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30 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2006 8:06    Onderwerp: 30 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 30. August 1914


30000 Russen gefangen!

Berlin, 30. Aug. (W. B. Amtlich)
Bei den großen Kämpfen, in denen die russische Armee in Ostpreußen bei Tannenberg, Hohenstein und Ortelsburg geworfen wurde, sind nach vorläufiger Schätzung über 30000 Russen mit vielen hohen Offizieren in Gefangenschaft geraten. 2)


10 russische Divisionen neuerlich geschlagen

Frankfurt, 30. Aug.
Das hiesige österreichisch-ungarische Generalkonsulat stellt uns die folgende Zirkulardepesche des Grafen Berchtold zur Verfügung:
"Soweit sich heute Mittag überblicken läßt, ist das große Ringen unserer Armeen mit Hauptkräften des russischen Heeres noch nicht zur Entscheidung herangereift. Nur die Erfolge der von dem General der Kavallerie Viktor Dankl in der Schlacht bei Krasnik siegreich geführten Armee sind bereits einigermaßen zu übersehen. In einer zweiten Schlacht vom 27. August, die durch die heldenmütige Erstürmung einer stark befestigten Stellung auf den Höhen von Nedrshwizadusha gekrönt war, gelang es, die bei Krasnik zurückgeworfenen russischen Kräfte und herangeführten Verstärkungen - im ganzen etwa 10 Divisionen von sechs verschiedenen Korps - neuerlich zu schlagen. Eines unserer Korps nahm in dieser zweiten Schlacht einen General, einen Obersten, drei sonstige Stabs- und 40 andere Offiziere und zirka 2000 Mann gefangen und erbeutete wieder sehr viel Kriegsmaterial."
Der linke Flügel der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee nützt den Sieg, den er bei Krasnik errungen, mit aller wünschenswerten Energie aus. Aus der vorstehenden Meldung geht hervor, daß unsere Verbündeten sich bis auf 20 Kilometer Lublin genähert haben; um diesen wichtigen Punkt, der die Eisenbahnlinie von Cholm, wo vermutlich die Aufmarschbasis der gegen den linken Flügel der Österreicher operierenden russischen Armee zu suchen ist, nach der Festung Iwangorod und darüber hinaus nach Warschau beherrscht, dürften sich noch heiße Kämpfe entwickeln. 2)


Die Schlacht zwischen Österreichern und Russen
Tausende von Gefangenen

Wien, 30. Aug. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Die Schlachten auf dem russischen Kriegsschauplatz dauern noch mit ungeminderter Heftigkeit fort. Östlich unserer trotz mehrfacher befestigter Stellung des Feindes unaufhaltsam gegen Lublin vordringenden Armee begannen unsere zwischen Bug und Wieprz vorgeführten Kräfte am 26. August den Angriff auf die aus dem Raume von Cholm entgegengerückte starke russische Armee. Hieraus entwickelten sich nach der Schlacht von Krasnik weitere hartnäckige, für unsere angriffsfreudigen Truppen siegreich verlaufende Kämpfe bei Samostje sowie nördlich und östlich von Tomaszow, in welche am 28. August die aus dem Raume von Belz nun gleichfalls auf russischen Boden vordringende Gruppe unserer Streitkräfte erfolgreich eingriff. In diesen Kämpfen wurden ebenso wie in den Schlachten von Krasnik Tausende von Gefangenen gemacht.
In Ostgalizien behaupten sich unsere Truppen mit hervorragender Bravour und Zähigkeit gegen sehr starke und überlegene feindliche Kräfte.
Auf dem südlichen Kriegsschauplatz haben in der letzten Zeit keine nennenswerten Kämpfe stattgefunden.

Wien, 30. Aug. (W. B.)
Dem "Neuen Wiener Tagblatt" zufolge gelang drei Zügen des Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 72 ein rascher Frontalangriff, bei welchem zwei russische Hauptleute, sechs Subalternoffiziere und 470 Mann gefangengenommen wurden. - Generalstabshauptmann Roßmann ist mit seinem Flugzeug abgestürzt und getötet worden. Das Armeeverordnungsblatt veröffentlicht gerade heute eine Auszeichnung Roßmanns für hervorragend tapferes Verhalten vor dem Feinde. 2)


