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6 December

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2005 6:47    Onderwerp: 6 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 6

1917 Munitions ship explodes in Halifax


At 9:05 a.m., in the harbor of Halifax in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, the most devastating manmade explosion in the pre-atomic age occurs when the Mont Blanc, a French munitions ship, explodes 20 minutes after colliding with another vessel.

As World War I raged in Europe, the port city of Halifax bustled with ships carrying troops, relief supplies and munitions across the Atlantic Ocean. On the morning of December 6, the Norwegian vessel Imo left its mooring in Halifax harbor for New York City. At the same time, the French freighter Mont Blanc, its cargo hold packed with highly explosive munitions--2,300 tons of picric acid, 200 tons of TNT, 35 tons of high-octane gasoline, and 10 tons of gun cotton--was forging through the harbor's narrows to join a military convoy that would escort it across the Atlantic.

At approximately 8:45 a.m., the two ships collided, setting the picric acid ablaze. The Mont Blanc was propelled toward the shore by its collision with the Imo, and the crew rapidly abandoned the ship, attempting without success to alert the harbor of the peril. Spectators gathered along the waterfront to witness the spectacle of the blazing ship, and minutes later it brushed by a harbor pier, setting it ablaze. The Halifax fire department responded quickly and was positioning its engine next to the nearest hydrant when the Mont Blanc exploded at 9:05 a.m. in a blinding white flash.

The massive explosion killed more than 1,600 people, injured another 9,000--including blinding 200--and destroyed almost the entire north end of the city of Halifax, including more than 1,600 homes. The resulting shock wave shattered windows 50 miles away and the sound of the explosion could be heard for hundreds of miles.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2005 9:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 december 1915: 2e geallieerde conferentie Chantilly

Convened on 6 December 1915 the inter-allied conference at Chantilly, Paris, signalled the first concerted attempt to forge a common Allied strategy across multiple fronts of the war. In attendance were representatives from Britain, France, Italy, Serbia and Russia (although the attending British Commander-in-Chief, Sir John French, was soon to be recalled and replaced by Sir Douglas Haig).

Attendees at the conference were presented with a memorandum suggesting inter-allied co-operation by the French.

Presided over by French Commander-in-Chief Joseph Joffre, the conference was held just two days after an Anglo-French meeting at Calais in which the British, led by war minister Lord Kitchener, succeeded in persuading the reluctant French, represented by Prime Minister Aristide Briand, to abandon Allied operations in the military and strategic backwater of Salonika.

Such was the French public and political outcry at the prospect of abandoning Salonika that Joffre seized the opportunity at Chantilly to reverse his earlier agreement with the British. The latter, keen not to unbalance Briand's administration, reluctantly agreed to continue the Salonika offensive.

Separately the Russian government, as represented by Yakov Zhilinski, argued forcefully for the principle of inter-allied co-operation during major offensives. He cited the example of the lack of coordinated Allied support during that year's Triple Offensive. Agreement was consequently reached whereby the other Allied nations would launch offensives of their own whenever any other Allied nation came under clear threat.

This was subsequently put to the test when the German Army launched a ferocious offensive upon the French fortress of Verdun the following February, resulting in the belated British Somme Offensive in July 1916 and the disastrous Russian attack at Lake Naroch in March (an ironic situation for the Russians given it was their insistence upon the policy which necessitated their own subsequent intervention).

The Italians also assisted by launching the latest in a string of offensives along the Isonzo in early March (the fifth, which as usual ended in failure).

Bron: First World War.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2005 9:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Franse Memorandum van 6 december 1915

Plan of Action Proposed by France to the Coalition

Memorandum Laid Before the Second Allied Military Conference at Chantilly, 6th December 1915


After the comparative failure of the operations against France and Russia, Germany, covered in the West by her main Armies and a powerful defensive system, and on the Russian front by similar dispositions of less strength, is employing in the East such forces as she still has at her disposal.

The aims of the enemy in this new phase of the war are easy to understand:

1. To husband his resources in men, and by slowing down the process of attrition, to be in a condition to continue the struggle indefinitely : a policy made possible by the intervention of new allies, and by the intensive employment of those he already possesses.
In attracting its forces to secondary theatres by threats at particularly vulnerable points, to decentralize the efforts of the Coalition.

2. To pursue the realisation of the German imperial idea contained in the phrase "Drang nach Osten" so as to increase his world prestige, raise the morale of his own people, and acquire so strong a position in the East that, whatever the issue of the struggle, he could not be forced to surrender it.

If we adopt the least favourable view, the war may last long enough to enable Germany to realize this plan, the success of which would give her considerable moral and material advantages, constituting an insurance against final defeat.

To oppose Germany's aims we consider that the Coalition ought:
1. Pursue its principal objective: the destruction of the German and Austrian Armies.

2. Foil Germany's attempt at imperial domination in the East.

1. Principal Objective
There must be no indecision regarding the means by which the first of these objectives is to be achieved.

The Allied armies ought to resume the general offensive on the Franco-British, Italian and Russian fronts as soon as they are in a state to do so.

All the efforts of the Coalition must be exerted in the preparation and execution of this decisive action, which will only produce its full effect as a co-ordination of offensives.

It must be borne in mind that an offensive by our troops in France would now be a very considerable undertaking, owing to the large forces of the enemy opposed to us. This operation would be facilitated if a Russian attack in force caused the Germans to move troops from the Western Front.

Conversely, if Franco-British demonstrations, judiciously carried out, succeed in pinning to their ground the whole of the forces opposed to us, the field will be clear for the reorganized Russian Armies.

Suppose, on the other hand, that there is no co-ordination of effort. In the present situation the Germans are able to add 10 divisions, no longer required in Serbia, to their forces in reserve - about 12 divisions - on the French front. Combined with the troops which could with safety be withdrawn from the Russian front, a mass of 25 to 30 divisions could be assembled. If the enemy is permitted to carry out these movements, he will employ this force, acting on interior lines, on each front in succession.

We consider that, to be successful, our offensive should take place at almost the same time on both fronts - a few weeks hence.

On this point we ask the opinions of the members of the Conference.

When they resume the offensive the Allied Armies will have to overcome the difficult problem of breaking through the fortified positions which confront them on both fronts. This problem is not the same in both cases.

On the Western Front the enemy has developed and strengthened for more than a year past the strongest possible defensive system, held by very strong forces (110 divisions, all German). In Russia he occupies lines of vast extent, weakly held, which are probably not so strong owing to lack of time and means to make them so.

In these conditions, it seems that a breach in the German lines on the Russian front could now be easily converted into a strategic "break-through", leading to the disorganization and retreat of the enemy Armies.

From what we know of the conditions of the Allied Armies, they are not ready now to undertake the co-ordinated action which we judge necessary in order to bring about a decision.

It is therefore necessary for each of the Powers to combine their means and increase their resources, pursuing meanwhile an energetic policy of wearing down the opposing forces.

In conclusion, so far as the principal theatres of war are concerned, the Allies must adopt the following policy until such time as it is possible to launch the combined offensive.

Great Britain, Italy and Russia should use every endeavour to wear down their opponents. France will co-operate so far as her resources in man power permit.

France, Great Britain and Italy should complete their organization and equipment and also supply Russia with the material she lacks, so that the Russian Armies may be raised to their full offensive value as soon as possible.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2005 9:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2. Secondary Objectives
For a long time the Quadruple Entente has realized that in its own interest Germany's policy of Eastern domination must be checked. It has therefore endeavoured to bar the way to German expansion in the East.

