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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2006 17:12    Onderwerp: 3 december Reageer met quote

1916 : Nivelle replaces Joffre as French commander
As part of a general upheaval within the French government and military due in part to demoralizing losses at Verdun and the Somme, the formidable General Joseph-Jacques-CÉsaire Joffre is dismissed as commander in chief of the French forces in favor of General Robert Nivelle.

French authorities blamed Joffre, the stalwart champion of France’s Plan XVII military strategy since 1911, for recent defeats on the Western Front as well as for the situation in the eastern Mediterranean, where some 500,000 Allied troops based out of the Greek port city of Salonika were mired in what they feared might be a losing struggle with Bulgarian forces. For his part, Nivelle believed an aggressive offensive was the key to a breakthrough on the Western Front. The French government felt pressure to take some action to counter the Germans’ declaration of unrestricted U-boat warfare; they were also swayed by the support Nivelle enjoyed from their counterparts in Britain, including the new prime minister, David Lloyd George.

In early April 1917, then, French and British troops embarked on what would become known as the Nivelle Offensive, hoping to quickly and decisively punch a hole through the German lines in France. All did not go as planned, however, as the strength and depth of the German positions, built up since the fall of 1914, proved too much for the Allies. By the end of the first day, almost all the French tanks, introduced into battle for the first time, had been destroyed or had become bogged down, and within a week the hospitals in the area were treating 96,000 wounded. The battle was called off on April 20.

The contrast between Nivelle’s lofty objectives and the reality of the offensive’s disappointing outcome caused great disillusionment and anger among the French troops. A series of mutinies began in late April 1917 and increased in the two succeeding months, eventually involving about 40,000 troops. Nivelle had cut soldiers’ leave time in March, only releasing 5 percent of the French army at a time. In July, Nivelle was replaced by Phillipe PÉtain, who increased the leave time given to each soldier to 13 percent, or ten days’ leave every four months, in an effort to curb discontent and offer the French troops some much-needed time to rest and recuperate.

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1914

Von der Front nichts Neues
Großes Hauptquartier, 3. Dezember, vormittags.
Auf beiden Kriegsschauplätzen hat sich nichts Besonderes ereignet.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)





Zusammenkunft des Deutschen Kaisers und des Erzherzogs Friedrich
Großes Hauptquartier, 3. Dezember.
Seine Majestät der Kaiser hatte gestern in Breslau eine Besprechung mit dem Oberstkommandierenden des österreichisch-ungarischen Heeres. Seiner Kaiserlichen und Königlichen Hoheit dem Erzherzog Friedrich, der von seiner Kaiserlichen und Königlichen Hoheit dem Erzherzog-Thronfolger Karl Franz Josef und dem Chef des Generalstabes, General der Infanterie Freiherrn Conrad v. Hoetzendorf, begleitet war. Später besuchte der Kaiser die Verwundeten in den Lazaretten der Stadt.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Der amtliche Bericht über die Einnahme von Belgrad
Wien, 3. Dezember.
Vom südlichen Kriegsschauplatz wird amtlich gemeldet:
Siegreiches Vordringen unserer Truppen über die Kolubara hat den Gegner gezwungen, Belgrad, dessen Verteidigungsanlagen gegen Norden gerichtet waren, kampflos preiszugeben, um nicht die dortige Besatzung der Gefangennahme auszuliefern. Unsere Truppen sind über die Save und aus südwestlicher Richtung in Belgrad eingedrungen und haben die Höhen südlich der Stadt besetzt. Die öffentlichen Gebäude, auch die Gesandtschaftspalais Deutschlands und Österreich-Ungarns wurden sofort militärisch gesichert. An den übrigen Teilen der Gefechtsfront kam es gestern, da der Feind im Rückzuge und die eigenen Kolonnen auf den grundlosen Wegen nur langsam vorwärts kommen, nur zu kleineren Kämpfen mit feindlichen Nachhuten, von denen zirka zweihundert Mann gefangen wurden.

Wien, 3. Dezember, mittags.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Unsere Situation auf dem nordöstlichen Kriegsschauplatz hat sich gestern nicht geändert.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)





Die sozialdemokratische Fraktion gegen Liebknecht

Karl Liebknecht

Berlin, 3. Dezember.
Der "Vorwärts" publiziert nachstehende Erklärung:

Der Vorstand der sozialdemokratischen Reichstagsfraktion stellt fest, daß der Genosse Karl Liebknecht entgegen dem alten Brauch der Fraktion, der durch einen ausdrücklichen Beschluß für den vorliegenden Fall erneuert wurde, gegen die Kriegskreditvorlage gestimmt hat. Der Vorstand bedauert diesen Bruch der Disziplin, der die Fraktion noch beschäftigen wird, aufs tiefste.

Der Vorstand der sozialdemokratischen Fraktion des Reichstags.

Das führende sozialdemokratische Blatt schreibt seinerseits dazu: "Der Brauch der Fraktion bei den Abstimmungen besteht darin, daß entgegen dem Fraktionsbeschluß nicht gestimmt werden darf, den einzelnen Fraktionsmitgliedern steht frei, den Saal zu verlassen, ohne daß es den Charakter einer Demonstration annehmen darf." 1)





Die Japaner in Tsingtau
Tokio, 3. Dezember. (W. B.)
Das Reutersche Bureau berichtet:
Das Hauptquartier meldet, daß bei der Einnahme von Tsingtau 2500 Gewehre, 100 Maschinengewehre, 1200 Pfund Sterling, 15000 Tonnen Steinkohlen und 40 Automobile erbeutet wurden. Alle Schiffe seien vernichtet. Die Vorräte hätten ausgereicht, um 5000 Mann drei Monate lang zu ernähren.
Die "Petersburger Telegrafenagentur" meldet aus Tokio: Der Hafen von Tsingtau wurde zum japanischen Kriegshafen erster Klasse erklärt, Handelsschiffen ist kein Zutritt gestattet.
Die japanische Regierung entsandte eine achtköpfige Fachkommission nach den gegen Deutschland Krieg führenden und den neutralen Ländern, um Erhebungen anzustellen, in welchem Maße Japan an die Stelle Deutschlands als Warenlieferant treten könne.

Tokio, 3. Dezember. (Priv.-Tel )
Über die Bedeutung der Eroberung Tsingtaus äußerte sich der Ministerpräsident Okuma einem Vertreter der "Hodschi" gegenüber dahin, der Verlust Tsingtaus sei die erste Abschlagszahlung Deutschlands auf die Kriegskosten als erstes greifbares Resultat des Krieges, denn andere lägen bis jetzt noch nicht vor. 2)





Französische Kriegsgerichtsurteile gegen Deutsche
Paris, 3. Dezember. (Priv.-Tel.)
Wie dem "Temps" aus Casablanca gemeldet wird, verurteilte das Kriegsgericht die deutschen Staatsangehörigen Brandt, einen ehemaligen Konsularagenten, und seinen Geschäftsteilhaber Zell zum Tode. Sie wurden beschuldigt, Spionage getrieben und den Eingeborenen Waffen verkauft zu haben. 2)





Tagung des französischen Parlaments
Bordeaux, 3. Dezember. (W. B. )
Der Ministerrat unter dem Vorsitz des Präsidenten Poincaré beschloß, die Kammer zu einer außerordentlichen Session auf den 22. Dezember in Paris einzuberufen. Die Minister reisen Ende nächster Woche nach Paris, um dem Finanzausschuß des Senats und dem Budgetausschuß der Kammer zur Verfügung zu stehen. Präsident Poincaré wird ebenfalls dann in Paris sein. 2)





Die englischen Verluste
London, 3. Dezember (W. B.)
Der militärische Korrespondent der "Times" gibt die Verluste der britischen Armee auf 84000 Mann an, was ungefähr der ursprünglichen Stärke des britischen Heeres entspreche, als es ins Feld rückte. Die Verluste in der Schlacht bei Ypern und Armentieres betrugen etwa 50 000 Mann, wovon etwa 5500 auf das indische Korps entfielen. Der Korrespondent fährt dann fort: "Wir müssen zugeben, daß die deutschen Truppen trotz schrecklicher Verluste noch zahlreicher sind als wir, und daß sie starke Stellungen einnehmen. Sie besitzen eine furchtbare Artillerie, die zerstreut aufgestellt und wohl verborgen ist. Ihr schweres Geschütz hat noch die Oberhand und begräbt beständig unsere Leute, indem ganze Abteilungen der Laufgräben zerstört werden. Ihre Scharfschützen sind kühn und hartnäckig. Ihre Grabenmörser und Granaten verursachen uns beständige Verluste und obwohl ihre Aufklärung in der Luft seltener geworden ist erscheinen doch noch Tauben und Albatros-Flugzeuge über uns und beobachten, was wir tun. Die englischen Offiziere und Unteroffiziere sind in schrecklichem Maße geschwächt Wir haben fast die ganze reguläre Reserve und den besten Teil der Spezialreserve vieler Korps an die Front gebracht. Wenn die Depots nicht länger imstande sind, guten und regelmäßigen Ersatz zu schicken, würde die Armee an der Front gern einen Teil der neuen Armeen als Ersatz begrüßen. Wir brauchen jeden Mann, den wir finden können, und werden bald erwägen müssen, wie wir die neuen Aushebungen am besten an der Front verwenden können, ob als Armeen, Divisionen und Brigaden in Einheiten oder zur Auffüllung." 2)


