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14 november

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2006 8:56    Onderwerp: 14 november Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 14. November 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - TÜRKISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Ein russisches Armeekorps bei Wloclawec geschlagen

Großes Hauptquartier, 14. November, vormittags.
Die Kämpfe in Westflandern dauern noch an, in den letzten Tagen behindert durch das regnerische und stürmische Wetter. Unsere Angriffe schritten weiter langsam vorwärts. Südlich Ypern wurden 700 Franzosen gefangengenommen. Englische Angriffe westlich Lille wurden abgewiesen. Bei Berry-au-Bac mußten die Franzosen eine beherrschte Stellung räumen. Im Argonnerwalde nahm unser Angriff einen guten Fortgang; die Franzosen erlitten starke Verluste und ließen auch gestern wieder über 150 Gefangene in unseren Händen.
In Ostpreußen dauern die Kämpfe noch an. Bei Stallupönen wurden 500 Russen gefangengenommen, bei Soldau fiel noch keine Entscheidung. In der Gegend von Wloclawec wurde ein russisches Armeekorps zurückgeworfen, 1500 Gefangene und 12 Maschinengewehre fielen in unsere Hände.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)



Walter Oertel,
Kriegsberichterstatter.2)


Der polnisch-galizische Feldzug

Budapest. 14. November. (W. B.)
Im "Pester Lloyd" veröffentlicht Feldmarschall-Leutnant Schay einen aufklärenden Artikel über die Lage auf dem russischen Kriegsschauplatz, in dem es u. a. heißt: Dem Laien ist Zurückgehen identisch mit Geschlagensein, obzwar ein Fechter, der durch einen Sprung nach rückwärts einem gefährlichen Hieb des Gegners ausweicht, gewiß nicht für besiegt erklärt wird. Der Vorteil der Rückzugsoperationen der österreichisch-ungarischen und der deutschen Armee liegt in folgendem: Den Russen fehlt jetzt zunächst die Unterstützung durch die drei mächtigen Weichselfestungen und das gewaltige Hindernis der Weichsel-San-Linie. Somit käme nur noch der große Kräfteüberschuß der Russen zur Geltung. Aber auch dieser Kräfteüberschuß wird bedeutend vermindert sein. Die Entfernung von der Weichselstrecke Nowogeorgiewsk-Iwangorod westlich bis zur deutschen Grenze beträgt rund 200 Kilometer. Auf dieser langen Strecke laufen nunmehr die naturgemäß empfindlichen Verbindungslinien der Russen, die durch namhafte Kräfte gesichert werden müssen. Durch Einschließung der vor unserer Front liegenden Festungen Przemysl und eventuell auch Krakau geben den Russen weitere Kräfte für die offene Feldschlacht verloren. Die Stellungen der Verbündeten sind ferner dadurch verbessert, daß den Russen für Kräfteverfügungen hinter ihrer Front nunmehr keine so leistungsfähigen Bahnen zur Verfügung stehen, wie östlich der Weichsel. Hervorzuheben ist auch, daß infolge des Vordringens der Russen in Polen ihr Rücken, wenn auch nur indirekt, durch die Österreicher und Ungarn in Galizien bedroht erscheint, was die Aufmerksamkeit der Russen und eventuell auch mehr Truppen als bisher in diese heikle Richtung lenkt. Durch Zurücknehmen der verbündeten Armeen hat sich also ihre Lage gegenüber den Verhältnissen an der Weichsel bedeutend gebessert, und der Nachteil des Aufgebens einer bereits erreichten Stellung wird reichlich durch die Vorteile der neuen Situation wettgemacht. 2)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:
Siegreiches Vorgehen der Türken

Konstantinopel, 14. November. (W. B.)
Amtliche Mitteilung aus dem Hauptquartier:
Unsere Truppen haben die Stellung von Kotur in der persischen Provinz Aserbaidschan besetzt, die bisher von den Russen besetzt war Diese wurden geschlagen und flohen. Heute haben leichte Gefechte zwischen unseren verfolgenden Truppen und ihrer Nachhut stattgefunden. Die Kämpfe bei Köpriköi waren sehr heftig. Unsere Truppen zeigten eine wirklich außergewöhnliche Tapferkeit. Ein Regiment machte drei Bajonettangriffe gegen die Höhe 1905, in deren Verlauf der Kommandeur und die meisten Offiziere eines Bataillons fielen. Endlich drangen unsere Truppen mit einer Tapferkeit, die auch in der ruhmreichen ottomanischen Geschichte ehrenvoll hervortritt, in diese Stellungen ein. Nicht ein Mann von der feindlichen Besatzung dieser Höhe ist entkommen. Unter der sehr großen Beute befindet sich viel Befestigungsmaterial. Gegen die bei Fao an der Küste in der Provinz Bassora gelandeten Engländer wurde ein heftiger Angriff unternommen; von den Engländern fielen sechzig.

Konstantinopel, 14. November. (W. B.)
Eine Mitteilung des türkischen Hauptquartiers besagt: Die nach den türkischen Transportschiffen "Bezemialen", "Bachriaehmer" und "Midlat Pascha" angestellten Nachforschungen haben ergeben, daß diese Schiffe, die vor der Beschießung Songuldaks abgingen, um zum Truppentransport zwischen früher genannten Orten zu dienen, mit der russischen Flotte, die Songuldak bombardierte, zusammenliefen und von ihr versenkt wurden. Die Besatzungen in der Stärke von 219 Mann und einige Passagiere wurden nach russischen Berichten von den Russen gefangen genommen. Der Verlust dieser Schiffe ist bedauerlich, aber sie werden durch drei bessere den Russen weggenommene russische Schiffe ersetzt, die die Namen der drei versenkten Schiffe erhalten. 2)


Eine Proklamation Enver Paschas

Enver Pascha


Konstantinopel, 14. November. (W B.)
Die "Agence Ottomane" veröffentlicht folgende vom Vizegeneralissimus Enver Pascha an die Armee gerichtete Proklamation:

Kameraden!
Ich teile Euch hierdurch das erhebende Irade unseres geliebten Oberkommandanten, Sr. Majestät des Kalifen, unseres erlauchten Herrn mit. Unsere Armee wird mit Hilfe Gottes und dem Beistand des Propheten und durch die frommen Gebete unseres Souveräns unsere Feinde vernichten. Der bis heute von den Offizieren und Soldaten, unseren Kameraden, zu Lande und zu Wasser bezeugte Heldenmut ist der beste Beweis dafür, daß unsere Feinde werden vernichtet werden. Kein Offizier, kein Soldat darf vergessen, daß das Schlachtfeld das Feld des Opfers ist. Die Geschichte ist Zeuge dafür, daß es keine so standhafte, so opferbereite Armee gibt, wie die ottomanische. Wir alle müssen daran denken, daß über uns die Seelen des Propheten und aller übrigen Heiligen schweben, und daß unsere ruhmreichen Vorfahren unsere Taten verfolgen. Wenn Ihr beweisen wollt, daß wir ihre wahren Kinder sind, wenn Ihr dem Fluch der Nachwelt entrinnen wollt, dann laßt uns arbeiten. 300 Millionen Muselmanen beten für unseren Sieg. Niemand kann dem Tode entrinnen. Wie glücklich sind diejenigen, die vorwärts stürmen. Wie glücklich sind diejenigen, die als Märtyrer fallen auf dem Wege für Glauben und Vaterland. Vorwärts, immer vorwärts, Sieg, Ruhm und das Paradies sind vor uns, Tod und Schande hinter uns.
Es lebe unser Padischah!" 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im November 1914



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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Talbert Stevenson - 14 November 1917 - Oundle School

Talbert Stevenson was a Scotsman from Dundee, where his father ran a dye works. Born in 1895, he was in Crosby House from 1910 until 1912. At Oundle, he was a keen OTC man and won a cup for shooting. He also excelled at French, winning a school prize and appearing in two French plays. After Oundle, he spent some time on the Continent and then studied in Manchester. He looked set to join his father’s business when the war came.

