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16 Januari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2006 6:05    Onderwerp: 16 Januari Reageer met quote

January 16

1916 Montenegro capitulates to Austro-Hungarian forces

After an eight-day offensive that marked the beginning of a new, aggressive strategy in the region, Austro-Hungarian troops under commander in chief Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf take control of the Balkan state of Montenegro.

By the end of 1915, after initial setbacks, the Central Powers had completed their conquest of Serbia, the upstart Balkan country that they claimed had provoked the war in June 1914, when a Serbian nationalist had assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Despite their success in the Balkans, Conrad was incensed that the victories had been achieved largely by German, not Austrian, forces. He opposed the establishment of a joint German-Austrian command in the region, fearing, with reason, that Austria would be subordinated to its stronger ally. Relations between Conrad and his German counterpart, Erich von Falkenhayn, who sought to turn German energies more fully toward France and the Western Front, had become so strained that they ceased direct communication almost entirely for a full month from December 1915 to January 1916. During that time, Conrad proceeded to develop Austria’s strategy for early 1916, which was to capture Montenegro in the winter and then turn toward Italy with an attack in the Trentino.

On January 8, 1916, with a 500-gun artillery barrage, 45,000 Austrian troops and 5,000 Bosnian Muslims attacked Serbia’s ally, the neighboring state of Montenegro. Events unfolded quickly: Within 48 hours, the Montenegrins had retreated to their capital, Cetinje, after being driven from their fortresses at Mount Lovcen on the Adriatic Sea. Cetinje fell on January 11 and the end was already in sight. Montenegro surrendered on January 16. “When her emergency came, there was no one to help her,” the American diplomat John Coolidge wrote of Montenegro, “so she had to go.”
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2006 6:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 16. Januar

1914

1915
35 französische Geschütze bei Soissons erobert
Der Gloreiche Kampf bei Soissons
Die Laufgräben von Givenche
Die Niederlage der Engländer bei Tanga in Ostafrika

1916
Englische Geschosse gegen Lille
Erfolg der k. u. k. Truppen bei Oslavia
Die Beute von Gallipoli

1917
Der russische Mißerfolg bei Fundeni
Kämpfe südlich Smorgon

1918
Neue vergebliche Vorstöße der Italiener
Erneute italienische Angriffe am Monte Pertica gescheitert
Vorstoß deutscher Seestreitkräfte gegen die englische Küste
Die Räumungsfrage bei den Verhandlungen in Brest-Litowsk
Erfolgreicher Fortgang der Verhandlungen mit den Ukrainern

www.stahlgewitter.com.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maxim Gorki

Op vrijdag 16 januari 1914 keert de Russische schrijver Maxim Gorki na een ballingschap van zeven jaar naar zijn vaderland terug.

http://www.andreehollander.nl/vandaag/dag/01/0116.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Itoh Sukeyuki



Fleet Admiral Count Itō Sukeyuki (20 May 1843 – 16 January 1914) was a career officer and admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy in Meiji-period Japan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itoh_Sukeyuki
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Panama Canal Sanitation - 1903-1914

The first order of business was to eliminate the malaria, yellow fever, and typhoid that made the isthmus unsuitable for human habitation. Unlike his French predecessors, Army Doctor William Gorgas knew that the troublesome diseases were transmitted by mosquitoes. Using techniques he had developed in Cuba after the Spanish-American War, he ordered houses fumigated and screened, swamps and marshes drained, sewers installed, and streets paved.

William Crawford Gorgas (October 3, 1854 - July 3, 1920) entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York in 1876 and was graduated in 1879 after three years of financial difficulties. Following an internship in Bellevue Hospital he was appointed, on June 16, 1880, an assistant surgeon in the medical corps of the army. For nearly two decades thereafter Gorgas' life was that of the average medical officer of the period. Shortly after the beginning of his army career he went through an epidemic of yellow fever at Fort Brown, Texas, and was himself stricken with the disease. Thereafter, as an immune, he was frequently drafted for service where yellow fever existed. This accounts for his long service at Fort Barrancas, a post in a section notorious for its epidemics and itself frequently subject to visitations of the disease. He was promoted to captain June 16, 1885, and to major July 6, 1898. To Gorgas, as to others, yellow fever was an enigma. Its suddenness of appearance, its puzzling choice of victims, and the inutility of ordinary means of disease prevention were quite beyond understanding. In 1898 he was sent to Cuba and early in 1899 he became chief surgeon of the Department of Havana.

It was not until the board, of which Major Walter Reed was the head, furnished proof that the Stegomyia mosquito was the carrier of the disease that truly effective methods could be instituted. The Stegomyia, since more accurately named Aėdes Aegypti, was the common mosquito pest of the city. It is a highly domesticated insect, breeding in all kinds of water containers in and around habitations. The surest control of the insect was deemed to be the elimination of its breeding places. This plan was adopted and, though the task had many difficulties, Havana was not only freed of its mosquitoes but was permanently rid of yellow fever. The results obtained by Gorgas' work in Havana brought him an international reputation as a sanitarian.

