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25 Maart

 
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Merlijn



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2006 9:21    Onderwerp: 25 Maart Reageer met quote

Großes Hauptquartier, 25. März.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage hat gestern keine wesentliche Veränderung erfahren. Im Maasgebiet fanden besonders lebhafte Artilleriekämpfe statt, in deren Verlauf Verdun in Brand geschossen wurde.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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Mario



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2006 9:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - F-4 (SS 23) becomes the first American submarine casualty, sinking off the coast of Honolulu.

F-4 foundered approximately 1-1/2 miles off of Honolulu, HI on 25 March, 1915. Acid corrosion of the lead lining of the battery tank permitted seawater seepage into the battery compartment, causing loss of control. Efforts were made to find the sunken submarine and save her crew, without success.

F-4 was eventually located and she was finally raised on 29 August 1915, using cables suspended from pontoons that had been specifically designed and built for the purpose. She was declared a total loss and struck from the Navy Register on 31 August, 1915.

Twenty one men lost. No survivors.

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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2006 16:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 25

1918 Belarusian Peoples’ Republic established

Less than three weeks after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk formally brought an end to Russia’s participation in the First World War, the former Russian province of Belarus declares itself an independent, democratic republic on this day in 1918.

Modern-day Belarus—also known as Belorussia—was formerly part of Poland, its neighbor to the west, until a series of wars in the late 18th century ended with the partition of Poland and with Belarus in Russian hands. In 1917, Belarus capitalized on Russian weakness and disorder resulting from its participation in World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution of that year and proclaimed its independence, after more than a century of occupation by the czarist empire. At the time, Belarus was occupied by the German army, according to the terms formalized at Brest-Litovsk on March 3.

On March 25, a Rada (or council) pronounced the creation of the Belarussian People’s Republic. Eight months later, however, with the defeat of the Central Powers at the hands of the Allies in World War I, Brest-Litovsk was invalidated and the German army was forced to pull out of Belarus and the former Russian territories. This left the fledgling republic vulnerable to a new Russian invasion—that of the Bolshevik Red Guard, who entered the Belarussian capital city of Minsk on January 5, 1919, and crushed the republic’s government.

With the Rada in exile, the Bolsheviks declared the establishment of the Belarussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Poland, determined to reestablish its historical dominance over the region, promptly invaded the new soviet state; the Treaty of Riga of 1921 gave Poland the western part of Belarus. The rest of it became a constituent of the new Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), founded by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks in 1922. After Germany invaded Poland in 1939, the USSR took the opportunity to annex the part it had lost in 1921. These borders were confirmed in a treaty signed by the USSR and Poland at the end of World War II.

The Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, and Belarus became one of the founding members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), an association of 12 former republics of the USSR formed to help regulate foreign affairs, as well as military and economic policy among the member states. On March 25, 1993, the anniversary of the proclamation of Belarusian independence was openly celebrated for the first time in Minsk and other cities in the republic.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2006 16:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1915 American submarine sinks off coast of Hawaii; twenty one sailors dead

Births
1 1893 Romolo TicconiItaly
2 1895 Herbert DrewittNew Zealand
3 1897 Theodor RumpelGermany
4 1899 Gordon DuncanScotland

Deaths
1 1918 Frederick ArmstrongCanada
2 1943 Harvey CookUSA
3 1970 Geoffrey BowmanEngland

Claims
1 1916 Renatus TheillerGermany #1
2 1917 William BishopCanada #1
3 1917 Paul AueGermany #4
4 1917 Karl DeilmannGermany #3
5 1917 Heinrich GontermannGermany #6
6 1917 Friedrich MallinckrodtGermany #6
7 1917 Manfred von RichthofenGermany #31
8 1917 Edward AtkinsonIreland #1
9 1918 Alfred AtkeyCanada #5 #6
10 1918 Roy ChappellEngland #10
11 1918 Henry WoollettEngland #13
12 1918 Henri Hay de SladeFrance #6
13 1918 Wilhelm ZornGermany #2
14 1918 Marziale CeruttiItaly #9
15 1918 Lewis CollinsScotland #1
16 1918 Hugh MooreScotland #5
17 1918 DeFreest LarnerUSA #2
18 1918 Josiah MorganWales #7

Losses
1 1918 Frederick ArmstrongCanadakilled in action; shot down in flames

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/today.cgi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De vooruitziende blik...

Letter from Sigmund Freud to Karl Abraham, March 25, 1914

Vienna IX, Berggasse 19, 25 March 1914

Dear Friend,
(...)It is quite remarkable how each one of us in turn is seized with the impulse to kill, (...)


http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.052.0224a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, VOL. 146, 25 MARCH 1914.

Sir Hiram Maxim has addressed an open letter to Mrs. Pankhurst containing a number of questions, and asking for certain definite information before he joins her party. Nothing, we believe, would please that party better than to be able to add a Maxim to its armament.

From the North-West Frontier of India comes the news that the station-master has been kidnapped from Shahkat station by raiders. It is now proposed that, with a view to preventing the recurrence of such a theft, every station-master shall in future wear a collar with a bell attached to it which would give the alarm.

The expression, "The Theatre of War," gets more apt every day. During the Balkan War the Servians and Montenegrins used a rattle to imitate machine-gun fire, and a machine has now been devised for imitating the noise of an aeroplane engine, with the object of alarming hostile troops.