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1915

Erfolgreiche Kämpfe bei Mitrovica
Großes Hauptquartier, 3. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Zwei feindliche Monitoren beschossen wirkungslos die Gegend von Westende.
Südlich von Lombartzyde (bei Nieuport) wurde ein französischer Posten überrascht; einige Gefangene fielen in unsere Hand. Im übrigen zeigte die Gefechtstätigkeit an der Front keine Veränderung gegen die vorhergehenden Tage.
Westlich von Roye mußte ein französischer Doppeldecker im Feuer unserer Abwehrgeschütze landen. Die Insassen, zwei Offiziere, wurden gefangengenommen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei der Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen überfielen unsere Truppen bei Podczerewicze am Styr (nördlich der Eisenbahn Kowel - Sarny) eine vorgeschobene russische Abteilung und nahmen 66 Mann gefangen.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Im Gebirge südwestlich von Mitrovica spielen sich erfolgreiche Kämpfe mit vereinzelten feindlichen Abteilungen ab. Dabei wurden gestern über 1200 Serben gefangengenommen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Gescheiterte Angriffe der Italiener vor Görz
Wien, 3. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Stellenweise Geschützkampf und Geplänkel.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Nach den wieder gänzlich mißlungenen feindlichen Angriffen der letzten Tage auf den Tolmeiner Brückenkopf und auf unsere Bergstellungen nördlich davon trat gestern dort Ruhe ein.
Bei Oslavia wurde heute nacht abermals ein Vorstoß der Italiener abgewiesen; ebenso scheiterten Angriffe auf den Monte San Michele und den Nordhang dieses Berges. Bei San Martino wurde eine italienische Abteilung aufgerieben.
Görz stand unter besonders lebhaftem Feuer, das namentlich im Stadtinnern neuen bedeutenden Schaden verursachte.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Westlich und südlich von Novibazar nahmen österreichisch-ungarische Abteilungen, denen sich viele bewaffnete Mohammedaner anschlossen, vorgestern und gestern 3500 Serben gefangen. Bei den Kämpfen im Gebiete zwischen Mitrovica und Ipek griffen an unserer Seite zahlreiche Arnauten ein.
An der Gedenkfeier, die unsere Truppen am 2. Dezember im Sandschak Novibazar und in Mitrovica begingen, nahm die einheimische Bevölkerung begeistert teil.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 3. Dezember.
An der Kaukasusfront beschränkt sich die Tätigkeit, da der frische Schnee stellenweise 3 Meter hoch liegt und auch heftige Wirbelstürme einsetzten, nur auf bedeutungslose Zusammenstöße der Patrouillen.
An der Dardanellenfront aussetzender Artilleriekampf und heftiger Bombenkampf an einigen Stellen. Bei Anaforta ließ der Feind zwei Panzerkreuzer, bei Ari Burun und Sed ül Bahr zwei Kreuzer eine Zeitlang an dem Feuer seiner Landbatterien teilnehmen. Unsere Artillerie erwiderte der feindlichen Landartillerie wirksam, verursachte bedeutenden Schaden an Teilen der feindlichen Schützengräben, bei seinen Truppen, die außerhalb der Deckung beobachtet wurden, und vernichtete eine feindliche Maschinengewehrstellung bei Anaforta und einige Bombenwerferstellungen bei Ari Burun. Außerdem erzielten unsere Artilleristen Volltreffer mit zwei Geschossen auf dem Hinterteil und mit einem Geschoß auf dem Verdeck eines feindlichen Kreuzers, der von den Küstengewässern von Sed ül Bahr her das Feuer eröffnet hatte, und zwangen diesen Kreuzer, das Feuer einzustellen und sich zurückzuziehen.
Eines unserer Flugzeuge warf Bomben auf ein feindliches Torpedoboot, das am Nordufer der Bucht von Saros, 3 Kilometer westlich vom Kap Iridsche, gestrandet war.
Am 1. Dezember warf der Feind, ohne Schaden anzurichten, Bomben auf das Spitalschiff "Reschid Pascha", das durch seine Gestalt und seine Farbe sowie durch seine sichtbaren Zeichen auch den Feinden als Spitalschiff kenntlich ist.





Joffre "Oberbefehlshaber" auch der französischen Orient-Armee

Joffre

Paris, 3. Dezember.
Infolge eines Berichtes des Kriegsministers Gallieni unterzeichnete der Präsident der Republik folgende zwei Erlasse:
Erster Erlaß. Artikel 1. Der Oberbefehl über die nationalen Armeen - mit Ausnahme der Streitkräfte auf den vom Kolonialminister, dem Oberbefehlshaber der Land- und Seestreitkräfte Nordafrikas und dem Generalresidenten in Marokko abhängigen Kriegsschauplätzen - wird einem Divisionsgeneral anvertraut, welcher den Titel "Oberbefehlshaber der französischen Armeen" führt. - Artikel 2. Weitere Erlässe und Weisungen werden die Durchführungsbedingungen des gegenwärtigen Erlasses regeln.
Zweiter Erlaß. General Joffre, Oberbefehlshaber der Nordostarmeen, wird zum Oberbefehlshaber der französischen Armeen ernannt.





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1916

Günstiger Verlauf der Schlacht am Argesul
Der Argesul überschritten; eine rumänische Stoßgruppe zurückgeworfen

Großes Hauptquartier, 3. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Im Somme- und Maasgebiet nahm zu einzelnen Tagesstunden die Artillerietätigkeit zu und hielt sich auch nachts stellenweise an Stärke über dem gewöhnlichen Maß.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Abgesehen von lebhafterem Feuer an der Narajowka und südlich des Dnjestr keine wesentlichen Ereignisse.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Joseph:
Gestern, am fünften Tage der russisch-rumänischen Karpathenoffensive, richteten sich die Angriffe hauptsächlich gegen die deutschen Linien in den Waldkarpathen. Am Gutin Tomnatek, am Smotrec, besonders heftig westlich der Baba Ludowa und oft wiederholt an der Cretealahöhe stürmten die Russen immer vergeblich an. Unser Feuer riß breite Lücken in die Massen der Angreifer. Vom Nachstoß hinter dem weichenden Feind her brachten an der Baba Ludowa deutsche Jagdkommandos 4 Offiziere und über 300 Mann zurück.
Auch östlich von Kirlibaba, beiderseits des Trotosul- und Oitoz-tales scheiterten starke Angriffe. Hier wurden mehrere hundert Gefangene gemacht.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Die Schlacht am Argesul dauert an; sie hat bisher den von unserer Führung beabsichtigten Verkauf genommen. Von Campolung und Pitesti her gewannen deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Truppen kämpfend Boden.
Im Argesultal stiegen heute nacht zwei Bataillone des westpreußischen Reserve-Infanterieregiments Nr. 21 mit Artillerie unter Führung des verwundeten Majors von Ritter vom neumärkischen Feldartillerieregiments Nr. 54 bis Gaesti vor und nahmen dem Feind dort 6 Haubitzen ab.
Der Argesul ist weiter stromabwärts überschritten.
Eine rumänische Stoßgruppe, die südwestlich von Bukarest über den Argesul und den Neajlovu vorgedrungen war, ist umfaßt und unter schweren Verlusten nach Nordosten über den Neajlovuabschnitt zurückgeworfen worden.
Auf dem äußersten rechten Flügel an der Donau wurden am 1. Dezember russische Angriffe verlustreich abgewiesen. Die Lage hat sich dort am 2. Dezember nicht geändert.
Die Beute der 9. und der Donauarmee aus den gestrigen Kämpfen beläuft sich auf 2860 Gefangene, 15 Geschütze. mehrere Kraftwagen und sehr viele andere Fahrzeuge.
Am Westflügel der Dobrudschafront wiesen bulgarische Regimenter starke Angriffe durch Feuer, zum Teil durch Vorstoß über die eigenen Linien zurück. Weiter östlich gingen ottomanische und bulgarische Abteilungen gegen die russischen Stellungen vor, stellten durch Gefangene von drei russischen Divisionen die Verteilung der feindlichen Kräfte fest und erbeuteten 2 Panzerkraftwagen mit englischer Besatzung.
Mazedonische Front:
Nach Trommelfeuer griff der Gegner die von Bulgaren besetzte Höhe 1248 nordwestlich von Monastir an und holte sich dabei blutige Verluste. Die Höhe blieb ebenso wie der gleichfalls angegriffene Ruinenberg bei Gruniste fest in der Hand der Verteidiger.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Siegreiche Entscheidung der Schlacht am Argesul
Berlin 3. Dezember (Amtlich.)
Die Schlacht am Argesul nordwestlich von Bukarest ist von der 9. Armee gewonnen. Seine Majestät der Kaiser haben Allerhöchst aus diesem Anlaß in Preußen und Elsaß-Lothringen am 4. Dezember Kirchengeläut angeordnet. 1)





Weiteres Vordringen am Argesul
Berlin, 3. Dezember, abends. (Amtlich.)
Im Westen und Osten nichts Besonderes.
In Rumänien erfolgreiches Vordringen am Argesul.
An der mazedonischen Front starkes Feuer bei Monastir und Gruniste. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 3. Dezember.
Amtlich wird gemeldet:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Südwestlich von Bukarest versuchte der Feind durch den Vorstoß starker, rasch zusammengeraffter Kräfte eine Wendung herbeizuführen. Die feindliche Angriffsgruppe wurde von Süden und Westen her gefaßt und über den Niaslow zurückgeworfen. Gleichzeitig überschritten deutsche Truppen westlich von Bukarest den Argesul. Westlich und südwestlich von Gaesti brachen österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Divisionen erneuten rumänischen Widerstand. Andere Kolonnen der Armee des Generals von Falkenhayn dringen im Dambovitatal vor. Die auf rumänischen Boden gestern eingebrachten Gefangenen übersteigen 2800. Es wurden 15 Geschütze erbeutet.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Josef:
Die Karparthenoffensive des Feindes dauert an. Die gegnerischen Angriffe richten sich vornehmlich gegen das Gebiet beiderseits des oberen Trotus gegen unsere Stellungen im südöstlichen Winkel Galiziens. Der Feind wurde, wie an den Vortagen, überall unter schweren Verlusten abgeschlagen.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Der Artilleriekampf am Südflügel der küstenländischen Front hielt Tag und Nacht an.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts von Belang.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 3. Dezember.
Rumänische Front:
In der Walachei dauert der Vormarsch fort. Wir machten 200 Gefangene und erbeuteten 1 Kanone. An der Donau Infanteriefeuer. Zwischen Cernavoda und Oltina Artilleriefeuer. In der Dobrudscha setzten heute die Russen ihre verzweifelten Angriffe gegen den linken Flügel unserer Stellung fort. Nach heftigem Artillerie-, Maschinengewehr- und Infanteriefeuervorbereitung, die den ganzen Tag hindurch bis 6 Uhr nachmittags dauerte, unternahmen die Russen den siebenten der innerhalb der letzten zwei Tage angesetzten Angriffe. Schwere Artillerie auf dem linken Donauufer wirkte bei den Angriffen mit. Der Gegner konnte sich unseren Schützengräben auf dreihundert Schritt nähern, wobei er besonders südlich von Satisköj außerordentlich heftig angriff, wo er in ziemlich dichten Kolonnen vorging. Nichtsdestoweniger wurde der Angriff auf der ganzen Front von unseren unerschütterlichen Regimentern blutig abgewiesen, von denen das tapfere 19. Regiment sich am meisten auszeichnete. An dem Angriff nahmen 3 Panzerautomobile teil. von denen zwei durch unser Artilleriefeuer zerstört wurden; das dritte wurde vertrieben. Wir nahmen 132 Soldaten gefangen, die dem 10., 39. und 40. sibirischen Infanterieregiment und dem 242 russischen Infanterieregiment angehören; die türkischen Truppen erbeuteten 1 Panzerautomobil, auf welchem sie 2 englische Offiziere und 6 Soldaten gefangen nahmen.
Mazedonische Front:
Unsere Stellungen nordwestlich von Bitolia wurden heftig beschossen. Wir wiesen durch Gegenangriff einen Sturmangriff gegen die Höhe 1248 zurück. Auf den übrigen Abschnitten der Front schwache Artillerietätigkeit.