There was early recognition of the necessity for expert sanitary advice upon the Panama Canal project and in 1902 Gorgas was transferred from Havana to Washington and assigned to this work. In March 1903 Congress raised him to the grade of colonel in recognition of his services in Havana. For two years he studied the canal problem, reviewing the experience of the French on the isthmus and making visits to the Suez Canal and to Panama. Actual work upon the canal commenced in 1904, and Gorgas with his staff of assistants arrived in June of that year. He early encountered administration difficulties.

Despite the positive knowledge that the French failure had been due to disease [among other causes] the American administration was disinclined to support adequate measures for preventing a repetition of that experience. The first Canal Commission, headed by Admiral John C. Walker, had strongly in mind the prevention of graft and extravagance. Expenditures for sanitary improvements were regarded as falling under the latter head. It required a visitation of yellow fever, starting in November 1904, to obtain for Gorgas any substantial support for his work. He began in the Canal Zone the measures which had been highly successful in Havana. Again the mosquito was to be deprived of breeding places and cases of yellow fever segregated and protected from mosquitoes.

The situation in Panama presented more difficulties than that in Havana and results were far less prompt. It was well into 1905 before yellow fever bad been eradicated, and in the meantime determined effort were being made to discredit Gorgas' work and to supplant him. It is probable that these could have been successful but for the interest aroused by a report made by Dr. Charles A. L. Reed of Cincinnati to the American Medical Association in March 1905, in which the obstructive hand of Commissioner Carl E. Grunsky was so largely featured.

The discharge of the Walker Commission at about this time and the appointment of another headed by Theodore P. Shonts did little to mitigate Gorgas' troubles. Yellow fever was still prevalent and the new commissioners were dissatisfied that the first interest of the sanitary service was the elimination of mosquitoes rather than the general improvement of the cities of Panama and Colon. They recommended the removal of Gorgas which not only drew the disapproval of President Roosevelt but caused an order for active support of his work.

In November 1906 the President paid a visit to Panama and shortly thereafter Gorgas was made a member of the canal commission. For a time he had practically a free hand, but after the reorganization of the commission in 1908, with Colonel George A. Goethals as chairman and chief engineer, his troubles began anew. Goethals, given unusual powers by executive order, ruled the Canal Zone with a despotic control. He was free in criticism and centered his attacks upon the expense of the sanitary service.

Because the mosquito carrying yellow fever was found in urban areas, Gorgas concentrated his main efforts on the terminal cities. "Gorgas gangs" dug ditches to drain standing water and sprayed puddles with a film of oil. They screened and fumigated buildings, even invading churches to clean out the fonts of holy water. They installed a pure water supply and a modern system of sewage disposal. Goethals reportedly told Gorgas that every mosquito killed was costing the United States US$10. "I know, Colonel," Gorgas reportedly replied, "but what if one of those ten-dollar mosquitoes were to bite you?" Despite the difficulties thrown around his work, due to lack of cooperation from the chief commissioner, Gorgas not only freed the Canal Zone from yellow fever but he made the cities of Panama and Colon models of sanitation comparable with any city of the United States. In the meantime his reputation had extended until he was generally regarded as the world's foremost sanitary expert.

Gorgas's work is credited with saving at least 71,000 lives and some 40 million days of sickness. The cleaner, safer conditions enabled the canal diggers to attract a labor force. By 1913 approximately 65,000 men were on the payroll. Most were West Indians, although some 12,000 workers were recruited from southern Europe. Five thousand United States citizens filled the administrative, professional, and supervisory jobs. To provide these men with the comforts and amenities to which they were accustomed, a paternalistic community was organized in the Canal Zone.

On 16 January 1914 Gorgas received the notification of his appointment as Surgeon General of the Army, with the rank of brigadier general. He returned to the United States in April to take up his new duties, and on March 4, 1915, he was advanced to the grade of major general. The recently organized International Health Board enlisted him as an advisor, and in 1916 sent him with a staff of assistants for a tour of South and Central America with a view to continuing the fight on yellow fever in these sections. Following this trip, a plan for the elimination of yellow fever was adopted and Gorgas was made director of the work. As the man whose sanitary skill made possible the construction of the Panama Canal, his name will always be linked with that gigantic work. His achievement at Havana which first brought him to fame is overshadowed by his later and greater work. He published Sanitation in Panama (1915) but wrote comparatively little for publication, leaving his work to speak for itself and to be reported upon by others.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/panama-canal-sanitation.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