The Duke of Devonshire has sold a portion of his library, consisting of early editions of Shakspeare and Chaucer, to an American dealer for £200,000. His Grace is said to have calculated that, if he replaced these books by the nice handy little editions which are now to be obtained for sixpence and a shilling a-piece, the transaction would mean a considerable profit for him.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24358/24358-h/24358-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Papers Past — Evening Post — 25 March 1915 — BRITISH AIRMEN DO WELL

Papers Past is a collection of digitised historic New Zealand newspapers which offers browsing and full text searching.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19150325.2.57

Papers Past — NZ Truth — 25 March 1916 — HOUSES OF ILL-FAME onschuld

Papers Past is a collection of digitised historic New Zealand newspapers which offers browsing and full text searching.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&cl=search&d=NZTR19160325.2.15&srpos=110&e=-------100-PubMetaNZTR-1----2%22prostitute%22-all
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Mrt 2010 19:44, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli: Turkish Defense, March 25th, 1915

HQ 5th Turkish Army [Vehip Pasha]
HQ 3rd Army Corps, Gallipoli
HQ ?? Army Corps
Canakkale Fortress Command (includes 115 guns in 15 forts)
1st Aircraft Squadron (later in the campaign a German detachment joined the Turkish squadron, still later, in early 1916, as the Allies were withdrawing, the 6th Aircraft Squadron joined.)
5th Division, Bulair
7th Division, Bulair
3rd Division, Kum Kale
11th Division, Kum Kale
9th Division, Cape Hellas
19th Division, Gaba Tepe (in reserve) [Mustafa Kemal]

Notes
- When 3rd Army Corps reinforced the Gallipoli Peninsula defenses, it arrived with the 7th and 18th Divisions. We have no knowledge of what happened to the 18th Division.
- The shadowy presence of Liman von Sanders, the legendary general who was chief German advisor to the Turkish Army, hovers everywhere.

http://www.ordersofbattle.darkscape.net/site/history/historical/turkey/gallipoli1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

UNITED STATES NAVY - AWARDS of the MEDAL OF HONOR 1915-18

25 March 1915 - Chief Gunner's Mate FRANK WILLIAM CRILLEY USN, rescued diver off Honolulu. Born: 13 September 1883, Trenton, N.J. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (19 November 1928). Citation: For display of extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession above and beyond the call of duty during the diving operations in connection with the sinking in a depth of water 304 feet, of the U.S.S. F.4 with all on board, as a result of loss of depth control, which occurred off Honolulu, T.H., on 25 March 1915. On 17 April 1915, William F. Loughman, chief gunner's mate, U.S. Navy, who had descended to the wreck and had examined one of the wire hawsers attached to it, upon starting his ascent, and when at a depth of 250 feet beneath the surface of the water, had his lifeline and air hose so badly fouled by this hawser that he was unable to free himself; he could neither ascend nor descend. On account of the length of time that Loughman had already been subjected to the great pressure due to the depth of water, and of the uncertainty of the additional time he would have to be subjected to this pressure before he could be brought to the surface, it was imperative that steps be taken at once to clear him. Instantly, realizing the desperate case of his comrade, Crilley volunteered to go to his aid, immediately donned a diving suit and descended. After a lapse of time of 2 hours and 11 minutes, Crilley was brought to the surface, having by a superb exhibition of skill, coolness, endurance and fortitude, untangled the snarl of lines and cleared his imperiled comrade, so that he was brought, still alive, to the surface.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1MedalsUS-MoH.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New Zealand Military Nursing
New Zealand Army Nursing Service - Royal New Zealand Nursing Corps


1915 - Cable from Australia
On 25 March a cable arrived from the Australian Government accepting a NZ Government offer made in December 1914 for NZ nurses to serve with the Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS). In accepting the offer, the Australian Government requested that 12 nurses (two Sisters and 10 Nurses) be selected. Twelve nurses were subsequently selected and sailed from Wellington for Australia on 1 April. This group of NZ nurses arrived in Egypt as members of the AANS before the first members of the NZANS arrived.

http://nzans.org/NZANS%20History/NZANSHistory-1915-1922.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 25, 1916: Ishi Dies, a World Ends

1916: Ishi, the last survivor of the Yahi tribe of American Indians, dies of tuberculosis in San Francisco. His story lives on.

The California Gold Rush of 1849 to 1850 attracted 90,000 new settlers to California in a single year. That influx created major problems for the region's native people, who'd previously had to contend with Spanish soldiers and missionaries, Mexican ranchers and, lately, Americano settlers from the East.

In Butte County, where the Yahi lived alongside the Yana, mining silt poisoned the salmon streams, and deer and other wild game fled as the new settlers' livestock competed for grazing resources. Indians starved. Epidemics of the white man's diseases took a further toll, and the indigenous population collapsed.

By 1861, the Southern Yana had disappeared and the Northern and Central Yana had been reduced from 2,000 people to fewer than 50. The Yahi started to raid cattle to stave off starvation and extinction. White settlers reacted with a vengeance, and the Three Knolls Massacre in 1865 left only 30 members of the Yahi alive.

Ishi and the other survivors escaped, but cattlemen used dogs to find them and killed about half of the Yahi. The others fled farther into the hills, and hid themselves for more than 40 years.

Following their traditional lifestyle as much as resources permitted, they gathered acorns, ground them into flour and cooked the mush. They turned the skins of deer, wildcats and rabbits into clothing and blankets.

It was tough. Soon there were only five Yahi. Then two. When Ishi's mother died in 1911, he was alone.

Butchers found Ishi in their corral at Oroville on Aug. 29, 1911. They took the undernourished and terrified man to the Oroville Jail.

Two University of California professors, Alfred L. Kroeber and T.T. Waterman, read about him and arranged for him to live at the university's new museum of anthropology in San Francisco.

Ishi was theoretically free to return to his homelands, but it's doubtful he could have survived alone, the sole survivor of a culture detested and persecuted by most of the people who would have been his neighbors. Instead, he opted to stay with the friendly anthropologists, their colleagues and their families.

Ishi worked as an assistant at the museum, explaining his language — which had been presumed extinct — to Kroeber and Waterman. He identified objects in the museum collection (baskets, arrowheads, spears, needles, etc.) and demonstrated how they were made and how they were used.

The anthropologists also recorded Ishi singing traditional songs. But he never told them his real name. Ishi means "man" in the Yahi language.

Ishi eventually succumbed to tuberculosis at age 54. The museum staff respected, perhaps even loved, Ishi, and they did their best to give him a traditional Yahi funeral. They cremated him along with bow and arrows, acorn meal, shell-bead money, tobacco, jewelry and obsidian flakes.

