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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2006 7:04    Onderwerp: 9 Januari Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

January 9

1917 Battle of Khadairi Bend begins


After several months of preparations, British troops under the command of their new regional chief Sir Frederick Maude launch an offensive against Turkish forces at Khadairi Bend, to the north of Kut, Mesopotamia.

The British had previously occupied Kut, a strategically important town located on the Tigris River in the Basra province of Mesopotamia—modern-day Iraq—but had surrendered it, along with 10,000 troops under Sir Charles Townshend, in late April 1916 after a five-month siege by the Turks. The humiliating loss of Townshend’s forces caused the British War Office to seek a replacement for Sir John Nixon as regional commander in Mesopotamia. Maude, a cautious and systematic general, arrived in Mesopotamia in mid-1916 as commander of the front-line corps on the Tigris, relieving General George Gorringe, and was soon given command of the entire front. By October 1916, Maude had become determined to use the 150,000 troops under his command to launch a renewed offensive toward Kut.

On January 7 and 8, 1917, General Maude’s forces launched a series of minor diversionary attacks nearby as a lead-in to what turned out to be an unusually effective bombardment by artillery on January 9 at Khadairi Bend, a heavily fortified town in a loop of the Tigris north of Kut. The resulting battle continued for almost three weeks, including two counterattacks by the Turks, before the town fell on January 29. In a report Maude made of the offensive several months later, he recounted “severe hand-to-hand fighting” and “heavy losses” by the enemy at Khadairi Bend, which contrasted with some of the quicker victories earned by the British in the preceding months.

The Battle of Khadairi Bend proved to be just a prelude to the major Allied offensive in Mesopotamia, the Second Battle of Kut, which began the following month and ended with Kut in British hands. Spurred on by victory, Maude’s forces continued toward the region’s most important city, Baghdad, which fell on March 11.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2006 7:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 9. Januar

1914

1915
Erfolgreicher Sturmangriff in den Argonnen
Die "drei Erfolge" der Franzosen

1916
Deutscher Erfolg am Hirzstein
Höhen von Berane in Montenegro erstürmt
Flucht der Engländer von Gallipoli
Der amtliche Bericht über die Vertreibung der Feinde von Sed-ül-Bahr
Eine schwere englische Niederlage im Irak
Verhaftung von Konsularvertretern auf Mytilene
Untergang des Schlachtschiffes "King Edward VII"

1917
Die Russen beiderseits Fundeni erneut geworfen
Erfolglose russische Angriffe bei Riga
Die siegreiche fünftägige Schlacht an der Putna
Erfolgreicher Luftangriff auf feindliche Küstenlager
Russische Schlappen in Persien und im Kaukasus

1918
Starke französische Angriffe bei Flirey gescheitert
Die Sonderfriedensverhandlungen mit Russland
Ein englisches Hospitalschiff vernichtet


http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2010 10:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Discussions Concerning Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Present at the conference:
1. Dr. v. Bethmann-Hollweg, Imperial Chancelor.
2. General Field Marshal v. Beneckendorff and v. Hindenburg, Chief of the General Staff.
3. Lieutenant General Ludendorff, First Quartermaster General.

Note: the transcript includes both direct quotes and paraphrases as recorded by v. Bartenwerffer for the Chancelor.

From the records of the Supreme High Command of the Army.

PLESS CASTLE, January 9, 1917.

The Chancelor:
If His Majesty commands that a ruthless U-boat war shall be launched, the Chancelor will endeavor to succeed in keeping America "out of it." For this purpose, certain concessions already taken up previously with the Admiralty staff would have to be made. But we will have to calculate upon America's entrance into the war against us.
The Chancelor feels more assurance about the attitude of the European neutrals. Our peace note has brought good results. Holland and Denmark will not enter the war, at least not as long as they do not see that the U-boat war brings us no success.
With regard to Switzerland, we shall have to bear in mind the possibility that the Entente will bring pressure to bear on Switzerland if food becomes scarce in that country, to make it possible for French armies to march through or even for Switzerland to join the cause of the Entente.
Denmark will possibly lay up its shipping.
The Chancelor requests that the military measures which are to be taken with regard to the neutral boundaries, and particularly with regard to the Danish boundary, be such as not to carry the implication of excessive menace.

General Ludendorff:
The purpose is just to detail a few regiments of cavalry to the borders.

Chancelor:
The determination to launch the unrestricted U-boat war depends, then, upon the results which we may expect. Admiral von Holtzendorff assumes that we will have England on her knees by the next harvest. The experiences of the U-boats during the last few months, the increased number of U-boats, and England's bad economic situation, will at least increase our chances of success.
On the whole, the prospects for the unrestricted U-boat war are very favorable.
Of course, it must be admitted that those prospects are not capable of being demonstrated by proof.
We should be perfectly certain that, so far as the military situation is concerned, great military strokes are insufficient as such to win the war.
The U-boat war is the "last card." A very serious decision. "But if the military authorities consider the U-boat war essential, I am not in a position to contradict them."

Field Marshal:
We are ready to meet all eventualities and to meet America, Denmark, Holland, and Switzerland too.
The restricted U-boat war on commerce will only bring about a slight increase in the results reached up to this time. We need the most energetic, ruthless methods which can be adopted. For this reason, we need the ruthless U-boat war to start from February 1, 1917.
The war must be brought to an end rapidly, although we would be able to hold out still longer, but haste is needed on account of our allies.

Chancelor:
It may be imagined that the U-boat war might postpone the end of hostilities.

General Ludendorff:
The U-boat war will also bring our armies into a different and better situation. Through the lack of wood needed for mining purposes and for lack of coal, the production of ammunition is hard-pressed. It means that there will be some relief for the western front. We must spare the troops a second battle of the Somme. That this relief will come about will be proved by our own situation and the effects of our transportation crisis. And, too, Russia's power of initiative will be detrimentally affected by the lack of ammunition which will result from shortage in tonnage. The Siberian railroad alone will not be sufficient for Russia's needs.

Chancelor:
America's assistance, in case she enters the war, will consist in the delivery of food supplies to England, financial support, delivery of airplanes and the dispatching of corps of volunteers.

Field Marshal:
We can take care of that. The opportunity for the U-boat war is such that it can perhaps never become as favorable again; we can carry it on and we must carry it on.

Chancelor:
Of course, if success beckons, we must follow.

Field Marshal:
We would reproach ourselves later if we let the opportunity pass by.

Chancelor:
The situation is certainly better than it was in September.

General Ludendorff:
The measures of security taken against the neutrals will have nothing about them in the nature of a challenge; they will be purely defensive measures.

Chancelor:
And suppose Switzerland came into the war, or that the French were to come through Switzerland.

Field Marshal:
That would not be unfavorable from a military standpoint.

For the Chancelor,
v. BARTENWERFFER




Source: Official German Documents Relating to the World War,
Translated under the supervision of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (New York: Oxford University Press, 1923), II: 1320-1321.
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/German_Discussions_Concerning_Unrestricted_Submarine_Warfare
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Eunice Dated 9 January 1914

New York City
Jan 9, 1914

My dearest Bob.

I am very, very ill and I am not able to say much. I'm very sorry you will not be in port Sunday but I suppose it can't be helped. I have been sick ever since you have been gone and it seems as though you have been gone about six months. You must excuse this writing but I feal[sic] so bad I don't know what to write. I guess I nead[sic] the cure you mentioned in your letter, but not at present as I feal to[sic] bad. You know you wouldn't spank me, don't you? I should hate to tell you what you nead[sic]. Remember I've got a lot of things on you, you remember that night then was a good time I should have taken you acrost[sic] my knee, "Remember this what I'm saying to you."

Will close now with love.

Eunice

http://nobleofenniskillen.blogspot.com/2011/01/letter-from-eunice-dated-9-january-1914.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1914

9 januari 1914 - ’s Avonds doet een passagier van een tram van lijn 3, als hij bij de halte Postspaarbank uitstapt, een lugubere ontdekking. Hij ziet iets onder de wagen uitsteken en waarschuwt de conducteur. Deze ontdekt het lijk (van naar later blijkt) een 11-jarige jongen. De wagen moet opgevijzeld worden, en met veel moeite lukt het om het stoffelijk overschot te bergen, dat vervolgens door de G.G.D. naar het Wilhelminagasthuis wordt vervoerd.
Passagiers en trampersoneel herinneren zich in de scherpe bocht op het Roelof Hartplein een schok gevoeld te hebben. Vermoed wordt dat de jongen in die bocht geprobeerd heeft aan de blinde zijde op de tram te springen, gevallen is en onder de wagen terecht is gekomen. Het lichaam is daarna zo’n 10 minuten onder de wagen meegesleurd.
Dit ongeval is aanleiding om de treeplanken opklapbaar te maken, zodat ze aan de blinde zijde niet meer gebruikt kunnen worden.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1914.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

South Africa: National Party

From 1 to 9 January 1914, Hertzog’s supporters met in Bloemfontein to form the National Party, and to lay down its principles. The main aim was to direct the people’s ambitions and beliefs along Christian lines towards an independent South Africa. Political freedom from Britain was essential to the NP, but the party was prepared to maintain the current relationship with the Empire. They also insisted on equality of the two official languages, English and Dutch. Since Hertzog’s policies were orientated towards Afrikaner nationalism, most of his supporters were Afrikaans people.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/organisations/NP/history.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nederland: Oprichting van het leger (9 januari 1814)



Op deze dag wordt de organisatie vastgesteld van de zogenaamde ‘Staande Armee’. Deze bestaat uit vrijwillig dienende beroepsmilitairen. Daarnaast is er een ‘Nationale Militie’, die is samengesteld uit dienstplichtigen die door middel van loting worden aangewezen.

Dienstplicht opnieuw ingesteld

Koning Willem I heeft besloten de gehate uitvinding van de Fransen, de dienstplicht (zie jaar 1811), over te nemen. Hij moet wel, want er melden zich te weinig vrijwilligers om de Staande Armee te vullen.

Remplaçantenstelsel

Overigens kan een ingelote militair zich tegen betaling laten vervangen door iemand anders, een zogenaamde remplaçant. Het remplaçantenstelsel zorgt ervoor dat de militie wordt gerecruteerd uit de onderste lagen van de bevolking; de meer gegoeden kunnen immers betalen voor hun vervanging en zo de dienst ontlopen. De sterkte van het leger wordt vastgesteld op 27.000 man.

http://www.defensie.nl/nimh/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814-1914/oprichting_van_het_leger_(9_januari_1814)
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1914 Christmas Truce: A Plum Pudding Policy Which Might Have Ended The War

A private's letter from the trenches has resurfaced after 95 years to add colour to the World War I story that still resonates down the decades

The following letter from Private Frederick W. Heath, first printed in The North Mail on 9 January 1915, has been resurrected by researchers at christmastruce.co.uk, which is edited by Alan Cleaver and Lesley Park. Alan says it stands out among the many letters on the site, although research into Private Heath is still ongoing.

A Plum Pudding Policy Which Might Have Ended The War, written in the trenches by Private Frederick W. Heath:

The night closed in early - the ghostly shadows that haunt the trenches came to keep us company as we stood to arms. Under a pale moon, one could just see the grave-like rise of ground which marked the German trenches two hundred yards away. Fires in the English lines had died down, and only the squelch of the sodden boots in the slushy mud, the whispered orders of the officers and the NCOs, and the moan of the wind broke the silence of the night. The soldiers' Christmas Eve had come at last, and it was hardly the time or place to feel grateful for it.

Memory in her shrine kept us in a trance of saddened silence. Back somewhere in England, the fires were burning in cosy rooms; in fancy I heard laughter and the thousand melodies of reunion on Christmas Eve. With overcoat thick with wet mud, hands cracked and sore with the frost, I leaned against the side of the trench, and, looking through my loophole, fixed weary eyes on the German trenches. Thoughts surged madly in my mind; but they had no sequence, no cohesion. Mostly they were of home as I had known it through the years that had brought me to this. I asked myself why I was in the trenches in misery at all, when I might have been in England warm and prosperous. That involuntary question was quickly answered. For is there not a multitude of houses in England, and has not someone to keep them intact? I thought of a shattered cottage in -- , and felt glad that I was in the trenches. That cottage was once somebody's home.