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1917

Bevorstehende Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen an der russischen Front

Leutnant Müller

Leutnant Bongartz


Großes Hauptquartier, 3. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Nach heftigem Trommelfeuer bei mondheller Nacht griff der Engländer gestern früh mit starken Kräften unsere Stellungen bei und nördlich von Passchendaele an. Thüringische und hessische Truppen warfen den Feind in schneidigem Gegenstoß zurück und machten 60 Gefangene. Nach Abwehr der Angriffe flaute das Feuer ab; es nahm am Abend vorübergehend wieder erhebliche Stärke an.
Auf dem Kampffelde bei Cambrai war tagsüber nur in wenigen Abschnitten die Feuertätigkeit lebhaft. Am Abend griff der Feind nach starker Feuersteigerung zwischen Inchy und Bourlon an. In heftigen Nahkämpfen wurde er abgewiesen.
Ein englischer Teilangriff bei La Vacquerie scheiterte. Im Gegenstoß wurden 9 Geschütze und 18 Maschinengewehre erbeutet. Die Zahl der seit dem 30. November gemachten Gefangenen hat sich auf 6000, die Beute an Geschützen auf 100 erhöht.
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
In den Argonnen wurden in erfolgreichen Unternehmungen Gefangene eingebracht.
Heeresgruppe Herzog Albrecht:
Die lebhafte feindliche Tätigkeit im Thanner Tal und im Sundgau hält an.
In den letzten drei Tagen verloren unsere Gegner im Luftkampf und durch Abschuß von der Erde 27 Flugzeuge und 2 Fesselballone. Leutnant Müller errang seinen 35., Leutnant v. Bülow seinen 27. und 28., Leutnant Bongartz seinen 25. und 26. Luftsieg.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
In zahlreichen Abschnitten der russischen Front ist von Division zu Division örtliche Waffenruhe vereinbart worden. Mit einer russischen Armee im Gebiet von Pripet bis südlich der Lipa und mit mehreren russischen Generalkommandos wurde Waffenstillstand abgeschlossen. Weitere Verhandlungen sind im Gange. Eine russische Abordnung ist in dem Befehlsbereiche des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern zur Herbeiführung eines allgemeinen Waffenstillstandes eingetroffen.
Mazedonische Front:
Keine größeren Kampfhandlungen.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)





Das russische Waffenstillstandsangebot - Eintreffen der russischen Kommission


Krylenko

Berlin, 3. Dezember. (Amtlich.)
Am 26. November hatte der Volkskommissar für Kriegs- und Marineangelegenheiten und Höchstkommandierende der russischen Armeen, Herr Krylenko durch Parlamentäre anfragen lassen, ob der deutsche Oberbefehlshaber zu sofortigen Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen bereit sei. Noch am gleichen Tage antwortete der Oberbefehlshaber Ost, Prinz Leopold von Bayern, daß er bereit und bevollmächtigt sei, mit der russischen Obersten Heeresleitung über einen Waffenstillstand zu verhandeln. Es wurde sodann mit den Parlamentären Ort und Zeit vereinbart, wo sich eine mit Vollmacht versehene russische Kommission mit einer entsprechenden bevollmächtigten Kommission der Gegenpartei treffen sollte. Die russische Kommission hat sich am 2. Dezember, nachmittags 4,30 Uhr an der verabredeten Stelle eingefunden, um sich unverzüglich zu dem für die Verhandlungen in Aussicht genommenen Ort zu begeben. Dort ist sie am 3. Dezember mittags zu erwarten. 1)





Die Abmachungen über die örtliche Waffenruhe
Berlin, 3. Dezember. (Amtlich.)
Am 1. Dezember 1917 ist mit einer russischen Armee Waffenstillstand für die Front vom Südufer des Pripjet nach Süden bis südlich der Lipa vereinbart worden. Mit dem 2. Dezember 1917, 10 Uhr abends wurden in diesem Abschnitt alle Feindseligkeiten eingestellt.
Es sind Abmachungen getroffen worden, die sich auf Verkehr zwischen den beiderseitigen Linien, Truppenverschiebungen, Stellungsarbeiten und Fliegertätigkeit beziehen.
Für die Kündigung der Waffenruhe ist ein Zeitraum von mindestens 48 Stunden festgesetzt, vor dessen Ablauf die Feindseligkeiten nicht beginnen dürfen. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die russische Abordnung passiert die österreichischen Linien
Wien, 3. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
In den letzten Tagen wurde in vielen Abschnitten der russischen Front von Division zu Division und von Korps zu Korps Waffenruhe vereinbart. Im Pripetgebiet hat eine russische Armee mit dem gegenüberstehenden Kommando der Verbündeten einen formellen Waffenstillstand abgeschlossen. Eine russische Abordnung durchschritt gestern unsere Linien, um mit den Bevollmächtigten der verbündeten Heere einen Waffenstillstand an der ganzen russischen Front anzubahnen.

Der Chef des Generalstabes. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 3. Dezember.
Sinaifront: An der ganzen Front Ruhe, abgesehen von dem üblichen Artilleriefeuer.
Unsere Land- und Wasserflieger warfen Bomben auf Imbros.




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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

3 December 1914 - Units of the AIF began disembarking in Egypt. They were sent to Mena Camp where training commenced. It had been decided to hold the Australians and New Zealanders in Egypt because proper camps in England were not ready to receive them.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-december-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 9:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Kolubara

The Battle of Kolubara (3–9 December 1914) was a major victory of Serbia over the invading Austro-Hungarian armies during World War I. The invaders were routed, and driven back across the Serbian border. (...)

On the 3 December, the 1st Army launched an attack against the surprised 16th Corps. The attack was supported by the Užice army from the left wing. 16th Corps suffered heavy casualties and was pushed back. On the 4 December, 17th Corps tried to hold the advance of the 1st Army, but failed. Potiorek ordered an attack of the 5th Army so that he could complete his operation before the 6th army is defeated. However, the Combined Corps was still on its march.

On the 5 December, the 1st Serbian Army captured Mount Suvobor, the main defensive position of the 6th Austrian Army. Meanwhile, the 3rd Serbian army had failed to push the 15th Corps off of Mount Rudnik, and Užice army suffered heavy casualties. However, these formations pressured the Austro-Hungarian forces and helped the 1st Serbian Army to achieve a breakthrough. In the evening, the Combined Corps arrived at its new position with very tired soldiers.

On 6 December, Potiorek ordered the retreat of the 6th Army on the left bank of the Kolubara. Combined Corps finally attacked the 2nd Army, but the attack was easily stopped. The Combined Corps on the 8 December launched a major attack, but the 2nd Serbian Army managed to hold its position. Other units of the 5th Army under General Liborius Ritter von Frank were more successful, but it was too late. The 1st Serbian Army had captured Valjevo and was pushing north. Vojvoda Putnik reinforced the 2nd Serbian Army with fresh troops and ordered an attack before the Austro-Hungarians could fortify their positions. On 12 December, Stepanović's 2nd Serbian Army attacked and defeated the 8th Corps. The 5th Army had to leave Belgrade and cross the Sava River on 15 December. The battle was over.

The Serbian Army captured 76,000 enemy soldiers, and the number of Austro-Hungarian casualties was even greater. In complete route, the invading army abandoned large quantity of military equipment, according to some sources enough "to equip three army corps". Mišić was promoted to Vojvoda, while Potiorek was retired, replaced by Archduke Eugen of Austria who was placed both in command of the 5th army and as commander in chief of the Balkan army group from December 1914.

In 1914 the Austro-Hungarian Balkan Army Group lost around 224,500 men (out of a total of 450,000 engaged in the battles), while the Serbian army lost around 170,000 men (nearly its entire pre-war strength).

Austria had taken massive losses and yet failed to conquer or defeat Serbia. Austro-Hungarian V and VI armies were driven out of the Serbian territory, abandoning Belgrade to the Serbs.[1] Meanwhile it was under intense pressure from the Russian army on its eastern frontier.

In a very unusual act, German emperor Wilhelm II personally congratulated Radomir Putnik on the victory.

Since Serbia did not really pose a threat to Austria, for the next 10 months the Austrians did nothing against Serbia and most of the forces in the area were transferred to the Italian front. On the other hand, although victorious, Serbian losses were even larger as a proportion of their army strength. Coupled with a terrible typhus epidemic that raged through the countryside during the winter, Serbia remained on the defensive in 1915, hoping for increased Allied support which never came

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kolubara
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Letter sent from Carr Pritchett to his wife Lulie Crawford Pritchett in Denver

Steamboat Springs Colo Dec 3, 1914

My darling
I haven't had much time to write you in the past 2 weeks and I hope you have not felt angry at me or worried, but I have been having a pretty tough experience and it nearly layed me up.

You know there has been no snow this fall like there usually is before cow weather comes on and my whole water system froze up & we did not know it till the water was all out of the tank. The ground was frozen so hard we could not dig it. We managed to dam up a little spring near the barn so the cattle could get some water & for 2 weeks we worked like mad to get the water going - at one time we worked 36 hours - the 25th that night or the 26 - we had to drag dry wood and pile it along the pipe line, which took us 5 days & then burn it to thaw the ground & then mend 3 broken pipe & it getting colder all the time & the poor cattle following us around & begging for water. Last Saturday night we got the water coming into the tank again & the pipe partly covered - and had to quit at night from utter exhaustion and that night toward morning the Good Lord sent about 4 inches of snow and saved us. I think we have it pretty safe now unless it turns bitter cold before more snow comes. My miserable heart gave out on me one night & I had to sit up most of the night and to add to my troubles I fractured a small bone in my right wrist - which put that hand out of commission for several days. I got knocked senseless by a wagon box hitting me in the head. So you see I have been busy & unable to go to town to mail a letter to you. I didn't want to tell you about this trouble & bother you, but knew you would hear about it. I lost 2 cows & 1 calf & am not out of the woods yet as regards water. I tried to do too much this fall & supposed because the pipes didn't freeze last winter they would not do so this, but we did not get any snow to cover it & it was not deep enough & I am very tired & worn out with the hard work & harder worry, but I had that little handkerchief in the pocket over my heart all the time & it helped.