Kroeber's wife, Theodora, later wrote two popular books about the Yahi survivor, Ishi in Two Worlds and Ishi: The Last of His Tribe. The Kroebers' daughter, Ursula Kroeber Le Guin, is a popular science fiction author, whose anthropologically informed novels often deal with dissimilar cultures coming into uneasy contact.

Besides Kroeber and Waterman's writings, and Theodora Kroeber's books, Ishi's story was also told in the 1992 TV movie The Last of His Tribe. But there's still controversy.

UC Berkeley anthropologist Steven Shackley published research in 1996 questioning whether the last of the Yahi was indeed a full-blooded Yahi, or even a Yana. Shackley wrote that the arrowheads Ishi produced show that he learned the skill from a Nomlaki or Wintu person. And given the devastation of that Ishi's people endured, it's quite likely that intermarriage had become a necessity for survival.

Source: National Park Service, others, http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/03/dayintech_0325
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

24th March 1916 - Snowing hard. Work unpleasant. All arrangements for parades and games cancelled. Concert and picture show organised by Captain Beeman and Lieutenants [---]. The entertainment was attended by 700 men and was much appreciated.

Deduced casualties, determined from other sources: 10251 Pte Charles White, a native of Bury, died of wounds on 25 March 1916. He is buried in Lapugnoy Military Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6254 Private J F Donovan

14th Bn Australian Inf
25th March 1917 Age 32

In loving memory of my dear husband
And our Dear daddie

Name: DONOVAN, JAMES FRANCIS
Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. Unit Text: 14th Bn.
Age: 32 Date of Death: 25/03/1917 Service No: 6254
Additional information: Son of William and Hannah Donovan; husband of Elizabeth Donovan, of 7, Greig St., Seddon, Victoria, Australia.
Grave/Memorial Reference: 54. 704. Cemetery: NORWICH CEMETERY, Norfolk
www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2803114

Private Donovan’s Army Records can be seen on line here: http://naa12.naa.gov.au/scripts/Imagine.asp?B=3515035&I=1&SE=1

He enlisted on the 21st February 1916 as part of the 20th Reinforcements for the 14th Battalion. He was married and aged 31 years.

He gave his next of kin as his wife, Mrs Elizabeth Donovan of 44 Wilson Street, Yarraville, Victoria.

He was 5 feet 8 and ¾ inches tall, 171lbs, his hair is described as “scanty” and brown, blue-grey eyes and a fresh complexion.

He embarked at Melbourne on the 7.9.1916 on HMAT “Port Sydney“, arriving at Plymouth on the 29.10.1916.

He then moved to France on the 21st December, arriving with unit on the 4th January 1917 after , like so many, spending two weeks at the Etaples Base Camp. Less than a fortnight later, on the 27th, he was admitted to a casualty clearing station with Gun Shot Wounds to the chest and Right Buttock. By the 4th February he was being admitted to the Thorpe War Hospital,

He “died of wounds” (septicaemia) at the Norfolk War Hospital at 8.30pm on the 25th March 1917, and was buried on the 30th March.

By the time of his death, Mrs Donovan was living at 7 Grey Street, Sydney, New South Wales. Shortly afterwards she had moved to 7 Greig Street, Seddon, Victoria. At the time his medals were sent out in 1921, she was still Mrs Donovan. She was receiving her pension for herself and her two children, William James and Margaret Clare.

Ga voor foto's naar http://www.flickr.com/photos/43688219@N00/4210945589/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 20:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

March 25, 1918 -- SOS at 1 o'clock in the morning. Had to be in action by dawn in the positions near the church in Moroc. Preparation for an attack by Fritz. Digging and preparing gun but guard at night and about 800 rounds came up for the gun. Moroc position.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/Bottomley/march1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of the First World War - Spring Offensive 1918

William Herbert Anderson

William Herbert Anderson VC (29 December 1881 - 25 March 1918) ,a Scot, educated at Fettes College, was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 36 years old and an acting Lt-Colonel in the British Army, in the 12th (S) Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry, during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

"On 25 March 1918 at Bois Favieres, near Maricourt, France, when the enemy attack had penetrated a wood on the right of his line and there was grave danger that the flank of the whole position would be turned, Lieutenant Colonel Anderson gathered together the remainder of his two companies, counter-attacked and drove the Germans from the wood, capturing 12 machine-guns and 70 prisoners. Later the same day, Colonel Anderson led another counter-attack which resulted in the enemy being driven from his position, but the colonel died fighting within the enemy's lines.'

A novel, The Way Home, was published in 2007 about Bertie Anderson and his three brothers, who were also killed in the First World War. It was written by Robin Scott-Elliot, Bertie's great-grandson.

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/William_Herbert_Anderson

Alfred Maurice Toye

Alfred Maurice Toye VC MC (15 April 1897-6 September 1955) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Toye enlisted into the Royal Engineers as a trumpter in 1911 before being commissioned into the Middlesex Regiment.

He was 20 years old, and an Acting Captain in the 2nd Battalion, The Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own), British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 25 March 1918 at Eterpigny Ridge, France, Captain Toye displayed conspicuous bravery and fine leadership. He three times re-established a post which had been captured by the enemy and when his three other posts were cut off he fought his way through the enemy with one officer and six men. He counter-attacked with 70 men and took up a line which he maintained until reinforcements arrived. In two subsequent operations he covered the retirement of his battalion and later re-established a line that had been abandoned before his arrival. He was twice wounded but remained on duty.

He later achieved the rank of Brigadier.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the National Army Museum (Chelsea, England).

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Alfred_Maurice_Toye
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Ludendorff Offensives, 21 March-18 July 1918

The German attack hit the Fifth Army (General Hubert Gough) hardest. To the north the attack on the Third Army (General Julian Byng) made less progress, but did threaten to cut off the British troops in the salient left over after the battle of Cambrai. The Germans continued to make progress throughout March, but the crisis of the battle came early. On 24 March, as the British were being forced ever further west, a gap threatened to appear between the British and French armies. Pétain, commander of the French armies of the north, visited Haig to warn his that he expected to be attacked at Verdun, and could therefore spare no more reinforcements to help the British.

