oh, how we'll appreciate freedom and liberty , if we ever get out of this thing.

Words can't express my thanks for the lovely box of candy which arrived about 2 weeks ago and also for your letter. Say, it was a pleasure to see the boys eat up that candy. The N.Y. candies are away ahead of the English 'sweets' and they thought , quite rightly too, that it was the best dope they had tasted for a long time.

Eggs are 13 cents a piece here, nevertheless, I have ham and eggs nearly every evening; meal generally costs about 60 cents ( my whole day's pay but we should worry). Did you receive the photo? Ella's was returned by the censor.

( extra page written January 22nd 1917)

Well, the news is now official, and that is that today the proud 59th Battery of Winnipeg ceased to exist. All Batteries are now to go to the front with 6 guns instead of 4. They have decided to split the best one of each Brigade and as the 59th did the best showing at Salisbury Plains, we got the axe. 1/2 are attached to the 60th and 1/2 to the 61st. All of our bunch (bank fellows) are in the 60th. Of course we were awfully sore, but they should worry! The Officers have all gone to different Brigades.

Your photo hasn't returned yet so hope that you got it, if it has not , let me know at once and I'll send another via Canada.

Write soon and lots of love for Carl and self,
Bertie

http://www.shiawasseehistory.com/coxjan211917.html
Zie ook http://www.shiawasseehistory.com/cox.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 9:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'The War Illustrated', 21th January, 1917: 'In the Darkest Hours'
by Max Pemberton



Battle Pictures of the Great War

Alarums and Excursions During a Night Watch

It is the very witching time of night. The man who is "standing to" adds without hesitation that hell itself breathes out contagion on the world.

Silence how dead and darkness how profound! In that silence what dreams may come! They will be of Blighty, to be sure - of faces unforgotten and homes in which there is no darkness. Let it be also the New Year watch, and the dreamer will pluck the holly from the wall. The wassail-bowl is steaming, and he hears the music of the dance.

Let us consider what kind of a night it is for the sub and the sergeants who have the job in hand.

There was a little fall of rain about sunset, and after that a raw wind blowing and a sky which began to clear. It fell exceedingly dark about nine, and later on the relief come up from the rest billets. There was no silence then. An army, as Captain Bairnsfather has said wittily, moves upon its stomach. These fellows, who are just in, marched through a wood and what was left of a village; turned a dangerous corner of a lane and crossed a boggy common, where they fell flat as any clown a policeman has trodden upon. The crawl covered a good quarter of a mile. There were shells bursting away upon the road they had not taken - crimson flashes as of forked lightning in the air; a far-away booming of cannon, and the nearer crack of the shrapnel. But not much mischief was done, and the relief got through and entered the labyrinth - we will not say cheerfully.

What the Mist May Hide

So here they are - a few of them, very few, in the dangerous first-line trench; a larger number some two hundred yards away; and the bulk in Number 3 at the rear. They have vigilant days and nights before them, but their mood is optimistic. Fritz is "no bon," anyway.

They are men of the New Army, but they know their duty, and will do it with courage. They have returned upon no balmy night of spring, and there is no nightingale to serenade them. The trenches show pools of water here and there, despite the pumps. The dug-outs are full of damp, and the cold strikes to the very marrow. A sentry, looking out over No Man's Land, sees the dank mist rising like a pestilence from the sodden plain to cloak the peril beyond and to school the mind to .fears. What is hidden by that chilling curtain? Anything may be there-the Boche creeping like an Indian, a grenade in his hand; raiders advancing with bomb and bayonet; or merely the unburied dead who no longer stare blindly at the stars. The sentry listens .with ears which would prick at the snapping of a twig. He sees ghosts in the mist. If he be a very young soldier, no one knows what he may not do. Rifles go off by accident at these times, and the "Stand to" will bring a full round oath from the dug-out. Nevertheless, it is all in the game, and better to "stand to" for a bogey than to be spitted through in what courtesy calls your bed.

Exploring in No Man's Land

Be it said that this is a rolling down-like country, and that the town lies yonder five miles behind you. It is still a town with streets and shops, and. a church wherein the white- headed old priest yet calls upon God to bless France - the very pink of towns, our fellows think it, and wish to heaven they were within its ancient walls to-night. Before them there are other towns, but they are a very long way off, and all sorts of horrible things are being done and you point to the sky-line you cannot see, and think of the be- cloaked Hun cracking his whip in those gloomy streets, and hear the cries of woe. The night watch permits all this kind of thing, when a man rolls himself up on his shelf and the other man tells him in music that he is the only girl in the world.