16 januari 1915. - Daar alle mogelijkheid om brieven te zenden of te ontvangen, is weggevallen en er bijgevolg geen middel meer bestaat voor de ouders nog nieuws van hun jongens uit het leger te krijgen en iedereen met de angstige twijfel rondloopt of de naastbestaanden nog leven of niet, heeft men er nu iets anders op gevonden om te voldoen aan die nood naar nieuws en zekerheid. Waar de natuurlijke middels ontbreken, nemen de mensen hun toevlucht tot bovennatuurlijke en men heeft er evenveel betrouwen in. De zaak is heel eenvoudig. 't Zijn meest meisjes en vrouwen die zich aan de geheimzinnige praktijk wagen - de zusters en de moeders van soldaten waarover men enig nieuws wenst te vernemen. Om de bewerking goed te doen gelukken wordt de medewerking van de personen geëist. De omstaanders hoeven maar enkel aandachtig toe te zien en de bezigheid niet te storen door lachen of praten. Men neemt een gebedenboek en legt het open aan de bladzijde waar Sint-Jans Evangelie gedrukt staat; daarop plaatst men een tamelijk grote sleutel en vouwt het boek toe en bindt het dicht met een koord, zodat de sleutel aan weerszijden van het boek - onder en boven uitsteekt. Twee personen gaan nu tegenover elkaar staan met de wijsvinger uitgesteken,1 zodanig dat de twee toppen elkander raken; in 't midden nu, tussen die twee vingers, wordt de sleutel bij het oog opgehangen, zodat het gebedenboek er los, maar roerloos tussen blijft. De twee vrouwen houden zich zo stil mogelijk en staren op het boek, terwijl een derde vrouw luidop Sint-Jan's Evangelie voorleest. Als men gekomen is aan: ‘Het Woord is Vlees geworden en Het heeft onder ons gewoond...’ springt de sleutel op van tussen de vingers en valt met het boek op de grond. In dit geval is het een zeker teken dat de soldaat of andere persoon die opgeroepen werd, nog in leven en welvarend is; maar is 't dat2 de sleutel bij die woorden roerloos blijft hangen en de vrouwen die. hem houden, de schok niet voelen, dan is de persoon gesneuveld en overleden. Al die er aan meededen of de bewerking bijwoonden zijn overtuigd dat het onfaalbaar3 is want, hoe dikwijls men ook de proefneming herhaalt, toch bekomt men altijd dezelfde uitslag en het is nog nooit gebeurd b.v. dat men van iemand die men dood en overleden weet, de sleutel heeft zien verroeren...

Ik heb getracht te achterhalen wie er dat kunstje aan de hand had gedaan of uitgevonden, en men zegt mij dat het komt van de paters uit een klooster van Kortrijk;... dat de pastoor van Zwevegem het middel zelfs heeft aanbevolen in de preekstoel. Als 't waar is??? want tegenwoordig weet men geen onderscheid te maken (bijzonderlijk onder dat slag mensen) tussen een afkeuring of een goedkeuring. Maar toch verwekken de uitslagen van de proefneming de droefheid of de vreugde, al naarvolgens de uitspraak van het orakel.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RMS Lusitania

On a voyage leaving Liverpool on 16 January 1915 the Lusitania was involved in an international incident which gave the ship's presence in the North Atlantic a very high profile. The ship was travelling through rough seas on the way to Queenstown and, fearing the possibility of a torpedo attack, the Captain hoisted the 'stars and stripes'. With America still neutral Germany was reluctant to bring her into the war on the side of the Allies, so it was considered that this would guarantee a safe passage. The use of the US flag, however, came to the notice of the press and the incident made world news. Soon, in April 1915, the German embassy in Washington sent warnings to the newspapers in New York to the effect that the passengers travelling on Allied ships did so at their own risk.

http://www.ocean-liners.com/ships/lusitania.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Superintendent of Jasper Park to the Dominion Parks Branch, January 19, 1915:

Sir,I beg to report that at 10 p.m. on Saturday January 16th, 1915 The Police Barracks, consisting of a building leased by Mr. Moynihan, Lot. 7, Block 6, was totally destroyed by fire, the cause of which is unknown.The Chemical Engine was used, but was not as effective as might otherwise have been, owing to over-enthusiasm of some of the Volunteers, in the first place dragged the Hose from the Engine, causing some delay by breaking the Coupling. In the second place the supply of water was inadequate, there being no water service near, from which a good supply could be obtained.I am endeavoring to obtain a Water Tank from John Houlst, the tank to be kept close to the fire hall, and on occasion of fire to be filled and drawn to the scene of trouble. On examination of the Fire appliances in the Adminsistration Building, I find that the stand pipes were not fitted with Valves to which the Hose could be attached and have ordered the same from Edmonton. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servent, M. Sparks Superintendent of Jasper Park.

http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/pm_v2.php?id=record_detail&fl=0&lg=English&ex=341&rd=79250
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2011 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'Harry' Dalziel

'Harry' Dalziel enlisted on 16 January 1915 and in July he went to Egypt with reinforcements for the 15th Battalion, serving with this unit in Gallipoli.

Following the evacuation of Gallipoli the 15th trained in Egypt until 31 May 1916 when they sailed for France as part of the 4th Infantry Brigade of the newly formed 4th Division AIF, which had been formed in Egypt three months earlier.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/dalziel.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Action of 16 January 1916


SMS Mowe, a photo taken from SS Appam in January of 1916

The Action of 16 January 1916 was a single ship action of World War I. It was fought between a German auxiliary cruiser and a British merchant ship off the Portuguese islands of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean.

Most successful of German commerce raiders during the war, SMS Mowe was commanded by Corvette Captain Nikolaus zu Dohna-Schlodien and was assigned to duty in the Atlantic. The Mowe was originally a freighter launched in 1914 until converted in 1915. She displaced 9,800 tons and was armed with four 150-milimeter guns, one 105-millimeter gun and two torpedo tubes. Her opponent was the one gun merchant ship, SS Clan Mactavish of Great Britain laden with fur, meat and cotton.