He received a commission in the Black Watch as early as 2nd September 1914 and trained in Dundee and York, before being sent to France in February 1915. He came through the fighting at Neuve Chapelle and Festubert but was then wounded and was out of action for five months before returning to his battalion in France. Later, he turned down promotion to the rank of Brigade Major, preferring to stay with his men as Captain. He was wounded again on the Somme in November 1916 but re-joined his men once more in July 1917.

He was killed by a sniper, on 14th November 1917 near Polderhoek outside Ypres and buried at La Clytte. The chaplain wrote these words to his grieving parents: “I have just come from his funeral. I am glad we managed to get your boy’s body down from the line. It wasn’t any easy task, and it is a proof of his popularity that there was no lack of volunteers to bring his body down. There was a large turnout at the funeral and the body was carried to the grave by four of the oldest officers. Our pipers played Flowers of the Forest over the grave. The battalion could not have suffered greater loss.”

Talbert’s bravery earned him two Military Crosses. The citation for the second one reads: “For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He got his battalion into its assembly position with great skill. On the morning of the attack, he made a very valuable reconnaissance, obtaining urgent information under heavy machine gun and rifle fire. His gallantry and courage were most marked.”

His Commanding Officer wrote: “His loss to the battalion is irreparable. Brave to a fault, brimming over with energy and keenness, a prime favourite with officers and men, he also possessed a very old head on young shoulders.”

Talbert Stevenson was 22 years old at the time of his death.

'Baas'-foto foto op https://www.oundleschool.org.uk/Talbert-Stevenson-14-November-1917?returnUrl=/World-War-I-
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

E H. Shepard - 'Zillebeke Lake'- 14/11/17

Framed and mounted crayon and wash drawing.

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/24697
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

General Frederick Sleigh Roberts

General Frederick Sleigh Roberts actually had three services after his death on 14 November 1914; one at HQ in France where he died (he was visiting Indian and British troops on the front line), one at his home church in Ascot, and then the big one at St. Paul's Cathedral. No. 2 Mountain Battery were involved in the procession on its way to St. Paul's, and may have been the unit just in front of the coffin. The actual pall-bearers on this journey were high-ranking Generals, including Kitchener. There follows a little summary of who was involved, where, and the final journey of this much-loved public figure.

We start in France, at General H.Q...

"At 9.30 am the coffin, draped in the Union Jack, with the dead Field-Marshal's sword and cap on top of it, was borne from the house and placed on a gun-carriage by a carrying party of eight branches of the Royal Artillery, of which Royal Regiment Lord Roberts' was Colonel-Commandent, and two from the Irish Guards, of which he was Colonel. Within the courtyard of the house was a guard of honour composed of representatives from different Indian regiments, who afterwards took their places in the procession. Outside, drawn up in line in the street, was a guard of honour of British Infantry."

"... The procession was marshalled in the following order: British cavalry, French cavalry, detachments from territorial battalions and Indian troops, regimental officers, the Maire of the town, the Président du Tribunal and the Sous Préfat, Indian officers, officers of the French Mission with the British Army, officers of the General Headquarters Staff and French General officers, the personal Staff of the Commander-in-Chief, the gun carriage escorted by eight General officers acting as pall-bearers, representatives of Earl Roberts' family, H.R.H the Prince of Wales, representing his Majesty the King, Field-Marshal Sir J. D. P. French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., representative of his Majesty the King of the Belgians, Major H. R. H. Prince Arthur of Connaught, K.G., K.T., G.C.V.O., A.D.C., Colonel V. Huguet, C.V.O., representing the president of the French Republic, a detachment of French cavalry, a detachment of Royal Horse Artillery."


After a small church service, the coffin was placed in a 'motor-ambulance' which was to convey it to Boulogne.

"It was an impressive scene in the bright sunlight. In front of the Mairie stood the ambulance ready to start on its journey to the coast; behind it were the lines of khaki soldiers, and behind them again the blue cloaks and the silver helmets of the French cavalry flashing in the sun, and right across the sky in front of a dark mass of clouds to the north-west gleamed a double rainbow. At this moment a fresh sound was heard above the roar of the artillery, and the brassy music of the trumpets as a British aeroplane, one of the aerial guard that had been watching and protecting the procession, swooped up into sight, circled the square, and dipped in salute. The last wreath was put in, the door was closed, and the ambulance moved off on its road to Boulogne."

Lees verder op http://www.garenewing.co.uk/angloafghanwar/articles/roberts_funeral.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sister Dorothy Gwendolen Cawood, MM

Dorothy Cawood was born at Parramatta, New South Wales, on 9 December 1884. She was the seventh child of John Cawood, a carpenter, and his English-born wife, Sarah. There are few details of her early education, but in 1909 at the age of 25, she began training as a nurse at Coast Hospital, at Little Bay in Sydney. After four years of training she was registered with the Australian Trained Nurses' Association on 14 May 1913.

Cawood enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 14 November 1914 as a staff nurse in the Army Nursing Service and was posted to the 2nd Australian General Hospital (2AGH). She embarked on the Kyarra and sailed to Egypt with the first AIF contingent. The hospital was based at Mena, on the outskirts of Cairo, and with the exception of periods working on board a hospital ship and transports, Cawood served there for most of the Gallipoli campaign. In December 1915 she was promoted to nursing sister. With the Gallipoli campaign over, she went with 2AGH to France. After serving at Marseilles and Wimereux, near Boulogne, she spent a brief period on attachment to the 8th Stationary Hospital and the Australian Voluntary Hospital before returning to 2AGH in July 1916.

By December 1916 Sister Cawood's nursing duties brought her closer to the front and into more immediate danger. Nursing at the 2nd Australian Casualty Clearing Station at Armentières during July 1917 Sister Cawood along with Sisters Deacon, Ross King and nurse Derrer, risked their lives to rescue patients trapped in burning buildings after a German air raid. In September the four became the first members of the Australian Army Nursing Service to be awarded Military Medals.

On 1 August Sister Cawood was transferred to the 38th Stationary Hospital at Calais and, in November, to the 6th Australian General Hospital. While serving there she was mentioned in dispatches for "distinguished and gallant service in the field". Not long afterwards Sister Cawood was transferred to the Genoa, Italy, with the 38th Stationary Hospital. She was hospitalised with tonsillitis for a few months in 1918, but served in Genoa until January 1919. She was then transferred to England where she was attached to the 3rd Australian Auxiliary Hospital at Dartford and the 2nd Australian Auxiliary Hospital at Dartford.

Sister Cawood returned to Sydney in May 1919 on board HF Soudan after more than four years overseas. After being demobilised she worked in the State Hospital at Liverpool, New South Wales, before becoming matron of the David Berry Hospital in Berry. She retired in 1943 and the following year returned to Parramatta where she lived until her death in 1962. She had never married and was buried in Sydney's Rookwood cemetery.

http://www.awm.gov.au/people/1078495.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reverend George Reith, letter to John Reith (14th November, 1914)

It is rather a shock to your mother and me to find that you are off to the Front; and we can only pray God to be with you every moment; to give you strength and comfort and confidence in every duty to be laid upon you; and to let the assurance of Christ's presence sustain you in every hour of danger. You are doing a great work in defending your country - the greatest honour that can come to men in this world, or one of them at least. Our country's glory and good name are committed to your care for the time; and the mere thought of that should inspire you with high resolve to do all you can do. And then the cause is a righteous one if ever there were a righteous cause. God is and must be on our side as we contend for honour and faithfulness among nations; and we shall be on His side if in our own hearts we repent of all our national sins and seek that this terrible business be overruled for our spiritual welfare as a people. Keep close to Christ, dear boy. Make sure that your heart is His; that whatever happens you are fighting under Him as captain; no ill can befall you then.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWrecruit.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nov 14, 1914: Ottoman Empire declares a holy war

On November 14, 1914, in Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, the religious leader Sheikh-ul-Islam declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I.