(a) The first attempt was made on Constantinople itself, and success would have had important results, detaching Turkey from the Central Empires. At all events, the latter would have found themselves unable to develop their Eastern policy.

Unfortunately the expedition did not achieve the hoped-for result. We can only admit the failure and the impossibility of making a further effort in that direction.

(b) The second attempt was made in the Balkan peninsula, and is in course of execution.

Hesitations and delays have resulted in a situation much less favourable to the Quadruple Entente than would have resulted from more decisive action.

The Serbian Army has been driven into the mountains of Montenegro and Albania, and our expeditionary force has begun to retreat towards the Greek frontier.

Faced by this momentary failure, ought we to consider the game lost, give up the plan and abandon Salonika? This solution should be rejected for the following reasons:

1. The diversity of interests involved may lead at any moment to a change of the Balkan situation in our favour. We must be in a position to profit by it.

As regards Greece, the presence of our expeditionary force, combined with the action of our fleet, constitutes a powerful influence which has already had a salutary effect. So long as we maintain ourselves in Greek territory, we shall be able to take advantage of the changes in the political situation of that country, and perhaps to overcome her pusillanimity.

As for Rumania, Germany has begun to bring great pressure to bear on her with a view to securing her economic, and perhaps military, support.

Encouraged by our presence in Salonika, and by the concentration of the Russian Army in Bessarabia, Rumania seems little disposed to yield to German demands. Indeed, there seems to be a revival of feeling in our favour at Bucharest. It is expedient to study events in this quarter. In order to keep Rumania detached from Germany, the Coalition must take the appropriate economic measures which are examined in a special appendix.

It is for Russia to take military action, either by the direct support of her Army in Bessarabia, or by vigorous attacks upon the Austrians in Galicia; or even by a vigorous attack upon Bulgaria across Rumanian territory.

It is obvious that the Franco-British forces at Salonika are advantageously situated to facilitate Russian military action ; for, so long as Bulgaria feels the threat of the Allies to her flank and rear, she will not be able to engage all her forces against Rumania ; nor will a German winter campaign against southern Russia be possible.

The field will remain open for secret diplomatic action to influence Tsar Ferdinand, who, according to certain information, is impatient of German tutelage.

3. We are in favour of increased Italian efforts on the Albanian coast. It ought to be possible to reassemble the Serbian Army when it arrives on the Adriatic coast, and to reorganize it.

4. Finally, we should prevent the Central Empires from controlling Greece, either by force or persuasion, and so utilizing all the Greek ports and islands as bases for the maintenance of submarines, which would soon wrest from us our control of the Mediterranean Sea.

For all the above reasons the Quadruple Entente should remain in the region of Salonika, and wait upon events, directing them, if possible, to conform to its interests and ready to profit by them.

If, as a result of her consolidated position in southern Serbia, or in Greece, and in Albania, the Quadruple Entente succeeds in attracting to its side Rumania and Greece, there is no doubt that the Balkan situation in the following spring would be most favourable, and would permit a complete check to all German enterprises in the East.

On the contrary, if events do not take a favourable course, and if the presence of our expeditionary force at Salonika becomes useless, we shall have to go further afield in order to block the path of German imperialism. At that moment, but only at that moment, we should evacuate Salonika, and consider the opportunity of arresting enemy progress in the direction of Egypt.

(c) In the present situation the presence of our forces at Salonika is sufficient to bar the way to German enterprise in the East.

The Germans have displayed an intention to threaten Egypt, and, though it is impossible to estimate the precise importance of this intention, it must not be overlooked.

In any case, the Allies ought to take all necessary steps to counter this threat. Egypt must be put in a proper state of defence and troops sent there.

But we cannot disperse our forces in a series of divergent operations without playing into the enemy's hands. In principle, the troops actually in the East should suffice for this secondary theatre.

In order to ensure the defence of Egypt in an economical way, it will be necessary to draw for troops upon one of our expeditionary forces which, for the reasons indicated above, can only be that at Gallipoli.

Consequently, we foresee the evacuation of the peninsula and the transfer of the British troops there to Egypt.

Moreover, the situation of the expeditionary force at Gallipoli presents no prospect of improvement. It may even become critical now that the Turks are supplied by the Germans with munitions and material of all kinds. The most experienced officers on the spot are of opinion that evacuation will be forced upon us when the enemy makes a properly mounted attack on our positions. It is better to bow to the inevitable and withdraw our troops before they are closely invested. We propose, from this moment, the total evacuation of the peninsula, to be carried out progressively.

The British forces on the peninsula will be sent to Egypt for rest and reorganization.

The defence of Egypt will be assured by these troops, and by a powerful defensive system to be organized immediately east of the Suez Canal.

To recapitulate, we propose that the Coalition adopt the following plan:

A. In the Principal Theatres
1. Great Britain, France, Italy and Russia will deliver simultaneous attacks with their maximum forces on their respective fronts as soon as they are ready to do so and circumstances seem favourable. This is our essential aim, the principal means by which we expect to force a decision.

2. Until this can be done, the Austro-German forces will be worn down by vigorous action, to be carried out principally by those powers which still have reserves of man power. (Great Britain, Italy and Russia).

3. Each of the Powers will unceasingly continue to accumulate material and equipment. Russia and Serbia will be helped by their Allies to reorganize their armies in this respect.

B. In the Secondary Theatres
The Allies will allot to the secondary theatres only the minimum forces required - in principle, those which are already in the East - and will use them to bar the way to German expansion, conforming to the programme given below. One commander-in-chief for all the Allied forces in the East will be charged with its execution:

1. The Coalition will first try to establish in the Balkans the effective barrier which they failed to form at Constantinople. With this object it is necessary:

    1. To continue in occupation of the Salonika region, in default of southern Serbia (Franco-British Expeditionary Force, remnants of Serbian army).

    2. To occupy Albania in force (Italy), to reassemble and reorganize the Serbian army.

    3. To continue pressure on Greece (France, Great Britain, Italy), in order to obtain the maximum co-operation from her, and to organize on her coasts operations against enemy submarines.

    4. To take economic and military action (Coalition and Russia) to keep Rumania free from German control.

    5. To follow closely the trend of events in the Balkans and profit by all opportunities to bring neutrals over to our side, and take advantage of changes which are always possible in view of the diverse interests at stake.

2. At the same time, the Coalition must provide for the adequate defence of Egypt. With this object it is necessary

    1. To evacuate Gallipoli by degrees and send the British troops thus relieved to Egypt for rest and reorganization.
    2. To create a strong defensive system east of the Suez Canal.

C. Economic War
The economic war will be organized and carried out to its fullest extent, the necessary steps being taken at once by common Allied agreement.

Bron: First World War.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2005 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 december 1914
Polen
Russische troepen evacueren Lodz en trekken 30 mijl terug naar de lijn langs de rivieren de Rawka en Bzura waar zij zich ingraven en verdedigingswerken maken.
Servië
Na drie dagen van gevechten breken de Oostenrijiks-Hongaarse linies en trekken deze zich terug in de richting van de Kolubara rivier. De Serven nemen 40.000 man gevangen en veroveren grote hoeveelheden munitie en wapens.

6 december 1916
Duits Oost-Afrika
Lt Kol Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck en zijn schutztruppe lukt het niet Kibata te veroveren en de zich daar bevindende voorraden voedsel en munitie voor de Engelsen die hij nodig heeft. Hij verplaats zich noordelijk en steekt de Rufiji over.