Still looking and dreaming, my eyes caught a flare in the darkness. A light in the enemy's trenches was so rare at that hour that I passed a message down the line. I had hardly spoken when light after light sprang up along the German front. Then quite near our dug-outs, so near as to make me start and clutch my rifle, I heard a voice. there was no mistaking that voice with its guttural ring. With ears strained, I listened, and then, all down our line of trenches there came to our ears a greeting unique in war: "English soldier, English soldier, a merry Christmas, a merry Christmas!"

Friendly invitation

Following that salute boomed the invitation from those harsh voices: "Come out, English soldier; come out here to us." For some little time we were cautious, and did not even answer. Officers, fearing treachery, ordered the men to be silent. But up and down our line one heard the men answering that Christmas greeting from the enemy. How could we resist wishing each other a Merry Christmas, even though we might be at each other's throats immediately afterwards? So we kept up a running conversation with the Germans, all the while our hands ready on our rifles. Blood and peace, enmity and fraternity - war's most amazing paradox. The night wore on to dawn - a night made easier by songs from the German trenches, the pipings of piccolos and from our broad lines laughter and Christmas carols. Not a shot was fired, except for down on our right, where the French artillery were at work.

Came the dawn, pencilling the sky with grey and pink. Under the early light we saw our foes moving recklessly about on top of their trenches. Here, indeed, was courage; no seeking the security of the shelter but a brazen invitation to us to shoot and kill with deadly certainty. But did we shoot? Not likely! We stood up ourselves and called benisons on the Germans. Then came the invitation to fall out of the trenches and meet half way.

Still cautious we hung back. Not so the others. They ran forward in little groups, with hands held up above their heads, asking us to do the same. Not for long could such an appeal be resisted - beside, was not the courage up to now all on one side? Jumping up onto the parapet, a few of us advanced to meet the on-coming Germans. Out went the hands and tightened in the grip of friendship. Christmas had made the bitterest foes friends.

The Gift of Gifts

Here was no desire to kill, but just the wish of a few simple soldiers (and no one is quite so simple as a soldier) that on Christmas Day, at any rate, the force of fire should cease. We gave each other cigarettes and exchanged all manner of things. We wrote our names and addresses on the field service postcards, and exchanged them for German ones. We cut the buttons off our coats and took in exchange the Imperial Arms of Germany. But the gift of gifts was Christmas pudding. The sight of it made the Germans' eyes grow wide with hungry wonder, and at the first bite of it they were our friends for ever. Given a sufficient quantity of Christmas puddings, every German in the trenches before ours would have surrendered.

And so we stayed together for a while and talked, even though all the time there was a strained feeling of suspicion which rather spoilt this Christmas armistice. We could not help remembering that we were enemies, even though we had shaken hands. We dare not advance too near their trenches lest we saw too much, nor could the Germans come beyond the barbed wire which lay before ours. After we had chatted, we turned back to our respective trenches for breakfast.

All through the day no shot was fired, and all we did was talk to each other and make confessions which, perhaps, were truer at that curious moment than in the normal times of war. How far this unofficial truce extended along the lines I do not know, but I do know that what I have written here applies to the -- on our side and the 158th German Brigade, composed of Westphalians.

As I finish this short and scrappy description of a strangely human event, we are pouring rapid fire into the German trenches, and they are returning the compliment just as fiercely. Screeching through the air above us are the shattering shells of rival batteries of artillery. So we are back once more to the ordeal of fire.

http://www.uepengland.com/bbs/index.php/topic/24235-christmas-1915/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Women of Germany to the Women of Great Britain
Reply of the German Socialist Women to the Manifesto of the Women’s International Council of Socialist and Labour Organisations (British Section)

From The Labour Woman, Vol.II No.9, January 1915, front page.

Dear Comrades,

Your message of faith and friendship has reached Germany through the good offices of the comrades in Holland, Norway and Sweden. We now thank you and them with all our hearts for this inspiring proof of international socialist solidarity. You are thanked by the women comrades of all countries, and especially of those in the nations at war, not least among them by the German Social Democrats.

How strong the bands are which bind us all together, and to you, dear comrades, we are learning from the very time of awful murder, which seems to have loosened and torn asunder all the bonds which used to hold the peoples together; this time, when it seems as if all the majestic ideals for which we worked together have taken flight. A message like yours is a source of strength for all women who are filled with a keen desire to do their duty as witnesses for Socialism. It reminds us that we are one in our best endeavours, and that we are determined to bear our ideals inviolate through the storms of this time.

You may rest, assured that we are at one with you in execrating the present world war as the most awful crime which capitalist Imperialism has committed.

We share your deep sympathy for the sufferings of the lands which have been laid waste by this bloody strife. We think with deep grief of the horrors of devastation East Prussia and Galicia, and with no less pain of the disaster which stalks along the roads of France, and which in unhappy Belgium has caused a wicked breach of International Law. We join with you in demanding what we claim for ourselves in every land as a matter of course: the safety and inviolability of our native lands, the integrity of national autonomy and independence. We share your conviction that no diplomatic intrigues, no militarist governments, no provocation on the part of jingo patriots should divide the working men and women of the world. We unite our wills to yours and march on together in the fiught for peace. Together with you, we shall unceasingly strive against the exploitation and oppression of Labour by Property. Nothing can make us doubt that the struggle for the freedom of the working people is at the same time the most fruitful preparation, and the truest surety for the peace of nations the whole world round. Does not this very war remind us that the class cleavage between exploiters and exploited in the nations is the root of that enmity which is the first cause of this war between the peoples.

We socialist women of all nations recognise Imperialism as the foe which is now driving on the peoples to fight each other, in order to exhaust and enslave them. There is no possibility of any compact between imperialism and socialism. Therefore it is our fixed determination to give all the strength of our wills and all the ardour of our hearts to make socialism triumph over imperialism. Such a great historical event as that, this war teaches us, is only possible with the socialist international as a foundation, only when the exploited of all lands stand together against their exploiters and masters. Socialism will triumph over imperialism, and with it also over capitalism, when men and women of the working class have resolved to bring to the defence of their own interests and the realisation of their aims as much power, passion and inspiration, and to make as great sacrifices of life and property, as imperialism now demands for its own ends.

Women comrades of Great Britain, your sisters in all countries rejoice with proud satisfaction to know that, as your message shows, we stand together unshaken and estimate the violent events of this time from a socialist standpoint. we stand together in sisterly sympathy for all those who are sufering from these events, and with an unshaken determination to fulfil faithfully our duty as socialists, and not to be led astray when the international enemies of the peoples seek to deceive us, nor to be alarmed by the thrat of danger and persecution. Far over the battlefields, with their unspeakable horrors, we stretch out to you our hands with deep emotion, and send you our most heartfelt greetings.

On with international socialism!

Hurrah for the socialist women’s international!

(Signed) Clara Zetkin,
International Secretary of Socialist Women

http://www.marxists.org/archive/zetkin/1915/01/reply.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9th January 1915

Writing to a member of staff of the Northampton Daily Echo and Northampton Mercury, Rifleman E. E. Meadley of the Queen's Westminsters tells of a friendly gathering of Egnlish and German between the trenches on Christmas Day. He says: "You will be very much surprised to hear I had one of the best Christmas Days I have had for years. On Christmas Eve I went to the trenches and the Germans were singing carols to our men and we were singing to them. They then shouted to us 'A Merry Christmas, British comrades. You English are fine singers." After that some of our men went out and met some of the Germans halfway. One of our chaps gave a German a Christmas pudding and the Germans in return gave hima bottle of wine and some cigars. Then they arranged that there should be no shooting on either side till after midnight on Christmas Dy they kept to their promise. I must say the Germans were very sporty and wanted to arrange a football match with us for the Christmas afternoon which, however, when the time came fell through. On Christmas Day our men were walking about in front of the trenches and talking in a friendly way with the Germans and asking them how long they thought the war would last and also exchanging souvenirs. I myself was not in the front line but was engaged in carrying rations up to the trenches in the evening. At ordinary times this is a danger as you are fully exposed but as there was no shooting then it w all right. That night we had a bed each for the first time since July and for dinner we had a roast fowl and I managed to make a tolerably good Christmas pudding. These were followed by champagne and cigars. The people we were billeted with then brought out a gramaphone which we had on the go all afternoon. I really had a very happy Christmas."

http://www.christmastruce.co.uk/northants.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Blockading German East Africa, 1915-16

The wardroom of the Royal Australian Navy's (RAN) premier training establishment, HMAS Cerberus, is home to many fine treasures reflecting Australia's naval heritage. Perhaps the most curious of these is a dark blue enamelled iron postbox emblazoned in gold with the words Post-Briefkasten. This artefact was presented to the wardroom in 1916 by Lieutenant Commander R. C. Creer, RAN and has its origins in Bagomoyo, German East Africa.[1] The story of how it became one of the most recognisable artefacts in the Cerberus wardroom lies in the account of one of the RAN's lesser-known warships, HMAS Pioneer, and the operations in which it was involved during the blockade of German East Africa in World War I.

The Royal Navy commissioned the 3rd class cruiser HMS Pioneer on 10 July 1900. Pioneer displaced 2200 tons and was armed with eight 4-inch single mount guns, eight 3 pounder guns and several machine guns. The ship also mounted two 14-inch torpedo tubes above the waterline. Pioneer first arrived in Australian waters in October 1905 and continued in service as a unit of the Royal Navy on the Australia Station until 29 November 1912 when she paid off at Sydney for transfer to the RAN as a gift from the Admiralty. Commissioned as HMAS Pioneer into the RAN on 1 March 1913, she was subsequently used as a seagoing training ship for the Naval Reserve.

When war with Germany was declared on 4 August 1914, Pioneer was in dry dock at Williamstown, Melbourne. Within 24 hours of the declaration of war the ship was afloat, provisioned, coaled and ready for sea. The following day she sailed for Fremantle, from where she patrolled the waters off the West Australian coast.

On 16 August, eight miles west of Rottnest Island, Pioneer captured the German steamer Neumünster (4424 tons) and escorted her into Fremantle. On 26 August Pioneer captured a second ship, the Norddeutcher-Lloyd vessel Thüringen (4994 tons), also off Rottnest Island. Neither of the German ships carried wireless equipment and it transpired that their masters were unaware of the outbreak of war.

In early November 1914, Pioneer sailed as part of the escort to the first Australian troop convoy bound for the Middle East. Unfortunately she suffered condenser failure and was consequently ordered to return to Fremantle to effect repairs. This twist of fate was to result in an adventure that would take Pioneer away from Australian waters for almost two years, where she participated in a classic example of sea control in the littoral environment.

On 24 December 1914, the Admiralty requested the urgent aid of Pioneer to take part in a blockade off the German East African coast. In September the German cruiser Königsberg, mounting ten 4.1-inch guns, had engaged and destroyed Pioneer's sister ship, HMS Pegasus, and had skilfully manoeuvred herself approximately 12 miles upstream in the shallow Rufiji River delta, in German East Africa, beyond the range of effective fire from the sea. The British forces assembling off the African coast were now faced with a double duty: first, the maintenance of a blockade to prevent supplies reaching German land forces in East Africa; and, second, the neutralisation of a dangerous German raider.

Pioneer sailed from Fremantle on 9 January 1915 and joined the British force off Zanzibar on 6 February. The force consisted of the light cruisers HMS Weymouth and Hyacinth, HMS Pyramus (another of Pioneer's sister ships), the armed merchant cruiser Kinfauns Castle and six smaller vessels. Formal blockade was proclaimed on 1 March 1915, and five days later Vice Admiral Sir H. G. King-Hall arrived in the old battleship HMS Goliath to take charge.

For the purpose of blockade operations, the East African coastline was divided into three sections. Pioneer was ordered to patrol the northernmost of these and was appointed in charge of the Kinfauns Castle, the armed steamer Duplex and the whaler Pickle. There was little traffic to be watched, except for native dhows creeping along the coast, but signal activity by the enemy gave the impression that the Königsberg would soon make her bid to break through the blockade.

After several attempts to drive Königsberg from her lair, it was decided to tow to the scene the 6-inch gun monitors, HM Ships Severn and Mersey that had been specially designed for river work. By taking advantage of their shallow draught it was planned to manoeuvre them upstream within range of the raider.