Now, in this particular front-line trench there are very few of us-only eight to the half a mile on this occasion. All are very vigilant, for though it is the hour of mists, it should be the hour of moonlight later on, and there is work to be done. The sub - that cheery little fellow about five foot one, with the moustache which you can identify when the light is good, and the air of a d'Artagnan - one of the best we have, is about to cross our wire and see what is doing where the Hun is at home. No Red Indian stalking a camp of white men could enjoy himself more than, our lieutenant will on this occasion. Let the fog lift but a suspicion, and he and his will be over the top and away. That is a curious sensation, verily. Behind is the trench wherein is security; before-is the great unknown - the horrid field of the dead, the bog where the water lies in a hundred pools, and at every step you may touch the waste of war.

Something May Be Doing at Dawn

The lieutenant is used to it, and crawls with the skill which should play bears of genius hi a nursery later on. He puts his hand upon the face of a dead man, and thinks nothing of it. His knees squelch in the mud, his face is splashed by it. He hurts himself upon a broken buckle or a helmet embedded, even upon the jagged fragment of a shell. But all this is in the night's work. Foot by foot he crawls, but the fog, the dreadful silence, is all about him. Where is he? The luminous compass shows him his direction. He discovers now that he has crawled beyond the bank of mist to a lonely ridge of the higher ground; he hears the low buzzing of voices. There are Germans talking in the very bowels of the earth below him. Our gallant featherweight listens, and then falls flat as a codfish. Above him a star-shell has burst like a flame of silver in the sky. In its aureole the wilderness is revealed in all its ghastly desolation. The watcher fears to lift a finger; he hardly dares to breathe. But he has learned what he wants to know - that the German first line is well held to-night, and that something may be doing at dawn.

So he turns back. It is always pleasant to have your eyes .upon home, but the pleasure is enhanced when you know just where that home is. To-night the darkness and the fog together make the latchkey a problem. Our little party crawls as it went, but anon takes courage and stands up-a fatal move. The mists have drifted away hereabouts, and a second star-shell bursts high above them.

"Weafy Willies" and "Hum Jars"

Instantly there is the blowing of a whistle in the depths behind them. A machine-gun rattles like a boy's stick' against a paling. Our featherweight Hears the bullets singing about his ears, and runs like a good 'un. He has only the barbed-wire of his own trench to surmount now. But who shall blame him if the gap is not where it should be? Give him five minutes and he would find his way into the warren with the skill of a trained scout. But out here in the dark, with the bullets rattling, who shall wonder-if the seat of his trousers suffers? ''Five pairs in a month!" he says ruefully, when at last he rolls down into the trench - which means to say that incidentally he sat upon the wire.

Here it may be said that bad things have happened in his; absence. That very good fellow, the captain of the company, was knocked out in the sap with the sergeant-major and his subaltern-all through one of those cursed "Weary Willies" which a trench- mortar flings. You would not think that such ugly little devils - just like little torpedoes with feathers to direct their flight - could work such a mischief. Yet here are three good men carried away on stretchers because of one of them. They were talking in the sap about to-morrow's doings when the thing came over and burst at their feet. One poor fellow got it in the stomach and fell dead without a cry; the sergeant-major was struck in the leg; the good captain in the chest. This will be a bad night for him. They must carry him as they can down the communication-trench, round corners innumerable, and always with the chance of a great shell coming in as they go. At the first of the dressing- stations they will do what is possible; but he has to be hurried on from one surgeon to another, until in the middle of the night he is on a stretcher and the men are trotting across the boggy common. "For God's sake don't run!" he cries. They tell him that that is the most dangerous road in France to-night, and their pace is unchecked.

Meanwhile, our featherweight has patched himself up and taken a new survey of the situation. It is more comfortable here in the trench, to be sure, but not without its excitements. The fog has lifted now and the stars are shining. There is a soft glimmer of light over No Man's Land, and it is something to know that the dead alone people it. For all that the Hun himself is not inactive, A whistle blows and our gay lieutenant dives again.