6 december 1917
Jassy, Roemenië
Met de Russen aan de zijlijn besluiten Roemeense politici en militairen onderhandelingen te beginnen met Mackensen over een wapenstilstand waardoor Roemenië uit de oorlog zou stappen.

Bron; Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 12:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New York Times, 6 December 1914 - "The War Situation"

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E04E1D9133EE733A05755C0A9649D946596D6CF
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Duitse oorlogsvloot tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog


Fregattenkapitän Erich Köhler

(...) SMS Karlsruhe bevond zich op 4 november 1914 in de buurt van Trinidad toen er een abrupt einde aan haar kapervaart kwam. ’s Avonds om drie minuten voor zeven explodeerde het gehele voorschip. Binnen 25 minuten was de Karlsruhe gezonken. 263 opvarenden kwamen om het leven. Onder hen was kapitein Erich Köhler.
146 overlevenden bereikten aan boord van het begeleidingsschip Rio Negro op 6 december 1914 de thuishaven Kiel.

Als oorzaak van de explosie werd een ongeluk in het munitieruim vermoed. De Duitsers hielden de ondergang van de Karlsruhe streng geheim. Nog maanden lang maakten Britse oorlogsschepen jacht op kaperkapitein Erich Köhler. Pas in maart 1915 bleek uit de vondst van wrakstukken dat het schip gezonken moest zijn. (...)

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/berlijn/deel-05-vloot/index.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1914 actions in Mesopotamia

6 December 1914 - No further attempt was made until reinforcements arrived at dawn on the 6th, when the infantry was made up to five battalions, with some mountain gun batteries also arriving. In the interim, the Turks had advanced across the Tigris and were now on the same bank. Consequently when the British tried to advance they had to fight again through the same date groves as before. No effort, however, succeeded. Eventually, while the enemy troops in Qurna came under fire from Royal Navy vessels on the Euphrates, an Indian Army Sepoy (Private) managed to swim the wide Tigris and take a line across. More men joined him and a wire hawser was dragged across. This became the basis for a ferry, and troops began to cross. Before the Turks in Qurna knew what was happening, the infantry had encircled the town. The Turkish garrison surrendered. 42 Turkish officers and over 1000 men were captured.

The oil installations at Basra were made completely safe by this action. Unfortunately the relative ease with which the Turks were defeated at Qurna led the British and Indian leadership to believe that further advances would be equally cheap. British losses at Qurna were a little over 300; the Turks lost around 1500.

http://www.1914-1918.net/mespot1914.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Karl Abraham to Sigmund Freud, December 6, 1914

Berlin, 6 December 1914

Dear Professor,

Your last letter contained much that greatly pleased and interested me. One generally hears of nothing but trenches, numbers of prisoners, etc., and then, for a change, there comes a sign that our science is still alive. I am extremely curious to know what new ideas have matured in the short time since we met and hope fervently that I can come to Vienna between Christmas and the New Year; this is, however, rather doubtful. I do not even know whether I shall remain in my present hospital post. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.052.0286a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Service record of an executed officer: Eric Skeffington Poole

Eric Poole was born in Nova Scotia, Canada on 20 January 1885. His service record in WO 339/35077 shows that he gained his first military experience in the 63rd Regiment of the Halifax Rifles, with whom he served for two years between 1903 and 1905. The Poole family arrived in England at some stage between 1905 and the outbreak of the First World War, settling in Guildford, Surrey.

In October 1914, Poole joined the Honourable Artillery Company, where he worked as a driver (in 'B Battery') for the next seven months. His Territorial Force attestation form reveals that he earned a commission as a temporary second lieutenant in the 14th Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment in May 1915. A year later, Poole was transferred to serve in France with the 11th Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment, shortly before it was due to go into action at the Battle of the Somme.

Shell shock

According to the medical history sheet compiled for Poole's general court martial in November 1916 (WO 71/1027), he suffered 'shell shock' after being hit by clods of earth distributed by an enemy shell during fighting on the Somme on 7 July 1916. After a period of recuperation, Poole was returned to duty with his battalion at the end of August. He was soon placed in charge of 'C Company' platoon at Martinpuich near Albert.

According to his own testimony at his trial, the shell-shock injury caused Poole to 'at times get confused and... have great difficulty in making up my mind'. It was in this condition that he wandered away from his platoon on 5 October 1916, during a move into the frontline trenches at Flers.

Poole was apprehended by the military police two days later and arrested on 10 October. In early November, it was decided to try Poole by general court martial for deserting 'when on active service'.

The court martial

At Poole's trial, held in the town of Poperinghe on 24 November 1916, the prosecution called six witnesses. It was variously noted that Poole's 'nerves seemed rather shaken' and that he had confessed to feeling 'damned bad' on the morning of 5 October.

Two men spoke in Poole's defence, including an RAMC officer who argued that the 'mental condition' of the accused had precluded him from intentionally deserting his company. In his own testimony, Poole outlined his recent medical problems and confessed that he had been unaware of 'the seriousness of not going to the front line on Oct 5th'.

Despite defence pleas, however, the five-man court found Poole guilty of desertion and sentenced him to 'death by being shot'. This verdict was confirmed by Sir Douglas Haig on 6 December 1916, three days after a medical board sent to examine Poole concluded that 'he was of sound mind and capable of appreciating the nature and quality of his actions'.

Poole was executed by firing squad in Poperinghe town hall on 10 December 1916. He was buried in the town's military cemetery.

First officer to be executed

Eric Poole was the first British army officer to be sentenced to death and executed during the First World War. Despite the abundant evidence that he was medically unfit to command a platoon as a result of the shell shock, Poole seems to have been at least partially a victim of a political decision. In his diary entry of 6 December 1914 (in WO 256/14), Haig wrote disingenuously that 'it is... highly important that all ranks should realise the law is the same for an officer as a private'.

Poole's fate aroused little fuss back in Britain, where his family were understandably anxious to avoid publicity - particularly because his father was seriously ill at the time. The War Office, equally wary of adverse publicity, agreed that Poole's name would not appear in the casualty lists published in British newspapers, and that no information about the circumstances of his death would be made public.



http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/people/poole.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eduard Jacobs

Ezechiël (Eduard) Jacobs (Amsterdam, 2 april 1868 - aldaar, 6 december 1914) wordt beschouwd als Nederlands eerste cabaretier. (...)

Men moet het cabaret van die tijd, dat in Nederland toen noch vrijwel geheel onbekend was, over het algemeen beschouwen als niet meer dan een praatje met een liedje tussen de grote optredens/shows door. Jacobs deed dit echter met de nodige satire en spot en speelde ook in op de actuele gebeurtenissen, bijvoorbeeld in het liedje "Brief van het laatste Amsterdamsche trampaard". Het liefst zong Jacobs over het wel maar vooral het wee van de (Chinese) prostituees op de Zeedijk en de Oudezijds Voor- en Achterburgwal te Amsterdam ("Limonadehoertjes"). (...)