The attack began early on the morning of 6 July 1915, with the two monitors creeping silently into the northerly Kikunya mouth of the river under the cover of darkness. Pioneer's orders were to proceed with Hyacinth to the southerly Simba-Uranga mouth and bombard its shore defences, as shown on the map overleaf.[2]

Serving in Pioneer was Surgeon Lieutenant G. A. Melville- Anderson who described the action as follows:

'On we went, very cautiously, and when we were about 5,000 yards from the river entrance, we dropped anchor and allowed the tide to swing us broadside on. Hence all our starboard guns bore on the entrance. Previous to anchoring, a shell burst in the water not far from the ship, and another in the air. No one knew from whence they came. Very soon we were firing salvoes and then each gun rapidly independently. Our shells were bursting everywhere, throwing up great clouds of sand and earth. No sign of life was visible in the neighbourhood. In the meantime, the monitors were steaming up the river under heavy fire from the banks, but they went on and soon were within range of the Königsberg. They then directed their fire on her, the range being five miles. Seaplanes assisted the monitors in locating the position, but they were not very successful. The Königsberg fired salvoes of five guns, the accuracy of which was good. From firing salvoes of five guns she dropped to four then to three and two and finally one. During the last hour-and-a-half of the engagement she ceased fire altogether. One of her shells hit the forward gun of Mersey and practically wiped out that gun's crew - four men were killed and four wounded'.[3]
At 3:30 pm after firing 600 6-inch shells, both monitors were withdrawn. The Königsberg although badly damaged had not been destroyed and she remained a threat. Consequently the operation was repeated on 12 July. This time Königsberg straddled the Severn as she prepared to drop anchor, but Severn quickly found the range and hit the German ship several times, setting her on fire and forcing the enemy to complete her destruction using demolition charges. While this was taking place, Pioneer was again engaged in bombardment against German shore defences from a range of 2000 yards.

Following the destruction of Königsberg, Pioneer spent a period patrolling off the river mouth, and later, some time in the southern section of the blockade area. By the end of July she had been under way every day for more than six months with the exception of nine days spent in harbour. On 31 August she ceased patrol duties and proceeded to Simonstown, South Africa, for refit. Six weeks later routine patrol was resumed in the southern section with no enemy opposition encountered. It was uneventful and monotonous work.

On 20 December Pioneer anchored in Nazi Bay, south of the Rufiji River, and sent a cutter away to obtain fresh provisions from ashore. A hundred yards from the beach the cutter suddenly came under rapid fire from a small enemy force on the shore and two men were wounded before the boat could be brought about. Pioneer retaliated with 50 rounds from her 4-inch guns and the boat and crew were recovered. The wounded were later transferred to the Severn. Pioneer remained in the southern patrol area until 13 January 1916, by which time she had spent an incredible 287 days underway, travelling 29,434 miles.

Early in February 1916, in fulfilment of a promise made to the Australian Government, the Admiralty ordered Pioneer back to Australian waters; however, on 13 February General J. C. Smuts assumed command of the Anglo-South African forces in East Africa and his plans demanded more naval cooperation than had previously been envisaged. As a result, on 23 February 1916, Pioneer's crew learnt that they were to resume blockade duties in the southern patrol area.

On 22 March 1916 Pioneer proceeded to rendezvous with Hyacinth and the flagship Vengeance off the capital of German East Africa, Dar-es-Salaam. A German 'hospital ship' named Tabora was suspected of being used for less honourable purposes and consent was requested from the Germans to inspect it. Permission was refused for an inspection party to board her, and Pioneer was ordered to close in and open fire if any movement was detected among the ships in harbour. She fired several 4-inch rounds before Vengeance ordered her to cease and await a response to a signal ordering the Germans to evacuate their sick from Tabora. With no answer forthcoming, all three ships opened fire and the suspect vessel was destroyed.

Following this action, Pioneer returned to blockade duties and participated in further bombardments of the ports of Tanga and Dar-es-Salaam in June and July 1916. The action in July was the last in which Pioneer participated, although parties from her crew were detached to relieve the garrison at Sadani during the capture of Bagamoyo on 15 August. It was during this raid that the German letterbox that now graces the wardroom of HMAS Cerberus was taken as a trophy by two of Pioneer's officers, Acting Commander W.B. Wilkinson and Lieutenant R.C. Creer, who were acting as Beach Master and Provost Marshal respectively.

By this time the naval situation in East Africa had stabilised, as the German forces were being driven inland, and contraband traffic by sea was not considered likely to do them much good.[4]

On 22 August 1916 she sailed from Zanzibar to Australia, flying her paying off pennant. Her arrival in Sydney on 22 October brought the career of this obsolete ship, dating from pre-federation years, to an end, yet she had probably seen more actual fighting and fired more rounds in the course of World War I than any other Australian ship.[5] Pioneer's hulk was scuttled off Sydney on 18 February 1931. The postbox souvenired by two of Pioneer's officers remains in commission.

References
1.↑ L. G. Wilson, Cradle of the Navy, Victoria, 1981, p. 27.1.
2.↑ Adapted from J. S. Corbett, History of the Great War, Naval Operations, Vol. III, Longmans, London, 1923, p. 63.
3.↑ M. A. Melville-Anderson, An Account of the Movements of HMAS Pioneer/span> during the Great War, August 1919, (Navy Historical Section).
4.↑ For further reading see: H. Strachan, The First World War, Simon & Schuster, London, 2003, pp. 80-94. It therefore became possible to send Pioneer home.
5.↑ A. W. Jose, The Royal Australian Navy, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1928, p. 238.


http://www.navy.gov.au/Publication:Semaphore_-_Issue_12,_2005
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EVESHAM JOURNAL AND FOUR SHIRES ADVERTISER W.W.I. ROLL OF HONOUR - BLOCKLEY PARISH

Evesham Journal 9 January, 1915

Blockley
Pte J. Beasley Worcester Regt.
Pte O. Daubney Worcs. Regt.
Pte F. Dowdeswell Worcs. Regt.
Pte A. Ellis Kitchener's Army
Pte A. Hale Gloucester regt.
Pte A. Hitchman A.S.C.
Pte F. Mayo A.S.C.
Pte W. Paine A.S.C.
Pte V. Price A.S.C.
Pte Rouse Kitchener's Army
Pte F. Smith A.S.C.
Pte H. Stanley Gloucester Regt.
Pte J. Taylor A.S.C
Pte A. Turvey Kitchener's Army
Pte F. Turvey Kitchener's Army

http://members.shaw.ca/panthers5/BlockHonRollWWI.html
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Gallipoli Campaign

Ironically the evacuation was the greatest Allied success of the campaign. Suvla and Anzac were to be evacuated in late December, the last troops leaving before dawn on 20 December 1915. Troop numbers had been progressively reduced since 7 December 1915 and cunning ruses, such as William Scurry's self-firing rifle (described below), were used to fool the Ottomans and prevent them discovering that the Allies were departing. At Anzac, the troops would maintain utter silence for an hour or more until the curious Ottomans would venture out to inspect the trenches, whereupon the Anzacs would open fire. As the numbers in the trenches were thinned, rifles were rigged to fire by water dripped into a pan attached to the trigger. The entire Allied force was evacuated, but large quantities of supplies and stores fell into Ottoman hands. Helles was retained in case the British wanted to resume the offensive. However, a decision to evacuate there also was made on 27 December. The Ottomans were now warned of the likelihood of evacuation and mounted an attack on 6 January 1916 but were repulsed. The last British troops departed from Lancashire Landing on 9 January 1916. Amazingly, only two soldiers were wounded during the evacuation despite the prior warnings of 50% casualties from Sir Ian Hamilton.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign#Evacuation
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Frank Hurley

Hurley’s next entry concerning the saved negatives occurs 9 January, 1916: Selected the pick of my negatives & owing to the necessary drastic reduction in weight had to break & dump about 400. About 150 I resoldered up.

So: about 150 negatives were saved from the wreck while about 400 were discarded.

Over 500 photos of the expedition are known to exist. Where did the remaining 350 images originate?

22 November, 1915: Pack album in brass case & find blubber makes an excellent flux for soldering. The album Hurley refers to here is today held at SPRI. P66/19, the “Green Album” as it is called, contains 286 photos.

About 150 + 286 = about 436. In his time, Hurley was an undisputed master in the darkroom. I surmise he discarded negatives on 9 January, 1916 because he already had hard copies of many of the discarded negatives preserved in his personal album. From these he could make new—printable—negatives.

http://www.frankhurley.org/http%3A__www.frankhurley.org/Blog.html
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Battle of Rafa, 9 January 1917

The battle of Rafa, 9 January 1917, was a minor British victory that ended the Sinai campaign of 1916. On 21 December the British had captured El Arish, their main objective, from where they could both protect Egypt and threaten Palestine. Despite the objections of their German chief-of-staff, Kress von Kressenstein, two Turkish detachments remained inside Egypt. The first, at Magdhaba, was captured on 23 December 1917.

This only left a 2,000 strong Turkish force at Rafa, 25 miles east of El Arish (now right on the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt). This was made up of two battalions from the 31st Regiment and a battery of mountain guns, defending a strong position at El Magruntein, to the south west of Rafa. This was made up of three groups of defensive works, backed up by a central redoubt on a hill. The position was surrounded by a clear area 2,000 yards wide.

The British dispatched a mobile column under Lt. General Philip Chetwode to attack Rafa. This column contained three of the four brigades of the Anzac Mounted Division, the 5th Mounted Brigade (Yeomanry), the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade and No. 7 Light Car Patrol (made up of six Ford cars each armed with a machine gun).

The British left El Arish late on 8 January. After a night march, they surrounded the Turkish position at El Magruntein at dawn on 9 January. Chetwode’s cavalry force was not well suited to job of storming a strong infantry position. No progress was made during the morning or during most of the afternoon. Between 3 and 4 p.m. news reached Chetwode that Turkish reinforcements were moving towards Rafa, and at 4.30, having made no progress, Chetwode ordered a withdrawal.

Just as Chetwode was issuing this order, the situation changed dramatically. The New Zealand Mounted Brigade captured the central redoubt after a bayonet charge. Soon after this the Camel Corps captured one of the three groups of defensive works. Chetwode immediately cancelled the order to withdraw. The remaining two defensive positions were soon captured.

The battle of Rafa cost the British 71 dead and 415 wounded. The Turks lost 200 dead and 1,635 captured. The British position at El Arish was now secure, and attention could turn towards a possible invasion of Palestine. The War Cabinet decided to postpone any invasion until late in 1917, after the planned spring offensive on the Western Front. Despite this overall policy, the British commander in Egypt, General Murray, soon decided to make an attempt to capture Gaza, to clear the way for the main invasion. Two attempts would be made during the spring of 1917 (First battle of Gaza, 26-27 March, Second battle of Gaza, 17-19 April), and both would end with Turkish victories.

Rickard, J (2 September 2007), Battle of Rafa, 9 January 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_rafa.html
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HMS Cornwallis (1901) sinking, 9 January 1917


HMS Cornwallis (1901) sinking in the Mediterranean Sea on 9 January 1917 after being torpedoed by German submarine UB-32.

On 9 January 1917, Cornwallis was hit on her starboard side by a torpedo from German submarine U-32, commanded by Kurt Hartwig, in the eastern Mediterranean, 60 nautical miles (110 km) east of Malta. Some of her stokeholds flooded, causing her to list about ten degrees to starboard, but counterflooding corrected the list. About 75 minutes after the first torpedo hit, another did, also on the starboard side, and Cornwallis rolled quickly to starboard. Fifteen men were killed in the torpedo explosions, but she stayed afloat long enough to get the rest of the crew off. She sank about 30 minutes after the second torpedo hit.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Cornwallis_(1901) & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HMS_Cornwallis_(1901)_sinking_9_January_1917.jpg
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Arthur Leveson



Admiral Sir Arthur Cavenagh Leveson GCB (27 January 1868 – 26 June 1929) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He was the Rear Admiral Commanding His Majesty's Australian Fleet between 9 January 1917 and 3 September 1918 and later Commander in Chief, China Station between 10 September 1922 and 22 April 1925

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Leveson
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'Fernebo' January 1917

Swedish Steamship 'Fernebo' 9th - 10th January 1917

Having been at sea for 3 ½ hours, during the rescue of 16 crew members from the Greek steamer 'Pyrin', an explosion occurred on board the steamship 'Fernebo', which was loaded with timber.