If this policy had been carried through, then it is hard to see how a German breakthrough could have been prevented. Early on the morning of 25 March, Haig communicated his fears to the War Office, and requested a high level delegation visit France. He also suggested placing General Foch in overall command of Allied operations.

The required conference took place at Doullens, near Amiens, on 26 March.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ludendorff.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 March 1919, Commons Sitting

SOLDIERS' BODIES (EXHUMATION).


HC Deb 25 March 1919 vol 114 c192 192

Major COHEN asked the Secretary of State for War whether bodies of soldiers are to be exhumed and transported by rail to other burial grounds; and whether, if this is the case, facilities will be given to relatives to have the bodies brought home to England?

The SECRETARY of STATE for WAR (Mr. Churchill) No. Sir; there is no intention of exhuming the bodies of our soldiers and transporting them by rail to other burial grounds. The only exhumation taking place is in the case of isolated graves, the bodies in which are being collected into cemeteries in close proximity to the graves. I regret that I can hold out no hope whatever that the facilities asked for in the latter part of the question will be granted.

An HON. MEMBER Does that apply to soldiers who are buried in Germany?

Mr. CHURCHILL No; not necessarily.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/mar/25/soldiers-bodies-exhumation
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Uit het pré-laptoptijdperk...

25 March 1920, Commons Sitting

TYPEWRITING MACHINES (CHARGES ON RAILWAYS).


HC Deb 25 March 1920 vol 127 c605 605

Brigadier-General SURTEES asked the President of the Board of Trade if his attention has been called to the fact that the underground railway companies of London compel passengers carrying portable typewriting machines, which in many instances only weigh a few pounds, to take out bicycle tickets at a charge of 2s. 4d., however short the distance; if this charge is general throughout the railway system of the country; and if he will communicate with the heads of the offending companies in order to have this charge abolished?

Mr. NEAL I have been asked to answer this question. I am in communication with the railway companies upon the question of charges for typewriters.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/mar/25/typewriting-machines-charges-on-railways
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2010 0:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Claude Debussy om het leven gekomen

25 maart 1918 - Terwijl de vernieuwende componist al een aantal jaar aan kanker leed, kwam hij om het leven bij de laatste Duitse aanvallen op Parijs tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Hij werd 55 jaar oud.
Claude Achille Debussy werd op 22 augustus 1862 geboren en groeide op in een eenvoudig gezin, waar geen aandacht aan muziek werd besteed. Toch werd zijn talent vroeg ontdekt en dankzij een kennis kon hij in 1873 naar het conservatorium van Parijs.

Nadat hij een tijd in Rusland had gewoond, keerde hij terug en met zijn cantate ‘L’enfant prodigue’ kreeg hij in 1884 de Prix de Rome. Hierdoor mocht hij twee jaar in Rome studeren, maar hij ervoer dit als een kwelling en hij vertrok snel weer.

In 1889 kwam Debussy in contact met de muziek van Richard Wagner, die een grote invloed kreeg op zijn muziek. Dit duurde een paar jaar, waarna hij meer interesse kreeg in de Spaanse en Javaanse muziek en hij een zeer oorspronkelijke klanktaal ontwikkelde.

Vanaf 1909 wist hij dat hij kanker had en dit samen met het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog zorgde ervoor dat hij niet meer componeerde. Hij herstelde zich en schreef nog drie werken voordat hij omkwam tijdens de laatste bombardementen op Parijs.

http://www.boekdossier.com/dossier/1918-03-25/Claude+Debussy+om+het+leven+gekomen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, VOL. 146, 25 MARCH 1914.



Recruiting Sergeant: "Now, I can tell character when I see it, so mark
my words. If you join now you'll be a swankin' general in five years."

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24358/24358-h/24358-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Schuitemakers Purmerender Courant, 25 Maart 1914



http://www.stelling-amsterdam.nl/stelling/stukken/krant/#KONINGINPURMEREND
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SMS Hindenburg


Bow under construction - March 25, 1914 (Bundesarchiv)


Port Bow under construction - March 25, 1914 (Bundesarchiv)

Meer foto's op http://www.sms-navy.com/bc/sms_bc_derfflinger-hind-photos.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 maart 1915: Het vrachtschip ss. 'Amstel'...

... van de Rotterdamse rederij P.A. van Es & Co., op weg van Rotterdam naar Goole, loopt op de Noordzee, 45 mijl ten oosten van Spurn Point, bij de ingang van de Humber op een mijn. Alle opvarenden weten zich met beide sloepen te kunnen redden.
De volgende dag worden zij gered door de Britse trawler 'Pinewold', die hen naar Grimsby zal brengen.

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/03/25-maart-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

His Britannic Majesty's Government's Colonial Office - Lewis Harcourt's Memo of March 25th, 1915

[This document is the Property of His Britannic Majesty's Government.]

Printed for the use of the Cabinet. March 1915

SECRET

"THE SPOILS."

We seem to be forced by the possible capture of Constantinople into a premature discussion of a division of the yet unacquired spoils of the whole war.

As I am specially concerned with German colonies, I am drawn into the consideration of the whole question.

The following observations are based on the presumption that the Allies are completely successful and able to dictate any terms they choose to Germany, Austria, and Turkey.

1. I assume that we shall retain some part of Mesopotamia, possibly as far as from the Persian Gulf to Bagdad, mainly on the ground stated by Lord Crewe that this fertile land would give an outlet for Indian emigration.

2. If Persia became involved it would be desirable that part of of the neutral zone containing the oil fields and the province of Fars should pass under British control.

3. It would also be an advantage, in view of Russian predominance in Northern Persia, if the capital and seat of Government could be transferred from Tehran to some more southern or eastern town.

4. It has been suggested that, if Russia is at Constantinople, we should occupy Alexandretta—

(a.) to command the Bagdad Railway terminus,
(b.) as a naval base to protect Egypt and our sea route to India from Russian attack.