Het initiatief van Jacobs om in Nederland kritisch cabaret te brengen werd door de overheid steeds meer tegengewerkt en in later jaren richtte hij zich meer op het populaire amusement. Hij had ook een zwakke gezondheid en een tournee door Nederlands-Indië in 1912 sloopte hem lichamelijk. Hij overleed in 1914 op 46-jarige leeftijd.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eduard_Jacobs

"Limonadehoertjes"

Ik zing nu ereisjes
Van een soort van meisjes
Heus geen domme lijsjes
Op mijn woord
't Zijn ook volstrekt geen snollen
En ook geen makrollen
Die met and'ren lollen
Van haar soort

Op het oog heel netjes
En ook zelden vetjes
Maar verzot op pretjes
Zo in eer en deugd
Dikwijls vol met kuren
Leggen ze u in de luren
Vaak moet u 't bezuren
Dat 't u lang nog heugt

Meestal gaan ze op naaien
En wilt u haar praaien
Moet u 's avonds draaien
Om 'r atelier
Achter 'n groen gordijntje
In het maneschijntje
Gaat zo'n maagdelijntje
Met je mee
Pons of limonade
Vindt bij haar genade
Ook wel chocolade
Of een flesje stout
Is ze eerst wat blode
Dat is haar methode
Ze verneukt de Gode!
En is als ijs zo koud

Zo'n limonadehoertje
Kent een handig toertje
En daarmede voert je
Waar ze wil
Laat zich inspecteren
Tot haar onderkleren
Wilt u meer proberen...
Hou maar stil!
Al hebt u bij het snoetje
Ook nog zo'n wit voetje
Naar een rendez-voetje
Krijgt u haar niet mee
Wil het loze klantje
Niet in 't ledikantje
En doet ze 't met 'r handje
Wees dan maar tevree!

Zulk 'n maagdelijntje
Houd je aan 't lijntje
En ze ondermijnt je
Port'monnee
Gaat u met haar lopen
Steeds moet ze iets kopen
Taartjes, linten, knopen
Maar... O wee!
"Heb je van je leven
Waar is m'n beurs gebleven
Ik dacht toch heus zoeven
Dat 'k 'm bij mij had...
George, geef me eens even
Gauw 'n pop of zeven
'k Zal 't je morgen geven
Toe, m'n lieve schat"

U denkt van tevoren:
't Geld is verloren
Maar m'n wens verhoren
Zal ze wis
D'and're dag waarachtig
Staan de kansen prachtig
Maar 't wordt je te machtig
't Is weer mis
Op een teer momentje
Zegt ze: "Lieve ventje
Ik stelde graag content je
Maar ik ben niet wel"
Wilt u 't onderzoeken?
Zij draagt dichte broeken
Zou je d'r niet vervloeken
Wensen naar de hel!

Ze hebben thuis geen vreten
Daarom moet u weten
Wil ze gaarne eten
Op uw zak
Als u maar zo mal is
Neemt ze van u alles
Want thuis is de dalles
Op het dak
Gaat het je vervelen
Met je geld te spelen
Wat kan haar dat schelen
Ze laat je wel gaan
Zij heeft niets te vrezen
D'r zal wel een ander wezen
Die haar, op hoop van kezen
Aan de haak zal slaan

Maar al houdt zo'n dotje
Ook een safety-slotje
Op haar pruimepotje
Een tijdje vast
Door dat malle dollen
Leert ze 't vak van snollen
En de meeste rollen
In een kast
't Kost dan maar een woordje
En heus, ze bekoort je
Want al breit z'in 't 'Moortje'
Da's maar voor de leus
Ze is in 't hoerenleven
En in 't vak bedreven
't Bewijs zal ze je geven
Ieder naar z'n keus

En nu tot slot, meneren
Hieruit kunt u leren
Wilt u profiteren
Neem dan niet
Nee, nimmer van je leven
Ik wil die raad u geven
'n Vrouw als hier beschreven
In dit lied
Het gaat te bezwaarlijk
Daarbij; 't is gevaarlijk
En ze houdt je waarlijk
Voor 'n stomme boer
Ik zeg 't u bij dezen
Neem, als 't moet wezen
Voor 'n nodig kezen
'n Professiehoer!...

http://www.musicfrom.nl/songteksten/jacobs,_eduard/limonadehoertjes.html
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Greek legislative election, December 1915

The Greek legislative election of December 6, 1915 were notable for the non-participation of Eleftherios Venizelos and his party, the Liberal Party. This was the outcome of a very fierceful confrontation with King Constantine I about Greece's participation in World War I. Venizelos considered Greece as a close and loyal ally of England, while Constantine I, who was affiliated with the German royal family, favored the neutrality of Greece.

Although the electoral body supported Venizelos, Constantine I insisted in his position and did not hesitate to confront the democratically elected government. Venizelos resigned and withdrew temporarily from the political fore, leading the crisis to its worst point.

Only right-wing parties participated in the elections. In a few months the crisis would almost become a civil war (the "National Schism") between the supporters of Venizelos, who created their own government in Thessaloniki, while the official government of Athens remained under the control of Constantine I.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_legislative_election,_December_1915
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H.P. Lovecraft’s Favorite Motion Pictures

As you surmise, I am a devotee of the motion picture, since I can attend shows at any time, whereas my ill health seldom permits me to make definite engagements or purchase real theatre tickets in advance. Some modern films are really worth seeing, though when I first knew moving pictures their only value was to destroy time.
- H.P. Lovecraft to Reinhardt Kleiner, 6 December 1915

http://www.hplovecraft.com/life/interest/movies.asp
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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DECEMBER 6, 1915: OFFICIAL CONGRESSIONAL DIRECTORY FOR THE USE OF THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/special/Desks/maps/old_chamber/SC64_1_January1916_2nded.pdf
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Utrechts Nieuwsblad, 06-12-1916

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1916/1206
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Grey River Argus , 6 December 1916





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19161206.2.17
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David Lloyd George, 1916


Lloyd George (fourth from left) with members of his wartime cabinet in 1916, including General Smuts and Bonar Law.

Coalition Government: 6 December 1916 - 14 December 1918
In December 1916 dissatisfaction with the way the Asquith government was pursuing the war, combined with David Lloyd George's desire for power led to the formation of a coalition government. The new government instigated a Cabinet secretariat to record Cabinet decisions for the first time. There was no change in the continuity of government after the 1918 general election or the ending of the War Cabinet.

Notes: Between 6 Dec 1916 and 31 Oct 1919 there was an 'Inner' Cabinet of D. Lloyd George, Earl Curzon and A. Bonar Law, who were joined by A. Henderson (10 Dec 1916 - 12 Aug 1917), Viscount Milner (10 Dec 1916 - 18 Apr 1918), J. Smuts (22 Jun 1917 - 10 Jan 1919), G. Barnes (29 May 1917 - 3 Aug 1917 and 13 Aug 1917 - 10 Jan 1919), A. Chamberlain (18 Apr 1918 - 31 Oct 1919) and Sir E. Geddes (10 Jan 1919 - 31 Oct 1919)

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/cabinet-gov/david-lloyd-george-1916.htm
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T. E. Lawrence to C. E. Wilson

[From Yenbo]

6.12.16

Dear Colonel Wilson

I got back yesterday and found your wire saying that I was to wire urgently anything critical. As a matter of fact the only thing urgent is for an air reconnaissance of Bir Said and Bir Jabir and Wadi Safra - and that is not possible till our landing ground here is finished (this afternoon) and I can direct the planes where these places are.* Unless they get a better map or local knowledge the planes simply are flying in the dark, and their reports cannot be much use. As a matter of fact we have never had any news from them at all to date. Perhaps they have none, or else they don't know we are here!

About wiring urgently. It is not possible from the S.N.O.'s ship. Atmospherics are bad just now, and naval messages take precedence, and the S.N.O. has a lot of wiring of his own, of course. I don't suppose my wire of conditions in Feisul's camp will get through for some day yet, and it is a long one of about 400 groups. This state of affairs will continue till we have a station of our own. I am very sorry to hear that the despatch boat is 'off'. It would have meant better touch with Rabegh, and less wiring.