It will be impossible for me to be with you Xmas. I wish very much that I could but I am beginning to think that such pleasures are not for me anymore.

I drew 1000.00 instead of 500 as I wrote you and also another check for 26.00 to pay the reward on Rowdy & a man to ride him to the ranch near Fort Collins. The man who stole him rode him to Laramie City & sold the saddle he stole here & stole another one there & rode to Loveland & was caught after selling the horse for 50.00. He has been working on a delivery wagon there ever since till he was recognized by a man who had one of my printed cards. He is in fine shape so I am told by Mr McEbravy, who is keeping him for me. I don't know yet how I am going to get him. Please don't blow anything on me for Xmas except a little box of candy. Money is too scarce to spend on me & besides there is nothing coming to such as I.

Must close now with all my love. I am very tired.

Your boy, C.

http://www.lulitacrawfordpritchett.com/stories/CarrLetter1914-12-03.html
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Battle of Qurna - Opened 3 December 1914

The Battle of Qurna, 1914 - Following the capture of Basra the commander of Anglo-Indian forces in the region, General Sir Arthur Barrett, looked to consolidate the British position. Having evacuated Basra the Turkish 38th Division, under Subhi Bey, had retreated some 80km upriver to Qurna, a town at the junction of two rivers, the Euphrates and Tigris.

Thus Barrett despatched a minor force - of two infantry battalions aided by a small gunboat fleet - intended to capture Basra on 4 December 1914. While the attacking force succeeded in pushing Turkish batteries from the east bank of the Tigris opposite Qurna, it was unable to cross the river while it was raked by fire from the town itself.

In due course reinforcements from Basra were brought up, boosting the British presence outside Qurna to approximately 2,100 troops along with 16 guns. This preceded a second attempt to cross the river on 6 December, again without success.

The British changed tack two days later, crossing the Tigris several kilometres from Qurna itself, and planned to attack the town from the rear at dawn while the Turks were occupied by British gunboat fire.

This proved unnecessary however as the Turks surrendered the town before the attack was initiated. Over 1,000 Turkish prisoners were taken by the British; losses by the British force were set at just 29.

The net effect of the capture of both Basra and Qurna was to establish a secure British front line in Mesopotamia. It also further encouraged the Indian administration in planning its so-called 'forward defence' - a policy quite at odds with the defensive war envisaged by the War Office in London.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/qurna.htm
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Qurna
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History Behind Rolls Royce Car

The Royal Naval Air Service had raised the first British armoured car squadron during the First World War. In1914 all available Rolls Royce Silver Ghost chassis, including their engines whose power had increased to about 80 hp and were requisitioned to form the basis for this new armoured car.

Rolls Royce Cars was introduced first time on 4th May, 1904 by Frederick Henry Royce and Charles Stewart Rolls. In December 1904, the company had incorporated in an International market exhibiting two, three and four cylinder cars. In 1907, Rolls Royce had emerged with its new baby unit named Rolls Royce Silver Ghost.

On 3 December 1914, the first three vehicles were delivered, by then the mobile period on the Western Front, where the primitive predecessors of the Rolls-Royce cars had served, had already come to an end. Chassis production was suspended in 1917 to enable Rolls-Royce to concentrate on their aero engines.

http://mylovetechnology.com/automobile/history-behind-rolls-royce-car/
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2d Marine Regiment - History

The 2d Marines was originally activated on 19 June 1913 as the 1st Advance Base Regiment at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles G. Long. The unit became part of the Advance Base Brigade in December 1913 and was redesignated the 1st Regiment, Advance Base Brigade, on 18 February 1914. The regiment had participated in a number of training maneuvers in Puerto Rico, Florida, and Louisiana when political conditions began to deteriorate in Mexico. Marine Corps forces were ordered to land at Veracruz after President Woodrow Wilson received word that a German merchant ship was going there with a cargo of arms. On 22 April 1914, the 1st Regiment landed at Veracruz and joined other forces in clearing the city. Two of the regiment’s officers, Major Smedley D. Butler and Lieutenant Colonel Wendell C. Neville, who would later become 14th Commandant of the Marine Corps, received Medals of Honor for distinguished conduct in the battle. The regiment remained there as part of an occupation force for the next seven months, but with the advent of a new and stable government, left Veracruz on 23 November for Philadelphia.

On 3 December 1914, the Advance Base Brigade was reorganized. The 1st Regiment, the fixed defense regiment, was assigned a fire control unit and eight companies, which included four 5-inch gun companies, a searchlight company, a mine company, an engineer company, and an antiaircraft company. The increase of firepower inherent in this reorganization strengthened the regiments capabilities for the further developments of the Marine Advance Base Force. (...)

http://www.usmc.mil/unit/2ndmardiv/2ndmarreg/Pages/History/default.aspx
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Harderwijk - Belgisch militair ereveld

Na de val, in oktober 1914 van de vesting Antwerpen weken ca. 33.000 Belgische
militairen uit naar Nederland. Zij werden geïnterneerd en ondergebracht in een
aantal plaatsen waaronder met name, Amersfoort en Harderwijk. Aan het einde
van de oorlog lagen er op de Algemene begraafplaats van laatstgenoemde stad
zesendertig Belgen begraven, het merendeel overleden aan de Spaanse
griepepidemie van 1918-‘19. Op 28 september 1963 werd het huidige ereveld
officieel door de Belgische ambassadeur in Nederland geopend, nadat de elders
in Nederland overleden Belgische militairen hier waren bijgezet. Er staan nu 225
grafstenen en op het herdenkingsmonument, achteraan op het ereveld, staan de
namen van 124 doden vermeld die niet konden worden herbegraven. De meeste
graven zijn gedolven voor griepslachtoffers. Op de stenen staan evenwel ook de
namen van J.L. Boeykens, P. Deherdt, P.F. Desmedt en C.C. Devrieze, Belgische
militairen die, gezien plaats en datum van overlijden omkwamen tijdens een
opstand in Zeist op 3 december 1914, een opstand die door Nederlandse
bewakingstroepen met geweld werd neergeslagen. Behalve een aantal graven
van Belgische vrouwen en kinderen, elders op het kerkhof bevindt zich daar ook
het graf van een Nederlands meisje dat indirect slachtoffer werd van de oorlog.
Onder een grafmonument in de vorm van een half afgezaagde boom ligt het
stoffelijk overschot van de zesjarige Woutje van de Velde. Zij was slachtoffer van
een door een geïnterneerde Belgische militair in januari 1917 gepleegd
zedenmisdrijf.

http://alfredstaarman.nl/wp-content/uploads/MARIUS1.PDF
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This Month In Australian Military History

3 December 1915 - Siege of Kut begins in Mesopotamia
Nine members of the Australian Flying Corps serving with 30 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, became trapped in Kut with the forces of Major General Charles Townsend when the town was besieged by the Turks. The Kut garrison surrendered in April 1916.

3 December 1914 - First AIF disembarked in Egypt
Though many had expected to go to Britain, after Turkey's entry into the war the first Australian troops were sent to Egypt to protect the vital Suez Canal.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/dec.asp
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Scouting certificate from December 3, 1914, UK

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Scout-card-front.jpg
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The U.S. Government and Prisoner-of-War Responsibilities

From early in the war, it was clear that the inspection and care of POWs would be a monumental task for the U.S. government. Anderson, in a report written in December 1914, focused on the organization of relief work across Europe:

If the Government of the United States, as seems inevitable, is called upon to undertake the administration of this work on behalf of the governments whose interests are entrusted to its care in enemy territory, some systematic and organized method of carrying it on should be established in each country. The work will naturally be under the direction of the American Ambassador in the several countries where the interests of all the belligerents are entrusted to his care, and in those countries where some of the belligerents are represented by the Spanish Ambassador, some plans for cooperation will be necessary, but in all of the belligerent countries the work will be so extensive, and of such a character, that it cannot successfully be dealt with by an embassy staff. If will probably involve the purchasing of large quantities of supplies of various kinds, and their delivery at a large number of camps widely separated, many of which are in inaccessible places, and the distribution of these supplies among soldiers of different nationalities interned in these camps. It will also involve the handling of and accounting for considerable sums of money, and the apportionment among the different nations of the expenditure made on their account. The American Consular Service in each country will be available, and can conveniently be used for a good deal of this work in connection with the work of keeping the several governments informed about the treatment of prisoners in these camps, but some special organization will be necessary to take charge of the purchasing of supplies and the keeping of accounts

http://www.gutenberg-e.org/steuer/steuer.ch03.html
Goed boek! Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=23005
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General-Gouvernement in Belgium, Poster, 3 December 1915

Description: "Veröffentlichungen Des Deutschen General-Governments. Mededeelingen Van Het Duitsche Generaal-Government. Nouvelles Publiées Par Le Gouvernement Général Allemand". Notice publishing information from Humanité, 3 December 1915, in three languages. Signed by “Das General-Gouvernement in Belgien”; “Het Generaal-Gouvernement in Belgiē”; “Le Gouvernement Général en Belgique”.

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/general-gouvernement-belgium-poster-3-december-1915
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Scipio Slataper

Scipio Slataper (14 July 1888 - 3 December 1915) was an Italian language writer from Trieste, most famous for his lyrical essay My Karst. He is considered, alongside Italo Svevo, as the initiator of the prolific tradition of Italian literature in Trieste.

He was born to a relatively wealthy middle class family the city of Trieste, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (today in Italy). His family was of Slavic origin (mostly Slovenes from Goriška), but had assimilated to the Venetian-speaking urban environment of Trieste. After completing his high school studies in the native city, he moved to Florence in Italy, where he studied Italian philology. In Florence, he collaborated to the literary journal La Voce, edited by Giuseppe Prezzolini and Giovanni Papini. During his stay in Florence, he started writing essays and articles on the literary and cultural situation in Trieste. He maintained a close contact with his native city, collaborating both with young Italian intellectuals from the Austrian Littoral, both those who lived in Italy and those who remained in their native region. Slataper's circle included the journalist and critic Giulio Caprin, author Giani Stuparich, his wife Elody Oblath and his brother Carlo Stuparich, the emerging literary critic Silvio Benco, and poets Umberto Saba, Virgilio Giotti and Biagio Marin.