5. (a) Seems to necessitate our control or occupation of all Mesopotamia and the Bagdad Railway, which would be a costly and onerous obligation, though with great expenditure on irrigation the valley of the Euphrates would probably be made very fertile and perhaps remunerative.

6. As to (b), Alexandretta does not seem by any means an ideal naval base for the protection of Egypt against Russian attack.

It is an open roadsted and the cost of a harbour would be considerable.

For purely naval purposes the fine harbour of Marmarice on the mainland due north of Rhodes, or the island of Mitylene, with its great land-locked inlets, would seem to be preferable. Mitylene commands the exit from the Dardanelles and the Gulf of Smyrna.

But I am very doubtful whether we should be wise to add to the number of our hostages to fortune in the Mediterranean.

7. France claims Syria and the Taurus, but it is not certain that this is intended to include Alexandretta.

I think it would be unfortunate if France became the guardian of the Christian Holy Places in Palestine.

I should like to see them in British hands, (and perhaps governed from Egypt), or, if that is impossible, I have heard a suggestion that they might be under the protection of the United States.

8. If Italy comes into the war it might be possible, and would be advantageous to us, to exchange British Somaliland, which is contiguous to Italian Somaliland, for the Italian Erithrea, on the Red Sea, which adjoins the Soudan and Abyssinia. we might, if necessary, give them some accomodation at Solum on the frontier of Tripoli and Egypt for this object.

9. All the German possessions in the Pacific have now been taken from her.

Samoa is under the control of New Zealand, Japan is temporarilly in occupation of all the islands north of the equator, and Australia all the islands south of the equator. It is out of the question to part with any of the territories now in occupation of Australia and New Zealand.

Japan evidently intends to claim the possession at the end of the war of all the islands she is now occupying, with the possible exception of Yap.

I fear that this will cause great trouble with Australia, especially as regards the Marshall Islands, the trade of which has been, even under German rule, exclusively with Australia.

The United States is not likely to be pleased at Japanese extension eastward in the Pacific.

10. There remain the German colonies in Africa, all of which I assume we shall have captured by the end of the war.

11. If German South-West Africa is occupied by the Union Government, it must obviously be retained as part of the British Empire, unless the Union Government and Portugal were willing to exchange it for the Portuguese possessions on the east coast of Africa, including Delagoa Bay, Beira and Mozambique. This exchange would effect a consolidation of Portuguese and British territory, and probably be to the advantage of each; but it is not liekely to be acceptable to the Portuguese, who would be incapable of governing the German population.

12. German East Africa forms the missing link in the chain of British possessions from the Cape to Cairo.

It would make an admirable colony for Indian emigration of the class which wants to trade and not to cultivate, assuming that the latter will be provided for in Mesopotamia.

The German railway, now complete, from Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika to Dar-es-Salaam on the coast, will in future tap and carry a large part of the trade of the Belgian Congo, and will deprive our Uganda Railway of much of the traffic which it now obtains from Ruanda and the southern half of the Victoria Nyanza.

13. Togoland is in the joint occupation of French and British forces.

It could be—

(a.) divided : approximately half going to the British Gold Coast and Ashantee, and the other half to French Dahomey; but, in any division, it would be difficult to allott the only port, Lomé, and the single railway up to Kamina ;
(b.) given to the French;
(c.) given to the British, in each case in consideration of some advantage elsewhere.

If it was retained by the British, a deal might be made with the French to obtain also the part of Dahomey which separates Togoland from Nigeria, so as to form all our possessions in the Gulf of Guinea into a solid and continuous territory.

14. The Cameroons are being invaded, and presumably captured, by a joint French and British force. France is employing, and will probably continue to employ, a larger land force than ours. But we provided the whole of the naval assistance which alone made possible the initial capture of the capital, Duala, and the railway.

It might be assumed that we should equitably be entitled to half the Cameroons, but at the most I do not think we should require or could usefully occupy more than one fourth of it.

The French will undoubtedly desire a large share of it, and especially that part which was taken from them by Germany at the time of Agadir.

We might ourselves retain very much less than one-fourth of the area, but what it is essential that we should have is the northern railway (about 80 miles) from Duala to Baré; Mount Cameroon on the coast, which will make a perfect sanatorium for the whole of West Africa; and the town and harbour of Duala, which in enemy hands could easily be made an impregnable and menacing naval base against our West and South African commerce.

15. We want from France two things—

(a.) their share of the Condominium in the New Hebrides;
(b.) their small settlement of Jibuti opposite Aden, which controls the mischievous arms traffic to Abyssinia and Central Africa.

To obtain these we can offer France—

(c.) three-fourths of the Cameroons (instead of one-half), plus our half share of Togoland;
(d.) or, if we wish to retain all Togoland and acquire Dahomey, we can offer France all the Cameroons except Mount Cameroon and Duala, and in such a wide settlement we could throw in the Gambia, which is an object of great desire by the French ; but the cession of the Gambia would be very unpopular in this country, and arouse much public and Parliamentary criticism and agitation.

16. Alternatively we might surrender to France our share of the New Hebrides Condominium as compensation, with nearly the whole of the Cameroons, for our possession of Togoland and Dahomey.

This would be an impossible suggestion in ordinary times of peace, owing to Australian prejudices, but as Australia is now to acquire such a large amount of new Pacific territory she might at this moment be induced to agree to it.

In order to sweeten the pill, I should not object to giving Australia also the German island of Bougainville and our adjoining islands of the Solomon Group.

17. And, lastly, we might take this opportunity of restoring to China, with or without a consideration, the costly folly of Weihaiwei.

L.H.