The Minto is coming in today, and I am sending by it direct to Cairo an expansion of my telegram No. 29, which I expect will arrive quicker than the telegram itself via you.** The situation is certainly not good - and in the maze of conflicting reports and obvious exaggerations afloat here one can hardly see more. I am afraid the morale of the Harb is badly shaken, and Feisul's prestige and scope will suffer severely if he is confined to the Juheina only. However as soon as the aeroplanes can find their way about I will get up country again, and try and feel the intentions of Feisul and the Turks a little more closely.*** Feisul treats me very well, and lets me ask hear and see everything, including his agents. Of course I still pass as a Syrian officer, which makes my style a little cramped. My three days nearly knocked me up. To begin with I only got an average of one hour's sleep per 24, then we did some very hard camel travelling, and the alarms and excitements of the camp were great.

As for when I will go up - that depends I'm afraid entirely on how things work out. General Clayton's orders to me were to go ashore and do what seemed best, and it would be hard to be more definite. I do not quite understand what the Sirdar can mean by my superintending the 'supply question'. All that comes is handed over to the Sherif's agent, Abd el Kader, in the steamer, and discharged and stored by him. There is no possible road for us to butt into the matter, nor do I think it desirable. If each ship is given a full list of stores on board for Yenbo, in English or Arabic, then all necessary is the handing over of that list to Abd el Kader, and his receipt that he has had the contents.**** Our interference in matters of internal organization is not encouraged exactly!

I have asked you to let me hear occasionally about Sherif Abdulla and his movements. If he closes with the Turks he might be quite useful to the Wadi Safra operations, and fuller information would enable Feisul to coordinate. Of course it is quite probable that you have no news!

The "old man of the sea" of those Q.F. Mountain Batteries still weights us. If we could only get that responsibility off we would have done all and more than they asked.

One's isolation at Yenbo and lack of touch with everything will make one unable to see what news you need. So will you whenever a thing crops up send me a telegram asking for light on so and so? One gets so used to local things that one forgets they are unknown outside.

Yours sincerely

T.E. Lawrence

I have so much coding and decoding, and local work that I have been unable to write a word of a report which ought to be written on my visit to Feisul. If I can write one I will send it (or a copy, according to postal opportunity) to you.

Have just recd. a telegram from you, and one to Garland asking for news. I'm very sorry, but owing to atmospherics and press of normal work Capt. Boyle had to refuse my messages, and this meant two days' delay. I hope they most of them got off last night.

L.

* If they will take me up I will show them the roads.
** This is done to save the great delay of going to Jidda first: and there is not enough news in it to make it worth while sending a copy to you.
*** Agents were not much good.
****If you think fit, please explain the local conditions to the Sirdar. Abd el Kader is as efficient and reliable as any British Officer.


http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1916/161206_c_e_wilson.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, Volume XCII, Issue 136, 6 December 1916





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19161206.2.28
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul Klee, diary entry (6th December, 1916)

A battalion from the Somme marches up with music, an overwhelming sight. Everything yellow with mud. The unmilitary, matter-of-fact appearance, the steel helmets, the equipment. The trotting step. Nothing heroic, just like beasts of burden, like slaves. Against a background of circus music.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ARTklee.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 13:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Enterprise

The sixth Enterprise was a 66-foot motor patrol craft purchased by the Navy on 6 December 1916. She was placed in the service of the Second Naval District on 25 September 1917 and performed harbor tug duties at Newport, Rhode Island. She shifted to New Bedford, Massachusetts, on 11 December 1917 for operations inside the breakwaters and was transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries on 2 August 1919.

http://www.public.navy.mil/airfor/enterprise/Pages/The%20Legend.aspx

... en de toekomst?


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Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

6 december 1916 - Oprichting van de Nederlandsche Telegraaf Maatschappij 'Radio-Holland' door een aantal vooraanstaande Nederlandse rederijen, in samenwerking met Marconi en de Belgische firma SAIT, met als doel de installatie, onderhoud en de bediening van scheepsradiostations. Na de Eerste Wereldoorlog zal de toepassing van de scheepstelegrafie een grote vlucht nemen en moeten er meer, speciaal opgeleide, mensen komen voor de bediening van de aan boord van Nederlandse schepen geplaatste radiozenders en -ontvangers. Omdat de zeevaartscholen deze studie nog niet in hun programma hebben opgenomen, begint 'Radio-Holland' in Amsterdam en Rotterdam met een eigen opleiding tot 'marconist', later radiotelegrafist genoemd en weer later, na uitbreiding van taken, de opleiding tot radio-officier.
Bron: www.radioholland.co.za

6 december 1917 - In de haven van Halifax komt het Franse ss.'Mont Blanc' in aanvaring met het Noorse ss.'Ino'. Het ene schip is geladen met munitie, het andere met het explosieve TNT ( trotyl ). Het passagiersschip ss.'Nieuw Amsterdam' van de Holland-Amerila Lijn ligt in de haven van Halifex voor anker met aan boord 1.000 gestrande Nederlandse passagiers. De 'Mont Blanc' vliegt direct hierna met een daverende klap in de lucht. Tijdens deze enorme explosie wordt eenderde gedeelte van Halifax volledig in puin gelegd en zullen er meer dan 2.000 doden worden geregistreerd.
Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De passagiersvaart van de HAL op New York in WO I' in: 'DBW' jrg. 53 nr. 3 (1998).

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=12&d=6
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Halifax Explosion

The Halifax Explosion occurred on Thursday, December 6, 1917, when the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the huge detonation of the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship, fully loaded with wartime explosives, which accidentally collided with the Norwegian SS Imo in "The Narrows" section of the Halifax Harbour. About 2,000 people were killed by debris, fires, or collapsed buildings and it is estimated that over 9,000 people were injured. This is still the world's largest man-made accidental explosion.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halifax_Explosion
Zie ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PImhLMxTXc&feature=related
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.be/viewtopic.php?t=3167&sid=84d15ff3d4621e6151a2fb98fd6aaa1d
Zie ook http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955605/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 05 Dec 2010 14:21, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 06 DECEMBER 1917

The Wellington College closed on Friday for the Christmas holidays to allow the boys to assist the farmers. The Principal’s report stated that 1600 old boys were with the colours, among whom there had been 251 casualties of which 139 were fatalities. One hundred & three honours and decorations had been gained by old boys, two of whom were Captain BRANDEN and Brig.General FREYBERG who had risen to fame.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn06dec1917.html
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NOTE FROM TROTSKY TO THE ALLIED AMBASSADORS ON THE NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE CENTRAL POWERS

6 December 1917

The negotiations being conducted between the delegates of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria on the one hand, and the delegates of Russia on the other, have been suspended at the request of our delegation for one week in order to provide an opportunity of informing the peoples and Governments of the Allied countries of the fact of the negotiations and of the course they have taken.

On the Russian side it is proposed:

1.To proclaim that the proposed armistice has for its aim a peace on a democratic basis on the lines formulated in the manifesto of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies;

2.That as a condition of the armistice no troops are to be transferred from one front to another;

3. That the Moon Islands be evacuated.

With regard to war aims, the delegates of the opposing side declined to give a definite reply, stating that they had been instructed to deal only with the military side of the armistice. On the question of a general armistice also, the delegates of the opposing side claimed that they had no authority to consider the question of an armistice with countries whose delegates were not taking part in the negotiations.