By the time the Great War broke out in the summer of 1914, the Ottoman Empire was faltering, having lost much of its once considerable territory in Europe with its defeat in the First Balkan War two years earlier. Seeking to ally themselves with one of the great European powers to help safeguard them against future loss, the ambitious Ottoman leaders--members of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), known collectively as the Young Turks--responded favorably to overtures made by Germany in August 1914. Though Germany and Turkey secretly concluded a military alliance on August 2, the Turks did not officially take part in World War I until several months later. On October 29, the Ottoman navy--including two German ships, Goeben and Breslau, which famously eluded the British navy in the first week of the war to reach Constantinople--attacked Russian ports in the Black Sea, marking the beginning of Turkey's participation in the war.

The sheikh's declaration of a holy war, made two weeks later, urged Muslims all over the world--including in the Allied countries--to rise up and defend the Ottoman Empire, as a protector of Islam, against its enemies. "Of those who go to the Jihad for the sake of happiness and salvation of the believers in God's victory," the declaration read, "the lot of those who remain alive is felicity, while the rank of those who depart to the next world is martyrdom. In accordance with God's beautiful promise, those who sacrifice their lives to give life to the truth will have honor in this world, and their latter end is paradise."

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/ottoman-empire-declares-a-holy-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

When Booker T. Washington died, William Du Bois wrote an article about him in The Crisis (14th November, 1915)

Booker T. Washington was the greatest Negro leader since Frederick Douglass, and the most distinguished man, white or black who has come out of the South since the Civil War. On the other hand, in stern justice, we must lay on the soul of this man, a heavy responsibility for the consummation of Negro disfranchisement, the decline of the Negro college and the firmer establishment of color caste in this land.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcrisis.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Type UC I submarine

The Type UC I submarines were a class of small coastal minelaying U-boats built in Germany during the early part of World War I. They were the first operational minelaying submarines in the world (although the Russian submarine Krab was laid down earlier). A total of fifteen boats were built. The class is sometimes also referred to as the UC-1 class after SM UC-1, the class leader. (...)

SM UC-8, grounded on Dutch coast, 14 November 1915. Interned by Netherlands and served in Dutch Navy as the M-1 until broken up in 1932

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Type_UC_I_submarine
Voor meer details: http://www.dutchsubmarines.com/boats/boat_m1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht: Weitere Zurückdrängung der serbischen Front

Großes Hauptquartier, 14. November.

Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz: Keine wesentlichen Ereignisse.

Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz: Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen: Bei Podgacie (nordwestlich von Czartorysk) brachen deutsche Truppen in die russischen Stellungen ein, machten 1515 Gefangene und erbeuteten 4 Maschinengewehre. Nördlich der Eisenbahn Kowel-Sarny scheiterten russische Angriffe vor den österreichischen Linien.

Balkankriegsschauplatz: Die Armeen der Generale v. Koeveß und v. Gallwitz warfen auf der ganzen Front in teilweise hartnäckigen Kämpfen den Gegner erneut zurück. 13 Offiziere, 1760 Mann wurden gefangengenommen und 2 Geschütze erbeutet.
Die Armee des Generals Bojadjieff ist im Anschluß an die deutschen Truppen von der südlichen Morawa her im Vordringen.

Oberste Heeresleitung.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/15_11_14.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events for the Year of 1915

November 14, 1915 - Booker T. Washington Dies
Booker T. Washington, renowned spokesman and intellectual, dies of natural causes. Born a slave in 1856, Washington went on to earn his degree at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia. He began work at the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 and built it into a center of African American education.

November 14, 1915 - Birth of a Nation Boycotted
The classic film by D.W. Griffith, Birth of a Nation, sparks opposition from the NAACP and other civil rights groups for its racist portrayal of blacks in the Reconstructionist South. The outcry over the film includes a commitment on the part of black businessmen to finance the nascent African American film industry

http://www.thehistorymakers.com/timeline/index.asp?string=1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 November 1916 → Commons Sitting → MILITARY SERVICE: MENTALLY DERANGED RECRUIT.

HC Deb 14 November 1916 vol 87 cc543-4 543

Mr. FITZPATRICK asked the Secretary of State for War if he is aware that Benjamin Russell, Mountrath, Queen's County, while mentally deranged, left his home and proceeded to Dublin, where he presented himself at the recruiting office in Brunswick Street and joined the Lancashire Fusiliers, and was subsequently sent to Bury, Lancashire, for training; and, as this man was certified to be mentally deranged by an eminent local medical man, will he inquire into the case with a view to having him immediately discharged from the Army?

The FINANCIAL SECRETARY to the WAR OFFICE (Mr. Forster) I am sorry that I have not yet received a report of this case. I will communicate with my hon. Friend as soon as my inquiries are completed.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/nov/14/mentally-deranged-recruit
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The fall of Beaucourt: 14th November 1916

The 63rd (RN) Division Memorial at Beaucourt
On Freyberg's right II Corps had taken St Pierre Divion on the afternoon of the 13th and men from the 1st Cambridgeshire Regiment had been ferrying ammunition and grenades across the Ancre to replenish spent supplies.

During the night 111th Brigade from 37th Division had been brought up to assist the 63rd in their assault on the untaken section of the Beaucourt Trench to the left of Freyberg's group. The 13th Royal Fusiliers and 13th Rifle Brigade started their advance at 06:20 hours but despite some gains it soon became apparent that nothing further was going to be achieved until Beaucourt had been taken.

For the push to take the village 190th Brigade had assembled as many men as it could in the vicinity of Beaucourt Station, including 400 men from 1st HAC and about 80 of the 7th Royal Fusiliers. These advanced at 07:45 hours as far as Freyberg, who then led the men immediately into the attack on the village.

Despite the strong resistance in the trenches to the west of the village, Beaucourt fell remarkably easily with the gain of 500 prisoners. By 10:30 hours Freyberg could report that he was in control of Beaucourt.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_ancre_4.htm
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Frederick Oscar KELLOWAY (Private 3552)

Private Frederick Oscar KELLOWAY was wounded in the field with a gunshot wound to the right thigh 14 November 1916 and died at Rouen France at 8.15pm 29 November 1916 age 23.

Foto op http://www.camdenremembers.com.au/Lest%20We%20Forget/lwfkellowayf.html
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14 November 1917 → Commons Sitting: WOUNDED SOLDIERS (RELATIVES' VISITS).

HC Deb 14 November 1917 vol 99 c366 366

Mr. STANTON asked the Under-Secretary of State for War if he will grant a free pass to the parents or guardians of wounded soldiers so that they may travel upon any railway to see their wounded relatives; and will he consider some better method of arrangement so that the wounded may be placed nearer their homes and friends?

The FINANCIAL SECRETARY to the WAR OFFICE (Mr. Forster) Arrangements are already in force for the issue of a free warrant to a relative in the case of dangerous illness, and of cheap vouchers in other cases. Every effort is made to locate patients as near their homes as possible, but my hon. Friend will realise that it is not always possible to arrange this.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/nov/14/wounded-soldiers-relatives-visits
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V.I. Lenin: Speech On The Agrarian Question November 14
Newspaper Report

On the instructions of the Bolshevik group, Comrade Lenin delivered a speech setting forth the views of the Bolshevik Party on the agrarian question.