So does hope rise expectant in the human breast, and so does the night belie us. We are at the still hour before the dawn when the mist is again like a white sea rolling over a rocky shore; when not a sound is to be heard, not a funeral note; when war and the voice of war might have been a thought to have passed into the records of the dead; when thought drones in a man's brain and he perceives nothing clearly.' All this is for a brief hour, and then the crash of awakening. Neither "Weary Willies" nor "rum jars" are the matter this time. It is just daylight, and the first of the great shells comes hurtling over from the distant German batteries. It bursts with a crash of tropical thunder. High into the air go mud and wire and the parapet of your sheltered trench. Another shell falls, and another. The men in the dug-out hear the terrible thudding above them, and wonder if it is to be the end. The watchers nail their flags to the pillars of destiny and cry "Kismet." An "intensive bombardment " - then the Hun is coming over. There will be no breakfast until he is dead or we are taken beneath the ground. A "rum jar" is coming this time. A weird fellow is the "rum jar," a great can of high explosives which turns over and over in the "air like a badly-kicked football, falls with a terrible thud, and will destroy everything in the particular traverse it strikes. You can dodge it, though, and for that the whistle is blown-so many blasts for you to get to the right, so many to the left, but into shelter by all means - for this fellow will destroy every living thing in the particular traverse it enters. Not three days ago it blew a gallant Highlander sixty yards out of his own trench into the second lines behind him, and although he was un-scratched, not a bone of his body remained whole. The night will give you whiz-bangs, and these you cannot dodge. The words describe them exactly.

Huns Bolt for their Warrens

So to the "stand to." The light reveals everything clearly. The sun is coming up; the mist has rolled away. Again you see No Man's Land and the low hills beyond it and the wan trees, and the broken spires of the distant villages. It is a lifeless plain, but war is about to conjure the enemies of life from the caverns beneath it. The bombardment has ceased for an instant, and yonder the first of the steel helmets is to be seen. It is the helmet of a Hun, and hundreds will be after it before a man can count twenty. Now is our featherweight at his best, and now are his men truly splendid. The regiment is up; the machine-guns are busy. They sweep that plain with a hail of lead in which no living thing can move. Away back, our own artillery, warned by the telephone and by those great silver bees in the sky above, rains its barrage upon that fearful waste. No hope for the Hun here. If he were not suck a devil you would pity him, for he goes down like corn before the sickle - man after man, watch them staggering, their arms outstretched, reeling, falling. In less than a minute the few who live have turned tail and are bolting wildly for their warrens. The attack has failed; the sun is shining. We can get to breakfast now!

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/British_Front/Darkest_01.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to Will Lawrence

Cairo
2l January 1915

Address

Intelligence Department, Cairo

I hear from home that you are attaching yourself to some regiment in India: I wish you had been in Egypt, though there isn't any job I can actually offer you, since you cannot speak Arabic. Can't you get on a regiment that will come here later? This show in Egypt will be rather a pleasant one I hope. Turkey is crumbling fast.

More news when I next write. For the last 6 weeks I have been stuck in Cairo, in the office from morning to night, making sense of the news brought to us, and asking for more. Also writing little geographical essays. It doesn't sound exciting, but it has been far and away the best job going in Egypt these few weeks. The people at the Pyramids or on the Canal have had a very dull time.

Not much news from home: things seem to be moving quietly enough, over there.

Belgium has become a very unpleasant place. I don't want to go back there now!

G. is married, and settled down to a comparative peace. His pan-Ottoman feelings must be now much encouraged - but so long as things go quietly his sort won't have much scope.

I expect Young is in the Persian Gulf by now, talking Arabic and Persian, and doing great things. If not salaam him from me.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150121_will_lawrence.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 20 Jan 2011 10:11, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Watson Gerard, U. S. ambassador to Berlin between 1913 and 1917

It was only the insistence by Berlin on unrestricted submarine warfare, claimed Gerard, that drove a wedge between the prospects for a compromise between the countries. By early 1917, Washington-Berlin relations had cooled again on that issue. Gerard’s despatch of January 21, 1917, to the State Department outlined the bleak prospects: "Many Germans have informed me lately that the public feeling for the resumption of reckless submarine warfare is so great that they do not see how any government can withstand it."26

In early January 1917, Gerard heard "on the best authority that there is an absolute reign of terror in Belgium. Sudden and arbitrary arrests etc."27 Gerard’s diary recorded these events in identical fashion: "Herbert Hoover writes me that the Germans are violating all their pledges in Belgium."28 A few weeks later, Secretary Lansing wrote to Wilson recommending that "Germany be considered an international outlaw, and that it would be necessary to warn Americans to keep away from the seas infested with its piratical craft."29

26. Gerard to Lansing, January 21, 1917, encl. in Lansing to Wilson, January 23, 1917, in PPWW, 40 (1916-1917), 552-3.
27. Gerard to Lansing, January 3, 1916 [1917], enclosure in Lansing to Wilson, January 23, 1917, in PPWW, 40 (1916-1917), 554.
28. Diary, January 1917, in Face to Face, 100.
29. Lansing to Wilson, Washington, February 2, 1915 in PPWW, 41 (Jan 24-Apr 6, 1917), 99-100.


http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2003_01-03/kempmark_gerard/kampmark_gerard.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 10:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maj. Richard Winters, Jan. 21, 1918 – Jan. 9, 2011



http://kindredblood.wordpress.com/2011/01/09/maj-richard-winters-jan-21-1918-jan-9-2011/

Major Richard Winters, the man made famous first by Stephen Ambrose’s “Band of Brothers,” and later by the mini-series with the same name, passed away a few days ago.