On their part the delegates of the opposing side put forward terms for an armistice on the front from the Baltic to the Black Sea, to last for twenty-eight days. They also undertook to transmit to their Governments the Russian delegation's proposal for an immediate address to all belligerent countries, that is to all Allied countries besides Russia, inviting them to take part in the negotiations.

Since our delegation refused to sign a formal armistice in the present stage of negotiations, it was once more agreed to cease hostilities for a week and to suspend negotiations for the same period.

Thus, between the Soviet Government's first decree on peace (26 October) [8 November] and the time when the peace negotiations will be resumed (29 November) [12 December], more than a month will have passed. This time limit, even with the present disorganized means of international communication, is considered quite sufficient to give the Governments of the Allied countries an opportunity to define their attitude to the peace negotiations-that is, to express their readiness or their refusal to take part in the negotiations for an armistice and peace, and in the case of a refusal to state openly before all mankind, clearly, exactly, and definitely, in the name of what aims must the peoples of Europe shed their blood in the fourth year of war.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1917/December/6.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 14:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Telegram to Naval Headquarters, Ottawa, 6 December 1917



The violent force of the blast in Halifax harbour disrupted communications isolating the city from the rest of the world. Since the re-establishment of contact was crucial, especially in the height of war, the author of this telegram suggests adopting wireless -- or radio -- communication.

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/premiereguerre/025005-3100.011-e.html
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USS Jacob Jones, 1916-1917

USS Jacob Jones, a 1150-ton Tucker class destroyer built at Camden, New Jersey, was commissioned in February 1916. (...) In May 1917, Jacob Jones crossed the Atlantic to begin anti-submarine patrols and convoy escort work out of Queenstown, Ireland. She rescued survivors of several torpedoed ships during the next several months. On 6 December 1917, while en route from Brest, France, to Queenstown, USS Jacob Jones was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-53. Her survivors were rescued by British ships after the German submarine's Commanding Officer, the daring and very successful Hans Rose, reported their location by radio.



http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-j/dd61.htm
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Sultan Mohammed VI's Proclamation, 6 December 1918

Following the British success in capturing Jerusalem in December 1917 further progress north was effectively stalled in the face of strengthened German forces until September 1918. In part this was because troops had been hastily transferred to the Western Front in March 1918 to assist in the Allies' defence against the German Spring offensive.

Thus on 18 September Sir Edmund Allenby - British regional Commander-in-Chief launched the Battle of Megiddo at Rafat. This set in trail an unbroken series of victories including those at Damascus and Beirut (the latter seized by a French fleet). It was in light of these overwhelming victories that Turkey sued for an armistice of surrender, which was duly agreed on 30 October 1918 in Mudros. British forces subsequently took possession of Constantinople on 10 November 1918.

Reproduced below is the proclamation of the newly appointed Sultan Mehmed VI in which he regretted Turkish crimes against the Armenians and promised a full investigation.



Sultan Mohammed VI's Proclamation of 6 December 1918

My sorrow is profound at the mistreatment of my Armenian subjects by certain political committees acting under my government.

Such misdeeds and the mutual slaughter of sons of the same fatherland have broken my heart. I ordered an inquiry as soon as I came to the throne so that the fomenters might be severely punished, but various factors prevented my orders from being promptly carried out.

The matter is now being thoroughly investigated. Justice will soon be done and we will never have a repetition of these ugly events.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/mohammedvi_proclamation.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 14:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cologne Southern Cemetery - Cologne (Koln), Nordrhein, Westfalen



Cologne was entered by Commonwealth forces on 6 December 1918 and occupied under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles until January 1926. COLOGNE SOUTHERN CEMETERY was used during the war for the burial of more than 1,000 Allied prisoners, as well as German servicemen. After the Armistice it was used by the occupying garrison. In 1922 it was decided that the graves of Commonwealth servicemen who had died all over Germany should be brought together into four permanent cemeteries. Cologne Southern was one of those chosen and the following year, graves were brought in from 183 burial grounds* in Hanover, Hesse, the Rhine and Westphalia. There are now 2,482 First World War servicemen buried or commemorated in the Commonwealth plots at Cologne. The total includes special memorials to a number of casualties buried in other cemeteries in Germany whose graves could not be found. The Commonwealth section of the cemetery also contains 132 Second World War graves, mostly those of servicemen who died with the occupying forces. There are, in addition, 676 non-war graves and 29 burials of other nationalities. The COLOGNE MEMORIAL takes the form of panels set inside the north shelter building at the entrance to the Commonwealth plots in Cologne Southern Cemetery. It commemorates 25 servicemen of the United Kingdom who died in Germany and who have no known grave. Of these, 19 are known to have died as prisoners and their places of burial are not recorded. The other six died after the Armistice by drowning and their bodies were not recovered.

* The following cemeteries are among those from which graves were brought to Cologne: AACHEN MILITARY CEMETERY, 197 burials of sailors 1914-1919. BONN (POPPELSDORF) CEMETERY, 133 service and one civilian burial, all of 1919. The 47th General Hospital and the 21st Casualty Clearing Station were posted at Bonn. BUDERICH (FORT BLUCHER) PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 39 burials of 1914-1919. COBLENZ FRENCH MILITARY CEMETERY, KARTHAUSE, 59 burials of 1915-1918. Coblenz was occupied by United States troops in December 1918. DORTMUND SOUTH-WESTERN CEMETERY, 53 burials of 1914-1918. DUISBURG TOWN CEMETERY, 35 burials of 1914-1919. DULMEN PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 96 burials of 1915-1918. DUREN NEW TOWN CEMETERY, 79 burials, mostly of 1919. The 11th Stationary Hospital and the 17th Casualty Clearing Station were posted at Duren. DUSSELDORF NORTH CEMETERY, 24 burials of 1915-1918. ESSEN SOUTH-WESTERN CEMETERY, 21 burials of 1917-1918. EUSKIRCHEN NEW TOWN CEMETERY, 75 service and one civilian burials of 1918-1919. The 42nd Stationary Hospital and the 47th Casualty Clearing Station were posted at Euskirchen. FRIEDRICHSFELD PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 70 burials of 1916-1918. FRIEMERSHEIM CEMETERY, 20 burials of 1918. GELSENKIRCHEN WEST CEMETERY, 21 burials of 1917-1918. GEROLSTEIN MILITARY CEMETERY, 25 burials of 1918. JULICH MILITARY, 39 burials of 1915-1918. MULHEIM-AM-RUHR OLD TOWN CEMETERY, 49 burials of 1915-1918. MUNSTER (HAUSPITAL) PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 161 burials of 1914-1918. RECKLINGHAUSEN PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC AND SOUTH CEMETERIES, 26 burials of 1916-1918. TRIER TOWN CEMETERY, 48 burials of 1917-1918.

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww2_cemeteries/cologne_southern_cemetery.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 14:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Badge for French Red Cross Day in Australia, 6 December 1918.



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/notre-dame/battles-of-artois-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 14:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A White Man's War? World War One and the West Indies
By Glenford D Howe

Mutiny at Taranto - After Armistice Day, on 11 November 1918, the eight BWIR battalions in France and Italy were concentrated at Taranto in Italy to prepare for demobilisation. They were subsequently joined by the three battalions from Egypt and the men from Mesopotamia. As a result of severe labour shortages at Taranto, the West Indians had to assist with loading and unloading ships and do labour fatigues. This led to much resentment, and on 6 December 1918 the men of the 9th Battalion revolted and attacked their officers. On the same day, 180 sergeants forwarded a petition to the Secretary of State complaining about the pay issue, the failure to increase their separation allowance, and the fact that they had been discriminated against in the area of promotions.