Mowe was steaming approximately 120 miles south of Madeira on January 16, 1916, with the merchant steamer SS Appam, a vessel previously captured by the Germans who installed a prize crew and transferred several dozen prisoners of war to. At sunset lookouts aboard the Mowe sighted smoke on the horizon, a sure indication of a ship. Immediately Captain Dohna-Schlodien ordered the Appam to remain behind while he went to investigate. Several minutes later, at about 9:00 pm, the Mowe came within a distance to where her lookouts could make out that the smoke had originated from a large merchant ship, later identified as the 5,816 gross ton Clan Mactavish of the Clan Line company. By the time SMS Mowe came within close range, it was dark, so the Germans approached cautiously. Using a signal lamp, Dohna-Schlodien requested the steamer's name but the British responded by asking that the Germans first identify themselves. Captain Dohna-Schlodien signaled that his ship was the SS Author, sailing from Liverpool to Natal. Mowe reportedly looked very similar to the Author which was sunk by the Germans a few weeks earlier. The Clan Mactavish then signaled her name and that they were returning to Britain from Australia.

This was the end for the merchantman, now identified as enemy, Captain Dohna-Schlodien crossed the steamer's bow and ordered her to halt, a signal which certainly shocked the unsuspecting Britons. Instead of stopping, the British altered course and increased speed, hoping to outrun the raider. Warning shots were fired but they were ignored so a chase began. The one gun of the British ship, mounted on the stern, was manned and opened fire on the chasing Germans but the shots were not well directed. Some splashed into the water near the auxiliary cruiser but ultimately none struck the German vessel and therefore they suffered no damage or casualties in the engagement. The German sailors responded to the British with counter battery fire from their 150-millimeter guns and for several moments the two vessels fought. Clan Mactavish fired at the pursuing Mowe and during this she sent distress calls out which were received by the armoured cruiser HMS Essex. However, the telegraphist aboard the cruiser failed to inform his superiors of the action so no help was sent. Eventually, after taking several hits topside, the one gun Clan Mactavish began to burn and her captain signaled the Mowe that they were surrendering. Mowe then maneuvered in for boarding.

All of the German rounds were hits with the exception of the warning shots. The steamer was quickly seized, prisoners removed and charges set for scuttling. Within moments of boarding, the explosives laid in Clan Mactavish were detonated and she sank to the bottom of the ocean. Eighteen British sailors were killed in battle or just after and five others were wounded. The commander of Clan Mactavish was a Royal Navy captain and her gun was manned by two navy sailors, all three were captured among dozens of civilians. At this point the Germans now held a total of over 500 Allied prisoners of war on the SMS Mowe and SS Appam.

After destroying the steamer the Germans reunited with Appam and set a westward course, thus avoiding any possibility of encountering the British cruisers in the area. Two of the cruisers were just over 100 miles from the battle area that night and could have been moved to a position of intercepting the Germans had the telegraphist aboard Essex responded. Mowe went on to sink several more Allied ships before returning home. Upon arrival, Captain Dohna-Schlodien received an Iron Cross second class. During her second cruise, Mowe defeated another one gun steamer in an action in the mid Atlantic in March of 1917.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_16_January_1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De watersnoodramp van 1916


Illustratie Lely met ontwerp Zuiderzeewet

De watersnoodramp van 1916 was “een harde les”, zo schreef president-directeur van De Nederlandsche Bank en tevens voorzitter van de Zuidervereeniging mr G. Vissering in het Algemeen Handelsblad van 16 januari 1916. Vissering hoopte dat Nederland uit de ramp lering zou trekken en spoedig over zou gaan tot uitvoering van het PlanLely. Om het pleidooi voor afsluiting en droogmaking nogmaals te onderstrepen organiseerde de Zuiderzeevereeniging in februari-maart 1916 de tentoonstelling “Zuiderzee en Watersnood” in Amsterdam.



http://www.nieuwlanderfgoed.nl/studiecentrum/themas/wieg-van-flevoland/watersnoodramp-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

16 januari 1916 - Om 07u hielden twee soldaten Willem Nijs tegen op verdenking van het smokkelen van steenkolen voor de draadloze zender, waar hij werkzaam was als monteur. Onder bedreiging van wapens werd hij naar het station van Baarle-Nassau gebracht. De brigadesergeant riep de commandant van de marechaussee erbij voor de ondervraging. Nijs werd gefouilleerd en moest zich helemaal uitkleden. Om 09u werd hij vrijgelaten omdat bleek dat hij op Belgisch grondgebied was gearresteerd, op 52 cm van de grens. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SrxIpfS6VgkJ:www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26task%3Dview%26id%3D189%26Itemid%3D47+16+januari+1916&cd=30&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De gevechten in de Argonnen van september 1914 tot medio 1916

(...) De Duitsers hadden ondergrondse luisterposten opgesteld om eventueel vijandelijk graafwerk onder hun stellingen te kunnen constateren. Indien dit het geval was namen zij tegenmaatregelen door in hun bedreigde stelling een verticale schacht te graven tot een zodanige diepte dat zij door het graven van horizontale ‘kruiptunnels’ onder de ontdekte Franse tunnel konden komen om deze vervolgens met een springlading op te blazen.