He had lived most of his life on a peaceful farm in his home state of Pennsylvania, fulfilling a vow he made to himself during the Normandy invasion. “That night, I thanked God for seeing me through that day of days and prayed I would make it through D plus 1. I also promised that if some way I could get home again, I would find a nice peaceful town and spend the rest of my life in peace.” (IMDB)

He was the type of leader we all wished we would become one day: capable, decisive, and – more importantly – loved and respected by his men. He led from the front. His leadership qualities were recognized by the Army, and in the span of four years he was promoted from Private to Major. After WWII he served briefly as an instructor during the Korean War, then returned to Pennsylvania to live out his long life.

By all accounts he was humble and happy to deflect praise toward those with whom he served. He told the story of a question his grandson asked him, “Grandpa, were you a hero in the war?” “Grandpa said, ‘No. But I served in a company of heroes.’”

Had Ambrose told the story of someone else, Major Winters would have been like hundreds of thousands of other WWII veterans who served and lived their lives in relative obscurity, their heroics eventually lost to history. But we were lucky and Richard Winters and Easy Company became a part of our lives.

http://www.militarytimes.com/blogs/broadside/2011/01/13/major-dick-winters-jan-21-1918-jan-2-2011/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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21 January 1918 → Commons Sitting

EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS
.

HC Deb 21 January 1918 vol 101 cc675-7 675

Mr. HUME-WILLIAMS asked the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central 676 Division) if he can state how many British prisoners of war have now reached Holland from Germany under The Hague agreement; what is the system pursued in choosing those who are to be sent; for how long the most recent batch had been prisoners; and how soon it is hoped that all officers and non-commissioned officers who have been prisoners for eighteen months and over will have reached Holland?

Mr. JAMES HOPE (Lord of the Treasury) I am informed by the military authorities that up to the present 77 officers and 434 non-commissioned officers have reached Holland from Germany under The Hague agreement. The method of selection for transfer of these classes of prisoners is based upon priority of capture, irrespective of rank. The most recent of these transferred had been in captivity for over three years. In regard to the concluding part of the question, the military authorities are informed that there will be one more dispatch of prisoners in the present month, and five in February. If the transfers are continued on this scale, it is hoped that all of our officer and non-commissioned officer prisoners who have now been in captivity for eighteen months (and who are not eligible for repatriation and internment in Switzerland) will reach Holland in the course of the next few months. I would, however, remind my hon. and learned Friend that the realisation of this hope is dependent on the working of the agreement by the German authorities.

Mr. HUME-WILLIAMS What is the number of British prisoners of war who will come under the agreement?

Mr. HOPE I am afraid I have not that in my mind. I must ask for notice.

General Sir I. PHILIPPS Can a list be obtained of the men who arc being sent to Switzerland and Holland and to this country, because, so far, we have not been able to get it?

Mr. HOPE I will consult the War Office about it?

Sir C. HENRY Are there any who have been interned at Ruhleben?

Mr. HOPE It includes only prisoners of war, and those interned at Ruhleben, far, who have not gone to Holland. Some have come straight home, but these figures refer only to combatants.

Mr. BUTCHER Is the selection of prisoners sent from Holland made by the German authorities or have we any voice in the matter at all?

Mr. HOPE The lists are in order of priority of capture. These lists, I understand, are checked in Holland by representatives on both sides.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jan/21/exchange-of-prisoners
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 10:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1 Tank 'Egbert' Fishergate, Preston, January 1918



'Tank Week' in Preston was 21st to 28th January 1918. The week was a war savings initiative using the tank Egbert to promote public investment in war loans.

One of the largest contributions received that week was 100,000 pounds from Blackburn born mill emperor William Birtwhistle.

The tank went on to Blackburn the following week where Birtwhistle donated a further 116,000 pounds to the effort. He made it quite clear he would not be outdone by Preston! In today's money that's well over 5 million pounds.