Was Paris offiziell zugibt

Paris, 30. Aug. (Indirekt.)
Die letzte offizielle Kriegsnote besagt, daß die Deutschen auf La Fère (an der Mündung der Serre in die Oise im Departement Aisne, etwa 25 Kilometer südlich von St. Quentin) marschieren, während sonst der Feind aufgehalten und zurückgestoßen worden sei. Es wird in Paris angenommen, daß die Deutschen durch das Tal der Oise Paris zu erreichen suchen werden. Die Presse erörtert die Hindernisse, welche die Deutschen noch auf ihrem Vormarsch nach Paris vorfinden. Man vertraut auf die zweite Verteidigungslinie und das verschanzte Lager von Paris. Der Militärgouverneur von Paris hat die sofortige Zerstörung aller Häuser, die in der Servitutszone der Befestigungen um Paris liegen, angeordnet. 2)


Unzufriedenheit in Paris

Paris, 30. Aug. (Indirekt.)
Clemenceau, der das ihm angebotene Portefeuille des Krieges abgelehnt hatte, klagt öffentlich, daß die neue Regierung viele Einberufene vorläufig wieder beurlaube und ihre Tätigkeit mit rhetorischen Aufrufen beginne. Der "Cri de Paris" verlangt, daß die Regierung endlich Verlustlisten veröffentliche und die Familien nicht länger in Ungewißheit lasse. 2)


Das Seegefecht in der Nordsee

Berlin, 30. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Von dem Untergang des Torpedobootes "V 187" in dem Treffen bei Helgoland wird uns amtlich ein Bericht eines Augenzeugen zur Verfügung gestellt, der ein der Festhaltung würdiges Bild vom Verlust dieses Schiffes entwirft. Zuerst wurde das Boot vom Norden her angegriffen, und bald sah es sich von allen Seiten umringt von englischen Torpedobootszerstörern und Unterseebooten. "V 187", auf dem sich außer dem Kommandanten auch der Flottillenchef befand, wehrte sich mit allen Kräften gegen die Übermacht, verlor aber bald einen Teil seiner Bewegungsfreiheit. Das Boot drehte im feindlichen Feuer auf den Feind zu, um mit ihm in ein Passiergefecht zu kommen, wurde aber unter dem Hagel der Geschosse bald ganz manövrierunfähig. Um es nun nicht dem Feinde in die Hände fallen zu lassen, wurde im Innern des Bootes eine Sprengung vorgenommen. Das Boot sank rasch, und während des Sinkens noch bediente die Bemannung bis zum letzten Augenblick die noch brauchbar gebliebenen Geschütze. Feuernd sank das Boot in die Tiefe. Der Flottillenchef Kapitän Ballis und der Kommandant Kapitänleutnant Lechler fanden den Heldentod. Dem Feind gebührt die vollste Anerkennung dafür, daß er, ungeachtet der Gefahren, seine Beiboote aussetzte, um die Lebenden aufzunehmen. Als er hiermit noch beschäftigt war, nahten sich deutsche Streitkräfte. Er mußte sich zurückziehen und die eigenen Beiboote treiben lassen. Aus diesen wurden die deutschen Geretteten auf unsere eigenen Schiffe übernommen.
Auf den Donner der Schiffsgeschütze vor Helgoland hin eilte der deutsche Kreuzer "Ariadne" unserem schwachen Vorpostengefechte zu Hilfe. Als er in der Vorpostenlinie ankam, hatte sich der Feind schon gegen Westen zurückgezogen. Das Schiff nahm die Verfolgung auf und bestrebte sich, die Fühlung mit dem Feinde wieder zu gewinnen, um, wenn möglich, diesen zum Kampf zu stellen. Plötzlich sah er einen anderen deutschen Kreuzer mit zwei englischen Panzerkreuzern der Lionschiffklasse von 27000 Tonnen mit je acht 34.3 Zentimeter-Geschützen im Kampfe. "Ariadne" kam zur Unterstützung. Ein Treffer in den vorderen Kesselraum setzte aber bald die Hälfte der Kessel außer Betrieb, so daß das Schiff nur mit 15 Seemeilen laufen konnte. Noch eine halbe Stunde dauerte der ungleiche Kampf, dann war das Achterschiff in Brand geschossen, und der Brand dehnte sich bald auf das ganze Vorderschiff aus. Die vordere Munitionskammer konnte noch unter Wasser gesetzt werden, bei der hinteren war das nicht mehr möglich.
Der Feind hatte inzwischen nach Westen abgedreht. Die "Ariadne" war aber dem Untergang geweiht. Die Mannschaft versammelte sich auf dem vorderen Deck und brachte, getreu der Überlieferung unserer Marine, drei Hurras auf den allerhöchsten Kriegsherrn aus. Dann erklang das Flottenlied, und unter dem Gesang "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles" wurde das Schiff in vollständiger Ordnung verlassen. Zwei deutsche Schiffe, die inzwischen herangekommen waren, nahmen die Mannschaft auf, während "Ariadne" in den Fluten versank. Von der Besatzung ist soweit bisher festgestellt werden konnte, ihr erster Offizier Korvettenkapitän Franck, der Schiffsarzt Ritter v. Boxberger, der Wachtingenieur Helbing und ungefähr 70 Mann gefallen. Die Zahl der Verwundeten ist groß. Dieses Verhalten der Mannschaft in einem unglücklichen Kampf und das Zugeständnis des Feindes, daß er schwere Beschädigung erlitten hat, zeugen für die Tüchtigkeit und dem Kampfesmut unserer Marine. 2)


