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Fictieve helden en comics.

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2005 8:52    Onderwerp: Fictieve helden en comics. Reageer met quote

Legio boeken zijn er geschreven over echte helden in WO1,
maar er was ook een hele cultuur van fictieve helden.
Er zijn gigantsich veel boeken geschreven rond die tijd.
De bekendste is uiteraard Biggles.
Uiteraard speelden er vrouwen mee.

Quote:
The lovely Marie Janis works as a spy, fooling the great British aviator Biggles into believing that she is British until 1918. She is assumed dead but survives the war and returns to help Biggles during World War Two. (William E. Johns' Biggles novels, beginning with The Camels Are Coming, 1932).


Vrouwen speelden toch wel een "belangrijke" rol:
Quote:
The blonde American Audrey Ward, who is the lover of one of the pilots known as the "Four Aces," works for French counterintelligence as a double agent inside of Germany. She survives the war. (Hal Forrest's Four Aces, 1934-1935 and 1936-1942).



Quote:
One German spy who had a greater-than-average amount of success was Erna Flieder, who duelled throughout the war with the French spy known as "Captain Benoit." However, eventually they fell in love, and Flieder died saving Benoit's life. (Charles Robert Dumas' Captain Benoit stories, beginning in 1933)


Nog meer bekende fictieve helden uit die tijd?
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 18 Jan 2006 9:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2005 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/w/ww1.asp
Hiertussen staan zelfs cartoons van Biggles.
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eagle



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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2005 12:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Winnie the pooh, een steun en toeverlaat voor velen

http://www.fortgarryhorse.ca/phpWeb/index.php?module=pagemaster&PAGE_user_op=view_page&PAGE_id=22&MMN_position=44:44
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jan 2006 9:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Throughout this period, WW1 as a narrative’s subject was consistently avoided. There are several reasons for this deliberate neglect. Firstly, the war proved extremely problematic due to previously established literary ideologies. The Great War was seen almost exclusively as a hell of mud and destruction. Crucially, this forum had no place for acts of individual heroism, which was an essential basis for most war stories. To convert the myth of the war as a slaughterground for the innocent was seen as offensive in a way which seemingly did not apply to subsequent wars. The perception was that the well known scale of casualties and destruction was unsuitable for conversion to the warcomic formula. This expounded individual heroism, militarism and military prowess, manliness, courage, and most importantly, a good ruck at the conclusion of the narrative resulting in clear delineations between victors and vanquished. The Great War as described by the central body of war poets, artists and writers simply did not contain these elements.

Plaatjes:
http://www.geocities.com/neveahfs/WARCOMIC.html

Geographically, they are both placed away from the trenches, the story from Commando going further by creating a pre-war introduction for further excusative power. The two soldiers involved are friends, one German, one a British ex-pat. Their reactions to the war (fig 2) purposely animalise the German; Hans, and sentimentalise the English soldier: Tom. Tom is therefore justified in enlisting, as the German’s’ behaviour demonstrates how his race reverts to barbarians - Tom now has a justified reason to kill. Fig 4, from later in this story highlights another problem with WW1. Trench warfare takes the reader uncomfortably close to real killing. Although acceptable to portray violent situations in comics, the aftermath is rarely depicted. The readership of war comics at this point were assumed to be children - it was not considered socially or morally acceptable to expose them to the actual implications of warfare. This problem of confrontation is more easily avoided by the transient locations of most war comics. Bodies are left behind as the narrative’s geographical location shifts. In Commando, this problem is dealt with doubly. The discussion of weaponry discounts the damaging bayonet in favour of a club (unlikely to kill) and a revolver (a quick kill). The third panel shows the only example of guttering, highlighting the officers revolver further. Eventually, a grenade is used which eradicates all traces of potential bodies. The taking of prisoners implies less potential killing, emphasising the allies’ humane behaviour. The second and fourth panels depict confrontational situations, both conspicuous again for the lack of tactile aggression and defracted by the conversations in the foreground. Explosions are reduced to speed lines and although death is implied (helmet, waterbottle) the bodies become amorphous. The Germans remain speechless until the scene shift in panel 4, decharacterisning them. Conversely, amongst the British there is class implication in the artistic positioning of the armed officer and his men

This structure is typical of the way war comics avoid direct referencing to agressive behaviour. Bodies become amorphous (similarly with computer games they often flash and disappear), the moral issue of murder is reduced and instead is replaced by ideals of chivalry, nobility, class strength and courage. Commando and Victor demonstrate the contrivances necessary to place these within the Great War, which already had well established ideologies negating them.

All war comics share a very specific language both in speech and captioning. This again interferes with acknowledged perceptions of the First World War and makes it extremely difficult for conversion to the comics genre. In The Great War and Modern Memory (1975, O.U.P.), Paul Fussell gives a list of terms used in WW1 (appendix 3). These were gradually reversed and exploited by the central body of war writers and poets. War comics however use them extensively without the irony that they had come to be associated. For example, an editors banner for Charley’s War was " The supreme courage of the "Bantams"... Britain’s short soldiers."(Battle, 29th Jan 1983). Given the assumed readership of idealist young males without other contact with war literature, it was presented to be taken literally. However, the creators and editors of the comics were obviously aware that should the comics come into contact with different audiences, particularly parents, they could be susceptible to censure. The editors were therefore containing their own stories to escape any problems, and so they avoided mixing the established discourses of WW1 with those of warcomics.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Jan 2006 9:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"The Devils in the Air" - Aces High.