De Fransen handelden op dezelfde wijze en ontstaken tussen 16 en 31 januari 1916 alleen al in de sectoren 6 en 7 negen springladingen onder Duitse tunnels. Deze richtten echter weinig schade aan omdat zij niet goed waren voorbereid of te vroeg werden ontstoken. (...)

http://www.ssew.nl/gevechten-argonnen-september-1914-tot-medio-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War diary: The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

Extract

1st January to 16th January 1916 - The regiment marched to La Perriere for the Divisional rest. During the period the men were trained daily in open warfare, (skirmishing and attack formations being frequently practiced). There was a Brigade Field Day, when an attack from the trenches was practiced. For instructional purpose an interchange of officers was arranged between this Regiment and the 17th Battalion Middlesex (Sportsman's Battalion). This arrangement began when the regiment went out on the Divisional rest and was carried on until the 17th Middlesex Regiment had completed three tours in the trenches, on 1st February, 1916. During the rest a Divisional boxing and football tournament was organised. The weather was very bad the whole time.

16th January - On this date, B and C Companies of the King's were attached to the 17th Middlesex Regiment, and A and D Companies of the 17th Middlesex were attached to the Kings. The regiment marched to Bethune.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zimmermann Telegram



16 januari 1917 - De Duitse minister van buitenlandse zaken verstuurt het Zimmermanntelegram aan Mexico met het verzoek zich aan de kant van de centralen te scharen in de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

http://www.beleven.org/vandaagdedag/


Het originele telegram zoals het vanuit de Duitse ambassade in Washington naar de Duitse ambassade in Mexico werd gestuurd


De vertaalde versie van het telegram


Het gedeeltelijk gedecodeerde telegram. Het woord "Arizona" stond niet in het codeboek en was in gecodeerde letters ingevoerd

Zimmermanntelegram

Het Zimmermanntelegram was een telegram dat op 16 januari 1917 door de Duitse minister van buitenlandse zaken Arthur Zimmermann naar de ambassadeur in Mexico werd gestuurd, met het verzoek om Mexico over te halen deel te nemen aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog aan de kant van Duitsland. Het telegram werd door de Britse geheime dienst onderschept, ontcijferd en doorgespeeld aan de Amerikaanse regering. Dit telegram was de directe aanleiding voor de deelname van de Verenigde Staten aan de oorlog.

De Duitse regering was oorspronkelijk van plan de Verenigde Staten buiten de oorlog te houden. Maar als dat niet lukte zou behalve Mexico ook Japan de kant van Duitsland moeten kiezen. Japan zou dan Californië toegewezen krijgen en Mexico de gebieden die na de Texaanse Revolutie en de Amerikaans-Mexicaanse Oorlog verloren waren gegaan (behalve Californië). De Mexicaanse president Venustiano Carranza dacht niet dat het mogelijk zou zijn de VS te verslaan en de gebieden, waar zich inmiddels Amerikanen gevestigd hadden, effectief te besturen. Daarnaast was Mexico verwikkeld in de Mexicaanse Revolutie, die nog maar kort tevoren ontaard was in een burgeroorlog. Mexico had geen behoefte aan nog een oorlog met de Verenigde Staten. Op 14 april wees hij het verzoek af. Op dat moment hadden de Verenigde Staten al de oorlog verklaard aan Duitsland.

Cryptografie

Het peil van cryptografie in Duitsland was tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog niet hoog. Er werd gebruikgemaakt van codeboeken. Het voor de Duitse vertegenwoordiging in Mexico bedoelde telegram werd eerst via het Amerikaanse gecodeerde diplomatieke telegraafnet naar de Duitse ambassadeur in Washington gestuurd, waarvandaan het werd doorgestuurd naar de eindbestemming. Dat net was door de Amerikaanse overheid ten dienste van de Duitse regering gesteld. De Britse inlichtingendienst kon het gedeeltelijk ontcijferde bericht niet doorspelen aan de Amerikaanse regering zonder prijs te geven dat zij het diplomatieke verkeer van de VS meelazen. Ze besloten een stroman, "Mr. H.", in Mexico te gebruiken als hun fictieve spion. Deze zou de kopie van het document hebben onderschept dat de Duitse ambassade in de VS via het openbare netwerk naar Mexico had gestuurd. Tot hun verrassing maakte het personeel van de Duitse ambassade de fout het bericht met een oudere code opnieuw te coderen, waarschijnlijk omdat de Duitse ambassade in Mexico nog geen nieuwe codeboeken had ontvangen. Hierdoor werd de versie van de onderschepping die de Britse inlichtingendienst had verzonnen, aannemelijker. Bovendien werd daarmee een deel van de nieuwe code gekraakt en kon de gehele inhoud van het telegram worden ontcijferd.

Gedeeltelijk gedecodeerde tekst

In eerste instantie had de Britse inlichtingendienst de volgende tekst gedecodeerd:

"Streng geheim

Beginn des uneingeschränkten U-Boot-Krieges auf den ersten Februar festgesetzt stop Bemühen uns trotzdem die Vereinigten Staaten neutral zu halten stop (?) Sollte das nicht ... So machen wir (Mexiko?) einen Bündnisvorschlag auf folgender Basis: ... Kriegsführung ... Friedensschluß und ...