After the suicide of his lover in 1910, Slataper retrieved to the village of Ocizla in the Karst plateau above Trieste, where he wrote his most famous work, the lyrical essay My Karst (Italian: Il mio Carso), considered one of the masterpieces of Italian fin-de-siecle prose. The essay, in which Nietzschean influences can be seen, is an assertion of vitalism and primitive life force. The essay also contains political and philosophical reflections. Among other, Slataper was polemical against the superficial business mentality of the Italian merchants of Trieste and criticized their anti-Slavic prejudices. On the other hand, the work contains highly controversial depictions and reflection on the "suppressed brutal and barbaric nature" of the Slovene peasants from the area.

My Karst was published in Florence in 1912, and remained the only book Slataper published during his lifetime. In 1921, the book was translated to French by Benjamin Crémieux, which helped its spread of Slataper's popularity Europe in the 1920s.

After graduation in 1912, Slataper moved to Hamburg in Germany, where he taught Italian language at the local university. When Italy declared war to Austria-Hungary in March 1915, he moved to Italy and volunteered to join the Italian Army. He was sent to the front along the Isonzo river. In December 1915, he was killed in the Fourth Battle of the Isonzo on the hills surrounding the town of Gorizia.

Slataper had a crucial influence in the creation of a distinct literary tradition in Trieste. Authors influenced by him include Giani and Carlo Stuparich, Fulvio Tomizza, Enzo Bettiza, Susanna Tamaro, Claudio Magris and others. He also influenced several Slovene writers, most notably Marjan Rožanc and Igor Škamperle.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scipio_Slataper
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Excerpten uit het Salland's Volksblad - 1915

3 december 1915 - De Krim: woensdagmiddag was er grote belangstelling op het erf van den heer de Lange, waar statig een luchtballon kwam nederdalen. De ballon bevatte geen luchtreizigers. Bij onderzoek bleek het ballastzakje voorzien van een partij fleschkurken, een bepaald gewicht aan stenen en kalk, terwijl ze bleek herkomstig te zijn van Juterbag bij Berlijn.

http://www.hardenberg.nl/smartsite.shtml?id=73928
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Western Times, 3 December 1915:

On Friday 3 December 1915, the Western Times published a brief piece under the heading "Five Fremington brothers in the Army".

The five brothers were the sons of Charles and Emily West who were living on Fremington Hill at the time. Following in his father's footsteps, Charles was a stone mason. At one time, his mother (Elizabeth) had been the village schoolmistress and most of the family of Charles and Emily were named after their uncles and aunts - her children. It was a large family and at least two sisters and another brother have so far been traced. That 6th and youngest brother is mentioned briefly in the paper; he was Eli George West who, in 1915, was already a member of the Volunteer Training Corps at the age of 14.

Private Alfred Charles West of the 2nd Troop, Queen's Own Worcestershire Hussars (a Yeomanry regiment) was the eldest of the brothers. He was born in 1889 in Shaftsbury, Dorset, which was also the birthplace of his mother. He married Augusta Maud Mary Richards who came from the village of Sowton, just outside Exeter. They lived in Teignmouth.
Alfred died of wounds 29 March 1916 in the UK aged 27. He is buried in Manchester's Southern Cemetery.

Private John West of the Royal North Devon Hussars was born in Fremington in the December Quarter of 1891.
He married May England in 1914. It would appear that he survived the war.

Private William Charles West of the 7th Wiltshire Regiment was born in Fremington in the September Quarter of 1893.
The Regimental Diary for 3 December 1915 (the publication date of the article quoted) states that on this day the regiment was in Greece:
"Remained in camp in Salonika; weather frosty. Strength 29 officers, 900 other ranks. 29 detached."
In 1917, Salonika was to become the scene of one of the Regiment's bloodiest battle but it would appear that William survived the war.

Private Frederick West of the Royal North Devon Hussars was born in the March Quarter of 1895. He too, seems to have survived the war.

Private Archibald Eli West ("Archie") of the 4th Dorset Regiment was born in the September Quarter of 1896. He also seems to have survived the war.

http://www.devonheritage.org/Places/Fremington/TheWestfamilyin1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 10:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Algemeen Handelsblad, 3 december 1918: Armenische gruwelen

Het Joodsche Correspondentie Bureau verneemt uit Londen:

Een officier van het 4e Turksche leger, door de Engelschen gevangen genomen, deelde het volgende mede omtrent de Armenische gruwelen door zijn leger uitgevoerd:

"Ik verliet Konstantinopel met de 1e divisie onder bevel van Khalil Pasja, een oom van Enver Pasja, en ging naar Oermijah, een stad in Perzië. In Oermijah waren geen aanvallen op Armeniërs gedaan, daar zij zich onder bescherming van den Amerikaanschen Consul gesteld hadden. Bij de divisie was een troep Turksche gendarmen ingedeeld, bestaande uit Koerdische en Turksche vogelvrijverklaarden, aan wier hoofd Yacoeb Bey Arslan stond. Hem was de bijzondere taak opgedragen de bevelen voor Armenische slachtingen uit te voeren. De operatiekring strekte zich over steden en dorpen in Perzië uit, waar de Armenische bevolking totaal uitgeroeid werd en hunne huizen en bezittingen verbrand.

Na Perzië voor den Kaukasus verlaten te hebben, werd het werk der Komitadsjis aan het geregelde leger overgedragen. In den Kaukasus werden van Gaver naar Bitlis en Kara Kilessi alle Armenische dorpen door de troepen aangevallen, verwoest en verbrand. Alle Armeniërs, mannen, vrouwen en kinderen werden zonder genade omgebracht. Dit gebeurde alles op bevel van Khalil Pasja. Naar de kleine plaatsen werd een afdeeling onder bevel van een officier, naar de steden een heel bataljon gezonden. De Armeniërs werden uit de steden verdreven, loopgraven werden aangelegd, de Armeniërs in de loopgraven gedreven en dan doodgeschoten. De loopgraven werden daarna weder met aarde gevuld en talrijke Armeniërs levend begraven. Mijn compagnie kreeg bevel om naar het dorp Karmoek te gaan, waar overeenkomstig de gegeven orders, op straf van dood, het dorp omringd, de inwoners doodgeschoten en de huizen verbrand werden.

De loop der rivieren was door de lijken van duizenden Armeniërs gestremd, de wegen waren er mede bedekt.

In onze divisie werden de Armeensche officieren en soldaten op bevel van Khalil Pasja gedood.

In Bitlis werden talrijke Armeenscho notabelen opgehangen, zonder vorm van proces en zonder eenige rechtvaardiging.

http://www.armeensegenocide.info/pers-nl/AH-3-12-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Madeira History - Funchal Shelled

Madeira did not escape the violent consequences of World War I.

On 3rd December 1916, a German U-boat, class 38, sunk the French gunboat, Surprise (680 tons), moored off Funchal. The cable vessel, Dacia (1,856 tons) and a French auxiliary vessel, Kanguroo (2,403 tons), were also torpedoed and sunk.

It is reported that the commander of the Surprise and 34 of her crew died in the attack. 7 Portuguese citizens manning the Kanguroo and Dacia were also said to have died.

The Dacia, a cable laying vessel, had previously undertaken war work off the coast of Casablanca and Dakar. It was owned by India Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works Company London, England. The French vessels Surprise and Kanguroo were her armed escort and support respectively.

Following the attack on the ships, the German submarine then proceeded to bombard Funchal for two hours from a range of about 2 miles. The English cable station was a main target along with other public buildings in the city.

On shore batteries returned fire and eventually "forced the enemy to withdraw". Although, the latter comment may be enthusiastic war propaganda; it is likely that the U-boat withdrew because it's captain had decided that their job was done.

1917 Memorial and Subsequent Attack

On 3rd December 1917, a memorial ceremony was held at Sé Cathedral to mark the first anniversary of the attack on Funchal.

A commemorative monument, designed by the Funchal born sculptor laureate Francisco Franco de Sousa, was commissioned especially for the event. The monument was largely due to the efforts and finances of banker Henrique Vieira de Castro, along with public donations.

The monument was installed at the entrance to the Cemitério das Angústias - then, the main Portuguese cemetery serving Funchal and attached to the Chapel of Santa Catarina. This was the resting place of the attack victims of the previous year. (The cemetery grounds now form part of the Santa Catarina Park.)

Just nine days later, on 12th December 1917, two German U-boats again bombarded Funchal. This time the attack lasted between 20 or 30 minutes. Forty, 4.7 inch and 5.9 inch shells were fired. It was reported that there were 3 fatalities and 17 wounded, In addition, a number of houses and Santa Clara church were hit.

Repatriation of the French Victims

On 28th November 1921, the mortal remains of the French sailors killed during the attack on the gunboat Surprise were repatriated.

Mass was celebrated in the Santa Catarina Chapel, adjacent to the Cemitério das Angústias. In attendance was the Civil Governor of Funchal, military dignitaries from both Madeira and France and a French sailor Guard of Honour. On the chapel walls, two life-buoys were hung with the inscription: Surprise 3-12-1916

Ten coffins, bedecked with ferns and other plants, carrying the mortal remains of the French sailors, were then conveyed in a procession to the Pontinha. Here, the French cruiser, the Jules Michelet, took formal custody of the remains whilst the Marseillaise was played by the band of the 27th Infantry Regiment.

The procession from the cemetery to the port was an appropriately solemn affair, the entire formation being some 1 mile in length. Those participating included representatives of the Madeiran Republican Guard, the Funchal Firefighters Band, the local Civil Police, the port's Customs staff, the local Judicial profession, English and French military officers, local doctors, high school teachers with their pupils, scouts and local sports associations.

The cruiser, Jules Michelet, departed Funchal at 7:30pm that evening, heading for Brest.

Remembering the Portuguese Victims

On 3rd December 1921, a Mass was held in the Santa Catarina Chapel for the Portuguese victims of the 1916 attack.

http://www.love-madeira.com/madeira-history-funchal-shelled.html
Zie ook http://atlantic-cable.com/Cableships/Dacia/index.htm voor nog meer foto's
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 10:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Mount Temple

The SS Mount Temple was a ship owned by Canadian Pacific Lines (later CP Ships, now Hapag Lloyd), built in 1901 in Walker-on-Tyne, England by Armstrong Whitworth & Company. The ship was launched for the Elder Dempster's Beaver Line on 18 June 1901. (...)