March 25, 1925.

http://www.syncresis.net/LewisHarcourt/lewis_harcourt_print.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bezoek van het Koninklijk Gezin aan de dierentuin 'Artis' te Amsterdam op 25 maart 1915

Op 02:24 in deze film: http://www.geschiedenis24.nl/nieuws/2007/december/Wilhelmina-in-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (25-03-1916)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1916/0325

De Rijnlandsche Courant, 25/03/1916

http://www.groenehartarchieven.nl/kranten/rijnlandsche-courant/1916-03-25
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Weesp

1917 (Eerste Wereldoorlog)
- De gemeenteraad vraagt aandacht voor regeringsaardappelen, haver voor de paarden en distributie van zeep. Op de zogenaamde cokeskaarten wordt in januari niet meer dan drie hectoliter cokes verstrekt.
- In de algemene politieverordening komt een verbod op roken door kinderen jonger dan 14 jaar en het verkopen van rookartikelen aan die kinderen.
- Wegens gebrek aan voorraad kan geen cokes tegen verminderde prijs meer worden verstrekt.
- Er wordt een commissie benoemd die de oprichting van een centrale keuken gaat onderzoeken.
- De Weesper afdeling van de Barbiers- en Kappersbond verzoekt om verplichte sluiting op zondag.
- Weesp verzoekt de Minister van Landbouw om van de nieuwe aardappeloogst voldoende te distribueren voor de levensbehoeften van het Nederlandse volk.

1918 (Eerste Wereldoorlog)
- De raad besluit om nog niet over te gaan tot de oprichting van een centrale keuken.
- Er worden twee ‘bakloze dagen’ ingevoerd, waarop iedere winkel waar brood wordt verkocht moet zijn gesloten.
- De rondvraag van de gemeenteraad gaat over gebrek aan zeep en het beschikbaar stellen van warm water door de gemeente.

http://www.weespernieuws.nl/getpdf/2009/wn25mrt09.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 21:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hindenburgster

De Hindenburgster was een Pruisische onderscheiding. Op 9 december 1916 had de Duitse Keizer Wilhelm II zijn bevelhebber aan het Westelijk Front, Veldmaarschalk Paul von Hindenburg al het Grootkruis van het IJzeren Kruis toegekend. De nerveuze en impulsieve keizer wilde zijn veldmaarschalk daarna nogmaals eren, ook al gaf de toestand aan het Westelijk front daarvoor geen aanleiding. De keizer zag ook niet in dat de afloop van de oorlog na de deelname van Amerika beslist was. De keizer heeft ook het "beslissende" Duitse herfstoffensief van 1918, een fiasco, niet afgewacht.

Formeel was het voor de overwinning op de Russen bij Tannenberg in de zomer van 1914 dat de veldmaarschalk deze ster kreeg toegekend. Voor deze overwinning waren al het IJzeren Kruis der Eerste Klasse en de Orde Pour le Mérite toegekend. De Veldmaarschalk had in de jaren daarna, zonder dat er een verdere overwinning op zijn conto kon worden bijgeschreven ook de Hohenzollernkette en het Grootkruis van het IJzeren Kruis ontvangen.

De keizer heeft zich laten inspireren door de gouden ster, de "Blücherster" die Veldmaarschalk Blücher v. Wahlstedt in 1815 na zijn overwinning bij Waterloo kreeg uitgereikt. Op 25 maart 1918 werd de grote gouden, of verguld zilveren, ster met daarop een grote uitvoering van het in 1914 ingestelde IJzeren Kruis, in het "Grote Hoofdkwartier" in het Belgische Spa aan Hindenburg uitgereikt. Omdat hij de enige drager van deze ster was en bleef noemt men de ster in Duitsland de "Hindenburgstern".

De ster draagt een IJzeren Kruis van het in 1914 voorgeschreven model. Het is van gietijzer en is in een zilveren rand gevat. Het oppervlak is zwart gemaakt. In het midden staat een gekroonde "W" voor Wilhelm onder een Pruisische koningskroon. Op de onderste arm staat het jaartal "1914". De keerzijde van de ster is vlak, daarop zijn twee haakjes en een beugel ter bevestiging aangebracht.

De latere president v. Hindenburg heeft de ster veel gedragen. Zijn andere onderscheidingen staan hier opgesomd. Hij droeg de ster op de linkerborst. Aan deze decoratie was geen grootlint of om de hals gedragen versiersel verbonden.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindenburgster
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mrt 2011 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilhelm Lehmbruck

Wilhelm Lehmbruck (Duisburg, 4 januari 1881 – Berlijn 25 maart 1919) was een Duitse expressionistische beeldhouwer en graficus.

Lehmbruck begon vrij traditioneel als beeldhouwer : hij bleef zoals hij geleerd had op de kunstacademie de naturalistische stijl trouw en dicht bij het model. In 1911 vestigde hij zich een paar jaar in Parijs en maakte contact met andere kunstenaars, zoals Pablo Picasso. Hij vond, onder invloed van de werken van Auguste Rodin, meer zijn eigen stijl. Aan het werk in zijn Parijse tijd ziet men de gevoelens van de maker. Zo kun je duidelijk de vingerafdrukken zien die de beeldhouwer in de klei zette. Hij werkte in klei, waarvan dan vervolgens afgietsels werden gemaakt in brons.

Lehmbruck werd snel een boegbeeld van de Duitse expressionisten. In 1912 exposeerde hij met onder anderen Egon Schiele. Tentoonstellingen volgden in Berlijn, Keulen en München en na 1913 ook in de Verenigde Staten: New York, Boston en Chicago. Zijn grootste succes kwam met een solotentoonstelling bij Galerie Paul Levesque in Parijs.

In het eerste jaar van de Eerste Wereldoorlog werkte Lehmbruck in een ziekenhuis. Daar zag hij zoveel oorlogsellende, dat hij na die tijd geen vrouwfiguren meer beeldhouwde maar vooral mannen, die symbool stonden voor het lijden. De werken die hij in de oorlogsjaren maakte, gelden als een hoogtepunt in zijn oeuvre. In 1916 vluchtte hij naar Zürich, waar hij een atelier inrichtte. Hij leed aan zware depressies. In 1918 keerde hij weer terug naar Berlijn en wordt benoemd tot lid van de Pruisische Akademie der Künste.
Lehmbruck pleegde op 25 maart 1919, vertwijfeld over zijn depressies, zelfmoord in zijn atelier in Berlijn.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Lehmbruck
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2011 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A 1915 Review of Leon Trotsky’s The War and the International
Why the German Social-Democracy Failed

Source: Justice! 25th March 1915

When the war broke out, and the papers reported that the German Social-Democrats were going hand in hand with the German Government, one refused at first to believe it. British Socialist papers withheld their criticism till all the facts had reached them. Their leniency will stand to their credit.