Sie werden den Präsidenten ... So geheim wie möglich in Kenntnis setzen ... (Ausbruch des?) Krieges mit den Vereinigten Staaten ... (Japan) ... Vermitteln soll stop. Machen Sie bitte dem Präsidenten deutlich daß ... Unterseeboote ... England binnen weniger Monate zum Friedensschluß zu zwingen stop Bestätigen Sie Empfang
Zimmermann"

Volledige inhoud van het telegram

Nadat het telegram in een oude code was doorgestuurd, kon de gehele inhoud worden ontcijferd. Die luidde:

"Wir beabsichtigen, am ersten Februar uneingeschränkten U-Boot-Krieg zu beginnen. Es wird versucht werden, Amerika trotzdem neutral zu halten. Für den Fall, dass dies nicht gelingen sollte, schlagen wir Mexiko auf folgender Grundlage Bündnis vor. Gemeinsame Kriegführung. Gemeinsamer Friedensschluss. Reichlich finanzielle Unterstützung und Einverständnis unsererseits, dass Mexiko in Texas, Neu Mexico, Arizona früher verlorenes Gebiet zurückerobert. Regelung im einzelnen Euer Hochwohlgeborenen überlassen. Euer Hochwohlgeborenen wollen Vorstehendes Präsidenten streng geheim eröffnen, sobald Kriegsausbruch mit Vereinigten Staaten feststeht, und Anregung hinzufügen, Japan von sich aus zu sofortigem Beitritt einzuladen und gleichzeitig zwischen uns und Japan zu vermitteln. Bitte Präsidenten darauf hinweisen, dass rücksichtslose Anwendung unserer U-Boote jetzt Aussicht bietet, England in wenigen Monaten zum Frieden zu zwingen. Empfang bestätigen.
Zimmermann"

Nederlandse vertaling

"We zijn van plan op 1 februari te beginnen met een onbeperkte duikbotenoorlog. Er zal desalniettemin naar worden gestreefd de Verenigde Staten van Amerika neutraal te houden. In het geval dat dit niet lukt, stellen we Mexico een verbond voor op de volgende basis: gemeenschappelijk oorlog voeren, gemeenschappelijk vrede sluiten. Genereuze financiële steun en akkoord van onze kant dat Mexico vroeger verloren gebied in Texas, Nieuw-Mexico en Arizona herovert. Details van deze overeenkomst laten wij geheel over aan uwe hooggeborene. Uwe hooggeborene zal het voorgaande in het diepste geheim en zo snel mogelijk nadat oorlog met de Verenigde Staten van Amerika zeker is aan de president mededelen en zal de suggestie toevoegen dat hij, op eigen initiatief, Japan zal uitnodigen voor onmiddellijke oorlogsdeelname en tegelijkertijd bemiddelen tussen Japan en onszelf. Maak alstublieft de President attent op het feit dat de meedogenloze inzet van onze duikboten nu het vooruitzicht biedt Engeland binnen een paar maanden tot vrede te dwingen. Ontvangst bevestigen. Getekend, ZIMMERMANN."

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Zimmermann & http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimmermanntelegram
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/zimmermann.htm
Zie ook http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/1917_Documents
Zie ook http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=old&doc=60
Zie ook http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/zimmermann/ (onderwijs!)
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 16:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilfred Owen reading " The Sentry"

Heres a virtual movie of the Soldier poet Wilfred Owen reading " The Sentry". Owen began THE SENTRY while he was receiving hospital treatment at Craiglockhart in 1917 and he continued it the following summer. Finally, it was completed in France that September.

For its origins we go back to a letter to his mother dated 16th January 1917:

In the platoon on my left the sentries over the dug-out were blown to nothing. One of these poor fellows was my first servant whom I rejected. If I had kept him he would have lived, for servants don't do Sentry Duty. I kept my own sentries half way down the stairs during the more terrific bombardment. In spite of this one lad was blown down and, I'm afraid, blinded.

A very personal poem, therefore, the eighteen month gap between the experience and its translation into words suggesting an experience of great intensity.

The verse is basically iambic but trochees at significant points disturb the rhythm and effectively accentuate the unrest and tension, while the break at line 10 suggests that Owen is looking for his readers to pause and maybe gasp.

The parallels with DULCE ET DECORUM EST are quite noticeable. As in DULCE a young soldier suffers a tragic fate in horrifying circumstances and in Owen's presence. Remembering how the war preyed on Owen's mind to the extent that he experienced nightmares, a symptom of the condition for which he was treated at Craiglockhart .

[b]The Sentry[/b]

We'd found an old Boche dug-out, and he knew,
And gave us hell, for shell on frantic shell
Hammered on top, but never quite burst through.
Rain, guttering down in waterfalls of slime
Kept slush waist high, that rising hour by hour,
Choked up the steps too thick with clay to climb.
What murk of air remained stank old, and sour
With fumes of whizz-bangs, and the smell of men
Who'd lived there years, and left their curse in the den,
If not their corpses. . . . There we herded from the blast
Of whizz-bangs, but one found our door at last.
Buffeting eyes and breath, snuffing the candles.
And thud! flump! thud! down the steep steps came thumping
And splashing in the flood, deluging muck —
The sentry's body; then his rifle, handles
Of old Boche bombs, and mud in ruck on ruck.
We dredged him up, for killed, until he whined
"O sir, my eyes — I'm blind — I'm blind, I'm blind!"
Coaxing, I held a flame against his lids
And said if he could see the least blurred light
He was not blind; in time he'd get all right.
"I can't," he sobbed. Eyeballs, huge-bulged like squids
Watch my dreams still; but I forgot him there
In posting next for duty, and sending a scout
To beg a stretcher somewhere, and floundering about
To other posts under the shrieking air.
Those other wretches, how they bled and spewed,
And one who would have drowned himself for good, —
I try not to remember these things now.
Let dread hark back for one word only: how
Half-listening to that sentry's moans and jumps,
And the wild chattering of his broken teeth,
Renewed most horribly whenever crumps
Pummelled the roof and slogged the air beneath —
Through the dense din, I say, we heard him shout
"I see your lights!" But ours had long died out.