Der Kampf um Togo

30. August.
Von der holländischen Grenze wird der "Kölnischen Zeitung" folgendes gemeldet:
Unfähig, in Europa ihren betrogenen belgischen Verbündeten beizustehen, haben die Franzosen und Engländer an der Spitze von schwarzen Soldaten ihren Mut durch die Überwältigung der kleinsten deutschen Kolonie, des zwischen dem französischen Dahomey und der britischen Goldküste eingeklemmten Togo, zu beweisen Gelegenheit gehabt. Wie an dieser Stelle gemeldet wurde, hatten die Briten die deutschen Behörden zur unbedingten Übergabe aufgefordert, worauf diese Behörden um Kriegsehren beim Abzug und Erfüllung gewisser Bedingungen ersuchten. Das wurde ihnen verweigert, sie sollten sich bedingungslos übergeben. Nach amtlicher britischer Mitteilung sind nun am 26. August die verbündeten Streitkräfte in die Kolonie eingezogen. Die Deutschen haben sich zweifellos bis zur letzten Möglichkeit tapfer gehalten, denn die Gegner haben verhältnismäßig viel Verluste: zwei französische und ein englischer Offizier gefallen, ein englischer Leutnant, zwei französische Unteroffiziere lebensgefährlich, ein englischer Leutnant schwer, ein englischer Feldwebel leicht verwundet, dazu kommen an eingeborenen Soldaten 14 Tote auf französischer und 12 auf englischer Seite bezw. 15 Schwerverwundete usw. Zwei der französischen sind inzwischen ihren Wunden erlegen. Ein Franzose wird vermißt. Von britischer Seite allein wurde für diese Heldentat ein ganzes Regiment der West-African-Frontier-Force aufgeboten, also eine richtige Kriegstruppe, keine Polizeitruppe, wie sie Togo in der Stärke von einigen hundert Mann besitzt. Es ist allerdings sicher, daß neben der Polizeitruppe alle wehrpflichtigen Deutschen für die Ehre ihres Vaterlandes mitkämpften. Die "Sieger" werden sich hoffentlich für dieses wahnsinnige Verbrechen an der Kulturförderung Afrikas schwer zu verantworten haben. 2)