He said that the Party of Socialist-Revolutionaries had suffered defeat over the agrarian question, since it had advocated the confiscation of the landed estates, but refused to carry it into effect.

Landed proprietorship forms the basis of feudal oppression, and the confiscation of the landed estates is the first step of the revolution in Russia. But the land question cannot be settled independently of the other problems of the revolution. A correct view of these problems can be derived from an analysis of the stages through which the revolution has passed. The first stage was the overthrow of the autocracy and the establishment of the power of the bourgeoisie and the landowners. The interests of the landowners were closely interwoven with those of the bourgeoisie and the banks. The second stage was the consolidation of the Soviets and a policy of compromise with the bourgeoisie. The mistake of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was that at that time they failed to oppose the policy of compromise on the plea that the masses were not sufficiently enlightened. A party is the vanguard of a class, and its duty is to lead the masses and not merely to reflect the average political level of the masses. But in order to lead those who vacillate the Left Socialist-Revolutionary comrades must themselves stop vacillating.

Comrades Left Socialist-Revolutionaries! In July there began a period in which the masses of the people started breaking away from the policy of compromise, but to this very day the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries are stretching out a hand to the Avksentyevs, while offering the workers only their little finger. If compromise continues, the revolution is doomed. Only if the peasantry supports the workers can the problems of the revolution be solved. Compromise is an attempt on the part of the masses of workers, peasants and soldiers to get their needs satisfied by means of reforms, by concessions on the part of capital, without a socialist revolution. But it is impossible to give the people peace and land without overthrowing the bourgeoisie, without socialism. It is the duty of the revolution to put an end to compromise, and to put an end to compromise means taking the path of socialist revolution.

Comrade Lenin went on to defend the instructions to the volost committees[2] and spoke of the necessity of breaking with the leading organs, such as the army committees, the Executive Committee of the Peasants' Deputies, etc. We adopted our law on the volost committees, he said, from the peasants. The peasants want land and the prohibition of hired labour; they want implements for the cultivation of the soil. And this cannot be obtained without defeating capital. You want land, we said to them, but the land is mortgaged and belongs to Russian and world capital. You are throwing down a challenge to capital, you are following a different path from ours; but we are at one with you in that we are marching, and must march, towards the social revolution. As for the Constituent Assembly, the speaker said that its work will depend on the mood in the country, but he added, trust in the mood, but don't forget your rifles.

Comrade Lenin went on to deal with the question of the war. When he referred to the removal of Dukhonin and the appointment of Krylenko as Commander-in-Chief, there was laughter among the audience. It may be funny to you, he retorted, but the soldiers will condemn you for this laughter. If there are people here who think it funny that we removed a counter-revolutionary general and appointed Krylenko, who is against the general and has gone to conduct negotiations,[3] we have nothing to say to them. We have nothing in common with those who do not recognise the need to fight the counter-revolutionary generals. Rather than have anything to do with such people we prefer to retire from power, go underground if necessary.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/nov/12.htm
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Georges Clemenceau

In November 1917 the French president, Raymond Poincare appointed Clemenceau as prime minister. He immediately clamped down on dissent and senior politicians calling for peace, such as Joseph Caillaux and Louis Malvy were arrested for treason. In a speech on 20th November 1917 Clemenceau said: "We promise you, we promise the country, that justice will be done according to the law. Weakness would be complicity. We will avoid weakness, as we will avoid violence. All the guilty before courts-martial. The soldier in the courtroom united with the soldier in battle. No more pacifist campaigns, no more German intrigues. Neither treason, nor semi-treason: the war. Nothing but the war. Our armies will not be caught between fire from two sides. Justice will be done. The country will know that it is defended."

Lord Francis Bertie, the British Ambassador in Paris, wrote to the British government about the situation in France on 14th November 1917.
Thomas and his particular friends in the Socialist party are determined to wreck any ministry in which they do not have a representative, unless they can exercise a predominant influence in such a cabinet. They have vetoed a Clemenceau ministry, and a portion of the Radical Socialist party would be strongly opposed to such a ministry. There is, however, in the middle classes and the people generally, a strong feeling in his favour. He might soon be outvoted in the Chamber but I believe that in such event he might be capable of bringing a Corps d-Armee to Paris to maintain order, and that the people generally would welcome the momentary suppression of the violent Socialists.

Raymond Poincare diary entry (14th November, 1917)
The Tiger (Clemenceau) arrives; he is fatter, and his deafness has increased. His intelligence is intact. But what about his health, and his will-power I fear that one or the other may have changed for the worse and I feel more and more the risk of this adventure. But he has all patriots on his side, and if I do not call on him his legendary strength would make any alternative cabinet weak.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWclemenceau.htm
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Landesgeneralstreik, 11. bis 14. November 1918

„Wir fordern die ungesäumte Umbildung der bestehenden Landesregierung unter Anpassung an den vorhandenen Volkswillen“ – so stand es auf dem Flugblatt, das am 11. November 1918 zum Landesgeneralstreik aufrief. Was war geschehen?

Engpässe in der Lebensmittelversorgung und eine massive Teuerung verursachten während des Ersten Weltkriegs in weiten Teilen der schweizerischen Arbeiterschaft Unzufriedenheit und Not. Während beispielsweise 1914 in Bern ein Kilo Kartoffeln 12 Rappen kostete, stieg der Preis bis 1918 auf 27 Rappen; das Kilo Brot verteuerte sich von 30 auf 74 Rappen. Gleichzeitig profitierte die Landwirtschaft von den hohen Lebensmittelpreisen, und einige Unternehmen erwirtschafteten ausserordentliche Kriegsgewinne.

Für Sonntag, den 10. November rief die Sozialdemokratische Partei zu einer Feier zum ersten Jahrestag der Russischen Oktoberrevolution in Zürich auf. Die Armeespitze befürchtete gewalttätige Ausschreitungen und drängte den Schweizer Bundesrat, ein Truppenaufgebot für die Limmatstadt zu erlassen. Nach anfänglichem Zögern willigte die Landesregierung ein und erliess am 5. November ein Truppenaufgebot. In der Folge marschierten am 7. November Infanterie und Kavallerie als Ordnungstruppen in die Stadt ein.

Das Oltener Aktionskomitee – so benannt nach dem Ort seiner Gründung am 4. Februar 1918 –, das der sozialdemokratische Nationalrat Robert Grimm in den Vormonaten zu einem Exekutivausschuss von Partei und Gewerkschaft geformt hatte, rief daraufhin für Samstag, den 9. November zu einem 24stündigen Proteststreik in 19 Industriezentren der Schweiz auf.

Da die Armee ihre Truppen nicht abzog, beschloss die Zürcher Arbeiterunion den Streik weiterzuführen, was wiederum das Oltener Aktionskomitee unter Druck setzte. Schliesslich rief es für „Montag, den 11. November 1918, nachts 12 Uhr“ den unbefristeten landesweiten Generalstreik aus – dem Aufruf folgten ungefähr 300'000 Frauen und Männer. Die Streikleitung forderte unter anderem eine sofortige Neuwahl des Nationalrats auf Grundlage des erst wenige Wochen zuvor eingeführten Pro-porzwahlsystems, das Frauenstimm- und wahlrecht, die 48-Stunden-Woche, die Sicherung der Lebensmittelversorgung, eine Alters- und Invalidenversicherung und die Einführung einer Vermögenssteuer.