The Mount Temple departed from Montreal on 3 December 1916 for Brest, France, and then Liverpool, England, with Captain Alfred Henry Sargent at the helm. The ship's cargo was 710 horses and 6,250 tons of goods, including 3,000 tons of corn, and 1,400 cases of eggs. Also on board were 22 wooden crates of dinosaur fossils, collected in the Badlands of Alberta by Charles H. Sternberg. These were en route to Sir Arthur Smith-Woodward, keeper of the British Museum's Natural History Department.

The ship was captured roughly half-way between Cape Race and Spain, roughly 2,000 km north of the Azores islands on 6 December 1916 and sunk by the German raider SMS Moewe. Four crewmembers aboard the Mount Temple died, and on 12 December 1916, her captain and surviving crew were brought aboard the captured British ship Yarrowdale and arrived at Swinemunde, Germany on 31 December. One US citizen in the crew, Richard Zabriskie, was released on 2 March 1917. Five more US citizens, Raymond Gilbert, Harry Gilmore, John Glennan, Harold Hinkley and John McGreal were released on 8 March. The United States was neutral at the time. The others were interned as prisoners of war.

The Mount Temple was the fourth vessel that Canadian Pacific Lines lost during the First World War, and by the war's end, CP Lines would lose a total of 18 ships. Its sister ship (the SS Montezuma), was torpedoed and sunk by the German Submarine UC-41 on 25 July 1917.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Mount_Temple
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The Story of No. 3 Wing Royal Naval Air Service

Another line patrol was flown on 3 December 1916 at the request of the French who had reported German aircraft over the front. Seven fighters went up and four engaged the enemy. The fighter of F/S/L R. F. Redpath/SLt. Lemon was attacked by a 'small fast two-seater, presumably a Roland.'

The enemy and my observer opened fire about same time. Whilst Observer was changing pans my petrol pipe and elevator control were hit by explosive bullets, the damage to the pipe putting the machine out of commission. I immediately dived towards lines, followed by enemy shooting all the time until I was within 1,500 Ft of ground. my observer endeavoured to continue fire with Lewis Gun and should have done some damage had not the gas regulator key come adrift. Landed at Aman, about 3 or 4 miles in French ground at 12:10, and was able to bring my machine back after lunch. [F/S/L R. F. Redpath, fighter 9730]

http://www.overthefront.com/WWI-Aviation-No-3-Wing-Royal-Naval-Air-Service-p3.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 10:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charlie's War: The Diary and Letters of a Canadian Corporal

3 December 1916 (diary): 'I am getting pretty well all in, four days in the front line with little or no sleep is no joke. I have no hesitation in taking the rum these days and I feel it is quite necessary under the nervous strain, sleeplessness, cold and dampness.'

This proved to be Charlie's final spell in the trenches. In January 1917 Charlie lost his corporal stripes for 'neglect of duty' as he'd failed to arrest three men for being drunk on his watch. As a private again he applied for and was offered the job of a clerk at the 1st Canadian Division HQ. He was told to report for duty on 8 April 1917. The next day his former battalion took part in the attack on Vimy Ridge, Canada's largest and bloodiest battle of the war.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/charlie_war_diary_01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 10:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armoured Car Sections

1st Armoured Car Section - Formed Melbourne 1916. Equipped with three armoured cars built at the Vulcan Engineering Works in South Melbourne, a 50 HP Daimler, a 60 HP Mercedes and a 50 HP Minerva. All were armoured and the Daimler and Mercedes were armed with Colt machine guns. Departed Melbourne Katuna. Fought against the Senussi in the Sudan and Western Desert. Also known as 1st Armoured Car Battery. Became 1st Light Car Patrol 3 December 1916.

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-armour/allied/aust-ww1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The German counter attack, 30 November - 3 December 1917

(...) Eventually, on the 3rd December, Haig ordered a retirement 'with the least possible delay from the Bourlon Hill-Marcoing salient to a more retired and shorter line'. The audacious plan had failed and although some ground had been gained, in places the Germans were now on ground formerly occupied by the British. A small salient remained at Flesquieres, which was an exposed position ruthlessly exploited by the German assault in March 1918. (...)

Senior Officer casualties 20 November 1917 - 7 December 1917
Lt-Col Donald Anderson MC Machine Gun Officer, 61st Division. Killed in action 3 December 1917. Commemorated on Louverval Memorial to the Missing.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat21.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henry James Nicholas VC MM – won 3 December 1917

New Zealander, Corporal Henry Nicholas VC MM aged 26 served in the 12th Company, Canterbury Regiment.

On 3 December 1917 at Polderhoek, Belgium:

Nicholas’s section was held up by heavy machine-gun and rifle fire. He single-handedly rushed the enemy position from the rear, threw a grenade and shot the officer. He then charged the remaining occupants with his bayonet.

When the smoke cleared, 12 Germans lay dead. Four survivors were taken prisoner. Recommending him for an award, his commanding officer noted ‘His fearless example and devotion to duty, commands him to special recognition.’

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/04/27/henry-james-nicholas-vc-mm-won-3-december-1917/
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_James_Nicholas
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

APPEAL OF THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS TO THE MOSLEMS OF RUSSIA AND THE EAST

3 December 1917

Comrades! Brothers!

Great events are taking place in Russia! An end is drawing near to the murderous war, started by the bargainings of foreign Powers. The rule of the plunderers who exploit the peoples of the world is tottering. The ancient citadel of slavery and serfdom is crumbling under the blows of the Russian revolution. The world of violence and oppression is approaching its last days. A new world is being born, a world of the toilers and the liberated. At the head of this revolution stands the workers' and peasants' Government of Russia, the Council of People's Commissars.

Revolutionary councils of workers', soldiers', and peasants' deputies are scattered over the whole of Russia. Power in the country is in the hands of the people. The labouring masses of Russia burn with the single desire to achieve an honourable peace and to help the oppressed peoples of the world to win their freedom.

Russia is not alone in this sacred cause. The mighty call to freedom sounded by the Russian revolution has been taken up by all the toilers in the East and West. The peoples of Europe, exhausted by war, are already stretching out their hands to us, in our work for peace. The workers and soldiers of the West are already rallying under the banner of socialism, storming the strongholds of imperialism. Even far-off India, that land which has been oppressed by the 'enlightened' European robbers for so many centuries, has raised the standard of revolt, organizing its councils of deputies, throwing the hated yoke of slavery from its shoulders, and summoning the peoples of the East to the struggle and to freedom.

The empire of capitalist plunder and violence is falling in ruins. The ground is slipping from under the feet of the imperialist robbers.

In the face of these great events, we turn to you, toiling and disinherited Moslems of Russia and the East.

Moslems of Russia, Tatars of the Volga and the Crimea, Kirghiz and Sarts of Siberia and Turkestan, Turks and Tatars of TransCaucasia, Chechens and mountain Cossacks! All you, whose mosques land shrines have been destroyed, whose faith and customs have been violated by the Tsars and oppressors of Russia! Henceforward your beliefs and customs, your national and cultural institutions, are declared free and inviolable! Build your national life freely and without hindrance. It is your right. Know that your rights, like those of all the peoples of Russia, will be protected by the might of the revolution, by the Councils of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies!

Support this revolution and its authorized Government!

Moslems of the East! Persians, Turks, Arabs, and Hindus. All you in whose lives and property, in whose freedom and native land the rapacious European plunderers have for centuries traded! All you whose countries the robbers who began the war now desire to share among themselves! We declare that the secret treaties of the dethroned Tsar regarding the annexation of Constantinople, confirmed by the deposed Kerensky, are now null and void. The Russian Republic and its Government, the Council of People's Commissars, are opposed to the seizure of foreign territory; Constantinople must remain in the hands of the Moslems.

We declare that the treaty for the partition of Persia is null and void. Immediately after the cessation of military operations the troops will be withdrawn from Persia and the Persians will be guaranteed the right freely to determine their own destiny.

We declare that the treaty for the partition of Turkey, which was to despoil it of Armenia, is null and void. Immediately after the cessation of military operations, the Armenians will be guaranteed the right freely to determine their political destiny.

It is not from Russia and its revolutionary Government that you have to fear enslavement, but from the European imperialist robbers, from those who laid waste your native lands and converted them into their colonies.

Overthrow these robbers and enslavers of your country! Now, when war and desolation are demolishing the pillars of the old order, when the entire world is blazing with indignation against the imperialist brigands, when the least spark of discontent bursts out in a mighty flame of revolution, when even the Indian Moslems, oppressed and tormented by the foreign yoke, are rising in revolt against their slave drivers-now it is impossible to keep silent. Lose no time in throwing off the yoke of the ancient oppressors of your land! Let them no longer violate your hearths! You must yourselves be masters in your own land! You yourselves must arrange your life as you yourselves see fit! You have the right to do this, for your fate is in your own hands!

Comrades! Brothers!

Advance firmly and resolutely towards a just and democratic peace!

We inscribe the liberation of the oppressed peoples of the world on our banners!

Moslems of Russia!

Moslems of the East!

We look to you for sympathy and support in the work of regenerating the world.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1917/December/3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nikolay Dukhonin

Nikolay Nikolayevich Dukhonin (13 December 1876 - 3 December 1917) was a Russian general, the last commander-in-chief of the Russian Imperial Army.

Dukhonoin was born in the Smolensk Governorate. He served in the Kiev Military District before the start of the First World War. There he gained some experience in intelligence work.

At the outset of the War, Dukhonin was given command command of a Russian regiment. He was then assigned to the Third Army in Dubno under General Ruzsky as senior adjutant of the intelligence department.

Dukhonin held the position of commander in chief only briefly, from 16 November 1917. During the initial stages of the Bolshevik seizure of power the Council of People's Commissars instructed Dukhonin to cease wartime hostilities and open negotiations with the German government.

Lenin and Krylenko visited Dukhonin in Petrograd to discuss an armistice proposal. Dukhonin's response was adamant: on 22 November he categorically declined to obey the directive of the Council of People's Commissars. He had discussed such a development with diplomats from the Entente governments. Dukhonin told Lenin that such an order could only be issued by "a government sustained by the army and the country".

Lenin immediately proceeded to a wireless station and broadcast news of Dukhonin's dismissal as Commander-in-Chief and Krylenko's replacement in his stead. The following day a joint note was issued by the military missions of Britain, France, Italy, Japan and Roumania, citing the Treaty of 23 August 1914 by which the allies agreed not to conclude an armistice except by common consent. These missions were based at the General Headquarters in Petrograd.