Meer foto's op http://www.flickr.com/photos/rpsmithbarney/4094275642/
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Kaiserschlacht - German Preparations - Ludendorff's decision - Operation Michael

Ludendorff's consultations had considered numerous ideas and fortunately for the British in particular, some had been rejected as being too difficult to undertake. On 21st January 1918 as Field Marshal Haig was in the process of diluting his divisions to make up for losses in manpower, General Ludendorff made his decision.

Operation Michael would be implemented using the forces of three armies: von Hutier's 18th, von der Marwitz's 2nd and Otto von Below's 17th. All of these armies were nominally in Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria's Group but Ludendorff decided to transfer von Hutier's 18th Army to that of the German Crown Prince on the southern flank.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_kaiser_02.htm
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ICRC: POW reports published

The ICRC never imposed its conclusions on warring States (the Convention that specifically afforded protection to prisoners of war was adopted only in 1929); it informed them of its wishes or recommendations. Nonetheless, the ICRC had ways of making its voice heard. Throughout the war, it published and sold its reports on visits to POW camps, thus providing the general public with information on the conditions of detention of those prisoners to whom its delegates had been given access.

When circumstances dictated, the ICRC also addressed appeals to the belligerent States in the form of circulars concerning the treatment of prisoners or denouncing the most flagrant violations and abuses. On 12 July 1917, for example, the ICRC launched an appeal to States condemning acts of reprisal, and on 21 January 1918 it issued a circular calling for the abolition of propaganda camps, the aim of which was to win prisoners over to the enemy cause. The ICRC also tried to bring about improvements in the conditions in which prisoners of war were held and to secure the release of those who had spent long periods in captivity. However, no releases took place until the last two years of the war, following the signing of bilateral agreements between the belligerent States.

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jqgq.htm
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Dates of Marine Corps Historical Significance

21 January 1918: The 1st Aeronautical Company arrived at Ponta Delgada, Azores, for anti-submarine duty. That unit was one of the first completely equipped American aviation units to serve overseas in World War I

http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/This_Month_History.htm
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The Soloheadbeg Ambush - 21 January, 1919

On Tuesday, 21 January 1919, between the hours of 12:30 pm and 1 pm, two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) constables were ambushed near Tipperary town and shot dead. This attack is generally regarded as the start of the horrific and bloody guerrilla war which became known as the Anglo-Irish War.

Constables James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell (both Irish born Catholics), had been walking with loaded rifles escorting a horse drawn cart containing a load of gelignite from Tipperary Military Barracks for blasting purpose at Soloheadbeg Quarry (located 3 miles from Tipperary). Constable McDonnell, who was about 50 years was from Belmullet, County Mayo. He was a widower with four children. Constable O'Connell, from Coachford, County Cork, was about 30 years and unmarried. According to the page 1 of The Cork Examiner 21 January, 1919 and Robert Kee author of The Green Flag" (London 1972), p.632, both constables were very popular policemen within the community.

The driver of the cart was a James Godfrey, who was accompanied by Patrick Flynn, a County Council employee. A group of masked men of the I.R.A.'s 3rd Tipperary Brigade, which included Dan Breen, Séan Hogan, Séamus Robbinson and Séan Treacy, jumped over the roadside fence near the quarry and shouted "hands up". Dan Breen claims in his book "My fight for Irish Freedom" (Anvil Books Dublin 1928) that the constables raised their rifles in preparation and that they were forced to kill the two constables. After loading up the constables' rifles and ammunition, Hogan drove the cart away with Treacy, Breen and the explosives away in the direction of the quarry while the others headed towards Coffey's forge. Witnesses later saw the cart been driven furiously towards Dundrum, County Tipperary, by two masked men with a third in the back. The horse and cart minus the explosives were later found abandoned at Allen Creamery near Dundrum, by District Inspector Poer O'Shee of Clonmel and Sergeant Horgan of Tipperary.

The following day Martial Law was imposed and on page 1 of the Cork Examiner 21 January, 1919, the following communiqué was published; "In view of the murder of police constables in Tipperary yesterday, the Irish Government has determined to proclaim the district a military area immediately - Press Censor, Ireland". The British Government offered a reward of £1,000 and wanted posters containing photographs of Dan Breen were posted outside every police barracks in the country (Click here to see the RUC Museum's copy of the wanted poster - external link). Descriptions of Breen, Hogan, Robbinson and Treacy were given in the RIC's "Hue and Cry".