Am 13. November stellte der Schweizerische Bundesrat den Vertretern des Oltener Komitees ein Ultimatum und forderte den bedingungslosen Streikabbruch. Aus Angst vor einer bewaffneten Auseinandersetzung sprach sich das Komitee in der Nacht auf den 14. November mit grosser Mehrheit für eine Beendigung des Streiks und die allgemeine Wiederaufnahme der Arbeit auf Freitag, den 15. November aus. Von den ursprünglich neun Forderungen konnten lediglich zwei durchgesetzt werden: die Neuwahl des Nationalrats und die 48-Stunden-Woche.

Die präsentierten Dokumente geben Einblick in die Handlungsweise von Bundesrat und Armeeleitung während des Landesstreiks, den der Historiker Willi Gautschi als „das schwerwiegendste innenpolitische Ereignis der Schweizergeschichte seit der Gründung des Bundesstaates im Jahre 1848“ bezeichnet hatte. Die Originale sind frei zugänglich und können jederzeit in den Lesesälen des Schweizerischen Bundesarchivs bestellt und eingesehen werden.

Lees eventueel weiter auf https://www.bar.admin.ch/bar/de/home/service-publikationen/publikationen/geschichte-aktuell/landesgeneralstreik--11--bis-14--november-1918.html
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T. E. Lawrence to his family

Azrak, 14.11.17

I wonder if you can find this place:- it's out in the desert between Deraat and Amman - and if you do find it you will think it a most improbable place to live at. Living however is quite easy and comfortable here. We are in an old fort with stone roofs and floors, and stone doors of the sort they used in Bashan. It is a bit out of repair, but is improving in that respect every day. I do not know what its postal arrangements are like: at least they begin with about ten days on a camel of mine, and after that the ordinary risks of letters now-a-days. Your chances of getting it are therefore a little thin, it seems to me. I go on writing and writing and it has no effect: every letter I get from you says that you have not heard from me since last time: very disheartening, since writing is always a risk (if our friends get this letter they will pay me a visit) and often difficult. Meanwhile it is restful. I am staying here a few days; resting my camels, and then will have another fling. Last "fling" was two railway engines. One burst into fragments, and the other fell on the first. Quite a successful moment! If you see a note in print saying that "A detachment of the N. army of Sherif Feisul etc." Then that's me... the rest is anonymous. In case my last three letters have fallen through, please tell Arnie that his plan is excellent. I told the people concerned in Cairo, and either Mr. Hogarth or myself can get it arranged quite easily if the time comes. Personally I don't expect it will, but I always was an optimist. I wonder if Gillman could make me another pair of brown shoes? There may be regulations against export, so he should find out first. I do not often wear shoes, but they come in handy sometimes in reserve. I sent you a cheque for £300 some weeks ago, and asked for Janet's address? Did you get them and if not will you let me know?

There, this letter has been 3 days in writing, and I have done all the rest of the work meanwhile.

T. E. Lawrence

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/171114_family.htm
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NEW ZEALAND MOUNTED RIFLES: THE ACTION AT AYUN KARA

The Action at Ayun Kara on the 14th November 1917 was carried out by the
New Zealand Mounted Rifles on heavily entrenched Turkish defences. This successful
rout of the enemy is remembered for its daring frontal rush by mounted troops and
tactical movements in support by the brigades riflemen and machine gunners.

Lees verder op http://www.nzmr.org/ayunkara.htm
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Soldier in Camouflage in 1917

Description: Soldier in black and white uniform to conceal him while climbing trees. He stands in front of a house camouflaged to represent a fence and trees. Co. F, 24th Engnrs. American University, D. C. November 14, 1917. Army Engineer Corps. (Army) NARA FILE #: 111-SC-337 WAR & CONFLICT BOOK #: 582

Date: 14 November 1917

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Soldier_in_Camouflage_in_1917.JPEG
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US Army Deaths Reported on 14 November 1918

http://www.genealogy-quest.com/military/ww1/1918-casualties-Nov-14.html
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14 November 1918 → Commons Sitting: DARDANELLES.

HC Deb 14 November 1918 vol 110 c2849 2849

Major NEWMAN asked the Secre- of State for Foreign Affairs whether the peace conditions with Turkey will ensure to the British Empire the effective custody of that portion of the Gallipoli Peninsula where so many of the Dardanelles Expeditionary Force lie buried?

Lord R. CECIL I am grateful for the hon. and gallant Member's suggestion which will be carefully borne in mind.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/nov/14/dardanelles
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14 november 1918, Arie Vosbergen sterft aan de Spaanse Griep

Op 25 mei 1912 staan voor de derde Rotterdamse marathon slechts elf lopers aan de start. Twee van de deelnemers liepen in 1908 mee in de olympische marathon van Londen, Wim Braams en Arie Vosbergen. Het was Braams die als eerste bij het keerpunt was. De ervaren Braams, onder andere winnaar van de “marathon van Haarlem”, de 25 kilometer lange kwalificatieloop voor de Olympische Spelen van 1908, kreeg op de terugweg echter een stevige inzinking.

Arie Vosbergen van Pro Patria wist vlot een grote voorsprong te nemen. Hij liep op een gegeven moment een kilometer voor op de nummer twee, D. Lange. Af en toe wandelend bereikte Vosbergen de finish in een recordtijd van 2 uur 54 minuten en 12 seconden, twee minuten sneller dan het oude Nederlands record van Theunissen uit 1908!

Arie Vosbergen is in die tijd één van de beste hardlopers in Nederland. (...)

In het najaar van 1918 sloeg het noodlot toe. De Spaanse Griep hield een groot deel van Europa en de rest van de wereld in een dodelijke greep. Tijdens het hoogtepunt van de epidemie in Nederland stierf ook Arie Vosbergen, op 14 november. Hij is slechts 36 jaar geworden.

http://www.running.nu/14-november-1918-arie-vosbergen-sterft-aan-de-spaanse-griep/
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Announcement of Joseph Pilsudski's Immediate Plans, 14 November 1918

With Germany defeated in November 1918 the path was cleared for a newly constructed Polish republic to be established with Allied backing; this was duly declared on 10 February 1919. This was however by no means the end of uncertainty for Poland, with the ultimate makeup of Europe yet to be agreed at the Paris Peace Conference, and with military disagreements with Russia, the Ukraine and Czechoslovakia rumbling on.

Statement by Josef Pilsudski on Accepting Military Command of Poland, 14 November 1918

Upon my return from German imprisonment I found the country in a most chaotic state in the face of exceedingly difficult tasks, for the performance of which the nation must reveal its best organizing abilities.

In my conversations with the representatives of almost all political parties in Poland, I found to my delight that the great majority share my opinion that the new Government should not only rest on democratic foundations, but be composed in a considerable proportion of representatives of the rural and urban masses.

The difficult life conditions of the people have not allowed very many among them to attain professional expertness, which is in such great demand throughout the country. Realizing this, I have requested that in the interest of the highest efficiency the President of the Government appoint to the Cabinet recognized experts without any reference to their political affiliations.

By the nature of the situation, the character of the Government, pending the convocation of the Constituent Assembly, is purely provisional and precludes the enactment of any thoroughgoing social changes, which only the Representative Assembly can undertake.

Considering the peculiar legal position of the nation, I have requested the President of the Cabinet to submit to me the plan for the creation of the provisional supreme representative authority of the Polish Republic, embracing all three parts of Poland.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VII, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/poland_pilsudski1.htm
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Le Quesnoy Banner

The Le Quesnoy banner was presented to the New Zealand Rifle Brigade (NZRB) by the town of Le Quesnoy, France after soldiers of the Unit had liberated the town by scaling the walls of the medieval fortress, using ladders.