The force of the explosion in the steamer's boilers broke the vessel in half and the two halves soon separated. Messages were received from the neighbouring stations of Sheringham and Palling that their lifeboats were unable to launch, so it was up to the by now exhausted Cromer lifeboat crew to go to the aid of Fernebo. Henry Blogg was in his thirties at this time, but most of the other crew was much older and calling on them for further immediate effort was asking much, but they agreed to put out again. Getting the lifeboat clear of the breakers, however, proved to be a considerable struggle and the lifeboat men were eventually beaten back despite pulling on the oars for more than half an hour.

Meanwhile, a small boat had left Fernebo with six of the steamer's crew on board. Although this boat was capsized in the surf, somehow al of its six occupants were brought to safety, mainly through the efforts of soldiers and others on the beach, with Private Stewart Holmes, of the Seaforth Highlanders, 'behaving in a particularly brave manner, and narrowly escaping with his own life in his efforts at rescue'. He was later awarded the Silver medal for his bravery.

By late afternoon on 10th January, the two halves of the steamer had grounded, one alongside a wooden groyne which projected about 400ft into the sea to the east of the Coastguard station, and the other foremast end a mile further to the east. The rocket line apparatus was called upon to try to get a line to the stranded parts of the steamer, but the force of the wind was too great and it proved impossible to get a line to the survivors. Search lights from the military authorities illuminated the scene, as more than ten further rockets were fired. At 9 p.m., Coxswain Blogg consulted with Commander Basil Hall, RN, the RNLI's district inspector, about making another attempt with the Louisa Heartwell lifeboat. Hall reluctantly consented to a launch, and at 9.30 p.m. the lifeboat put off again.

During the first attempt, five oars were smashed, three more were washed away and Blogg was forced to abandon his efforts and return to the shore. But Blogg was not to be beaten and, with his brave crew, decided to make another attempt. After a short rest, spare oars were found and for a fourth time that day the lifeboat was launched at a point on the beach where the tide had begun to create a current which swept almost out to the wreck. This time they were successful and Louisa Heartwell was brought alongside the wreck long enough for the steamer's entire compliment of eleven to be pulled into the lifeboat, which then returned to the shore, accompanied by cheering from the crowd.

It was just before 1 a.m. and Henry Blogg and his crew had been battling the North Sea on and off for fourteen hours.

The rescue of the Fernebo's crew had been an outstanding act of courage and daring and for his extraordinary feat Henry Blogg received the RNLI's Gold medal.

http://www.cromerlifeboats.org.uk/home/component/content/article/32-notable-rescues/94-fernebo-january-1917.html
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Charles Jarvis



Charles Jarvis, the son of a coastguard, was born in Fraserburgh, Scotland. After attending Carnoustie School, Jarvis joined the British Army and served overseas before leaving in 1907.

On the outbreak of the First World War Jarvis joined the Royal Engineers. He was immediately sent to France with the British Expeditionary Force and arrived at Mons on 22nd August, 1914. The following day Lance-Corporal Jarvis was one of the members of the men sent to destroy eight of the bridges over the Mons-Conde Canal. Although coming heavy fire from German fire, Jarvis managed to blow up the bridge at Jemappes.

For his actions at Mons Jarvis was awarded the Victoria Cross. He returned to England and was presented with the medal at Buckingham Palace on 13th January, 1915.

In January 1917 Jarvis was dismissed from the British Army after over 17 years service. He claimed in an interview with the London Star that the authorities had done this to avoid paying him the pension granted to men with 18 years' service.

After leaving the army Jarvis found work as a labourer. During the Second World War he was employed at Portsmouth Dockyard. Charles Jarvis died in Dundee on 19th November 1948.

Fraserburgh Herald (9th January, 1917)

Corporal Charles Jarvis the first hero who received the Victoria Cross in the present war, has over 17 years' service to his credit. In ten months (November, 1917) he would be entitled to the pension granted to men with 18 years' service. A year ago (January 1916) he answered a call for volunteers for munition work, and as a skilled mechanic he has been so employed since. Last week he was suddenly presented by the civilian manager of the works where he is engaged with his discharge from the enemy. The effect of that is to deprive him of the opportunity of becoming eligible for his 18 years' pension.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWjarvis.htm
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HOLLAND NEUTRAAL: De leger- en vlootfilm uit 1917



Voor de filmgeschiedenis én voor de politieke geschiedenis is de in 1917 door Willy Mullens gemaakte film “Holland Neutraal” (ook wel de “leger- en vlootfilm”genoemd) van groot historisch belang. Het was de eerste lange documentaire waar een massapubliek in de bioscoop naar kwam kijken. Met de sfeervolle opnames en montage zette Mullens een nieuwe norm voor het nog jonge medium. Als politiek-historisch document is de film van even groot belang. De film werd in opdracht van de overheid gemaakt om het buitenland duidelijk te maken dat er met de Nederlandse neutraliteit niet viel te spotten.

In het standaardwerk over de beginjaren van de Nederlandse filmdocumentaire (De Nederlandse documentaire film 1920-1940, Amsterdam 1988) schrijft filmhistoricus Bert Hogenkamp over deze film het volgende:

Op dinsdag 9 januari 1917 vond een bijzondere gebeurtenis in de Haagse Residentie-Bioscoop plaats: de première van de regeringsfilm HOLLAND NEUTRAAL, ook bekend als de LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM. Koningin Wilhelmina en prins Hendrik waren bij de vertoning aanwezig, die verder werd bijgewoond door leden van de regering en vertegenwoordigers van land- en zeemacht. Nadat koningin en prins onder de tonen van het Wilhelmus op het balkon hadden plaatsgenomen, sprak de maker van de film en tevens directeur van de Residentie-Bioscoop, Willy Mullens, een kort welkomstwoord. De film begon met een portret van Hare Majesteit. De scène waarin een grote groep soldaten op de camera af komt rennen om uit de chaos met hun lichamen keurig de woorden HOLLAND NEUTRAAL te vormen, viel zeer in de smaak bij het publiek: '... een sportief en scenisch kunststukje, dat Nederland's vasten wil naar handhaving der onzijdigheid voor ogen bracht,' zo schreef de Bioscoop-Courant van 13 januari 1917. De film die 3.000 meter lang was en ongeveer tweeëneenhalf uur duurde, verveelde de toeschouwers geen ogenblik, vooral omdat Mullens ernstige momenten afgewisseld had met grappige. Sommige scènes waren heel mooi gevirageerd (van een kleurzweem voorzien). Niemand die na het zien van de film nog twijfelde aan het feit dat het leger en vloot menens was met de uitvoering van hun taken. Na afloop liet de koningin zich voorstellen aan de regisseur en gaf blijk van haar waardering voor de artistieke uitvoering van de film.

Dit was de teneur van de verslagen in de contemporaine pers over de première van Mullens' LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM. Een regeringsopdracht, lovende woorden van de koningin, een goede pers, veel belangstelling: de reputatie van Willy Mullens was gevestigd. In een periode waarin het filmbedrijf van alle kanten bekritiseerd werd en naar maatschappelijke erkenning hunkerde, was dit een belangrijk gegeven. Maar er was meer: met de LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM bewees Mullens dat de Nederlandse documentaire in commercieel en artistiek opzicht op eigen benen kon staan. Op alle mogelijke manieren en op allerlei gebieden zou Willy Mullens dit de jaren na de première van zijn eerste grote film gaan bewijzen.

In augustus 1916 gaf minister van Oorlog Bosboom de firma Alberts Frères (de broers Albert en Willy Mullens) de opdracht een film te maken 'om aan het Nederlandsche Volk, aan de bewoners van onze Koloniën en aan het buitenland een indruk te geven, dat onze weermacht, met de haar ten' dienste staande middelen eene vergelijking met de buitenlandsche strijdmachten gerust kan doorstaan.' (Tekstboekje RVD bij film) Met kapitein Van den Akker van de Generale Staf aan hun zijde, togen Mullens en zijn assistenten aan het werk. In het najaar filmde hij talloze legeroefeningen die vaak speciaal voor de film gehouden werden. Het getoonde doet ons nu soms verouderd aan, zoals het wielrijderscorps (geïntroduceerd met de titel 'Vlotte jongens') of de zogenaamde mitrailleurhonden (die karretjes met machinegeweren door zwaar terrein moesten trekken). Oude communicatiemiddelen (postduiven) werden door Mullens naast moderne (radiotelegrafie) gezet. Van het laatste wordt de toeschouwer niet veel wijzer, terwijl de cineast wel tot in details laat zien hoe voorzichtig het Nederlandse leger met zijn in een schokvrij keurslijfje ingepakte postduiven omgaat. Als intermezzo waren de opnamen van een mobilisatie-toneelgezelschap bedoeld, dat de soldaten in den velde diende te vermaken. Het vlootgedeelte van de film was aanzienlijk korter. Mullens had opnamen gemaakt van het bezoek van de koningin aan de HM 'Holland', van het werk van de mijnenleggers en van het lanceren van torpedo's. Met name deze laatste activiteit leverde enige spectaculaire beelden op van de zogenaamde bellenbaan (het spoor dat de torpedo in het zeewater trekt). Voor de openingssequentie filmde Mullens bovendien koningin en prins, de opperbevelhebber generaal Snijders en de ministers van Oorlog en Marine. Van wie het idee afkomstig was om soldaten en jantjes door middel van lichamelijke oefeningen bepaalde titels, respectievelijk HOLLAND NEUTRAAL en ONZE VLOOT, te laten vormen, is onduidelijk. Dat Mullens en de betrokken autoriteiten ermee ingenomen waren, lijdt geen twijfel.

De LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM kan op verschillende manieren beschouwd worden. Hij moet tegen de achtergrond van soortgelijke propagandafilms uit Duitsland, Frankrijk of het Verenigd Koninkrijk gezien worden. De LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM was immers mede bedoeld om het buitenland te laten zien dat Nederlands neutraliteit geen wassen neus was. Het feit dat een gedeelte van de fragmenten die van de film bewaard zijn, van Engelstalige tussentitels voorzien is, bevestigt dit. De Eerste Wereldoorlog had niet alleen een allesvernietigend gevechtsapparaat op gang gebracht, maar ook een doeltreffende propagandamachine in werking gesteld. De oorlogvoerende mogendheden kwamen daarbij snel tot de ontdekking dat het relatief jonge medium film een belangrijke propagandistische rol kon spelen. Het geloof in de waarheid van de filmbeelden was groot - censuur van die beelden was derhalve de eerste stap, waartoe de militaire autoriteiten hun toevlucht namen, manipulatie de volgende.

Of er uit de LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM beelden verwijderd zijn, respectievelijk of Mullens het filmen belet is in bepaalde omstandigheden, is niet overgeleverd. Wel berichtte de pers dat de film proefgedraaid werd ten overstaan van een commissie, bestaande uit een reserve-luitenant-kolonel, een majoor en een luitenant ter zee lste klasse. Deze commissie keurde de film goed. De reclame voor de film liet niet na iedereen ervan te verzekeren dat onze 'hoogste autoriteiten alle faciliteiten verleenden om de bevolking tot in de kleinste onderdeelen te laten zien wat het zeggen wil (dat) Holland neutraal (is)'.'

De film liet natuurlijk alleen die activiteiten van leger en vloot zien, die het opperbevel bereid was te laten zien en wel op een zo gunstig mogelijke manier. Dus, géén verkleumde dienstplichtigen in de modder. Wel soldaten die 'met fiets en al langs den staaldraad over de rivier werden getrokken en aan den overkant (zoo leek het ons tenminste) met een vrij hachelijk vaartje tegen een boomstam opvlogen'. Dit lokte bij de recensent van De Kinematograaf de volgende reactie uit: 'We hopen voor de slachtoffers dat ze niet te hard zijn aangekomen, in ieder geval kunnen zij de voldoening smaken, velen ermee te hebben geamuseerd.' Dezelfde recensent schreef: 'de fotografie laat over het algemeen aan scherpte niets te wenschen over en de opnamen kenmerken zich door een ruim perspectief.'

De LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM was een voor Mullens typerende film, in politiek en esthetisch opzicht. Willy Mullens was een liberaal die zijn vaderlandsliefde en Oranjegezindheid nimmer onder stoelen of banken stak. Vandaar de bijzondere zorg die hij besteedde aap de opnamen met koningin en prins. Maar vóór alles was hij explicateur, een man die zijn publiek iets duidelijk wilde maken. Deze achtergrond was bepalend voor Mullens' esthetiek: met duidelijke beelden een duidelijk verhaal vertellen. Hoeveel meter film gebruikt werd om dat doel te bereiken, was voor hem van ondergeschikt belang. Vandaar de bepaald niet geringe lengte van de LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM. De film heeft niettemin een herkenbare dramaturgie die op het militaire leven zelf geënt is. Expositie (appèls, parades), spanning (oefeningen, fysieke training) en ontspanning (vermaak) zijn er de belangrijkste elementen van.

De LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM wekte niet bij iedereen bewondering. Een officier van het Indische Leger voelde zich op z'n tenen getrapt, omdat Mullens de 'kolonialen, (de) duizenden jonge mannen (die) strijden in Indië, bereid hunne levens te geven voor de eer en den rijkdom van hun land', niet had laten zien. Meer fundamentele kritiek kwam van linkse zijde, waar men het militaristische karakter van de film afwees. In Amsterdam werd door anti-militaristen tegen 'de moordenaarsfilm' gedemonstreerd, in Leeuwarden protesteerde de SDAP-fractie tegen vertoning van de film aan schoolkinderen en in Bussum werden tijdens de projectie de portretten van minister Bosboom en generaal Snijders met gefluit ontvangen.

Ondanks deze protestacties, dwong Mullens met de LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM erkenning af voor het medium film zelf. Juist uit de kringen, waar de handhaving van orde en gezag en de verering van het Huis van Oranje hoog in het vaandel stonden, was immers de grootste oppositie tegen de bioscoop -'een uitvinding van de Duivel' - afkomstig. Door zijn thema sprak de LEGER- EN VLOOTFILM de tegenstanders van het medium film aan en het is zeer goed mogelijk dat zij voor het eerst de gang naar de bioscoop maakten om deze film te bekijken.

http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/37781840/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Egyptian Expeditionary Force Order Of Battle 1917 - Order Of Battle Rafa 9 January 1917

http://www.museumstuff.com/learn/topics/Egyptian_Expeditionary_Force::sub::Egyptian_Expeditionary_Force_Order_Of_Battle_1917
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WILFRED OWEN, THE SHOCK OF WAR

No knowledge, imagination or training fully prepared Owen for the shock and suffering of front line experience. Within twelve days of arriving in France the easy-going chatter of his letters turned to a cry of anguish. By the 9th of January, 1917 he had joined the 2nd Manchesters on the Somme – at Bertrancourt near Amien. Here he took command of number 3 platoon, "A" Company.

He wrote home to his mother, "I can see no excuse for deceiving you about these last four days. I have suffered seventh hell. – I have not been at the front. – I have been in front of it. – I held an advanced post, that is, a "dug-out" in the middle of No Man's Land.We had a march of three miles over shelled road, then nearly three along a flooded trench. After that we came to where the trenches had been blown flat out and had to go over the top. It was of course dark, too dark, and the ground was not mud, not sloppy mud, but an octopus of sucking clay, three, four, and five feet deep, relieved only by craters full of water . . ."

http://www.warpoetry.co.uk/owena.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917, the year of all-out submarine warfare

On the 9th January 1917, Kaiser Wilhelm II imposed a maritime blockade on Europe: "I am giving the command for unrestricted submarine warfare to begin in earnest on the 1st February ". Wanting to economically suffocate the Entente, he authorised his fleet to attack vessels flying neutral flags, which had already been persuaded to trade in favour of the Entente.
Germany thus ran the risk of confrontation with the United States, the only great power still at peace, but she was relying on winning through her skilful control of a new weapon: the "U- Boot").

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=9586
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Deported to Holland



Rudolf Rocker, born in 1873 in Mainz of Catholic parents, became an anarchist and settled in London at the end of the nineteenth century. During the First World War, Rocker, though by no means a German patriot, was interned as a public enemy by the British government. His wife Milly suffered the same fate. The correspondence of this detained couple is not only personal but offers many political insights and commentary as well.
The Russian October Revolution made the Rockers very happy, and they hoped to be deported to the promised land, just like other revolutionaries. Milly Rocker, who was of Russian-Jewish origin, solemnly believed that this would happen. But Rudolf called it an illusion in his letter of 9 January 1918. And he was right: in the course of 1918 the Rockers were indeed deported, but to neutral Holland instead of Russia.

http://www.iisg.nl/today/en/09-01.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zeeuws-Vlaanderen januari 1918: smokkelaars, vliegtuigen en ballonnen. Mobilisatieherinneringen 1914 -1919 door J.G. Imhof

Woensdag, 9 Januari 1918 - Buiten is het stikdonkere nacht. Dreigend huilt de wind over de vlakte en giert en gilt tusschen de kale lakken der boomen. ‘t Stormt! Weggedoken in m’n jas sla ik daar in de verlatenheid — wachtend op wat komen zal. Eindelijk in de verte ‘n vaag schijnsel — ‘t flikkerend licht van ’n stormlantaarn. ‘t Nadert in m’n richting. Dan ‘t ratelen van wielen. En in de duisternis doemen donkere gestalten op — soldaten met ‘n brancard.

Achter hen aan militaire kommiezen — ‘t geweer ‘en bandoulière’. Bij ‘t compagniesbureel houdt de sombere stoet halt — de draagbaar wordt uit de brancard gelicht en in het bureau op den grond gezet. ‘t Zeildoek wordt opengeslagen.
Daar ligt — met gebroken oogen — de doodgeschoten smokkelaar. ’n Jonge kerel, misschien ‘n dertiger, het gezicht half onder ‘t slijk en onder ‘t bloed dat hem nog uit de twee gaten in de hals vloeit...

Zenuwachtig vertellen de kommiezen het volgende. Vlak bij de grens — op ‘n eenzaam weggetje — waren zij op ‘n smokkelpatrouille gestooten. ‘Halt’ hadden ze geroepen — maar de smokkelaars hadden hun zakken met boonen weggegooid en de vlucht genomen. Nog een ‘Halt’ — ze waren doorgerend, toen was ‘t schot gevallen — helaas! ‘t Doodelijke schot. Hij was toen geraakt — de anderen ontkomen in de duisternis.

De inmiddels binnengekomen dokter constateert officieel den dood. ‘n Hospitaalsoldaat wascht ‘t gezicht en legt ‘n verband aan — nog steeds vloeit bloed uit de wonde. Dan wordt het lijk buiten in den toren weggeborgen. Want naar huis brengen we hem niet — wie weet wat je in de duisternis zou kunnen gebeuren! Dat doen we morgen. Met de marechaussee!

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/ooggetuigen-eerste-wereldoorlog/imhof-smokkelaars.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Late Arrival! Letter to Kate 9th January 1918




Jan 9th/1917

32507/9th York & Lancs Batt
C. Company
12 Platoon L.G.S.
B.E.F. Italy

Dear Kate
I have just received your parcel alright everything was in good order. I am glad you are going on alright and like your job. How did you go on at Christmas. Ethel tells me you managed to get home for a week. How did you find Connie and Willie where they alright, well how did you find them all. I hope you enjoyed yourself. I am going to write home. It is very cold out here at night but we have some nice days. I am sorry to hear about Uncle Shelton and about Jack Bonser getting wounded. I hope he gets on alright. Write as often as you can. I think we shall get our letters alright now. I shall be glad to see you all again.

With love
from Harry

The letter was mis-filed as the date was obviously wrong. I have realised today that Harry must have just forgotten that the year had moved on to 1918.

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2008/01/late-arrival-letter-to-kate-9th-january.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Actual 9 January 1918 Provisional Government Conveyance Document for Russian Orders being bestowed on five French military Officers.





Actual two page typewritten (in French) cover letter (21cm x approx 31cm) that accompanied the arrival in France from Petrograd of a package of five Russian Orders to be presented to five French officers [four generals and one Commandant (Major)]: a St. Alexander Nevsky with Swords, a White Eagle with Swords, a St. Anne 1st Class with Swords, and a St. Vladimir 4th Class with Swords).

It is interesting to note that the St. Nevsky with swords was for General Henri Gouraud, the commanding officer of the 4th Army (while he gained distinction for his use of "elastic defense" during the Second Battle of the Marne, he was perhaps more noted for simply leading a particularly colorful and eccentric military career0. The St. Vladimir with swords was being awarded to the French officer, Commandant Fournier, who served as liaison from the French Army to the Russian troops serving in France. Documents awarding that same French officer a St. Anne Second Class with Swords are offered elsewhere in this section; if you are familiar with Ulla Tillander-Godenheim's excellent book on Russian Imperial orders (see The Russian Imperial Award System 1894-1917), you know that after the receipt of a 2nd class St. Anne, a 4th Class St. Vladimir was the next permissable step up in the Russian honors system. It is interesting to observe that the Provisional Government in Petrograd was not deviating from this established progression of honors with regard to Commandant Fournier.

The stationery used to type the transmittal letter and the accompanying list of the awardees' names is the typical "newsprint"-like stock of the era. It shows numerous tears around the outer edges and extensive fraying across the bottoms of both pages, not affecting the typewritten text (the sheets were too long for our scanner, so we have separate photos of the bottom edges of each sheet). At one point folded in quarters, the document has been stored flat for many years and the old fold lines are no longer very noticeable.

The first page is dated 9 January 1918 and is a letter of transmittal from the French Military Attache (and the Personnel Section of the "Mission Militaire Francaise in Russie") in Petrograd (through the office of the French Quartermaster general) of five individual sets of order insignia designated for the five French officers listed on the second page.

The second page bears the date of the announcement of the nominations and appointments of the listed French officers to the specified Russian Orders: 4 October 1917 (OS). The French Officers are: General Gouraud, commanding the 4th Army; General Dumas, commanding the 17th Corps; General Trouchaud, former commander of the 19th Infantry Division; Geneneral Delobit former commander of the 34th Infantry Division; Commandant (Major) Fournier, Chief of the French Military mission at the [Russian Military] Camp at Mailly [France].

It is interesting that translating signatures is apparently a problem for many people: all of the signatories of the original Provisional Government documentation supporting the awards are listed as "Illisible" or "Illegible" by the person who typed these two pages!

http://www.sovietmedals.com/DISPITEM.HTM?ITEM=19852
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 January 1918 → Lords Sitting

COMPULSORY RATIONING.


HL Deb 09 January 1918 vol 27 cc409-10 409

LORD LAMINGTON had the following Question on the Paper—

To ask whether, in view of the Food Controller's statement that a system of compulsory rationing will be almost certainly introduced, His Majesty's Government will lay before Parliament the proposed scheme in accordance with the statement made on November 20 of last year by the Food Controller that he would see whether this House could be given the opportunity of considering the scheme before it became operative.

The noble Lord said: My Lords, having received a request from the Food Controller, Lord Rhondda, to postpone this Question, I beg to do so.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1918/jan/09/compulsory-rationing
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 Squadron AFC

The squadron arrived in France on 18 December 1917 and established itself at Bruay. It was assigned to the 10th Wing of the Royal Flying Corps, and operated in support of the British 1st Army, undertaking offensive patrols and escorting reconnaissance machines. The unit’s first patrol over German lines took place on 9 January 1918, and its first air combat action occurred on 13 January 1918.

http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_10842.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering Today - 9 January

On this day in the First World War, this man from the Isle of Lewis lost his life in the service of King & Country. RIP.

Corporal LOUIS MACLEAY
Last address in Lewis: 14 Ballantrushal,
Son of Roderick and Margaret Macleay, of 14, Ballantrushal, Barvas, Stornoway.
Regiment or division: "B" Coy. 7th Seaforth Highlanders
Service number: 204506
Date of death: 9 January 1918 at the age of 19
Died of wounds
Interred: Tincourt New British Cemetery
Memorial reference: IV. E. 10.
Local memorial: North Lewis, Borve

His brother, Roderick MacLeay, perished on 18 May 1915 on the Western Front.

http://atlantic-lines.blogspot.com/2009/01/remembering-today-9-january.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maxim Gorky, New Life (9th January, 1918)

For a hundred years the best people of Russia lived with the hope of a Constituent Assembly. In this struggle for this idea thousands of the intelligentsia perished and tens of thousands of workers and peasants.