During the mutiny, which lasted about four days, a black NCO shot and killed one of the mutineers in self-defence and there was also a bombing. Disaffection spread quickly among the other soldiers and on 9 December the 'increasingly truculent' 10th Battalion refused to work. A senior commander, Lieutenant Colonel Willis, who had ordered some BWIR men to clean the latrines of the Italian Labour Corps, was also subsequently assaulted. In response to calls for help from the commanders at Taranto, a machine-gun company and a battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment were despatched to restore order. The 9th BWIR was disbanded and the men distributed to the other battalions which were all subsequently disarmed. Approximately 60 soldiers were later tried for mutiny and those convicted received sentences ranging from three to five years, but one man got 20 years, while another was executed by firing squad.

Although the mutiny was crushed, the bitterness persisted, and on 17 December about 60 NCOs held a meeting to discuss the question of black rights, self-determination and closer union in the West Indies. An organisation called the Caribbean League was formed at the gathering to further these objectives. At another meeting on 20 December, under the chairmanship of one Sergeant Baxter, who had just been superseded by a white NCO, a sergeant of the 3rd BWIR argued that the black man should have freedom and govern himself in the West Indies and that if necessary, force and bloodshed should be used to attain these aims. His sentiments were loudly applauded by the majority of those present. The discussion eventually drifted from matters concerning the West Indies to one of grievances of the black man against the white. The soldiers decided to hold a general strike for higher wages on their return to the West Indies. The headquarters for the Caribbean League was to be in Kingston, Jamaica, with sub-offices in the other colonies.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/west_indies_01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Demands of the workers of the metallurgical plant in Motovilikha in Perm Province in December 1918

1. About Food Supply. We, the hungry workers, demand an increase in our ration of bread, and not the kind that even pigs would not eat, but bread made of flour ... as well as all other additional food products, such as meat, cereals, potatoes, and other foods. As of 6 December [1918], we demand an increase of food rations, and if they are not going to be increased, we will be compelled to stop work.

2. We demand that leather jackets and caps be immediately taken away from the commissars and be used to manufacture shoes.

3. We demand the speediest possible acquisition of felt boots and warm clothes and their distribution to citizens.

4. We demand that commissars and employees of Soviet institutions receive the same food rations as workers, and that there be no privileges for bureaucrats.

5. We demand that threats with pistols against workers at the meetings be abolished, and that arrests be abolished too, and that there be freedom of speech and assembly, so that there be a true power of soviets of peasants' and workers' deputies, and not of the Chekas.

6. We demand an abolition to the taking away of food and flour from the hungry workers, their wives and children, and an abolition to imposing fines on those peasants who sell [foodstuffs] and who deliver [food to cities] and who let [workers] stay overnight [in the countryside], and we demand freedom to bring up to one and a half pud of food.

7. We demand that the Province Department of Food Supply, if it cannot provision the population with food, pass over that authority to the Motovilikha [plant] Department of Food Supply so that it can work independently.

8. We demand the convocation of an all-plant general meeting to take place on 5 December at noon with the participation of the Regional Department of Food Supply.

9. We demand that all appointees be removed [from their posts]. Those elected by the people must take their place.

10. We demand pay for the time we spent at the meetings if they took place in work time.

11. We demand an abolition of fines for the time workers spent in search of food.

12. We demand an abolition of commissars' taking rides on horses and also in automobiles.

13. We demand an abolition of the death penalty without trial and investigation. There must be justice.

14. We demand that the commissars be for the people and not the people for the commissars. (Electric workshop) [resolution]

All 14 paragraphs have been adopted unanimously.

Chairman: Luchnikov

http://www.barnsdle.demon.co.uk/russ/brovrw.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 14:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Eigene

Der Eigene was the first gay journal in the world, published from 1896 to 1932 by Adolf Brand in Berlin. Brand contributed many poems and articles himself. Other contributors included Benedict Friedlaender, Hanns Heinz Ewers, Erich Mühsam, Kurt Hiller, Ernst Burchard, John Henry Mackay, Theodor Lessing, Klaus Mann, and Thomas Mann, as well as artists Wilhelm von Gloeden, Fidus, and Sascha Schneider. The journal may have had an average of around 1500 subscribers per issue during its run, but the exact numbers are uncertain.


Title page of the journal Der Eigene, vol. 7, no. 3 (6 December 1919), p. 1.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Der_Eigene
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Dec 2010 11:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Landsturmmann from Landsturm Infanterie Bataillon 'Hall' (XIII 11), December 1915

Letter on reverse dated 6.12.15, no postmarks etc.



Studio portrait of a Landsturmmann, possibly on the Eastern Front, given he's armed with a captured Russian Mosin-Nagant.

By the end of 1914, it was clear to the German High Command that existing stores of the Mauser Gewehr 98 rifle were going to be wholly inadequate to arm Germany’s burgeoning armed forces. Therefore, in early 1915, Germany turned to the use of Beutegewehr - captured rifles - to solve this shortfall.

Since tens of thousands of Moisin-Nagant Pekhotniya Vintovka obr. 1891g (Infantry Rifle, Model 1891) had been captured from the Russians in the disastrous battles of 1914 and early 1915, it was natural for the Germans to turn to this source of supply.

Designated the 7.62mm Aptierte Russisches Gewehr M91 by German ordnance authorities, thousands of these weapons were soon in the hands German personnel along with large quantities of captured Russian ammunition.

Source: mosinnagant.net/global mosin nagants/Captured-Mosin-Nagants1.asp

'Hall' is short for Schwäbisch Hall.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/3882537685/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Edgar Odell Lovett to John Tidden, dated December 6, 1918

Copy of letter confirming approval of Tidden's request for a leave of absence for his enlistment in the US Army.

Te lezen op https://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/12914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 11:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Onafhankelijkheidsdag Finland

Datum: woensdag 6 december 2017
Land / gebied: Finland
Soort: Nationale feestdag

Na de Russische Oktober Revolutie riep het Finse parlement op 6 december 1917 de onafhankelijkheid uit. Deze onafhankelijkheid werd formeel door de Sovjet-Unie erkend in 1920 met het sluiten van een vredesverdrag tussen beide landen

Finland maakte vanaf 1323 deel uit van het Zweedse Rijk tot het door Rusland werd bezet in 1809, gevolgd door inlijving in het Russische Rijk. Een Finse emancipatiebeweging bewerkstelligde, na lange strijd, in 1906 een eigen parlement en algemeen kiesrecht. Finland was daarmee het eerste land in Europa waar vrouwen algemeen en enkelvoudig kiesrecht kregen. Het was bovendien het eerste land ter wereld waar vrouwen verkiesbaar konden worden gesteld.

Lees verder op https://www.beleven.org/feest/onafhankelijkheidsdag_finland
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PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1917, SUPPLEMENT 2, THE WORLD WAR, VOLUME I: The Secretary of State to the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate ( Stone)

Washington, December 6, 1917.
My Dear Senator Stone : In accordance with your request it gives me pleasure to send you enclosed a confidential memorandum regarding the inadvisability of a declaration of war by the United States against Turkey and Bulgaria at the present time.

I am [etc.]