The Le Quesnoy banner along with an autographed letter of thanks for the deliverance of the city was presented to the New Zealand Rifle Brigade by the Maire of Le Quesnoy on the 9th November 1918.

This compliment was reciprocated on the 14th November 1918 when General Hart in the company of four of his Commanding Officers presented to the town of Le Quesnoy a New Zealand flag to commemorate the victory of November 4th 1918. The Maire was deeply moved, and on receiving the flag he caressed its folds and pressed it to his lips. In his remarks on formally accepting the gift, he stated that one of the principal streets of the town had been renamed in honour of the New Zealanders, and that an application had been made to the proper authorities for permission to add the New Zealand fern-leaf to the coat of arms of the city, this being the highest honour that it was in their power to confer.

In October 2005 the Le Quesnoy banner was safe-hand delivered to Tracy Wedge, Textiles Conservator of Auckland to be conserved. Prior to treatment the banner was in an extremely vulnerable condition, with the silk elements of the banner slowly disintegrating and susceptible to further damage as time passed.

The now conserved Le Quesnoy banner has been mounted, by stitching onto an acid free fabric covered board for flat storage and display. This does mean however that the reverse of the banner becomes inaccessible and the banner becomes a two dimensional object.

The before and after photos show the result of the conservation carried out on the banner by Tracey Wedgewhich ensures that the banner is preserved for future generations.

http://www.armymuseum.co.nz/kiwis-at-war/did-you-know.html
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East African Campaign

(...) [T]he Germans fought the duration of World War I. The Germans received word of the armistice on 14 November 1918 at 7:30 am. Both sides waited for confirmation, and he formally surrendered on 25 November. (...)

http://wapedia.mobi/en/East_African_Campaign_(World_War_I)
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1918 - The Americans in the War

On the 12th of October, a second American army was created and then a third on the 7th of November. The Americans reached Sedan the same day. Fighting furiously, the French crossed the Meuse at Vrigne on the 10th, whilst further north towards Rocroi, they arrived in Belgium. An armistice was requested on the 9th by Germany.

General Pétain had prepared for a great offensive in Lorraine, arranged for the 14th of November 1918, which would have led Franco-American troops into Germany. But it was abandoned as, against his opinion and that of General Pershing, who did not want the signing of the armistice to take place until the enemy had been driven back beyond the Rhine, General Foch and Clemenceau accepted the request and signed the armistice on the 11th of November.

On the 21st November the Americans arrived in the liberated capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and carried on into the Rhineland on the 23rd. They reached the Rhine and Koblenz, via the Moselle valley, on the 9th of December.

On the 14th of July 1919, they marched with all the Allies under the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, during Victory celebrations.

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=13426
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lt. Rudolf Hess, letter to his parents, 14 November 1918.

I heard that the Armistice had been agreed. Though undefeated, we had to climb into our planes to withdraw, to flee. I can't tell you what was going through my mind. It was the hardest hour of my life. Now I read in this note to America in which we grovel for moderation in the terms. Who would have thought that our compatriots could be so base, so mean, so shameless?...I would not be coming back to Germany, were it not for you. Naturally they have taken neither my gun, epaulets, nor insignia.

http://inkhornterm.blogspot.com/2009/05/armistice-1918-courtland-and-jeffries.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 23:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WWI: Letters from the Trenches

These are some of the letters that my Great Uncle Reg wrote home from active duty in France, Egypt and Turkey in the First World War.

14th November 1918, from Reg F. Knight (in Turkey), to his brother, Charles Graham Knight

Turkey
14.11.18
My Dear Brother
T last I can send you a few lines and I hope that no one will rub a lot of it out; In the first place I am at (Aleppo) and in the pink of condition; I expect you have heared about our advance out hear? And I believe the square heads in France are almost finished, most of the troops out hear do not seem very pleased about the war finishing, they know that we shall in all probability have to stay hear another six months, and this is not a very nice spot, for we are camped out in a ploughed field and the winter is on us., we have already been washed out of our rag huts; also we are rather bad off for clothing for we had to leave most of our kit including blankets, at (Jaffa). So we are still saying “roll on a long time
Well Dear Brother I am very pleased that this war is almost over, (tell Sis to shake my clothes out for I shall want them soon)

By the way we got a wireless through last night that there was quite a lively time in London, hope they won’t be too glad and forget the boys out in this God forsaken land, please thank Sis and tell her that I received the Shirts quite safe they came in at the right time for we were only allowed to have one shirt to start with, and I had worn that three weeks and was getting quite a lot of (Friends) you may be sure that I said good bye to them all, five minutes after getting the parcel; also I was very lucky getting a Birthday parcel from Elsie, with a nice arm pair of socks in it, So I am not doing bad, but I cannot help thinking how nice and comfy it would be to be home in Blighty.

Well Charlie I guess you will be pleased to hear from me for I have not sent you a line for quite a long time, and I am indeed pleased to be in a position to write to you, lucky indeed am I to still be in the land of the living. I have never for one moment had any hopes of seeing England and all my friends till I heard that the Turks had finished then came the news of Germany almost at the finish., so now I live in hopes of seeing you all one of these days,
When I do get home I am going to have a months holiday, just a nice quiet one, well draw to a close hoping these few lines find you and all at home in the pink.
Your loving
Brother
Reg

PS please send letters on for me.

http://www.petergknight.com/warletters.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Nov 2010 23:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

King's message to the Royal Air Force - published on 14 November 1918

http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1918/1918%20-%201270.html?search=November%2011
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2018 11:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dagboeken van P.J.M. Aalberse, 1891-1947 bewerkt door J.P. de Valk en A.C.M. Kappelhof

De uitgave van de dagboeken van P.J.M. Aalberse (1871-1948) sluit aan bij de Onderzoeksgids Sociale Zekerheid 1890-1967. De katholieke politicus Aalberse, kamerlid sinds 1903, was de eerste minister van Sociale Zaken (1918-1925). Hij bracht een aantal belangrijke sociale wetten tot stand. Na 1925 was hij onder meer fractievoorzitter van de RK Staatspartij (1930-1936), kamervoorzitter en lid van de Raad van State. In katholieke kring en daarbuiten was hij actief op tal van maatschappelijke terreinen.

Donderdag 14 november 1918. Weer ministerraad, donderdag half een. Heemskerk en Ruijs waren naar de koningin geweest. Deze wilde absoluut nog den eigen dag een proclamatie tot haar volk richten. Wij moesten de tekst vaststellen, en om vier uur zou Kan bij haar ontvangen worden, om haar de proclamatie te laten teekenen, die dan terstond gedrukt, en ’s nachts overal heengezonden kon worden.

Ik was er woest tegen. Vooreerst, omdat ’t als een bewijs van zwakheid bij de regeering zou beschouwd worden: men zou meenen, dat wij den toestand niet meer meester waren en nu, als noodschot, de koningin naar voren brachten. Vervolgens: ik zag er iets onridderlijks in. Niet de koningin moest hier optreden – wij moesten vóór de koningin staan, en de slagen opvangen. Tenslotte: een dynastiek gevaar: de koningin kwam in ’t centrum der beweging te staan. De beweging tegen ‘de regeering’ zou zich nu concentreeren tegen haar persoonlijk. Dat zou haar positie later schaden – ze moest boven de partijen blijven staan, ook thans.

Ik vond bij velen instemming, en ook Heemskerk en Ruijs wankelden. Maar ze hadden ’t de koningin ’s morgens beloofd! Ik moest dan maar om vier uur naar haar toegaan en zien, haar van meening te doen veranderen. Goed zei ik, maar laat dan een der oudste leden van ’t kabinet met me meegaan, bijvoorbeeld Idenburg.