Fascinerend... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrYT5Zzh7qM
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Umm Lejj

16.1.17

I have not written for a fortnight, for at first I was up country hopping about on a camel, and later there was no post-boat. You see we have no mail-steamers, but depend entirely on the Navy for our communications, and they go about their business strictly. However, in any case you know that I am completely well. I have got leave to stay down here a fortnight longer, because things here are interesting, and new. Life in Yenbo was varied, because I lived always on ships, and while there was always a ship, it was sometimes one and sometimes another sort of ship. Some were luxurious, some warlike, and some very plain - but all different. This place you will not find on any map, unless you buy the northern sheets of the Red Sea Admiralty charts (I don't recommend them!): any way, it is about 100 miles North of Yenbo, and is a little group of three villages (about 40 houses in each) on a plain about a mile square under red granite hills. As it is spring just now the valleys and slopes are sprinkled with a pale green, and things are beautiful. The weather is just warm enough to be too hot at midday, but cold at night. I'm on a ship, as usual.

Sherif Feisul (3rd Son of Sherif of Mecca), to whom I am attached, is about 31, tall, slight, lively, well-educated. He is charming towards me, and we get on perfectly together. He has a tremendous reputation in the Arab world as a leader of men, and a diplomat. His strong point is handling tribes: he has the manner that gets on perfectly with tribesmen, and they all love him. At present he is governing a patch of country about as large as Wales, and doing it efficiently. I have taken some good photographs of things here (Arab forces and villages and things), and will send you copies when I can get prints made. That will not be till about the end of the month, when I go to Cairo.

My Arabic is getting quite fluent again! I nearly forgot it in Egypt, where I never spoke for fear of picking up the awful Egyptian accent and vocabulary. A few months more of this, and I'll be a qualified Arabian. I wish I had not to go back to Egypt. Any way I have had a change.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170116_family.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering the SS Mendi


The sinking of the SS Mendi was one of South Africa's worst tragedies of
the First World War, second perhaps only to the Battle of Delville Wood


On 16 January 1917 the Mendi troopship sailed from Cape Town en route to La Havre in France, carrying the Fifth Battalion of the South African Native Labour Contingent. On board were 805 black privates, 22 white officers and 33 crew.

On the morning of 21 February 1917, just south of the Isle of Wight, the 4 000-ton steamship was rammed and almost cut in half by a 11 000-ton liner, the SS Darro. The Mendi sank in 20 minutes, and 607 black troops, nine white officers and all 33 crewmembers died in the icy waters of the English Channel.

http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/mendi.htm
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilfred Owen

Soon after arriving at the Western Front, Owen began searching for words to describe the slaughter taking place in the trenches. On 16 January 1917 he wrote to his mother describing a deeply disturbing baptism of fire on the Western Front:

My Own Sweet Mother,

I can see no excuse deceiving you about these last 4 days...
I have not been at the front.
I have been in front of it.
I held an advanced post, that is, a "dug-out" in the middle of No Man's Land...the ground was not mud... but an octopus of sucking clay, relieved only by craters full of water. Men had been known to drown in it.
The Germans knew we were staying there and decided we shouldn't.
Those fifty hours were the agony of my happy life. I nearly broke down and let myself drown in the water that was now slowly rising over my knees.

Your very own W.E.O. x


http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/chapters/ch4_voices2.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The British General Headquarters of 1914-1918

The British GHQ

A General Headquarters known as a GHQ was formed for each theatre of war, often when the build-up of British forces became too large or complex for the local forces there to retain adequate command. If, however, the General Officer Commanding reported to another British General, then the headquarters was known as an HQ. A GHQ/HQ would carry a complement of guard, transport and signals troops.

GHQ - Italy

History - Located initially at Mantua, moved on arrival of General Sir Herbert Plumer to Padua, then briefly to Legnano before returning to Padua. Moved to Noventa on 16 January 1918.

http://www.1914-1918.net/ghq.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"THE ROANOKE LEADER", Roanoke, Randolph County, Alabama, Wednesday, January 16, 1918

PATRIOTIC RECORD OF ONE ROANOKE FAMILY

Many homes in Roanoke and Randolph county have done a good part in their
support of the government in time of war, but we feel that one family in
Roanoke deserves special mention in the matter of patriotic service. On the
door of the home of Mrs. Susan Muldrew, a widow, is a service flag, showing
three members of the family in active service; A Red Cross flag bearing five
stars, and a food conservation card. Three of Mrs. Muldrew's stalwart sons
are in the Army, leaving at home with her only one son and a daughter. Mrs.
Muldrew shows a beautiful spirit in the matter, feeling that nothing she has
is too good for her country.

http://files.usgwarchives.org/al/randolph/newspapers/newspape827gnw.txt
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armistice with Germany

The armistice between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on 11 November 1918, and marked the end of fighting in the First World War on the Western Front. Principal signatories were Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Allied Commander-in-chief, and Matthias Erzberger, Germany's representative. It was an agreement that marked a complete defeat for Germany, but was neither an unconditional surrender nor a treaty

The Armistice was prolonged three times before peace was finally ratified.