On 5th January, the unarmed revolutionary democracy of Petersburg - workers, officials - were peacefully demonstrating in favour of the Constituent Assembly. Pravda lies when it writes that the demonstration was organized by the bourgeoisie and by the bankers. Pravda lies; it knows that the bourgeoisie has nothing to rejoice in the opening of the Constituent Assembly, for they are of no consequence among the 246 socialists and 140 Bolsheviks. Pravda knows that the workers of the Obukhavo, Patronnyi and other factories were taking part in the demonstrations. And these workers were fired upon. And Pravda may lie as much as it wants, but it cannot hide the shameful facts.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSassembly.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Emile Reynaud



Charles-Émile Reynaud (8 December 1844–9 January 1918) was a French science teacher, responsible for the first projected animated cartoon films. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888, and on 28 October 1892 he projected the first animated film in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris. This film is also notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Emile-Reynaud/110896932268739
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Robert Leslie Chidlaw-Roberts RFC/RAF

Robert Leslie Chidlaw-Roberts joined the Royal Flying Corps in 1915. For several months, he flew combat missions over the Western Front as an observer. After flight training, he was assigned to 60 Squadron and began flying the S.E.5a. In an historic dogfight on 23 September 1917, he was almost shot down by Werner Voss shortly before Voss was shot down by Arthur Rhys Davids. On 9 January 1918, Chidlaw-Roberts and two other pilots shot down an Albatros D.V flown by Max von Müller.

http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/england/chidlaw-roberts.php
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Harding Waipuke Leaf



Citation for Military Cross (MC): "For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when in charge of a wiring party. He was taking his party up to the outpost line with wiring material under the most adverse circumstances, as it was very dark and raining heavily. When just outside the frontline, they came under a heavy barrage, but by his fine person example of keeping his men together andled them through the barrage to their work which they completed satisfactorily."
(London Gazette, 9 January 1918)

http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/cenotaph/RecordDetail.aspx?OriginalID=25843
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Eduard von Capelle



Eduard von Capelle (1855-1931) was called as Alfred von Tirpitz's replacement as German navy minister in March 1916. Regarded as something of a weak but independent minded man, the Kaiser nevertheless continued to support Capelle in order to prevent Tirpitz's return to office.

(...) Capelle, who was personally awarded the Pour le Merite by the Kaiser on 9 January 1918 (for outstanding leadership and distinguished naval planning and successful operations), died in 1931.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/capelle.htm
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Dora B. Montefiore, 1919: "A Call to Our Women Comrades"
Source: The Call, 9 January 1919

Our comrade Clara Zetkin’s letter in “The Call” for December 26th voices what I feel sure all Socialist women are thinking—the demand that we should make to be present at the Peace Conference. Linked up with that demand is the fact that our comrade Zetkin, the Secretary of the Women’s International, invites Socialist women delegates to a Congress, which she is convening, at which will be debated the questions arising out of the war, and have a special bearing on the conditions of working women, wives and mothers.

No one can deny that the four years capitalist war, which has changed politically, industrially, and socially the face of Europe, has not profoundly affected the position and environment of working women. To begin with, they were called upon, as no other war has ever called upon them, to take a direct and active part in each country in the prosecution of the war. Wives, mothers, and unmarried women in France, Germany, Austria, Japan, and Great Britain made millions of pounds worth of munitions with the conscious object of destroying the sons of other women. This is the added horror that capitalism held in reserve for its ultimate expression, its final reflex: women, the givers and nurturers of life, organised as wage earners to destroy life. What the consequences to the race may be of this functional perversion we have yet to realise.

To take another point: working women during the war have won certain liberties, which it is to be hoped they will guard as a sacred trust. In Russia, women have absolutely equal rights in voting for and in being elected to the Soviets, the most democratic administrative Councils that exist; we Socialist women shall look forward to meeting women from both the Russian and German Soviets, and to learning from them the truth about the way their countries are evolving from Imperialist and capitalist domination to proletarian administration. The idea and scope of the Soviets is well known to the Socialist women of Gorbals, but there they have John Maclean as an exponent and teacher; and our task, as women of the B.S.P., is to popularise this idea of the Soviet or Council, which is to be the administrative unit of the future. There has never been a Women’s Socialist International gathering which will have the intense and vivid interest of this proposed Congress. For four years we have been fed on capitalist yellow Press lies; for four years truths have been suppressed and misrepresentations have been manufactured. We now know that a deliberate and systematic attempt is being made to crush out in Russia the emerging Socialist administration; while our military chiefs haughtily refuse in Germany to consult or treat with representatives of the German Soviets. These facts give us the measure of the hatred and fear of Socialism, and to some extent cheer us with the knowledge of our comrades’ success. But what we long to know is the Truth, and that we can only have when we meet our Continental comrades, and once more renew the relations and friendships which four years of capitalist war have interrupted. We Socialist women were, anti-militarists before the war, we are anti-militarists still; we recognise that the war, as the ultimate expression of capitalist competition, had to be; but we intend with our men comrades to extract from the chaotic conditions the war has created all the advantage we can in our propaganda, which we shall carry on with increased courage and hope till we have changed world from a competitive struggle to a human co-operation.

DORA B. MONTEFIORE

http://www.marxists.org/archive/montefiore/1919/01/09.htm
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Th. Rothstein, 1919: "The Meaning of Social Revolution"
Source: The Call, 9 January 1919

The social revolution is upon us. Those who do not see it, who continue to talk in the old fashion of elections, of social reforms, of trade union rights, and other comfortable topics of the pre-war days, do not know the world in which they live. This blindness is partly due to organic defects of mind and temperament which, like those of the Bourbons, can forget nothing and learn nothing. In part, however, it e due to erroneous notions which they have not as yet been able to shake off. In the old days we Marxists used to ridicule the notion of the Revisionists, Reformists, and other adepts of Opportunism under various names, who expected the gradual transition of the capitalist into the Socialist state by “permeation” and the slow conquest of politi­cal power by Labour. We were right, and we were right in asserting that even in those countries where Socialism might be decreed by an act of parliament the capitalist classes would not acquiesce tamely in their dispossession, but would resist it by all the violent means at their disposal. On the other hand, we knew that Socialism would not come to us overnight and used to assert, as against the anarchists, that the social revolution, that is, the establishment of a collective or communist regime, would be a process requiring time and effort.

While justly upholding our view against the Opportunists on the one hand, and the anarchists on the other, we our­selves suffered from the illusion that the act of the revolution would be in the nature of an act of insurrection, after which the vic­torious proletariat, could proceed to the work of social and political reconstruction. We did not see, because we were not care­ful enough in reasoning out our own pre­mises, that the act of revolution would be in the nature of a civil international war of a long duration, that the capitalist classes, in their resistance, would find at their dis­posal gigantic resources with which to fight the rule of the working class, and that not the least important of these resources would be those sections of the working class itself and their leaders whose minds and temperament are less responsive, more inert, heavier, and colder than those of the sections to whose initiative, and courage, and quicker perception the first revolutionary act was due. In other words, we did not know that the working class is not homogeneous either mentally, or morally. We did not know that owing to a variety of causes some sections among them are more forward and others less so. We did not realise that the Revolution, in the irre­sistible logic of its development, will draw in the various sections of the working class one after the other, carrying them forward to its ultimate goal, in successive detachments, and that Capitalism, in the meantime, will be able, at every stage, to find willing, auxiliaries among the slow minded and more faint-hearted who recoil before every new step in advance as if it were a gaping chasm. Revolution, of course, ripens mental and moral processes very rapidly. To every section in turn the chasm of yesterday becomes the firm ground to day, and the jumping board tomorrow. But it is clear that this process affords great. opportunities to militant capi­talism in its defensive struggle for exis­tence. Therefore, as we said, the social revolution, even in that preliminary phase which is concerned with the conquest and consolidation of the political power of the proletariat, is bound to be a protracted and painful process, extending perhaps over a long number of years, in the nature of a civil war.

Moreover, the world proletariat is itself a composite entity consisting of national sections living under different conditions, and therefore distinguished by different traits of mind and temperament with different degrees of receptivity. The Revolution in its international sweep will draw the various countries, in successive stages and as it were thus allow the capitalist forces to play off temporarily the working class of one country against the working class of the other, so that the re­volutionary civil war assumes an interna­tional character. This further complicates and protracts the revolutionary act, which, like the sunrise in a mountainous country, sets the summits on fire one after another, according to their altitude, until all are aglow with the red and purple of the new day, and the shadows of the past night are finally driven out even from the valleys by the brilliant floods of light.

We are witnessing the opening of most tremendous drama in human notary. Only, by realising that this is but an open­ing, and that in front of us lies the vista of many years of tremendous struggle with its attendant retirements and advances, suffer­ings and joys, defeats and victories, can we understand the meaning of the events in Russia and in Germany. These two countries, by the logic of history — a logic which we find curious because we do not always understand it, but which is wonderfully consistent — have proved the highest summits to first catch the fire of the revolution. We observe there the tremendous mobilisation of the capitalist forces, well nigh accomplished in Russia and in the process of being accomplished in Germany, with the gathering of the capitalist forces of the out­side world to their assistance. We observe the resistance to the Revolution, almost en­tirely broken by now, on the part of the Opportunists representing the more back­ward sections of the people in Russia, and the triumph, for the time being, of the similar elements in Germany.

All this and much more can only be understood and given its proper place in the general framework of the historical picture, in the light of what we set out above, as the process of the revolution in the form of a national and international civil war. When we hear that in Russia the non-Bolshevik Socialists, after their prolonged and violent resistance to the Soviet régime, have finally, given up the struggle and join their former enemies in furthering the progress of the Revolu­tion against the united national and inter­national bourgeoisie, we know that the backward sections of the working and peas­ant classes have been swept forward by the storm, and that the Revolution has made a new step in advance in its triumphal march; And when we hear Scheidemann declaring at the recent Berlin Congress of German Soviets that on the meeting of the Constituent Assembly the Soviets would come to an end; when we hear at the congress Hilferding, the well known Kauts­kian, reporting on the question of “sociali­sation” of industry, declaring that one must proceed very, very carefully and that in any case full compensation must be paid to the dispossessed owner; and when we see the Bremen Majority Socialists making a stand for the resuscitation of the old Senate on the plea that the Republic was in need of money, and that the old authorities were alone entitled to decree taxes or to raise a loan — then we say that in Germany the process of the revolution is still at the be­ginning, and that even among the town proletariat, not to speak of the newly returned troops, there are still large sections not yet drawn into the whirlpool of the revolution and whom the capitalists are still able to play off against it.

But just because we understand the nature of the process we do not despair. We know that such beginnings are inevitable, and that the further successive in drawing of fresh masses is also inevitable. And we also know that although the masses in the rest of Europe may at present be only seething with discontent, without being touched as yet with the glowing rays of the rising sun, they, too, must and will catch the fire one day — perhaps to-night, perhaps to-morrow, perhaps one day next week — and join in the revolution which thus assumes more and more an international character and gradually paralyses the now apparently all powerful forces of international capitalism. The social revolution — the last struggle of the “Internationale” — has begun, but it may be years, before it attains final victory over the capitalist foe and the unconscious enemy in its midst.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1919/01/09.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Jan 2011 22:19, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1919)

9 januari 1919 - Burgemeester van Gilse vraagt een vrijgeleide voor een aantal Belgische inwoners van Baarle-Hertog, allen van goed gedrag en zeden. Het betreft raadsleden die per rijwiel en langs de kortste weg de reis willen maken naar Turnhout, Hoogstraten of Zondereigen. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; brief aan de commandant van de militaire veiligheidsdienst in Antwerpen, 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:drWBiFIqxjMJ:www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D192:10-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1919%26catid%3D90:oorlog+9+january+1919&cd=35&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl
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Edward VIII of the United Kingdom

Edward VIII, King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David -- Dates: June 23, 1894 to May 28, 1972). Edward was King from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on January 20, 1936 until his abdication on December 11, 1936 after which he became The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor.