Aldus werd besloten. Maar ik had geen hoogen hoed, en maar ’n gewoon jasje aan! En onmogelijk tijd, om me te gaan verkleeden. Idenburg zou dus ook met ’n deukhoedje op komen. Zoo kwamen we om vier uur in ’t Noordeinde aan. De lakeien zullen ’t wel ’t begin der revolutie gevonden hebben, dat twee ministers met ’n deukhoedje op, en ’n gewoon pakkie aan, in het paleis ter audiëntie kwamen!

We werden terstond ontvangen. De koningin was ernstig, maar vriendelijk. Wel leek ze me wat geagiteerd; ze had een hoogroode kleur. Ik hield een vrij lang, maar – naar Idenburg later in den ministerraad meedeelde: heel duidelijk en klemmend – betoog, om aan te toonen, waarom een proclamatie thans een fout was. Mijns inziens moest de koningin eerst met een proclamatie komen, als de toestand zóódanig was, dat ’t voor iedereen vaststond, dat de regeering de toestand volkomen meester was. Dan had een proclamatie zin: een rustig koninklijk woord, om aan te sporen eendrachtig de nieuwe toekomst in te gaan.

H.M. hoorde mij zwijgend aan. Toen ik uitgesproken had, bleek zij zeer onder den indruk mijner argumenten te zijn gekomen. Ze stribbelde nog een weinig tegen. Ik begon toen den inhoud der proclamatie te critiseeren: het was een stuk van de secretaris-generaal, niet het woord der koningin in een gewichtig oogenblik. Dat sloeg in! De koningin nam toen ’t stuk van me over – ’t ligt nog in mijn aanteekeningen van den ministerraad van dien dag: een merkwaardig stuk: een door mij tegengehouden en nooit verschenen proclamatie! Ze ging toen ook aan ’t critiseeren, veel scherper nog dan ik ’t gedaan had. En wat ze ervoor in de plaats stelde, was telkens véél en véél beter: werkelijk ’t juiste woord, en koninklijk! Zij heeft blijkbaar veel taal- en stijlbegrip.

Vooral had ik aanmerking gemaakt op deze derde alinea: ‘Thans is het oogenblik gekomen, om een nieuw huis boven ons hoofd op te bouwen. De tijden zijn rijp voor ingrijpende hervormingen zoo op wetgevend als sociaal gebied tot stand te brengen, om te verwezenlijken wat in de diepste lagen van ons volk leeft’. Dat ‘nieuwe huis’ riekt naar geslaagde revolutie. De ‘ingrijpende hervormingen’ zouden op dit moment concessie aan de revolutionaire beweging schijnen. ‘Zoo op wetgevend als sociaal gebied’ was geen tegenstelling. Bedoeld was wellicht: politiek als sociaal. Dit scheen een concessie aan Troelstra’s eisch: afschaffing van de Eerste Kamer. Die ‘diepste lagen’ waren hier onzin: klinkt bolsjewikisch! De koningin was ’t heelemaal met me eens.

Zelf viel zij vooral op de volgende alinea, waarin stond, dat de Oranjevorsten altijd op de bres stonden voor de bestaande vrijheden. Dat is helemaal onjuist, zei ze. ‘Wij hebben de vrijheid gebracht.’ Het eind was, dat zij zei: die proclamatie deugt heelemaal niet, en wat ’t tijdstip aangaat, ik zal maar geduldig en rustig afwachten, tot de heeren van meening zijn, dat ’t goede moment gekomen is. Ik zei: ‘Majesteit, mag ik ’t eerlijk zeggen? Ik ga met een veel geruster hart van u heen, dan ik gekomen was.’ De koningin stond op, en gaf ons beiden een hand. Het onderhoud had juist een uur geduurd. Idenburg was opgetogen. In de ministerraad ’s avonds bracht hij verslag uit en kamde me geweldig op, omdat ik de zaak zoo krachtig en toch zoo taktvol behandeld had.

’s Avonds vergaderden we weer met de afgevaardigden der rechterzijde. De stemming was veel kalmer. ’t Liep nu vooral over de sociale hervormingen, bij welk debat ik vooral veel te vertellen had. Algemeen was de aandrang, krachtig in te grijpen. Ik zei tot slot: ‘Ik hoor met genoegen, dat alle heeren voor krachtige sociale hervormingen zijn. Ik verheug me erover en wil niets liever. Doch op deze ééne voorwaarde: dat als de toestand weer rustig is, en ik er mee kom, de heeren niet terugkrabbelen! De arbeiders vertrouwen ons thans ten volle. Als wij later dat vertrouwen beschamen, is dat erger, dan wanneer nu de revolutie tijdelijk zegepralen zou.’ Daar waren [ze] ’t mee eens. Ik zal ze er later nog wel eens aan herinneren!

Bij tienen ’s avonds kwam de bode binnen en zei me: ‘Excellentie, ’t Kabinet van de Koningin is voor u aan de telefoon.’ Ik zat tusschen Ruijs en Heemskerk in. Alle drie dachten we: de proclamatie! De koningin heeft er spijt van! Ik ging naar de telefoon: H.M. heeft me opgedragen, u te verzoeken, morgenochtend kwart voor tien bij haar te komen; doch zij vernam, dat u hedenavond een vergadering had, en vreest dat ’t wellicht erg laat voor u zal worden. Wanneer u dus liever morgen wat later wilt komen moet u ’t gerust zeggen, dan zal H.M. een later uur bepalen.’ Ik zei, dat ik geen bezwaar had, en om kwart voor tien present zou zijn.

http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/dagboekenaalberse/Dagboeken/Aantekening/14/11/1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2018 12:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 November 1917 - "Night of Terror"

On 14 November 1917, the "Night of Terror" occurred at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia, in which 33 suffragist prisoners were brutally tortured and beaten by guards. The women, mostly members of the National Women's Party had been picketing the White House in support of voting rights for women.

https://www.facebook.com/workingclasshistory/photos/a.296224173896073/786681064850379/?type=1&theater
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2018 12:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Junction Station, 13-14 November 1917

The battle of Junction Station, 13-14 November 1917, saw the British defeat a Turkish attempt to defend the line of the railway to Jerusalem. The centre of that line was Junction Station, where the line from Jerusalem joined the main north-south line. East of Junction Station the Turkish line ran almost alongside the railway, but ran through hilly country unsuitable for the British cavalry. West of Junction Station the line ran west to the villages of El Mughar and Katrah, on either side of the Wadi Jamus, and then turned north.

General Allenby decided to turn the Turkish right flank. XXI corps would attack south of Katrah, along the line of the main road from Gaza to Junction Station. On their left the Yeomanry and Anzac Cavalry Divisions would attack to their left, from El Mughar to the north.

The advance began at 7 a.m. on 13 November. After pushing back Turkish outposts, the advance became stuck at around 10 a.m. Both the 52nd Division, attacking Katrah and El Mughar, and the cavalry further north, came to a halt in front of strongly located defences.

The key to the British victory was a dramatic cavalry charge at El Mughar. At 2.30 pm it was decided to use the 6th Mounted Brigade to attack the Turkish lines on the ridge north of the village. Despite having to advance across 3,000 yards of open terrain, the cavalry successfully reached the ridge (Action of El Mughar), and their dismounted reserve captured the village itself.

To their right Katrah was eventually captured by the 52nd Division. The next day, 14 November, the 75th Division captured Junction Station, cutting the Turkish rail link to Jerusalem. By the end of the next day, the British had captured Ramleh and Ludd on the railway line north, and had advanced east to Latron.