•First Armistice (11 November 1918 - 13 December 1918)
•First prolongation of the armistice (13 December 1918 - 16 January 1919)
•Second prolongation of the armistice (16 January 1919 - 16 February 1919)
•Third prolongation of the armistice (16 February 1919 - 10 January 1920)

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Armistice_with_Germany_(Compi%C3%A8gne)
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het soldatenkerkhof van Oeren - Decan Celestinus Julien



geboren te Nieuwkapelle op 6 september 1896
soldaat 2e klas, milicien c.s. 1915
3 Jagers te Voet / 5 Cie
overleden te Diksmuide op 16 januari 1918 om 17.00 uur
begraven te Oeren

http://blog.seniorennet.be/bmb_oeren/archief.php?ID=367769
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 19:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jan 16, 1919: Prohibition takes effect

The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, prohibiting the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes," is ratified on this day in 1919 and becomes the law of the land.

The movement for the prohibition of alcohol began in the early 19th century, when Americans concerned about the adverse effects of drinking began forming temperance societies. By the late 19th century, these groups had become a powerful political force, campaigning on the state level and calling for total national abstinence. In December 1917, the 18th Amendment, also known as the Prohibition Amendment, was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification.

Prohibition took effect in January 1919. Nine months later, Congress passed the Volstead Act, or National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The Volstead Act provided for the enforcement of prohibition, including the creation of a special unit of the Treasury Department. Despite a vigorous effort by law-enforcement agencies, the Volstead Act failed to prevent the large-scale distribution of alcoholic beverages, and organized crime flourished in America. In 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified, repealing prohibition.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/prohibition-takes-effect
Zie ook http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00492/

If you were around in 1919 (just before prohibition started) and came upon the following poster...



I mean seriously, Would you quit drinking?

http://www.flickr.com/photos/maggiethecat/2576267892/sizes/z/in/photostream/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Boston Post, January 16, 1919



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Boston_post-January_16,_1919,.jpg
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=3253
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 16 Januari 1919.

Valkenswaard.

- Maandagavond is het waschgoed van J. K., dat even onbeheerd stond, door dieven weggehaald. Op hetzelfde tijdstip trachtten dieven in te breken in de loods van de firma Hoex-Maas. Daders onbekend.

- Maandagavond reeds om 7 uur werd bij de firma Hoekx-Maas, sigarenfabrikanten in de planken loods ingebroken. Er werden c.a. 4000 ongeperste sigaren vermist. De politie was spoedig ter plaatse, doch tot heden is het haar niet mogen gelukken den dader(s) in handen te krijgen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2011 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anglo-German treaty of 1899

16 January, 1900 - The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands.

http://www.paulsquiz.com/On_This_Day_in_History/
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jan 2014 15:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Spectator Archive, 16 JANUARY 1915

The object of the German attack is at present obscure.

(1) The movement may be the beginning of a real effort on the part of the Germans, very naturally discontented with the position of stalemate, which is much more dangerous for them than for the Allies, to break through and crush the field armies of the Allies, for that, of course, is their real objective, and not Paris or Calais, or any other geographical point.
(2) The Germans may be trying by a " flare-up " at Soissons to divert attention from some movement on their part elsewhere.
(3) They may wish to anticipate a general French attack suspected, rightly or wrongly, by them to be imminent.
(4) The movement may be made to distract the Allies from undertaking some special action which the Germans have cause to dread in some other part of the field. [If you think a man is going to hit you in the eye, it is an old and very sound plan to punch him first in the ribs.]
(5) The German " push " may be merely due to the presence of the Emperor, who dearly likes "to teach the doubtful battle where to rage." One pictures the poor distracted Battle entreating the general to tell it where and how it ought to do its raging. We must leave our readers to take their choice of these five possibilities. For ourselves, we frankly confess our inability to make a clear choice. Still, if compelled, we should be inclined to say that the big German " puah " is not yet, and that the Germans realize that winter weather is not appropriate for the offensive on a great scale.

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/16th-january-1915/1/the-object-of-the-german-attack-is-at-present-obsc
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Jan 2014 13:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tagesübersicht: 16. Januar 1914

http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno?datum=19140116&zoom=33

Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law's speech on Ulster is a main news story in today's Telegraph
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ww1-archive/10571018/Daily-Telegraph-16-January-1914.html

Gazette Issue 28793 published on the 16 January 1914. Page 1 of 80

Molony, William O'Sullivan, Diary, 16 January 1914
in A British Teenager Caught Up in the First World War: William O’Sullivan Molony


http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/molony-william-o039sullivan-diary-16-january-1914
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