Cologne, Germany: "Claud & I had a stroll in the centre of town afterwards & had great fun making the Hun men civilians get off the pavement for us .... It does one worlds of good to know how humiliating it must be for the Huns" (9 January 1919)

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Edward_VIII_of_the_United_Kingdom
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View of Cochem, county of Cochem-Zell, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on 9 January 1919.



The picture was taken by the photo unit of the Fourth U.S Army Corps, which had its headquarters at Cochem on the Moselle river.

Original text: "This old castle perched on a hilltop above the Moselle River and the town of Cochem, Germany, is headquarters of the U.S. Fourth Army Corps. In foreground is Cpl. James C. Sulzer, Fourth Army Corps, Photo Unit. January 9, 1919."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cochem_1919_HD-SN-99-02384.JPEG
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Life during the war for Private Patrick Joseph Bugden VC


Letter from Paddy Bugden to his mother, from"somewhere" in France, 9 January 1919.

Paddy's letters home to his family, mostly to his mother, tell us about him, his family and his experiences of the war. His letters cover the time from his enlistment to just before his death. Extracts from some of Paddy Budgen's letters are referred to here.

His battalion embarked for England in September 1916 and upon arriving continued training:

"Dear Mother

... "I will tell you a day's work. Get up 6.30 (dark) breakfast 7 consisting of tea porridge and bread and drippen. Fall in at eight o'clock, practice bomb throwing. Physical exercises, squad drill. Dinner 1 o'clock soup, meat, potatoes, one piece bread. Fall in 2 o'clock. Trench digging and go for a route march. Tea 5 o'clock (dark). Tea some kind of a pudding and bread and drippen. We sleep in huts 25 in each and good coal stove in the middle. So you can guess we have plenty of tea and toast every night. After we come home from the pictures which are about half a mile away."


In January 1917, the battalion left for France, where they arrived midwinter. By April he was a seasoned veteran of the war:

"I am an old veteran now (or consider myself so) for I have seen a fair bit of scrapping. I don't think it will take us long to fix them now and I will be disappointed if I am not back for the New Year. There is one God since the weather is a lot warmer now. It was a holy terror a few months ago. I would sooner face Fritz any time than it. The wind is not so bad either it is only half way up your leg now whereas it used to reach your belt. We have some long marches to and fro from the line now for Fritz is on the move. Ten miles through mud with 112 on your back is no uncommon thing."

Not long afterwards, he wrote to his mother about his involvement in the Battle of Bullecourt. Fought between 3 and 17 May 1917, this battle was extremely costly with 7482 AIF casualties from three Australian Divisions.

He refers to this battle in his letter dated 11th June, where his efforts to minimise the horror of the experience fails to prevail over the facts he relates:

"I am back from the trenches for a short time. We had ten days in taking it all through. It wasn't so bad. The worst thing is the stink for the trenches that we were in is surrounded by dead bodies. A stiff fight taking place there about a month ago so the smell is just nice. It is impossible to bury all of them for Fritz is too lively in that sector."

Bullecourt probably also explains the macabre sense of humour he shows in writing to his sister Rose on 1 June about a football match which didn't turn out as expected:

"I had a funny game of football yesterday. Two of the players got wounded and were carried to hospital. Just as we started one chap happened to kick a bomb which exploded giving the two I mentioned some nasty wounds. We won the game. I was a picture by the time we had finished."

Bugden's rescuing of wounded men from No Man's Land is testimony to some of the most terrible aspects of the war, in which wounded men could be left stuck in the mud for over two days because of the dangers involved in rescuing them and the lack of stretcher bearers. Bugden in fact was finally killed by shell fire on one of these rescue missions.

In a letter written to Bugden's family by fellow Queenslander Alex Thomson, on 29 October 1917:

"Just then three 'Fritzes' jumped into the shell hole on top of me giving me no chance to put up a scrap. ...A moment or so after the above had occurred the Fritz who had just saved me from being shot made a jump into the next shell hole and got shot through the stomach. I looked up to see what was happening and saw a private named Paddy Bugden charging up with a few men to my rescue ... The whole of the above episode took place under very heavy shell, rifle and machine gun fire, so you can understand the debt I owe to Paddy Bugden for his bravery in rescuing me. I am exceedingly sorry to say that Bugden got killed by a shell a couple of nights later."

http://www.southbank.qm.qld.gov.au/Events+and+Exhibitions/Exhibitions/Permanent/Courage+of+ordinary+men/Private+Patrick+Joseph+Bugden+VC/Life+during+the+war+for+Private+Patrick+Joseph+Bugden+VC
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The Middlesex Regiment - The 7th Battalion

For over three months after the signing of the Armistice on 11th November, 1918, the 7th Battalion was quartered in Belgium, and on 5th December had the honour of being in-spected by His Majesty The King during his visit to the Army in Europe. Demobilization was begun on 9th January, 1919, and by the end of February, when the Battalion was selected to form part of the Army of the Rhine, its strength had been reduced to a little over 200 all ranks. Whilst still stationed at Mons, the Battalion received a farewell visit from its Commanding Officer, Colonel King, whose temporary rank of Colonel, whilst serving on the staff of XV Corps, had just been made permanent.

http://www.prole.demon.co.uk/middlesex/7bw.html
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Lisle and Grace Billington Correspondence - January 9, 1919



Sq'd'n A --
Dorr Field
Jan 9th 1919

Dearest Wife: --
Not much to write
about but you know I
want to write to you any
way. We dont know any
thing about getting out
yet -- or any more than
we did -- I think to-
morrow will wind up
most of the work - but
we might be here longer
than we expect, it is like, when
they said we would get across
the pond to France.
I am sending you a
picture, it is one I never knew
was taken untill I saw it.
you can guess who I am thinking
about! my mind was a long
ways from where the picture
was taken. I dont think
it is often a person could get
a picture of me just like this
one --
I haven't got a good picture
for Marguerite, but will get
one sometime, for her, she
will get one. I guess she wouldn't
want one like this one -
would she. I'll have to have
my picture taken some time.
Well sweetheart there isn't
anything to write about so
will close for this time --
Your Loving Husband
Lisle Billington



http://www.utulsa.edu/mcfarlin/speccoll/collections/Billington/1919/B01091919.htm
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Farewell address of Horace F. Graham - As it appears in the Journal of the Joint Assembly 1919
Thursday, January 9, 1919

(...) WAR

In referring to the part Vermont had in the great war, I shall say but little, as the subject is fresh in your minds. To many of you it has come home in the loss of some dear one killed in action, missing or dead from wounds or disease. Many will return incapacitated by wounds or disease for their former activities in civil life. To these you will in the years to come extend a helping hand. Many more will return strengthened in health and character and with a broader view of life. These will soon become the rulers and guiders of the destiny of this Republic and what they believe to be best for us will become the principles about which our governmental activities will center. In passing let me say that now is the time when Vermont’s part in the great struggle should be written by competent minds. I hope you will see to it that provision is made for this before you adjourn. It can best be done now by those who have lived what they would write. Some Vermont troops were called into service before war was actually declared and the balance followed directly. After encampment at Fort Ethan Allen, the Regiment was ordered to Camp Bartlett in Westfield, Massachusetts and when the 26th Division was formed, Vermont troops were used to make up the major part of the ammunition train and the machine gun battalions of that Division. In the early fall of 1917 this Division, made up entirely of New England National Guard troops, went abroad. It was the first National Guard division to go overseas and the first to go into the trenches. The balance of the regiment about three hundred in number, soon went south and for a time, with many other National Guard organizations, remained inactive. It then became the 57th Pioneer Infantry and was used as a replacement regiment. Finally with many men from Tennessee this regiment went overseas in October, 1918. On arrival in France the troops were used for replacement purposes and many of the officers given other commands. I endeavored without avail, to have the Regiment kept as a unit and filled to modern war strength with volunteers and selective service men. While many National Guard officers were discharged because of physical or mental defects, not a National Guard officer from Vermont has been found wanting; all have remained in the service and many have gone to higher and more active commands.
The Vermont Committee of Public Safety was appointed in March, 1917 and immediately organized under the chairmanship of Colonel Ira L. Reeves and the secretaryship of Fred A. Howland. When Colonel Reeves was called into service he was succeeded as chairman by James Hartness, who subsequently was succeeded at his entrance upon special war work at home and overseas, by Judge Leighton P. Slack. When Mr. Howland entered upon the War Savings Stamp campaign, Joseph G. Brown became secretary of the Committee. The Committee has been able, with the aid of patriotic and liberal citizens, to finance its work without funds from the State and now has a balance in the hands of its treasurer, Charles F. Lowe. While in some of our sister states, like expenses have been paid from the public treasury, Vermonters have performed this service as a patriotic duty.
Vermont joined with the other New England states in furnishing sawmill units of use in England. When the Vermont troops left Fort Ethan Allen, one thousand dollars was placed in the hands of Major J.M. Ashley to assist any of the men. The District Exemption Board was organized as prescribed by the President, George O. Gridley representing manufacturing; Willis N. Cady, farming; Alexander Ironside, labor; H.C. Tinkham, M.D. as the medical member and Judge Henry Conlin as the legal member. The board appointed J.G. Norton, Chief Clerk. A Local Exemption Board was organized in each county, Rutland County having two boards. Medical and Legal Advisory Boards soon followed. Captain S.S. Cushing was appointed Military Aide and Dr. J.B. Wheeler, Medical Aide to the governor. Dr. Wheeler was afterwards succeeded by Dr. J.H. Woodruff. In one of my interviews with General Crowder he told me that the machinery of the law was as well organized in Vermont as in any other state and had given his department the least trouble. Vermont has contributed two officers to the office of Provost Marshal General Crowder, Lieut. Colonel Joseph Fairbanks and Major Henry B. Shaw. Adjutant General Lee S. Tillotson went into service in December 1917. Colonel Herbert T. Johnson was appointed Acting Adjutant General and has proved to be a most efficient and painstaking officer. It should be borne in mind that all this organization and the work that followed meant many conferences, much correspondence and many trips to Washington and elsewhere. I have attached to this message a table showing the condition of the military appropriation on December 31, 1918. At the suggestion of the National Government, a Home Guard regiment of twelve companies of fifty-three officers and men each, was organized. The First Regiment, Vermont Volunteer Militia should be kept intact until Congress determines the military
policy of the Country. The officers and men have been attentive to the work, have served without pay and, while luckily they have not been called into active service, were fully armed, clothed, equipped and thoroly drilled and if needed would have given a good account of themselves. From Colonel Johnson down, many of the officers and men had long been in the National Guard, some had seen service in the Spanish American War and a few in the Regular Army. For a time certain factories, plants and public utilities were under guard at state expense. These guards were withdrawn at 6 p.m. Saturday, June 30, 1917. The State has a valid claim against the National Government for approximately $150,000 for money expended in putting the First Vermont Infantry upon a war footing and I am advised by those in authority that this claim will be honored in due time. The question of whether state pay shall be granted to all who entered the service will come before you, and the Treasurer will advise you how this matter is being handled in other states and what the probable expense will be. This is a matter of state policy for you to determine. About fifteen thousand men have entered the service from Vermont, thirty-five hundred have been paid the state pay in full and thirty-three hundred are now on the roll. The balance of the fifteen thousand who have not yet applied are mostly selective service men to whom the present law does not apply. Volunteer nurses should be recognized as well as enlisted men. The total amount expended for state pay to December 31, 1918, was $512,103.94. The balance of the war appropriation unexpended on that date was $194,846.78. Sixty-one men from Vermont have been cited for their conduct or for bravery.
I have appended to this message a table showing the total enrollment from Vermont and the casualty list as it stood on December 31, 1918. I recommend that a proper certificate be given to each soldier, sailor, nurse and civilian employee from Vermont, showing fully the war service performed. It is needless for me to recount the different war endeavors, each of which Vermont has made a remarkable success.
Vermont was the first state to organize the pupils of her public schools for home garden work. This organization was known as the Green Mountain Guard. The second year it became a branch of the U.S. Boys’ Working Reserve. A movement is now on foot to provide farms for returning soldiers. In Vermont, this matter is in charge of a committee consisting of Elbert S. Brigham, Commissioner of Agriculture, and Frederick H. Bickford, State Farm Labor Agent. Last week I named as delegates to a conference called by the Secretary of the Interior, at Springfield, Massachusetts, Willis N. Cady of Middlebury, Orlando L. Martin of Plainfield, Ernest W. Dunklee of Vernon and Edson N. Connal of Newport Town, the last two of whom are members of the present House.
James Hartness of Springfield retired from the chairmanship of the Vermont Committee of Public Safety to become Federal Food Administrator for Vermont. Later he was sent overseas as a member of the Aircraft commission and was succeeded as Food Administrator by Frank H. Brooks of St. Johnsbury.
In the early part of the war, Hugh J.M. Jones of Montpelier was appointed Federal Fuel Administrator. He was assisted by Mason S. Stone, who was succeeded later by Marshal J. Wood of Montpelier.
Rooms were provided in the State House for the District Board and for the Fuel Administration from their organization until just prior to the convening of the legislature. When Mr. Brooks took charge of the Food Administration, he established his office in the State House and just recently moved it to St. Johnsbury.
The Commissioner of Industries was early selected by the Federal Government to look after labor matters in Vermont. To this work he has been obliged to give considerable time. (...)

