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Commemorating the Death of Lord Kitchener, 1916

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jun 2006 6:47    Onderwerp: Commemorating the Death of Lord Kitchener, 1916 Reageer met quote

Lord Kitchener will probably always be best remembered for the First World War recruitment poster showing him pointing his finger above the legend 'Your country needs YOU!'. He began his career in the army in 1870 at the age of twenty and after many successful actions became Commander-in-Chief in India. Promoted to War Minister at the start of the First World War, he was drowned aboard HMS Hampshire on 5 June 1916 when she was struck by a mine off Orkney.



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jun 2006 6:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Horatio Herbert Kitchener
1850 - 1916
De bouwer van de botanische tuin bij Aswan, Horatio Herbert Kitchener, leefde van 1850 tot 1916. Hij was een Brits militair en politicus, die vooral roem oogstte door de verovering van Sudan.
Kitchener, was een Ier van afkomst, zijn wieg stond in Ballylongford (Kerry). Hij volgde zijn militaire opleiding te Woolwich en hij werd bevorderd tot de rang van kapitein nadat hij zich verdienstelijk had betoond in Palestina, Egypte en op Cyprus.
In 1884 poogde hij vergeefs de Britse generaal Charles George Gordon uit de omsingeling van Khartoum te redden. De stad viel echter in handen van de Mahdi, twee dagen voor Kitchener's aankomst. Kitchener was een tijd lang gouverneur generaal van Sudan tot hij in 1892 bevorderd werd tot hoogste chef van het (Britse) Egyptische leger.
In 1898 wist hij, na drie jaar campagne, Sudan opnieuw te heroveren na de slag om Omdurman. Hij kreeg de rang van generaal majoor en werd in de adelstand verheven als baron Kitchener van Khartoum. Nadat hij in Zuid-Afrika ook nog de Boerenkrijg beleefde en er de Orde van Verdienste verwierf, werd hij benoemd tot burggraaf.
Kitchener besloot in 1900 tot de beproefde "Verbrande Aarde" tactiek, toen hij tijdens de 2de Anglo Boer War opperbevelhebber was. Meer dan 30.000 boerderijen en een veertigtal kleine steden gingen in de vlammen op. Veestapels werden geplunderd of afgeslacht en talloze families werden vanuit hun hoeve naar Britse concentratiekampen gestuurd. Bijna 120.000 Afrikaners en evenveel zwarten werden hierin opgesloten. Nog eens 28.000 krijsgevangen strijders werden naar overzeese kampen gestuurd.
Er waren 45 kampen voor Afrikaners en 64 voor zwarten. Hun huisvesting bestond uit op één rij gezette miserabele tentjes. Hygiënische voorzieningen waren onbestaande.
De voedselrantsoenen van vrouwen en kinderen werden verminderd, indien één van hun familieleden deel uitmaakte van de het Boerleger.
Buikloop, tyfus en mazelen dunden het aantal gevangenen uit. Na de oorlog is gebleken dat 27.927 Afrikaners de kampen niet overleefden: onder hen 22.074 kinderen, jonger dan 16. Onder de zwarten werden 14.154 doden geteld, hoewel beweerd wordt dat de cijfers zwaar onderschat zijn. Concentratiekampen waren geen uitvinding van de Duitse Nazi's.
Wegens zijn optreden in India, van 1902 tot 1909, werd hij bevorderd tot veldmaarschalk. In 1911 werd hij benoemd tot Brits consul-generaal in Egypte en werd hij verheven tot earl of Broome (graaf). Tijdens Wereldoorlog I werd Kitchener benoemd tot staatssecretaris voor Oorlogszaken en werd hij vooral gelast met de aanwerving van vrijwilligers.
Hij kwam om op 5 juni 1916 toen de kruiser Hampshire door een mijn tot zinken werd gebracht.

http://www.1world2travel.com/article.php?articleID=1457
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jun 2006 6:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lord Kitchener of Khartoum (1850 - 1916)

First World War poster showing Lord Kitchener with the slogan 'Your Country Needs You'
Lord Kitchener ©
Best known for his famous recruitment posters bearing his heavily moustachioed face and pointing hand over the legend, 'Your country needs you', as secretary of state for war at the beginning of World War I Kitchener organized armies on an unprecedented scale and became a symbol of the national will to win.

Commissioned in the Royal Engineers, in 1886 Kitchener was appointed governor of the British Red Sea territories and subsequently became commander in chief of the Egyptian army in 1892. In 1898 he crushed the separatist Sudanese forces of al-Mahdi in the Battle of Omdurman and then occupied the nearby city of Khartoum, where his success saw him ennobled in 1898.

In 1900 he became commander in chief of the Boer War, where he fought the guerrillas by burning farms and herding women and children into disease-ridden concentration camps. These ruthless measures helped weaken resistance and bring British victory.

On returning to England in 1902 he was created Viscount Kitchener and was appointed commander in chief in India. In September 1911 he became the proconsul of Egypt, ruling there and in the Sudan until August 1914. When war broke out, Kitchener was on leave in England and reluctantly accepted an appointment to the cabinet as secretary of state for war. Flying in the face of popular opinion, he warned that the conflict would be decided by Britain's last 1,000,000 men. He rapidly enlisted and trained vast numbers of volunteers for a succession of entirely new 'Kitchener armies'. By the end of 1915 he was convinced of the need for military conscription, but never publicly advocated it, deferring to Prime Minister Asquith's belief that it was not yet politically practicable.