The dearth of WW1 strips slowly began to change as comics gradually realised the potential of the war as a subversive medium. Aces High (1955, EC) was the first of these, and it is fair to say that it was more radical by associated reputation than in actuality. It is one of the only examples of a WW1 comic by American publishers. As with literature, the war seems to be a peculiarly British obssession. EC’s reputation for subversion arose when it practically sunk the comics industry with its "horror" lines and the controversy surrounding them caused The Seduction of the Innocent (Dr.F.Wertham, Rinehart, 1954). Wertham claimed comics were degenerate and violence inducing, the result being that all American comics had to be approved by the Comics Code Authority (CCA). As the EC line was undoubtedly coming under the most scrutiny, it responded by producing a series of increasingly bizarre titles, of which Aces High was the fourth. EC was trying to avoid the previous styles of The Vault of Horror and Weird Fantasy by choosing subjects which they felt were less violent and frightening. Although not immediately obvious why Aces High should fall into this category, the EC collaborators were again trying to use time to displace their readers and to bamboozle the censors by choosing either "real life" events, or total fantasy. Their previous war comic; Frontline Combat,(1950-55) had already fallen to the censors, making them aware that recent conflicts were unacceptable. Other comics introduced enjoyed relative success - Piracy and Valour (knights) did well. Piracy was even memorable enough to be pastiched in Watchmen, (Moore, 1986-7), the most influential comic of the Eighties. Aces High was not.

In choosing the location for Aces High, the collaborators again avoided trenches and concentrated their story on WW1 pilots, claiming

"we will learn to know and love and respect the men, both allied and Enemy, who flew (the planes). And we will do it in the cherished tradition of EC". (Prop Wash, #1)

Herein lies the problem with Aces High. It tried to meld the traditionalist discourse of "war is hell" with the comics positioning of "war is fun".


Plaatjes:
http://www.geocities.com/neveahfs/WARCOMIC.html

Fig 5 demonstrates how jarring this attempt was. The heroism expressed in the second panel is crudely bubbled to emphasis recollection, comprising a mishmash of terrible clichés. The next panel tries to contain this: "War is always the same my boy. It brings death and destruction and misery no matter where, when, or how it is fought.". This is disconfirmed again as the narrative shifts back "That’s what I want to be" and "Nothing really changes". The discourses shift and clash; neither is dominant as none of the panels use definitive closure - the hard inking to the right of panel 3 and the "thought bubble" surround to panel 2 break uncomfortably into the text. The last panel is "open", in which the grandfather and child are silhouetted to emphasise the aeroplanes in the background. This trite and incredibly unsubtle attempt makes Aces High confused and obscure to read; the reader is continually having to reposition themselves in regards to the narrative. This technique was even badly received at the time.

"the First World War.... isn’t a cute game; it’s Hell. The whole story is one long repudiation of every point that was previously stated to be the purpose of the magazine... no one will ever make much more than an inconsistent farce out of Aces High."(Larry Stark, Aces High, collected edition)

George Evans, the new editor of EC also identified faults with the artistic context:

"The whole period of WW1 combat flying, as it really had been, was lost in the wild pulp magazines that cashed in on the post-war interest: most of them carried "true stories of planes and aces" which were naively accepted and perpetuated into "history" and actually about as true as Alice in Wonderland....in suggesting the planes and props, there seemed no realisation that from 1914 through 1918 a metamorphosis (in aircraft design) had taken place." (Aces High, collected edition)

It was this inconsistency that really failed the comic. War was not the "Hell" that critics expected, nor the technically accurate and exciting pulp fiction that readers demanded. The CCA furthermore prevented either angle from fulfilment - if war became too harsh, it would become too violent and be banned. If was too enjoyable, it would be glorifying murder. The other comics published in the series were either successful because they distanced their readers with greater timespaces, or they flopped. Aces High failed to do this because it referred to an era which already had it’s own iconography and discourses which clashed with what the EC collaborators were trying to achieve. Now that EC were under pressure from the CCA, they were trying to maketheir attempts at subversion more subtle, disguised by seemingly innocuous storylines. However, the reader was unable to suspend their disbelief far enough to become engaged wit the narratives within the comics, which were often in wild disagreement with each other anyway. As a result, Aces High failed to achieve either reality or fantasy, suffering an ignoble crash and burn after only ten issues.

Aces High’s problem was not only its censors, but the way in which it tried to ignore the development of the war myth since the 1920’s. EC wanted to circumvent this by paying no more than lip service to the dominant ideologies put forwards by mainstream war writers, but even comicbook audiences were aware that the First World War was regarded as a terrible and destructive tragedy. Readers expected EC to deal with this in the same way that Harvey Kurtzman had with Frontline Combat,(1950-55) a previous EC publication which whilst firmly believing that war was necessary, managed to bridge the gap and portray the second and Korean wars as vicious, tragic and dehumanising. It was this lack of comprehension that doomed Aces High.
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