Dukhonin consequently surrendered to Krylenko in Mogilev, but was murdered by Krylenko's bolshevik military escort by the railway station on 3 December 1917. Krylenko pleaded for his life to be spared so that Dukhonin would be allowed a trial by the Revolutionary Tribunal in Petrograd, but a mob of soldiers and sailors bayoneted him to death on the spot on order of Pavel Dybenko. The next morning the bolshevik soldiers and sailors amused themselves by using his (now stripped naked) corpse for target practice, which they had placed on the platform with a cigarette in its mouth.

His family emigrated to Yugoslavia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolay_Dukhonin
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The War Diary of George Culpitt, Royal Welch Fusiliers

(...)The next day (29th) we marched to Streaky Bacon Farm where we spent the night in huts. This was about a third of the way back to the trenches, and the following day, 30th, saw us again on our way to the trenches, this time to the Bois Grenier Sector and the 1,ioat Farm where we occupied dugouts in the sub-line behind the 14th.Battalion. This sector was new to us and therefore somewhat more interesting. First impressions said it was all right - good trenches, dry dugouts etc. We spent our time on fatigues of short duration in different places round about and on the 3rd December 1917, did an all day job at the Girls School, Bois Grenier, carrying cement for the construction of a Brigade Artillery Observation Post.

There was a YMCA in the village within 2000 yards of the line. It was with life in it in the place as it was knocked to pieces as a result of 3 years constant, slow shelling. In the evening we relieved 16th Battalion on the right sector and took over Audrey Post. 7 a.m. on December 4th we evacuated the right post and took up position 80 yards from enemy. It was very cold with some snow during the morning, and we had a fire during the day although it was rather risky. In the evening we were relieved from the Post having done our 24 hours on. (...)

http://www.culpitt-war-diary.org.uk/CH_16.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 3 December 1917: Czar's daughter in England

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19171203.2.31
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Brest Litovsk

On the 3rd December 1917 a conference between a Russian delegation, headed by Leon Trotsky for Russia, Richard von Kühlmann for Germany, and Count Ottokar Czernin for Austria-Hungary (the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria were also represented) began at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus). Trotsky had the difficult task of trying to end Russian participation in the First World War without having to grant territory to the Central Powers. By employing delaying tactics Trotsky hoped that socialist revolutions would spread from Russia to Germany and Austria-Hungary before he had to sign the treaty. (...)

http://www.guidetorussia.com/treaty-brest-litovsk.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BUTTES NEW BRITISH CEMETERY (NEW ZEALAND) MEMORIAL

The New Zealand Division left the Messines sector in August 1917, and took part in its most costly action of the war at Gravenstafel in October; the missing from this action are commemorated at Tyne Cot. In November the Kiwis took over the line from In de Ster Cabaret to the Reutelbeek. On 3rd December 1917, 1st Canterbury and 1st Otago Regiments attacked the spur of ground at Polderhoek Chateau and although some ground was taken, the chateau remained in German hands. However, the division remained in this sector until late February 1918.

The memorial commemorates 348 New Zealand soldiers who were killed between November 1917 and February 1918 and have no known grave. The largest number of names are from the Otago Regiment.

http://battlefields1418.50megs.com/polygon_wood.htm
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USS Black Hawk (AD-9)

USS Black Hawk (AD-9) was launched in 1913 as SS Santa Catalina by William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; purchased by the U.S. Navy on 3 December 1917; and commissioned 15 May 1918, Commander R. C. Bulmer in command.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Black_Hawk_(AD-9)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: Manifesto To The Ukrainian People With An Ultimatum To The Ukrainian Rada[1]
Written: 3 December, 1917

Proceeding from the interests of the unity and fraternal alliance of factory workers and the working and exploited masses in the struggle for socialism, and also from the recognition of these principles by numerous decisions of the organs of revolutionary democracy, the Soviets, and especially the Second All-Russia Congress of Soviets, the Council of People’s Commissars—the Socialist government of Russia—reaffirms that the right to self-determination belongs to all nations oppressed by tsarism and the Great Russian bourgeoisie, up to and including the right of these nations to secede from Russia.

Accordingly we, the Council of People’s Commissars, recognise the People’s Ukrainian Republic, and its right to secede from Russia or enter into a treaty with the Russian Republic on federal or similar relations between them.

We, the Council of People’s Commissars, recognise at once, unconditionally and without reservations everything that pertains to the Ukrainian people’s national rights and national independence.

We have not taken a single step, in the sense of restricting the Finnish people’s national rights or national independence, against the bourgeois Finnish Republic, which still remains bourgeois, nor shall we take any steps restricting the national independence of any nation which had been—or desires to be—a part of the Russian Republic.

We accuse the Rada of conducting, behind a screen of national phrases, a double-dealing bourgeois policy, which has long been expressed in the Bada’s non-recognition of the Soviets and of Soviet power in the Ukraine (incidentally, the Rada has refused to convoke a territorial congress of the Ukrainian Soviets immediately, as the Soviets of the Ukraine had demanded). This ambiguous policy, which has made it impossible for us to recognise the Rada as a plenipotentiary representative of the working and exploited masses of the Ukrainian Republic, has lately led the Rada to steps which preclude all possibility of agreement.

These, firstly, were steps to disorganise the front.

The Rada has issued unilateral orders moving Ukrainian units and withdrawing them from the front, thereby breaking up the common united front before any demarcation, which can be carried out only through a formal agreement between the governments of the two republics.

Secondly, the Rada has started to disarm the Soviet troops stationed in the Ukraine.

Thirdly, the Rada has been extending support to the Cadet-Kaledin plot and revolt against Soviet power. On the patently false plea of “the Don and the Kuban” having autonomous rights, a plea that serves to cover up Kaledin’s counter-revolutionary moves, which clash with the interests and demands of the vast majority of the working Cossacks, the Rada has allowed its territory to be crossed by troops on their way to Kaledin, but has refused transit to any anti-Kaledin troops.

Even if the Rada had received full formal recognition as the uncontested organ of supreme state power of an independent bourgeois Ukrainian republic, we would have been forced to declare war on it without any hesitation, because of its attitude of unexampled betrayal of the revolution and support of the Cadets and the Kaledinites—the bitterest enemies of the national independence of the peoples of Russia, the enemies of Soviet power and of the working and exploited masses.

At the present time, in view of the circumstances set forth above, the Council of People’s Commissars, with the full cognisance of the peoples of the Ukrainian and Russian Republics, asks the Rada’[2] to answer the following questions:

1. Will the Rada undertake to give up its attempts to disorganise the common front?

2. Will the Rada undertake to refuse transit to any army units on their way to the Don, the Urals or elsewhere, unless it has the sanction of the Commander-in-Chief?

3. Will the Rada undertake to assist the revolutionary troops in their struggle against the counter-revolutionary Cadet-Kaledin revolt?

4. Will the Rada undertake to stop attempts to disarm the Soviet regiments and the workers’ Red Guard in the Ukraine and immediately return arms to those who had been deprived of them?

In the event no satisfactory answer is received to these questions within 48 hours, the Council of People’s Commissars will deem the Rada to be in a state of open war with Soviet power in Russia and the Ukraine.

Footnotes
[1] The Ukranian Central Rada was a counter-revolutionary bourgeois-nationalist organisation set up at the All-Ukraine National Congress in Kiev in April 1917 by a bloc of Ukrainian bourgeois and petty-bourgeois nationalist parties arid groups. The ideologist of the Ukrainian bourgeoisie, M. S. Grushovksy. was its chairman, and V. K. Vinnichenko, his deputy. The Rada had a social base of urban and rural bourgeoisie, and petty-bourgeois nationalist-minded intellectuals. It tried to build up the power of the Ukrainian business class and landowners and set up a Ukrainian capitalist state with the aid of the national liberation movement in the Ukraine. It waved the banner of national independence in an effort to lead the Ukrainian masses away from the all-Russia revolutionary movement, subordinate them to the Ukrainian bourgeoisie and prevent the socialist revolution from winning out in the Ukraine. It supported the Provisional Government in spite of contradictionis over the issue of Ukrainian autonomy.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution, the Rada proclaimed itself the supreme organ of the. I.Ikrainian People’s Republic and launched an open struggle against Soviet power. It was one of tbe centres of the counter-revolution.
The First All-Ukraine Congress of Soviets, held in Kharkov in December 4917, proclaimed the l~kraine a Soviet republic. The Congress declared the Central Rada overthrown. The Council of People’s Commissars of the R.S.F.S.R. recognised the Ukrainian Soviet Government as the sole legitimate government of the Ukraine and decided to give it immediate help in fighting tire counter-revolutionary Rada. Armed uprisings against the Central Rada for the re-establishment of Soviet power took place all over the country in December 1917 and January 4918. In January 1918, Soviet troops in the Ukraine launched an offensive and on January 26 (February 8) occupied Kiev. The Rada was overthrown.
Defeated and ousted from the territory of the Soviet Ukraine, deprived of any support among the working people, the Central Rada joined the German imperialists in an alliance to overthrow Soviet power and restore the rule of the bourgeoisie in the Ukraine. It sent a delegation to Brest-Litovsk and secretly concluded a separate peace giving Germany the Ukraine’s corn, coal, raw materials in return for military aid in the fight against Soviet power. In March 1918, the Rada returned to Kiev as the puppet of the Austro-German armies who dispersed it in late April when they realised that it was absolutely incapable of suppressing the revolutionary movement in the Ukraine and delivering the goods.
[2] The rest of the text was written by L. D. Trotsky and edited by Lenin and Stalin.


http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/dec/03.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The situation, late 1917.

While Haig was adamant that the Western Front was where the decisive battle should be fought against the Germans, there was another view that forces should be moved to Italy to distract the Germans there, others like Lloyd George wanted an offensive in Turkey to draw off German strength. At the end of the day, the Western front would remain the focus of the Allied effort.