The Turkish armies were now split in two. The Eighth Army, under Kress von Kressenstein, was on the coast, protecting the railway north, while the Seventh Army was isolated at Jerusalem. All supplies had to come over poor roads from Nablus, forty miles to the north, or from Amman, on the Hejaz Railway, fifth miles to the east. However, their position around Jerusalem was a strong one, protected by the difficult ground of the Judean Mountains. Allenby’s first attempt to capture Jerusalem, would grind to a halt in those hill (battle of Nebi Samwil).

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_junction_station.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2018 12:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

14 November 1916 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: APPEAL TO LOOSEN LIGHTING RESTRICTIONS

Faced with prospect of lengthening nights, there have been a number of appeals recently for exemptions from the strict wartime blackout conditions. The reasons given mostly relate to safety concerns caused by the lack of light, which has already been the cause of some accidents in town.

The President of the Jersey Free Churches Council was one of those who wrote to the Lieutenant Governor on the matter. The challenge was that evening services continued until 8.30pm on some occasions, which was later than the ordered hour for covering any exposed lights. Not only is there the expense of providing blackout curtains for church windows, explained the President, but many churches have steps outside their door, leaving a real danger of someone having an accident by falling in the dark.

The Lieutenant Governor was unmoved by the request, however, claiming that making one exception to the rules would result in a flood of similar applications. What’s more, the lighting restrictions are extending this week to encompass the headlights of motor cars, which must not shine out to sea when driving in certain proscribed areas such as St Helier and St Aubin.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/14-november-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2018 12:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Neerlandia. Jaargang 21 (1917): Een Indiese avond. (14 Nov. 1916).

De Afd. Haarlem en O. heeft in samenwerking met de Afd. Oost en West een avond in elkaar gezet om de leden op de hoogte te brengen van de gedachtenstromingen in onze Oost. Daartoe hebben wij drie Inlanders S. Surya Ningrat, de banneling Soewardhi, lid van de Voormalige ‘Indiese partij’ op Java, Ratu Langie, een in Den Haag werkend hoog ontwikkeld Minnahasser en de Javaanse Dichter Noto Soeroto uitgenodigd en het was werkelik iets biezonders. De eerste zette uiteen de redenen, die leidden tot het stichten van Verenigingen als Boedi Oetomo, Sarikat Islam, Indiese partij, en wees op de betekenis van ‘Indie weerbaar’; hij was de terughoudendste, die maar even iets van zijn gloed liet merken, toen hij het over 't verbod van Idenburg had, dat zij drieën (Douwes Dekker, Dr. Tjipto en hij) langer in de Oost zouden vertoeven.

Ratu Langie, die dezelfde zaken van de kant van de buitenbezittingen bekeek, was levendiger in zijn manier van zeggen, uitbundiger, zou ik haast zeggen, als dat woord in Indië paste.

Hij ook wilde bij aanval van een buitenlandse vijand ten strijde trekken en verklaarde dat de Minnahassers naar Java zouden vliegen om dit te verdedigen.

Dit laatste in debat met de gep. Overste Kooy, die eveneens met bevredigende tijdingen uit Indië o.a. uit Atjeh kwam en ze bij ons in het midden bracht. Maar ook hij, Ratu Langie, was niet tevreden en de Molukse Dr. Tehupejory, die ik sprak, al evenmin, om dezelfde reden: bij de volken die de buitenbezittingen te verdedigen zouden krijgen werden de Ambonnezen niet genoemd. N.B.! Zij de trouwste bestanddelen van ons leger. Ik denk dat dit een vergissing is.

Maar bovenal wees Ratu Langie op de betekenis van goed onderwijs en hij noemde sijfers van belangstelling in vele streken b.v. in de Menang Kabause landen, waarbij 't gebrek aan plaatsruimte lelik afstak. Ook het grote belang van het Maleis als algemene voertaal overal van het onderwijs werd aangetoond, omdat hij uitging van de gedachte: wij moeten de meest ontwikkelde volken als Minnahassers, Ambonnezen, Menang Kabauers enz. als soldaten hebben, als verdedigers van Indië.

Zo wees dus ook hij op de gemeenschappelike zucht om in geval van nood te wapen te vliegen, vóór en met Nederland. Immers nog vele ‘decenniën’ had men ons nodig. Deze toon klonk in beider redevoeringen door en het is aan ons, Nederlanders, zou ik zeggen. om te zorgen dat onze belangen in deze ‘decenniën’ zo geheel samengroeien, dat men ten slotte, ook bij het komend zelfbestuur van Indië ons als helpers en leermeesters ten zeerste gewenst blijft vinden en vooral - als vrienden van de kleine Maleiers. Onze pioniers, mannen als de gep. overste Kooy, zullen in Indië nooit gemist kunnen worden.

Uit een andere richting liet Noto Soeroto op dit alles weer nieuw, ander licht vallen. Hij sprak dichterlik-filo-theosofies over de oorlog en wees ons op de onoverkomelike ellende, als we daar niets van overhielden dan rijkdom en zucht naar meer. Wij moesten ons ‘ik’ doen uitgaan tot de wereld, maar niet in haat, niet om in te pakken.

Wij moesten geven, niet nemen. Onze liefde moest uitgaan tot dat land dat zoveel voor Nederland gedaan had. Hij somde maar op. Wij moesten er ontwikkeling brengen, maar meteen zorgen, dat er geen voorbarige vijand kwam, die onze goede plannen in de war stuurde.

Zo kan men zich voorstellen, hoe belangrijk dit een en ander was om aan te horen en hoe warm wij andere Afdelingen aanbevelen op deze zelfde manier belangstelling te wekken.

Ook hij, een enkele maar, hoop ik, voor wie deze vraagstukken van geen betekenis zijn, maar die van zijn Nederlands houdt, kan genieten en zich verbazen over de kranigheid, helderheid en dichterlikheid bij het hanteren van onze taal door deze drie vreemde sprekers.

De Javaanse dichter Noto Soeroto vergastte ons ten slotte ook nog op een paar diep gevoelde gedichten. Een pracht van een avond!

Haarlem. J.B. SCHEPERS

https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/_nee003191701_01/_nee003191701_01_0007.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Nov 2018 12:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sherriff to his mother, 14 Nov 1916 (extract)

In the trenches he suffered from bouts of neuralgia and here describes how the constant sound of shells shredded his nerves.
Written at: ”…usual address”. Sherriff feels unwell and gives a detailed account of how two days of heavy shelling by the Germans is affecting his mental state.


Dear Mother,

I believe I wrote two letters running to Pips, so I am doing the same to you – I am afraid that I have got a touch of influenza as I don’t feel very lively – I don’t feel bad in myself except a bit of a cold but I feel all I want to do is to lie down and sleep, fortunately I can manage to do this a great deal if I want to, though I think it is a bad habit to get into, to always be sleeping – still I will take some of my compressed medicine I think and see how that does – there is no need to worry dear, if I feel really bad enough I would go round to the Doctor straight away – only seems to affect my nerves a bit, too, they shelled this district again this morning and really I am quite ashamed of the way it makes me tremble – when I hear a shell whistle overhead I immediately get that sort of cold feeling all up my spine, if you know what I mean, and my tongue feels all dry – yesterday they shelled the district just as I was sitting down to lunch and it immediately made me feel quite sick – with no appetite at all for dinner – it is strange that I did not feel this when I had those first 8 days in the trenches, it is since I have been here that I have felt this worst – perhaps due to the time that you are alone, (which I like for some reasons). I hope my nerves will improve, though, it is not at all a pleasant feeling to get nervous so quickly and easily.

Well, dearie, and how go things at the hospital? All well, I hope, and that you are still taken….

https://www.exploringsurreyspast.org.uk/rcs-schools/source-images-letters/14-nov-16-sherriff-letter-mother/
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