L. Trotzky, a well-known member of the Russion Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, has published a “brochure” in German, in which he deals with the question of war, and with the action of the German Social-Democracy, the most influential members of the International. L. Trotzky does not hesitate to criticise his own country, and levels some scathing criticism at the German S.D.P.

When on August 4, the German Social-Democratic fraction voted for the War Budget, their action was explained by the “danger of the Russian despotism.” They completely shut their eyes to the invasion of Luxembourg and Belgium, or to the declaration of war on France. Yet even a Revisionist like Bernstein saw the fallacy of the Reichstag explanation, and wrote in Vorwärts (on August 28): “If Germany were democratically governed, there would be no doubt as to how the settlement with Tsardom would be effected and attained. A democratic Germany would wage war against the East in a revolutionary spirit. She would call upon the peoples oppressed by Russia to rise against her and give them the means to fight for freedom in earnest. But Germany is not a democratic State, hence it would be utopian to expect such a policy with all its consequences from her.“

Trotzky thinks the expectation that German victories would hasten the revolution in Russia is mistaken, the same as the view that the Russo-Japanese war caused the revolution of 1905-6. What the war did was to call forth the revolutionary movement prematurely, and for that reason it was crushed. So it would be in the present case. If the German Army is victorious, and a revolution does break out in Russia, it would mean that the movement would again lack in strength and intensity. Besides, if a revolutionary movement did overthrow Tsardom, then the bayonets of the German Army, led by the Hohenzollerns, would be ruthlessly turned against the revolutionaries in Russia. The work of overthrowing despotism in Russia is the work of the revolutionary Russian proletariat. How well the Russian working class does its duty we saw by the strikes which took place just before the war.

“An alliance between the Hohenzollerns and the Romanoffs” (after Russia has been defeated), says Trotsky, “after the Western States have been humbled and have become exhausted, will mean an epoch of the blackest reaction in Europe.”

After the revolutions of 1848 and the wars that united Italy, Germany, etc., and created national States; after the Paris Commune had shown that it was impossible for the proletariat to overthrow the existing State and to change society by an improvised revolution, an epoch of capitalist development began on the basis of the national State. For the working class it was a period of gradually gathering its strength, of organising and of political possibilism.

“The German proletarian movement,” says Trotsky, “marched under the banner of Marxism. Yet because Marxism had to depend upon the conditions of the period, it became not an algebraic formula of revolution for the German workers, as it was at the period of its creation, but a theoretical method of adaptation to the capitalist national State under the aegis of Prussia. Capitalism gradually revolutionised the basis of the national life … The bourgeoisie surrendered every political position to the feudal Monarchy, yet, protected by the military police State, it entrenched itself in its economic position … The revolutionising of the economic life, and the complete abandonment of revolutionary methods and traditions in the political life, are the dominant feature of the last period, embracing forty-five years. The whole activity of the German Social-Democracy was directed towards waking up the backward working class by waging a systematic fight for their prime needs – towards gathering strength increasing the membership, amassing funds, developing the Press, conquering any positions that were not barred, making use of them and increasing their importance. In forty-five years history has not given the German proletariat a single opportunity to overthrow an obstacle by onrush, or to conquer an enemy position by a revolutionary attack. Owing to the changing relation of the social forces it was forced to get round obstacles or to adapt itself to them. In this practice Marxism, as a method of thought, was a valuable guide in ascertaining the workers’ political position.

“But Marxism could not alter the possibilist character of the class movement, which at this period was the same in England, France and Germany.” The tactics of the unions (though the German organisation was indisputably superior) were the same in Berlin and in London: their crowning point was agreements regarding tariffs. In the political field this difference undoubtedly bore a much deeper character. At the time when the English proletariat marched under the banner of Liberalism, the German workers were creating an independent Party with a Socialist programme.

“Yet in reality the political difference was far smaller than its idealistic forms of organisation. Thanks to historical traditions and to the political conditions the English proletariat adapted itself to the capitalist State through the medium of the Liberal Party; the German proletariat was forced to create an independent party. Yet the meaning of the political fight of the German proletariat bore in this period the same historically narrow, possibilist character as that of the English workers. The similarity between the two phenomena, though different in form, became quite clear in the latest outcome of the period; on the one side, the English proletariat was forced in its struggle for its immediate necessities to found an independent party which did not break with its Liberal traditions; on the other side, the party of the German proletariat, which the war compelled to make a definite choice, gave a reply in the spirit of the national Liberal traditions of the English Labour Party.”

“... The fact that the German working class, revolutionary in its aims, was forced during long years to adapt itself to the monarchical police State, which rested on a mighty capitalist development, that through this adaptation an organisation comprising a million was founded, and in which all the working-class bureaucracy that leads it was educated – this fact does not cease to exist, and does not lose its weighty meaning simply because Marxism anticipates the revolutionary character of the future development ...


Another cause of the present position of German Social-Democracy was economic. As capitalism developed the proletariat improved its organisation and built up craft unions. When trade was bad the unions felt the pinch. To the extent that capitalism left its national boundaries and entered upon the international imperialist path, the economic struggle of the proletariat became directly dependent upon the world markets, which are safeguarded by Dreadnoughts and big guns – i.e., some sections of the proletariat became dependent upon the success or failure of the foreign policy of the German Government, and they were easily wooed by the German Imperialism when the war broke out. “The Socialist Imperialism does not manifest itself in the German Social Democracy for the first time,” says Trotzky; “it suffices to recall the fact that at the International Congress at Stuttgart the bulk of the German delegates, especially the trade unionists, voted against the Marxian resolution on colonial policy.”