On the 3rd December 1917 Haig summed up the situation for his Army commanders; “the general situation on the Russian and Italian fronts, combined with the paucity of reinforcements which we are likely to receive, will in all probability necessitate our adopting a defensive attitude for the next few months. We must be prepared to meet a strong and sustained hostile offensive. It is therefore of first importance that Army commanders should give their immediate and personal attention to the organization of the zones for defensive purposes and to the rest and training of their troops.”

http://www.john-dillon.co.uk/yorklancs/kaiserschlacht.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wellesley Tudor Pole

(...)As managing director of the flour, grain and cereal merchants who were engaged in Government work, Tudor Pole was exempt from military service but he felt he had to serve and joined the Royal Marines in November 1916. After obtaining a commission he sailed from Plymouth in November 1917, arriving in Egypt soon after. Immediately engaged on the Palestine Front he was wounded on the 3rd December 1917 and taken to hospital in Cairo. The original inspiration for ‘The Silent Minute’ is to be found during the fighting in the mountains around Jerusalem in this brief period. Working out the rest of the war as an Intelligence Officer Tudor Pole was awarded the O.B.E. in the 1919 honours list and was also responsible for the intervention which saved the beleaguered leader of the Bahai faith during the war. (...)

http://www.chalicewell.org.uk/index.cfm/glastonbury/About.History
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van de 20ste eeuw [tot en met 1940]
Carin Bouwmeester, Ed Delwel, Ton Mantoua, Anne Nippel, Katja Rotte, Sylvia Sassenus - 1985

3 december 1918 - Een driedaagse conferentie te Londen van Britse, Franse en Italiaanse delegaties in verband met de komende vredesonderhandelingen wordt beëindigd.

https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/bouw029kron01_01/bouw029kron01_01_0980.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 11:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German-Russian Negotiations in Brest-Litovsk (December 1917)

This photograph, taken between December 3rd and 15th, 1917, shows the Russian delegation under the leadership of Adolf Joffe (far right). Next to him (from left to right) are Lipski and Trotsky. The fourth person between Joffe and Trotsky has not been identified.

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=2143
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bulletin. (Poem) Dada, no. 3, December 1918

http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/dada/3/13.htm
Zie ook http://dadaduffy.blogspot.com/2009/12/dada-magazine-1917-1918.html voor de complete nummers in pdf!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Philip Gibbs on the Allied Occupation of the Rhineland, 3 December 1918

Report from Malmedy

British troops crossed the Belgian frontier and entered Germany today.

Here and there some small children, watching from cottage windows or in their mothers' arms, waved their hands with the friendliness of childhood for all men on horses, and they were not rebuked.

German schoolboys in peaked caps, with their hands thrust in their pockets, stared without friendliness or unfriendliness. Some girls on a hillside above the winding road laughed and waved their handkerchiefs. There was no sense as yet of passing through a hostile country where we were not wanted.

Round the hairpin turn we came down to Malmedy, lying in a narrow valley with some of its streets and houses climbing up the hillsides. It was a typical little German town, with here and there houses of the chalet style and houses of the modern country type in Germany, with wooden balconies and low-pitched roofs, and beyond very neat and clean-looking factories on the outskirts of the town.

The shops were bright, and I saw a display of wooden soldiers and flaxen-haired dolls and toy engines as though for the German Christmas which is coming, and in one little garden there was a figure of the little old gnome-like Rumpelstiltskin in my old copy of Grimm's "Fairy Tales."

It was surprising to hear that most of the people about one were speaking French. Some of us remembered then that Malmedy was not in Germany until after 1815, and that for a long time it was an independent little town belonging to a Belgian Abbey of great wealth and power before it was destroyed in the French Revolution.

The people here were not typically German, and many of them at least had the neutral spirit of people who live close to the frontier and speak two languages, or three, as at Malmedy, where everyone is equally familiar with German, French, and Walloon.

At Malmedy there was no sign whatever of hostility except the sullen look on the faces of some men who stared through the windows of a clubhouse and the gravity of other men who turned their heads away when the cavalry passed, as though unaware of them.

In many windows was a notice in German, which I read. It was an appeal by Burgomaster Kalpers, reading: "Citizens are earnestly requested to maintain great calm and order on the entry of the Entente troops into our city and to receive them with courtesy and dignity."

That wish was being carried out, and it was with politeness as well as dignity that the strangers were greeted in this first German town across the frontier.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/rhineoccupation_gibbs.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Novembergruppe

The Novembergruppe, named after the German Weimar Revolution in 1918, was formed in Berlin on 3 December 1918. The group was led by expressionist painters Max Pechstein and César Klein. The group was active until the early 1930s when it was banned by the National Socialist Government in 1933. (...)

Artists Novembergruppe:
Campendonck, Heinrich
Feininger, Lyonel
Freundlich, Otto
Gropius, Walter
Kandinsky, Wassily
Klee, Paul
Klein, Cesar
Kollwitz, Kathe
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig
Pechstein, Max

http://the-artists.org/artistsbymovement/Novembergruppe/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Andrew Bonar Law and Chess
Edward Winter

(...) The January 1919 BCM (pages 12-13) referred, with some scepticism, to a newspaper report that at Bootle on 3 December 1918, during the General Election campaign, Bonar Law had declared, ‘One of the results of the War must be to make it plain that men who deliberately, as in a game of chess, plunged the world into a conflict for the sake of gain to themselves should always be held guilty of bloodshed.’

http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/extra/bonarlaw.html
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1918 DECEMBER DEATH - 3 December 1918

ISABELLA COUNCIL 873 K. of C. - Members are requested to attend
requiem mass at Church of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Putnam, nr.
Ralph ave., Wednesday,, 10 A.M., for the repose of the soul of Private
Rufus A. WILLIAMS, killed in action, Sept. 29, with A.E.F.
Andrew J. McLEAN, Grand Knight

HARDGROVE - A requiem mass will be celebrated at the Church of St.
Louis, Ellery st., on Thursday, Dec. 5, at 8 A.M., for the repose of the
soul of Private David HARDGROVE, Co. G, 306th Infantry, killed in
action Aug. 27, 1918. Relatives and friends are invited to attend.

http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Newspaper/BSU/1918.9.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Maclean

(...) Following the armistice he was released from prison on 3rd December 1918. Maclean formed the Tramp Trust Unlimited in 1919, an organisation that campaigned for a minimum wage, a six-hour day and full wages for the unemployed.

Former comrades in the Socialist Labour Party such as Arthur McManus, Willie Gallacher, Tom Bell and Willie Paul, formed the Communist Party of Great Britain. Maclean refused to join as he believed that workers in Scotland could develop into a revolutionary force before those in England and Wales. Maclean instead formed the Scottish Workers Republican Party (SWRP) which combined communism with a belief in Scottish independence. (...)

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUmaclean.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Pueblo (Armored Cruiser # 7, ex-Colorado)

Panoramic photograph of the ship's Engineering Force, taken on her forecastle at Norfolk, Virginia, 3 December 1918.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h73000/h73170c.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 13:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (Limoges, 25 februari 1841 - Cagnes-sur-Mer, 3 december 1919) was een Frans impressionistisch kunstschilder. (...)

In 1888 kreeg Pierre-Auguste Renoir een eerste aanval van reumatoide artritis, een vorm van reuma. Een jaar daarna raakte zijn rechterarm verlamd. Ondanks de pijn werkte hij door, met een penseel aan zijn pols gebonden. In april 1915 raakt zijn tweede zoon Jean als soldaat in de Eerste Wereldoorlog vrij ernstig gewond aan een dijbeen en zou de rest van zijn leven daardoor moeilijk lopen. Zijn vrouw Aline overleed in juni van dat jaar. Zijn oudste zoon Pierre, die ook soldaat was, raakte ernstig gewond aan zijn rechterarm, die daardoor blijvend verlamd raakte. Kort voor zijn dood op 78-jarige leeftijd in 1919 voltooide hij zijn grote compositie Les Grandes Baigneuses.

Renoir werd begraven in Essoyes, naast Aline. Zijn jongste twee zonen zijn na hun dood ook daar begraven. Zijn laatste woonhuis in Cagnes in (Zuid-Frankrijk), nabij Nice, is thans het Renoir Museum en is (na restauratie) te bezichtigen. Het huis staat in een enorme tuin met olijfbomen.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Auguste_Renoir & http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Grandes_Baigneuses
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 18:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 - 1915

3 December 1915 - Yarhisar, Ottoman, Durandal class DestroyerTorpedoed by the British submarine E11 in the Gulf of Ismit. The torpedo hit the after boiler room and the destroyer splits in two. Some survivors were captured by E11.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk15.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NEW ZEALAND AND WORLD WAR ONE - AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - PERSONNEL PARAGRAPHS - DECEMBER 1915

BARRY, Sapper R W, second son of Mrs E Barry of Dilworth Tce, Parnell, has died of wounds on the hospital ship Dongola on December 3. He went to the front as a member of the Divisional Signalling Corps with the main body of the expeditionary force. He took part in the landing at the Dardanelles and early in June was erroneously reported as killed in action. A later cable stated he was wounded. He recovered from the wounds received at the landing and returned to the firing line. He was well known in Auckland and Canterbury athletic circles as ‘Bob’ Barry. He was born at Akaroa and educated at the Akaroa Boys’ High School. He went to the South African war as a member of one of the NZ contingents and on his return joined the clerical staff of the NZ Express Co. He was with the company for about 13 yrs and left its employ to enlist. He represented the Canterbury province in both hockey and cricket and on coming to Auckland helped to inaugurate the game of hockey here. He was a member of the United and College Rifles Hockey Clubs and represented Auckland for many years. He played for the Parnell senior cricket team and was considered one of the best fieldsmen in Auckland. [AWN 16.12.1915] P.22

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awnppdec1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Dec 2010 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LETTERS WRITTEN HOME FROM FRANCE IN THE FIRST HALF OF 1915
By A. PIATT ANDREW

12 West 51st Street, New York,
December 3, 1914.
Dear Mother and Father:

I have been turning things over in my mind lately and have about decided that I must go over to France for a few months. There are many reasons for -doing so, the possibility of, having even an infinitesimal part in one of the greatest events in all history --- the possibility of being of some service in the midst of so much distress --- the interest of witnessing some of the scenes in this greatest and gravest of spectacles --- and above all the chance of doing the little all that one can for France.

You need not fear, if I go, that I shall expose myself to any serious risks. If I can I should like to get attached to the ambulance service, or, if that is impossible, to one of the relief commissions (to help, perhaps, in looking after the distribution of food and relief in some French town, --- or something of the sort).. But I shall not get in the way of the armies. What do you think. about it?

Is n't it a great chance? Is n't it a piece of good fortune that I happen to be free in this great moment of history? And is n't it worth while to make some sacrifice in order to have one's little share in the great events that are going on?

I have been staying for a day or so at the Davisons', and am going back to Gloucester on Friday.

http://www.ourstory.info/library/2-ww1/APA/APA1.html
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