Hogan was eventually arrested in May 1919 and sent to Cork jail to await trial. On 13 May 1919, while Hogan was being escorted from Thurles RIC Barracks to the Cork city's jail by four armed policemen, a group of Hogan's comrades boarded the train at Knocklong Railway Station and attacked the police escort. Hogan was freed but Sergeant Peter Wallace and Constable Michael Enright of the Royal Irish Constabulary were shot dead and Breen and Treacy were seriously wounded.

Breen and Treacy recovered from their wounds but Séan Treacy was later shot dead on 15 October 1920, in a gun fight in Talbot Street, Dublin. Dan Breen survived both the Anglo-Irish War and Irish Civil War and became a TD (member of the Irish Parliament - Dáil Éireann) for North Tipperary.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Cork Examiner, Wednesday, January 22, 1919.
My fight for Irish Freedom - Dan Breen 1928, © 1981 Anvil Books Dublin.
The Black and Tans - Richard Bennett, © 1959, E Hulton & Co. Ltd., London.
The Green Flag - A history of Irish Nationalism - Robert Kee © 1972, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.
The Memoirs of Constable Jeremiah Mee, RIC - J. Anthony Gaughan © 1975, Anvil Books, Dublin.


http://www.policehistory.com/soloheadbeg.html
Zie ook http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/19191921.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 21 Januari 1919.

Valkenswaard. De politie heeft de hand gelegd op zekeren H. van Woensel, die in een kussensloop sigaren vervoerde, welke bij den heer Maas waren gestolen. In verband hiermede is de 15-jarige v.d. C. gearresteerd, die in andere zaakjes ook reeds betrokken is.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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American Proposal for Jewish Homeland, January 21, 1919

Outline of Tentative Report and Recommendations of the Intelligence Section of the American Delegation to the Peace Conference, in accordance with instructions, for the President and the Plenipotentiaries, January 21, 1919
26. Palestine.

It is recommended: 1) That there be established a separate state of Palestine.

2) That this state be placed under Great Britain as a mandatory of the League of Nations.

3) That the Jews be invited to return to Palestine and settle there being assured by the Conference of an proper assistance in so doing that may be consistent with the protection of the personal (especially the religious) and the property rights of the non-Jewish population, and being further assured that it will be the policy of the League of Nations to recognise Palestine as a Jewish state as soon as it is a Jewish state in fact.

4) That the holy places and religious rights of all creeds in Palestine be placed under the protection of the League of Nations and its mandatory.

Discussion.

1) It is recommended that there be established a separate state of Palestine.

The separation of the Palestinian area from Syria finds justification in the religious experience of mankind. The Jewish and Christian churches were born in Palestine, and Jerusalem was for long years, at different periods, the capital of each. And while the relation of the Mohammedans to Palestine is not so intimate, from the beginning they have regarded Jerusalem as a holy place. Only by establishing Palestine as a separate state can justice be done to these great facts.

As drawn upon the map, the new state would control *Quoted in David Hunter Miller, My Diary at the Conference of Paris, Vol. iv, pp. 263-264.

its own source Of water power and irrigation, on Mount Hermon in the east to the Jordan; a feature of great importance since the success of the new state would depend upon the possibilities of agricultural development.

2) It is recommended that this state be placed under Great Britain as a mandatory of the League of Nations.

Palestine would obviously need wise and firm guidance. Its population is without political experience, is racially composite, and could easily become distracted by fanaticism and bitter religious differences.

The success of Great Britain in dealing with similar situations, her relation to Egypt, and her administrative achievements since General Allenby freed Palestine from the Turk, all indicate her as the logical mandatory.

3) It is recommended that the Jews be invited to return to Palestine and settle there, being assured by the Conference of all proper assistance in so doing that may be consistent with the protection of the personal (especially the religious) and the property rights of the non-Jewish population, and being further assured that it will be the policy of the League of Nations to recognise Palestine as a Jewish state as soon as it is a Jewish state in fact.

It is right that Palestine should become a Jewish state, if the Jews, being given the full opportunity, make it such. It was the cradle and home of their vital race, which has made large spiritual contributions to mankind, and is the only land in which they can hope to find a home of their own; they being in this last respect unique among significant peoples.

At present, however, the Jews form barely a sixth of the total population of 700,000 in Palestine, and whether they are to form a majority, or even a plurality, of the population in the future state remains uncertain. Palestine, in short, is far from being a Jewish country now. England, as mandatory, can be relied on to give the Jews the privileged position they should have without sacrificing the rights of non-Jews.

4) It is recommended that the holy places and religious rights of all creeds in Palestine be placed under the protection of the League of Nations and its mandatory.