Die deutschen Heerführer

v. Bülow
v. Kluck
v. Hausen

In der letzten Veröffentlichung erst sind die Führer der kämpfenden deutschen Heere bekanntgegeben worden. Es sind dies außer den Kronprinzen von Preußen und Bayern der Herzog Albrecht von Württemberg, ein Sohn des Herzogs Philipp von Württemberg, die Generalobersten v. Bülow, v. Kluck, Frhr. v. Hausen, v. Heeringen und v. Hindenburg.
Generaloberst v. Bülow, geboren am 24. März 1846, gehört seit 1864 der Armee an. 1893 wurde er in das Kriegsministerium als Direktor des Zentraldepartements berufen. 1900 erhielt er die Führung der 2. Garde-Infanteriedivision, 1903 diejenige des 3. Armeekorps. 1912 erfolgte dann seine Ernennung zum Generalinspekteur der 3. Armee-Inspektion in Hannover.
Generaloberst v. Kluck, im gleichen Jahre wie v. Bülow geboren, trat 1865 ins Heer ein. 1898 wurde er Kommandeur des 34. Füsilierregiments in Bromberg, 1899 der 23. Infanteriebrigade in Neisse, 1902 der 37. Division in Allenstein und 1906 des 5. Armeekorps in Posen. 1907 übernahm er die Führung des 1. Armeekorps. 1913 wurde er dann zum Generalinspekteur der neu errichteten achten Armeeinspektion in Berlin ernannt.
Generaloberst v. Heeringen ist aus seiner früheren Tätigkeit als Kriegsminister bekannt. Geboren am 9. März 1850, trat er 1867 in die Armee ein. 1892 wurde er Abteilungschef im Großen Generalstab, 1895 Kommandeur des Infanterieregiments Nr. 117, dann 1898 Direktor des Armeeverwaltungs-Departements im Kriegsministerium, 1903 Kommandeur der 22. Division, 1906 Kommandeur des 2. Armeekorps.
Auf dieser Stellung wurde er 1909 an die Spitze des Kriegsministeriums berufen, das er bis zum 4. Juli v. J. geleitet hat. Er trat nach Annahme der großen Militärvorlage zurück und erhielt als Nachfolger des Frhrn. von der Goltz die zweite Armee-Inspektion in Berlin.
Auch Generaloberst Frhr. v. Hausen war bis vor kurzem Kriegsminister, und zwar in Sachsen. Er wurde am 17. Dezember 1846 geboren und gehört seit 1864 der Armee an. 1890 wurde er Kommandeur des Dresdener Grenadierregiments Nr. 101, 1897, nach mehrjähriger Tätigkeit im Generalstab, Kommandeur der 32. Division, 1900 kommandierender General des 12. Armeekorps. 1902 erfolgte seine Ernennung zum sächsischen Kriegsminister. Im Mai d. J. trat er vom Amte zurück und wurde zur Disposition gestellt. In diesem Kriege ist er wieder in Aktion getreten und ist mit bestem Erfolge an den Siegen im Westen beteiligt gewesen.
Herzog Albrecht von Württemberg, geboren im Jahre 1865, seit 1883 der württembergischen Armee angehörig, war u. a. 1906-1907 Kommandeur des 11. Armeekorps in Kassel, von wo aus er dann die Führung des württembergischen Armeekorps übernahm. Im vorigen Jahre wurde er Generaloberst und Generalinspekteur der 6. Armeeinspektion.
Generaloberst v. Hindenburg, der Leiter der erfolgreichen Operationen in Ostpreußen, stammt aus Posen, wo er am 2. Oktober 1847 als Sohn eines Offiziers geboren wurde. Er trat 1866 ins 3. Garderegiment z. F. ein und nahm sofort am Kriege teil. Nach der Beförderung zum Major kam er 1889 als Abteilungschef in das Kriegsministerium, war dann 1891 bis 1896 Kommandeur des 91. Infanterieregiments und die nächsten 4 Jahre Chef des Stabes beim 8. Armeekorps. Im Jahre 1900 erhielt er die Führung der 28. Division, 1903 diejenige des 4. Armeekorps. Im Jahre 1911 wurde er zur Disposition gestellt. Bei Ausbruch des Krieges stellte er sich wieder zur Verfügung und hat nun die ostpreußischen Truppen zu ihrem glänzenden Siege geführt. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im August 1914

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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2006 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918: The Belfort Ruse

On August 30, 1918, in Belfort, France, a small town near the German border, Colonel Arthur L. Conger of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) plants a copy of a false operational order for an impending Allied attack in a wastebasket; as intended, it is later found and removed by a German agent.



The Belfort Ruse, as the trick was dubbed, was the result of a suggestion by the French commander in chief, Philippe Petain, who was alarmed by the lack of security surrounding the upcoming Allied offensive near St. Mihiel, France. Planned for September 9, 1918, it was to be the first significant operation of the war under United States command; French troops were set to take part as well. The German-held salient near St. Mihiel, south of Verdun, had long plagued the Allies in France; it blocked the transport of troops and supplies on the railway line between Paris and Nancy, while posing a danger to any French offensive operation in the Meuse-Argonne region immediately to the west of the salient and providing the Germans with a forward defensive base that protected their all-important stores of coal and iron. The French had failed repeatedly to capture the salient; now it was time for another attempt.



After learning that the plans for the offensive were being talked about in Paris, Petain wrote a personal missive to the American commander in chief, General John J. Pershing, suggesting a ploy to misdirect the Germans as to the details of the upcoming attack. Pershing agreed, and with French assistance the Americans planted the false order in a Belfort hotel, presumably one where the French knew a German agent was on the staff.