As the war went on, and the German Army threw itself against the Allies in the West – instead of “smashing Russia and letting loose the revolution” – some of the Social-Democratic papers tore the mask from their face. They stated, quite cynically, that “Germany fights for industrial supremacy, and that the welfare of the German proletariat is closely bound up with that of the German Imperialism.” Revisionism and self-interest – at the expense of the workers of other nations – induced the German Social-Democracy to betray the International.

In Trotzky’s opinion, capitalist Imperialism has outgrown the national State. It breaks down the existing boundaries and paves the way for a Republican United States of Europe as the nucleus for “a Republic of the whole world.” National Socialist Parties led by reactionary possibilist leaders go to smash, too. But Socialism remains, though its outer present expression is broken up by the war. The new International will spring up in due time, called forth by the inexorable logic of events. As capitalist Imperialism draws the world closer, so the organisations of the proletariat will have to follow suit and effect its historic mission – to bring about the Social Revolution!

ALEXANDER SIRNIS

http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1915/03/1915-war.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2011 9:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Air Effort over Gallipoli: A Brief Look at the Air Campaign over the Dardanelles

On March 1915, with the cloud of an impending invasion in the Dardanelles sector by the Western Allies looming over the Ottoman Empire, the Turks began preparations to repel the invading force. An Army Group was created for the sole purpose of opposing, and eventually, repelling the expected Allied invasion force. On March 25th, 1915 the Turkish 5th Army was formed, it was to be lead by the head of Germany’s military mission in Turkey, Field General der Kavalleri Otto Limon von Sanders. The field headquarters’ for 5th Army was placed in the small town of Gallipoli. At the time of its conception, 5th Army did not possess any air assets in its inventory. Despite constant pleading by their leaders, no aircraft was allocated to the 5th until mid July 1915. At the time, military aviation was not completely comprehended by either Turkish leader. They failed to fully embrace the promise the aircraft could deliver on the battlefield. As a result, initial requirements for an air component to 5th Army was rather sluggish.

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/airplane%20at%20war/turk.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2011 10:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary Four - March 1916: Tel-el Kebir Camp (Egypt) - Marseilles (France)

25th March 1916 - Up with the larks again this morning. Find that during the night we have picked up a few more transports. Our escort picked up some wreckage today. Haven't found out what it was. She left us at 12 o'clock. Went back to Alexandria. So at present we're on our own heading, I believe, for Malta. Expected to arrive there sometime during the next 30 hours. This afternoon it rained a bit and fog has been coming up for the last 6 hours. We also had several visitors today in the form of birds. Can't be very far away from land because our feathered friends are just ordinary house sparrows and wood-doves. Have developed an enormous appetite. Positively ravenous. Chas and I between us consume as much as 6 men would normally. Had a warm salt water bath today. I really think that civilisation is not quite extinct yet.

http://www.thekivellfamily.co.nz/family_pages/ralphs_diaries/monthly/04_march_16.html
Mooie site! Hier beginnen: http://www.thekivellfamily.co.nz/family_pages/ralphs_diaries/monthly_diaries.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2011 10:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Great Britain: Military Medal - George V 1st. Issue

The MM was instituted on 25 March 1916 as a gallantry medal for NCOs and men in the army for individual or associated acts of bravery, in June 1916 it was extended to women. Bars are awarded for additional acts that would warrent the medal. During World War I 115,600 MMs were awarded, 5796 first bars, 180 second bars and one third bar. In 1993 this award was discontinued.

Description: A round silver medal (36 mm diameter) with mount and ribbon. The obverse features a bust of George V wearing field marshal's uniform, head bare, facing left; around, GEORGIVS V BRITT: OMN: REX ET IND: IMP:; the artist's initials B.M. (Bertram MacKennal) are on the bust truncation. The reverse has the Royal cypher GVR (George V King) above the legend FOR BRAVERY IN THE FIELD within a laurel wreath with crown at top.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/1206883/medal-military-medal-king-george-v-1st-issue-australia-1916-1919

Canadians have received 13, 654 medals, plus 848 first bars and 38 second bars.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/sub.cfm?source=collections/cmdp/mainmenu/group01/mm
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 25 Mrt 2019 9:12, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2011 10:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Shackleton

I was lucky enough to pick up a first edition of Ernest Shackleton’s “Heart of the Antarctic” a number of years ago, before the recent huge rise in interest in the explorer pushed the prices of his books so high. It’s an account of his failed 1907-1909 British Antarctic Expedition to the South Pole during which he was forced to turn back less than 100 miles from his goal.

Interestingly, folded inside the pages of the book, I found a section of an article torn out of The Daily Telegraph from March 25, 1916 discussing how no news had been heard from the now more famous, 1914–1916 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
.

http://www.xefer.com/2005/06/shackleton
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 25 Mrt 2019 9:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2011 10:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Accrington Pals

Extract from letter written ca.19th March 1916, and published in the Accrington Gazette of 25th March 1916:

"At the end of our railway journey the officers and advance guard found us all billets in a pretty little village, though with no comparison to our Carnarvon billets. We are as comfortable as may be in barns, stables, outhouses, etc. Six of us are in a kind of outhouse belonging to a farm. There are plenty of rats knocking about, but we take no notice of them. We had for dinner on Sunday tinned meat, potatoes, carrots, etc., and they make a jolly good meal."

http://www.pals.org.uk/trenches.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Mrt 2019 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lt Burnard, Royal Flying Corps WW1 diary

Monday March 25th. After morning job Hanna touched hangar with tail skid landing. Jolly close. Evening – flew to Bertangles. Hanna and I went in the [Bristol fighter]. Wandered round and eventually found the drome. Just landing when we saw a ridge. Opened throttle in hope of clearing. Hit ridge going full speed. Turned completely over. Was caught and pinned down by gun mounting. Hanna got out, and lifted tail when I crawled out. Hanna badly shaken, me ditto. Old cord breeches finished off. Leg torn a bit. Machine smashed. Fuselage broken behind Hanna’s seat. Nobody knew where we should be. All slept in empty huts on floor.

https://raburnard.uk/25-march-1918/
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