The basis for this recommendation is self-evident.

http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~samuel/americandraft.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paris Peace Conference

The conference opened on 18 January 1919. It came to a close on 21 January 1920 with the inaugural General Assembly of the League of Nations

http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Paris_Peace_Conference,_1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2011 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

FENIAN BOND, 1920, $10 DOLLAR BOND, DATED: 21 JANUARY 1920.

[IMG=http://img534.imageshack.us/img534/4553/cb0lwwb2kkgrhqvjke0cseo.jpg][/IMG]

http://cgi.ebay.co.uk/FENIAN-BOND-1920-ORIGINAL-10-DOLLAR-BOND-GENUINE-/120667957738
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2014 12:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, Vol. 146, January 21, 1914

CHARIVARIA

MAJOR-GENERAL LEONARD WOOD, chief of the U.S.A. General Staff, has reported that the American Army is, practically speaking, unarmed, and advises the immediate expenditure of £1,200,000 for artillery and ammunition. We fancy, however, that the present state of affairs is the result of a compromise with the American Peace party, who will not object to their country having an army so long as it is unarmed.

The KAISER, we are told, has given instructions that his menus are in future to be written in German. What, by the way, is the French for Sauerkraut?


http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12465/12465-h/12465-h.htm
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The O'Grady's of The Mall, Waterford - Thursday, 21 January 1915

Another large family, this time it's the O'Grady's of The Mall, Waterford. As you can see, this glass negative has been broken and cracked at some stage in its history, but it doesn't take away from a lovely family portrait.

Mooie foto... http://www.flickr.com/photos/nlireland/6735024229/
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Interim Awards, 1915-1916 - Medal of Honor Recipients

CARY, ROBERT W.
•Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. San Diego
•Place and date: Aboard U.S.S. San Diego, 21 January 1915
•Entered service at: Buncston, Mo.

Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of an explosion on board the U.S.S. San Diego, 21 January 1915. Lt. Comdr. Cary (then Ensign), U.S. Navy, an observer on duty in the firerooms of the U.S.S. San Diego, commenced to take the half-hourly readings of the steam pressure at every boiler. He had read the steam and air pressure on No. 2 boiler and was just stepping through the electric watertight door into No. 1 fireroom when the boilers in No. 2 fireroom exploded. Ens. Cary stopped and held open the doors which were being closed electrically from the bridge, and yelled to the men in No. 2 fireroom to escape through these doors, which 3 of them did. Ens. Cary's action undoubtedly saved the lives of these men. He held the doors probably a minute with the escaping steam from the ruptured boilers around him. His example of coolness did much to keep the men in No. 1 fireroom at their posts hauling fires, although 5 boilers in their immediate vicinity had exploded and boilers Nos. 1 and 3 apparently had no water in them and were likely to explode any instant. When these fires were hauled under Nos. 1 and 3 boilers, Ens. Cary directed the men in this fireroom into the bunker, for they well knew the danger of these 2 boilers exploding. During the entire time Ens. Cary was cool and collected and showed an abundance of nerve under the most trying circumstances. His action on this occasion was above and beyond the call of duty.

http://www.history.army.mil/moh/interim1915-16.html
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The Sheffield City Battalion - Alphaeus Casey's Diary

Thursday 21st January 1915

Washing pots, read Chapt IV Matthew, 1st part of a sermon. Parade 10.50. Rain. Physical exercise in hut under Townsend. Leg circling on floor nearly strained me. 12-12.30 Sgt Unwin gave us details of Quartermaster Sgt Marsden’s lecture to officers and N.C.Os. 1/ Tables thoroughly scrubbed outdoors in fine weather. 2/ Wash basin cleaned with soda, used only washing, if not clean produce eye disease. 3/No waste be poured down grate or typhoid in hot weather. 4/Make beds and sweep up before wash.

Afternoon:- Company drill under Jarrard, observed by colonel. Practised echelon formation at several paces interval. Used against barbarians and weak enemies, every man shooting, first line kneeling. Form it from close and from columns at that distance. After Simpson and 2 others tested in platoon drill. Weather bitter cold. 5.15 ran to Lodgemoor, home, saw mother, brought back birthday cake.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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World War 1 Letters Home from the Western Front

S.S.A. 3
France

Jan 21st 1917
My Dear Mother
Yrs. of 16th & enclosures I found yest. morng. on my return after 24 hrs. out with car: first mail we have had for 9 days. I also found a letter from Will from hospital at Boulogne, swollen arms he said, curious, but he seemed to be getting all right & hoped to get home next week some time. I hope Ernest gets a week’s leave too, but wise of Gert & Ta not to go over.