http://vermont-archives.org/govhistory/gov/govinaug/farewells/pdf/Graham1919.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 0:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: “In This Supreme Hour of Our National Danger”
The Worker, 9 January 1915

The report is a terrible indictment of the social conditions and civic administration of Dublin. Most of us have supposed ourselves to be familiar with the melancholy statistics of the Dublin slums ... We did not know that nearly 28,000 of our fellow-citizens live in dwellings which even the Corporation admits to be unfit for human habitation. We had suspected the difficulty of decent living in the slums; the report proves the impossibility of it. Nearly a third of our population so lives that from dawn to dark and from dark to dawn it is without cleanliness, privacy or self-respect; the sanitary conditions are revolting. Even the ordinary standard of savage morality can hardly be maintained. To condemn the young child to an upbringing in the Dublin slums is to condemn it to physical degradation and an appalling precocity in vice.

The above quotation is from the Irish Times’ comment upon the report of the Inquiry into Housing Conditions in Dublin issued during the last days of the great dispute of 1913-14. We reproduce it to-day because there is a danger that amid the clash of arms, and the spectacular magnificence of international war, the working class voters of Dublin may be dazzled or chloroformed into forgetfulness of the horrors, and the responsibility for the horrors, that lie around them and degrade and destroy many thousands of their lives. It is our duty to our own class, to our country, and to ourselves to see that the voters do not so forget, but that on the contrary they seize the opportunity given them by the elections to strike as hard a blow as they can at the system responsible for such atrocities, and at the political parties which uphold that system.

Of course, we will be told that “now in this supreme hour of our national danger”, etc, all ideas of war between classes should be laid aside and we all should co-operate harmoniously together. In answer we would ask – Has any capitalist or landlord shown any forbearance towards the workers more than they have been compelled to by the force of law, or by the power of labour unions? Is it not the fact that “in this supreme hour of our national danger” the employers are seizing eagerly upon every pretext to reduce wages and victimise the workers? The great loyalist firm of Switzer and Co have enforced a severe cut in the wages of the employees in their drapery establishment, and their example has been followed all over the city and country. The firm of S.N. Robinson, coal importers, have cut down the carting rates for all government contracts, so that their drivers now receive from 2d to 6d per ton less for coal carted to government establishments than they are entitled to receive. The law says that all government contractors must pay the standard rate paid in their district, but this firm laughs at the law and steals their employees’ wages. “In this supreme hour of our national danger” rents are going up, prices are steadily mounting to the sky, more and more men, women and girls are disemployed; more and more we see few workers compelled to do the work usually done by a greater number, and persistently as all the necessaries of life go up the wages of the labourer are relentlessly hammered down. “In this supreme hour of our national danger.”

Nay, let the truth be told though the heavens fall! The greatest danger that we see at the present moment is that the whole brood of parasites and spongers upon Labour whom our past agitations have dragged into light, the vile crew who have waxed fat and wealthy by the robbery of Dublin’s poor, the slum landlords of the vile and disease-laden Dublin tenements condemned alike by the laws of God and man, the sweaters whose speciality is the grinding down of women and girls, and all the unclean politicians, ward heelers and personators who have fastened upon the vitals of the working class – the greatest danger is that these enemies of their kind should succeed in escaping the public wrath under cover of the excitement and confusion of the war.

Therefore we cry aloud that all might hear: War or no war those slums must be swept out of existence; war or no war those slum landlords are greater enemies than all the “Huns” of Europe; war or no war our children must have decent homes to grow up in, decently equipped schools to attend, decent food whilst at school; streets, courts and hallways decently lighted at nights; war or no war the workers of Dublin should exert themselves first for the conquest of Dublin by those whose toil makes Dublin possible; war or no war the most sacred duty of the working class of Ireland is to seize every available opportunity to free itself from the ravenous maw of the capitalist system and to lay the foundations for the Co-operative Commonwealth – the Working Class Republic.

“In this supreme hour of our national danger”, we call upon the Working Class of Ireland to remember that the only enemy it actually knows of is the enemy that lives upon its labour, that steals its wages, that rackrents its members, that oppresses its women and girl workers, that constantly seeks to encompass its social degradation. All the fleets and armies of the ‘alien enemy’ are not as hurtful to our lives, as poisonous to our moral development, as destructive to our social well-being as any one street of tenement houses in the slums of Dublin.

The Municipal Elections are the most important things for the moment in the interest of our class. That the flag of the Dublin Labour Party should float victoriously over each of the seven wards it is contesting is more essential for the better interests of civilisation in this island than the planting of the flag of a robber empire upon the ramparts of some alien capital in Continental Europe.

Our call then is for Volunteers for this great fight to redeem Dublin from the hands of the capitalist barbarians.

Will Magnificent Dublin of the Workers magnificently respond?

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1915/01/supreme.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2012 10:00    Onderwerp: 9 januari 1916: Einde van de slag om Gallipoli Reageer met quote

9 januari 1916: Einde van de slag om Gallipoli

Het Turkse schiereiland Gallipoli (Gelibolu) is van april 1915 tot en met januari 1916 het toneel van een grote slag. De inzet is een doorgangsroute naar Rusland via de Dardanellen, de Zee van Marmara en de Bosporus, omdat de routes over land worden geblokkeerd door Duitsland en Oostenrijk-Hongarije. In februari 1915 wordt de aanval ingezet met oude schepen van de Britse en Franse marine. Een grote operatie volgt op 18 maart, maar als een aantal schepen op mijnen loopt, blazen de Geallieerden de aftocht. Het besluit valt om grondtroepen in te zetten, maar omdat het meer dan een maand kost om de manschappen naar Turkije te krijgen, hebben de Ottomanen meer dan genoeg tijd om zich voor te bereiden op een grondoorlog.

Op 25 april 1915 landen de Britten en Fransen op het schiereiland. De tegenstand is vanaf het begin fel en omdat er steeds nieuwe Ottomaanse troepen op Gallipoli aankomen, slagen de Geallieerden er niet in strategische plaatsen te veroveren. Na een mislukt offensief in augustus wordt in het najaar besloten tot terugtrekken. Op 9 januari 1916 vertrekken de laatste Britten van het schiereiland. De Turkse overwinning markeert het begin van de politieke carrière van luitenant-kolonel Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, de grondlegger en latere president van de republiek Turkije.


Bron: kb.nl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2012 10:03    Onderwerp: January 9, 1916 - Gallipoli Campaign Ends Reageer met quote

January 9, 1916 - Gallipoli Campaign Ends with Occupation of Istanbul

After nine grueling months of combat, ANZAC troops led the charge into the capital of the Ottoman Empire and brought about its surrender. It was a campaign that was conceived initially by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and solved many of the Allies' problems after the opening of the World War had come to stalemate. Trench warfare in France had come to a standstill, and the Allies needed a new front to break into the territory of the Central Powers. First Sea Lord John Fisher suggested an amphibious landing in Germany itself to break the Kaiser's strength at home, but Churchill suggested taking the Dardanelles, which would break up the Ottoman Empire while also making use of outdated naval ships unfit for combat against the German fleet as well as establishing supply lines to Russia, which was effectively cut off from the rest of the Allies by the Central fronts, German ships, and ice.

Churchill won the debate, and an Allied fleet made its first attack on February 19, 1915. Initial bombardment weakened the fortresses along the Dardanelles, so Admiral Carden cabled Churchill that victory would be assured by a major push in early March. Fisher and others in the Navy noted that losses would be severe, and Fisher repeatedly threatened to resign over the matter. Churchill initially dismissed the notion, saying that war was war, but he finally conceded and asked Fisher to outline a battle plan with minimal loss. Instead of the direct attack planned, the navy would give support while covert agents swept for mines and destroyed mobile artillery that could attack from anywhere along the shore.

Rather than the direct attack, the British and French fleets moved slowly and methodically, eliminating any possible mines while the Ottomans continued to patrol and strike whenever possible. The latter struggled constantly with low ammunition, and the Allies gradually made their way upward to the forts guarding the narrow-most corridor of the Dardanelles. Under naval artillery support, troops were landed at Cape Helles, most notably the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps, who had been training in Egypt for battle in France and suddenly reassigned. Also among them were elite troops in the British Gurkhas, the Jewish Legion, and many English and Irish. The Ottomans fought back fiercely, such as the stand of the 57th Infantry Regiment under the command Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal, who said, “I do not expect you to attack, I order you to die. In the time which passes until we die, other troops and commanders can come forward and take our places.”

Over the course of the next months, battle after battle would press the Allies forward. Both armies would suffer from intense heat in the summer, mosquitoes and vermin, storms, flooding, and frostbite during the winter. That spring, the navy would break through the strait and gain open water in the Sea of Marmara, setting up a new stage for the campaign in besieging and assaulting Istanbul. Joined by the Russian fleet from across the Black Sea, the city would be cut off from the rest of the empire, which would shatter over the course of 1916. The Armenians, who had been executed en masse for their volunteer forces in Russia, rebelled openly and were promised their own nation-state. The Young Turk movement, which had been suppressed and even turned to fight against the invasion of the Allies, now declared the caliphate abolished, establishing a new republic. Other territories of the Ottomans were broken apart, though diplomats were busy solidifying the entrances of Romania and Greece into the war and left the divisions to the Arab Bureau of the Foreign Office, working primarily with archeologist / Intelligence Officer T.E. Lawrence and General Archibald Murray of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. The new national lines followed the division of people groups, notoriously spawning wars in the Middle East throughout the twentieth century, though rarely violent internal matters.

The collapse of the Ottoman Empire seemed a great boon for the Allies, but the fall of Russia later that year would bring the war to another standstill until won after the entrance of the United States and devastating Spanish Flu pandemic. The signing of the Treaty of Versailles would be the first great note of Sir Winston Churchill's career as Prime Minister.


--

In reality, the Gallipoli Campaign would be one of the bloodiest failures of the Allies in World War I, ending with an evacuation of troops on January 9, 1916. Churchill and Fisher would argue to the point of Fisher's resignation, though the two retained mutual respect. Churchill received much of the blame for the failures at Gallipoli and was demoted, eventually taking a short retirement from politics and commanding an infantry battalion on the Western Front. The genocide against the Armenians, which would total over one million deaths, is believed to have been intensified because of the desperation of war in Gallipoli.

Bron: thisdayinalternatehistory.blogspot.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2012 10:08    Onderwerp: On This Day - 9 January 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 9 January 1916

Western Front - Slight German attack in Champagne.

Eastern Front - Further Russian offensive in Bukovina.

Southern Front - Austrians assault Mt. Lovchen (Montenegro).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres - Turks fall back to the Wadi.


Bron: firstworldwar.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2012 12:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Comité de Salut Public (Luxemburg)

Het Comité de Salut Public (Nederlands: Comité voor Openbare Veiligheid) werd op 9 januari 1919 opgericht door Luxemburgse republikeinen als voorlopige regering.

Lees verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comité_de_Salut_Public
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2014 19:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

London Gazette 9 januari 1913
http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/28791/pages/257


Daily Telegraph January 9 1914
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ww1-archive/10556610/Daily-Telegraph-January-9-1914.html
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