Robert Lansing

Lees verder op https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1917Supp02v01/d373
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 december 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Guillaume Paulissen is op 17 maart 1894 geboren in het Limbrugse dorp Kessenich, nu een deelgemeente van Kinrooi. De ongehuwde zoon van Theodore en Helene Derconingen verdient de kost als steenbakker. Hij is 1,65 meter groot en heeft kastanjebruin haar. Hij treedt op 20 maart 1915 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.
Op 6 december 1917 wordt hij in Merkem door een oorlogsprojectiel getroffen en wordt met een ingewikkelde rechterdijbeenbreuk geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch miltiair hospitaal van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer. Hij overlijdt daar om 0.30 uur 's nachts.
Het slachtoffer wordt op 8 december 1917 begraven op het kerkhof van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer en op 28 juli 1924 herbegraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van De Panne, grafnummer J-80.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/6-december-1917-1
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December 6, 1916: Dinosaur fossils lost at sea in World War I

One hundred years ago this month, a Canadian cargo ship — the SS Mount Temple — departed the port of Montreal on the St. Lawrence River headed for France. On board were 3,000 tons of wheat, more than 700 horses bound for service in World War I, and an unknown number of 75-million-year-old dinosaur skeletons and bones destined for the British Museum of Natural History. But the ship, and the fossils, never made it.

https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/benchmarks-december-6-1916-dinosaur-fossils-lost-sea-world-war-i
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 11:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Falkenhayn's cavalry entering Bucuresti on December 6, 1916

Falkenhayn and his staff of the German 9th Army during the Romanian Campaign, World War One, 1916. There are Hungarian hussars on the picture.

Foto! https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Falkenhayn%27s_cavalry_entering_Bucuresti_on_December_6,_1916.jpg
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Procession of 2,000 women, including groups of women voters from the western states, march to U.S. Capitol to be received by deputation from Congress

Foto... https://www.loc.gov/item/mnwp000425
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 11:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate: WW1: December 6 to 12, 1915

This week, the Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate reported that 4700 Hunter Valley men and women enlisted in the Australian defence forces and nursing service up to the beginning of this week one hundred years ago. Again, most were allotted to the soon to be formed ‘Newcastle’s Own,’ the 35th Battalion.

CASUALTY LISTS

List 119 contains 329 names: 11 were killed in notion, seven died of wounds, and nine of illness. There are 65 reported wounded, 10 severely wounded, 198 ill, eight seriously ill, eight dangerously ill, and seven injured. List 120 contains 208 names: three killed in action, 10 died of wounds, and eight of illness. There are 22 reported wounded, two seriously wounded, 141 ill, five seriously ill, 12 dangerously ill, one prisoner of war, and four the nature of whose casualty is not known. List 121 contains 346 names: five died of wounds and one of injuries. There are 58 reported wounded, 27 severely wounded, two dangerously wounded, 16 missing, 191 ill, 28 seriously ill, 14 dangerously ill, three injured, and one the nature of whose casualty is unknown. List 122 contains 191 names: two were killed in action, 23 died of wounds, one accidentally killed, and 16 of illness. There are 78 reported ill, 18 seriously ill, 17 dangerously ill, 28 wounded, two severely wounded, three missing, and three injured.

SOLDIERS' PARCELS
Instructions received from headquarters regarding soldiers' parcels are: 1. Parcels must not weigh more than three pounds apiece. 2. A list of contents must be given with each parcel. 3. If packed in tins they must not be soldered down. 4. Parcels must be tightly packed, strongly tied up, and covered with good strong calico, on which the full address must be plainly written. For insurance 1s is charged for each parcel sent. Owing to rough weather at the Dardanelles and transport to the trenches, it is always advisable to pack soldier's parcels in tins.

NEWS OF THE DAY
The residents of Dungog are presenting a machine gun to the military authorities. This is the first presentation of its kind made in Australia. Mr W.J. Brown, who is closely associated with the movement for raising the funds for the gun, and with whom the idea originated, has worked hard to achieve success. The necessary money, £120, is now practically raised, and the gun is to be made at Walsh Island.

AUSTRALIA'S CALL FOR MEN

The scheme for the enlistment of the 50,000 troops required for the new force which Australia intends to send to the assistance of the Allies, in whichever of the theatres of war their presence may be considered desirable, is gradually being put into a fairly reasonable form. The terms in which the proposals were first issued were such as to cause much dissatisfaction. Local committees were to interview men who did not agree to enlist, and apparently to reason with them, and finally to send their refusals to the War Committee. The matter was practically left to the tact of the members of the local committees, which might easily be overcome by their desire to ensure a large and speedy response to the nation's call. This, as we pointed out before, if it does not amount to conscription in a legal sense, is really a form of moral conscription. There is little doubt but what the majority of our young men are prepared to give the desired answer. Many are already preparing to make very great sacrifices in order to serve their country.

AT THE DARDANELLES
A Turkish communique admits that there has been naval activity in the Dardanelles by the Allies, and that vigorous attacks have been launched by the British against the Turkish centre and left.

RECRUITING CAMPAIGN
Out of 11 volunteers that presented themselves at the Newcastle Recruiting Depot yesterday, eight were accepted. The number of recruits in camp at Broadmeadow yesterday was 382. Mr. Campbell Carmichael, M.P., who is making a special effort to raise a battalion of riflemen, 1000 strong, will visit Newcastle at the end of the week, and on Saturday evening will address a meeting in front of the Post Office.

Lees en kijk verder op http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3544634/ww1-december-6-to-12-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 12:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mexican Revolution Timeline - Year 1914

December 6, 1914: Interim President Eulalio Gutiérrez throws a banquet at the National Palace. Group photo shooting session.

Bekijk de foto onder 'December 6'... http://www.emersonkent.com/history/timelines/mexican_revolution_timeline_1914.htm
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Belgisch Interneeringsdepot te Amersfoort (6 december 1914):

Korporaal der Grenadiers; Ter ere van het St. Nieclaasfeest krijgen de geïnterneerde Belgen krentenbrood bij het middageten.
Schetsboek bevattende een verzameling van 82 typen van militairen uit de oorlogsvoerende landen, in Nederland geïnterneerd in de jaren 1914-1919.

http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/nl/geheugen/view/belgisch+interneeringsdepot+amersfoort+december+hoynck+papendrecht+jan?coll=ngvn&maxperpage=4&page=21&identifier=LEMU01%3A00106078-037
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 12:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Le Petit Journal, illustrated supplement Sunday, December 6, 1914

Cover: The gaiety time in the trenches of the song

http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-le-petit-journal-illustrated-supplement-sunday-december-6-1914-cover-76623904.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 12:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Window on the Great War - Training, December 5, 1914 Saint John, New Brunswick

One Hundred years ago, Hugh C. Wright from Shepody, Albert County, NB was busy training with the 26th New Brunswick battalion in Saint John. He was only 19 years old. This was his second letter home and was written December 5 & 6, 1914.

Hugh was one of the hundreds of Albert County men who volunteered for the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), the majority joining the New Brunswick 26th Battalion. It was because of their sacrifices that Albert County was awarded the 77mm field cannon which sits in the square in Hopewell Cape. The museum is in process of restoring this cannon to help preserve their stories.

Lees vooral verder op https://www.albertcountymuseum.com/news/2014/12/22/a-window-on-the-great-war-training-december-5-1914-saint-john-new-brunswick
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Woonplaats: in een oude Hanzestad

BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Dec 2017 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finland is nu 100 jaar onafhankelijk.

FinlandNa de Russische Oktober Revolutie riep het Finse parlement op 6 december 1917 de onafhankelijkheid uit. Deze onafhankelijkheid werd formeel door de Sovjet-Unie erkend in 1920 met het sluiten van een vredesverdrag tussen beide landen
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