You do not say you got my cheque for £2, sent, I think, in my letter of 8th. It was for gum boots, 25/- & locker rent at Club, 15/-. Yes I got Annies parcel on my return out in spring last, it was awaiting one at St Die [?].

Bitter cold continues, hard frosts & clear days, ground like iron & all lightly covered with snow. This country reminds me of Alberta, Canada, very like prairies there & my friend, who leaves in a few days, says it struck him too, he has lived 30 yrs. in Canada. This is the country where Attila & his Huns were defeated. Your winter seems to be bad too, but I fancy the cold over here is worse.

Of course this motoring work is the coldest job possible & most trying, as one may be an hour or two or all night in a warm dug out & then jump on car & go for hours in bitter weather. Next winter I shall certainly look for something else to do, this everlasting moving, night & day work & bitter cold is a bit too much for me now; I hope to get through with it now all right, but I certainly confess I do not feel up to another winter like this.

One of our fellows, a man who has been in India a lot & came out to join us in Nov. has been seedy & feels it so much that he is being sent home today if possible. He looks wretched & on the Somme he & others got knocked over down an ??? by a shell bursting very near & which hit his car, he got a shock on top of the rough conditions. Quite a nice fellow, but he looks so ill & miserable that he really gives one the blues to look at him.

It is all very much rougher & very different to when we first came out, then we had good billets & one got back to a warm & comfortable room, now one gets a mattress on floor or on stretcher of an icy cold room, I’m lucky here, some of them have camped in houses half destroyed windows & doors blown out. I & my Canadian friend have windows and door & roof, no fire but we try & heat up a bit with petrol stove. I expect we shall be moving in two days or so, goodness knows where.

I’ve just sent ??????? a cheque for bill you sent me. Things ARE dear! Six pairs of socks I ordered for my Chauffeur, I gave them to him as an Xmas present, a very decent fellow, had him ever since I came out this time. At last village we were at for 3 days he had a sack full of boots & clothes, his passport etc. stolen off the car, beastly shame; hopeless to trace.

While drawn up in a small town the other day, where we stopped for lunch, a lot of our cars were gone through & tobacco & food taken, middle of the day; I fancy school children did this. They took all the chocolate out of my food basket which was lying handy to get at in car; opened up back, they were closed, pretty good check. I much hope we shall be sent south, I prefer people there …

Our Commandant is Sir R Wigan ???? a nice fellow about 30, has a place in Northumberland. Charley Barton [?] has not gone to any of the other sections, he is messing about with cars in Paris. Our Prince Lieutenant came back from leave 2 days ago, we seem to get on very well without him, he is harmless tho’ & so far we have all got on peacefully.

I’m very glad I decided not to take on job of Com. [Commandant] or ??? of any sort, far prefer being what I am, I should have probably ended like Barton in a row or more so, as various things would have rubbed me up much the wrong way …

This intense cold seems general. One of our sections is more or less snowed up down near Belfort we hear. Snow is nothing compared to this bitter wind in this open country. Great difficulty to get dry fuel.
Best love
Yr. Affect. son
Arthur…

Poor Maudie seems to be continually having illness, I suppose Salisbury Plain was a horrible place for her, cold & damp, was that Kathy’s canteen.
I will read book you mention by Chesterton when I get back, no time or opportunity to read these days at this job …

http://www.arthursletters.com/ww1-letters-january-1917.html

Fantastische site! Leesvoer! http://www.arthursletters.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jan 2014 21:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: Wireless Message Addressed To All. Special To Tile Peace Delegation In Brest-Litovsk, 21 January, 1918

We are also extremely alarmed that the line [The reference is to a break in telegraph communications between Moscow and Brest-Litovsk due to German tampering] is out of order for which, we think, the Germans are to blame. The Kiev Rada has fallen. All power in the Ukraine is in the hands of the Soviet. The Kharkov Central Executive Committee holds undivided sway over the Ukraine; Bolshevik Kotsubinsky has been appointed Commander-in-Chief of the troops of the Ukrainian Republic. In Finland, the affairs of the bourgeois counter-revolutionaries are hopeless, and workers' resentment is running extremely high. At a congress in the village of Kamenskaya, the Don area, 46 Cossack regiments proclaimed themselves the government, and are fighting against Kaledin. There is great enthusiasm among Petrograd workers over the formation of a Soviet of Workers' Deputies in Berlin. There are rumours that Karl Liebknecht has been released and will soon head the German Government. Tomorrow's sitting of the Petrograd Soviet will discuss a message to the Berlin and Vienna Soviets of Workers.

Lenin

https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/jan/21.htm
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