In his recruitment of soldiers, planning of strategy and mobilisation of industry, Kitchener was handicapped by bureaucracy and his own dislike for teamwork and delegation. His cabinet associates did not share the public's worship of Kitchener and gradually relieved him of his responsibilities for industrial mobilisation and then strategy. He was killed in 1916 when HMS Hampshire was sunk by a German mine while taking him to Russia.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/kitchener_lord.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jun 2006 6:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

London, 6. Juni.
Die Admiralität teilt amtlich mit:

Der Oberkommandierende der Großen Flotte meldet, er müsse zu seinem großen Bedauern berichten, daß das Kriegsschiff "Hampshire", das sich mit Lord Kitchener und seinem Stabe an Bord auf dem Wege nach Rußland befand, letzte Nacht westlich der Orkney-Inseln durch eine Mine oder vielleicht durch einen Torpedo versenkt wurde. Die See war sehr stürmisch, und obwohl sofort alle möglichen Schritte unternommen wurden, um rasche Hilfe zu leisten, besteht, wie man fürchtet, wenig Hoffnung, daß irgend jemand mit dem Leben davongekommen ist.
(Anmerkung: "Hampshire" ist ein Panzerkreuzer von 11000 Tonnen, der 1903 vom Stapel gelaufen ist.)

London, 6. Juni. (Amtliche Meldung.)
Lord Kitchener befand sich auf Einladung des Zaren und im Auftrage der britischen Regierung auf dem Wege nach Rußland, um Gelegenheit zu nehmen, wichtige militärische und Finanzfragen zu besprechen. Kitchener hatte nur den ihm persönlich zugeteilten Stab mit sich sowie einen Beamten des Auswärtigen Amts und zwei Vertreter des Munitionsministeriums.1)

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jun 2006 6:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Hampshire, Lord Kitchener and the deaths of 650 men
DIANE MACLEAN

5 June 1916


IN JUNE 1916, Field Marshall Earl Kitchener, the Minister of War, was scheduled to visit Russia for a series of negotiations aimed at ensuring that the Tsar's forces would stay in the war.

Kitchener landed in Orkney were he briefly met Admiral Jellicoe before he joined the cruiser HMS Hampshire and prepared to set sail through Scapa Flow.

HMS Hampshire, with her crew of 643 men as well as Kitchener and his staff, pulled up anchors at 4:40pm on Monday 5 June, 1916. With her were the destroyers HMS Unity and Victor. As they left Scapa Flow they sailed into stormy weather. The two destroyers struggled with the force nine gale and by 6:30pm they had both been signalled to return to base. The Hampshire fought on alone.

Unbeknown to the master and her crew, Scapa Flow had been visited by a German U-boat at the end of May. Undetected, U-75 laid 22 mines off the coast of Orkney. Bad weather at the beginning of June prevented the routine sweep of the area, so all the mines were out there as the Hampshire sailed on.

Struggling against the wind HMS Hampshire could only maintain 13.5 knots and was roughly one and a half miles from shore. At 7:45pm an urgent telegraph message was sent from nearby Birsay Post Office to Kirkwall and Stromness. It read: "Battle cruiser seems in distress between Marwick Head and the brough of Birsay."

A mile and a half out at sea the Hampshire was indeed in difficulties. An explosion had shaken the whole ship, the power had failed and she was unable to radio for assistant. She began to sink.

Birsay Post Office transmitted a second message signalling that there was a "vessel down".

The RNLI rushed to Stromness Naval HQ with the offer to launch a lifeboat. To their surprise their help was strenuously rejected. Further up the coast armed soldiers stood guard over the coast preventing locals from reaching the stricken ship.

Of the 667 crewmen who had left Orkney only 12 survived the sinking

The Hampshire had been down for four hours by the time her lifeboats started to reach the shore. The first raft, which had 40 men in it when it left the sinking ship, picked up a further 30 from the water. By the time it reached land only six were left alive. A second craft made it to the shore. Of the 40 or 50 men on board only four had survived the journey. Those who made it were unable to haul themselves up the rocks, and most died on the shoreline. Of the 667 people who had left Orkney only 12 survived the sinking. Kitchener was not among them. He died along with his staff.

The action of the authorities on the night inevitably led to intense speculation about the sinking. Questions were asked about why the Hampshire left Orkney in such a hurry, with such bad weather conditions forecast. What of the armed men stationed round the cliffs to ward off curious locals? If people were actively discouraged from helping rescue the stricken craft, there must have been a reason. Theories circulated that Kitchener had been deliberately killed or that he had not even been on the boat and that a body-double was lying dead in the sea in his place.

To this day, nobody is sure sure what happened on the night the Hampshire sank. What is likely is that in the confusion of the Battle of Jutland, naval staff had failed to note that U-75 had penetrated the Orkneys. On the night itself general confusion meant officials were unsure what boat had sank, initially unsure if the boat was German or a British warship.

For people living at the time the death of Kitchener was akin to the death of JF Kennedy or Princess Diane. Soldiers would later recall where they were and what they were doing when they heard that Kitchener was killed. With him dead there was a genuine fear that the war would be lost.

After the war a large monument was raised in Kitchener’s memory on Marwick Head, overlooking the massive cliffs where so many lives were lost. His body was never recovered and must still lie at the bottom of the sea at Scapa Flow.

This article: http://heritage.scotsman.com/timelines.cfm?cid=1&id=40442005
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