The Belfort Ruse was designed to trick the German High Command into believing that the thrust of the Allied offensive, which would begin less than two weeks later, on September 12, in the St. Mihiel salient, would instead be launched near Belfort toward the German town of Mulhausen (Mulhouse), just across the border. The extent to which the ruse proved successful is debatable; some German divisions were indeed diverted to the Belfort region, but these troops did not come from St. Mihiel. The German command, aware of the impending attack on the salient, apparently made the decision not to hold it, and to withdraw from the area. This withdrawal was still in progress when the U.S. attacked on September 12, and by September 16 the AEF controlled the area.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 30 August, in East Prussia, Francois's German Corps took Neidenburg. The Russians began retreating to Ortelsburg. The Germans completed their rout of Samsonov's forces at Tannenberg. Samsonov's flanks had collapsed, his center had been surrounded, and his 2nd Army was almost completely destroyed at the Battle of Tannenberg, with the XIII, XV and XVIII Corps being literally wiped out. The badly mauled I and VI Corps managed to retreat south through Mlava and Mychinets. Over 70,000 Russians were killed, another 100,000 were made prisoner. General Samsonov committed suicide with his revolver in the woods. The Russian 1st Army was forced to retreat to the frontier. Russia's hope for a quick victory in East Prussia was dashed. It would not be a short war as many had hoped.

On 30 August, the first Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia was soundly defeated with heavy losses. Not to be denied, Austria-Hungary immediately began plans for a second invasion. A tenuous supply route existed through Serbia to Russia that enabled some limited military goods to flow both ways along the Danube River.

On the Southwest Front, the Austro-Hungarian 1st Army had penetrated 100 kilometers into Southern Poland. In Galicia, the Russian 8th Army broke through Austro-Hungarian lines near Halicz (Galich).

http://warchron.com/tannenberg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OFFICERS KILLED 1914

Lieutenant ADRIAN HARRY STEWART - Killed in action 30th August 1914 - 1st Battalion
Born 25th February 1888. Son of Col. H.A. Stewart, of Hopton Hall, Great Yarmouth. Commissioned May 1907. Attached to the 3rd Battalion Nigeria Regiment, West Africa Frontier Force. Killed at Garua, German Cameroons on 30th August. Listed on Calabar Memorial, Nigeria.

http://glosters.tripod.com/1914off.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First World War newspaper, Radnorshire, August 1914

The front page of a special edition of the Central Wales News and Radnorshire Standard with the latest reports from the Great War. Published at 6.30 pm on a Sunday evening, 30 August 1914, the paper notes that 'the Navy has accounted for a good 'bag' of enemy warships at very little cost. The German navy gunnery, evidently, is not of a high standard'.

http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/small/item/GTJ61402//page/1/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naval Historical Society

30 August 1914 - VADM Sir George Patey, RN, in HMAS AUSTRALIA, arrived of Samoa, and the official surrender of German Samoa took place. The squadron comprised AUSTRALIA, HMA Ships MELBOURNE, and PSYCHE , and HM Ships PYRAMUS and PHILOMEL.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Battlecruiser in New York - August 1914... OOPS!

Interessant stukje "what-if"-geschiedenis...

http://warships1discussionboards.yuku.com/reply/171649/t/Re-German-Battlecruiser-in-New-York-August-1914-OOPS-.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Infantry Equipment, Pattern 1914 - Equipment Carriers

The Pattern 1914 Entrenching tool carrier was introduced with the Infantry Equipment, Pattern 1914 in List of Changes entry LoC 16977, dated 30th August 1914. It is designed to carry the head of the Pattern 1908 Entrenching (or 'Intrenching') tool, also know as the Sirhind tool. As with all leather parts of the Pattern 1914 Infantry Equipment, the colour was changed from Service Brown to the darker London Brown by List of Changes entry LoC 17219, 31st December 1914, amended 30th March 1915. The same LoC also modified the Carrier by adding six additional rivets around the bottom.

The Pattern 1914 bayonet frog was introduced with the Infantry Equipment, Pattern 1914 in List of Changes entry LoC 16977, dated 30th August 1914. It is designed to carry either the Pattern 1888 or Pattern 1907 Bayonet in scabbard. The 1-inch wide tab at the rear is used to attach the Helve holder. As with all leather parts of the Pattern 1914 Infantry Equipment, the colour was changed from Service Brown to the darker London Brown by List of Changes entry LoC 17219, 31st December 1914, amended 30th March 1915. The same LoC also modified the frog by adding two additional rivets at each bottom corner.

Foto's van uitrustingstukken... http://www.karkeeweb.com/patterns/1914/pics/1914_equipment_carriers.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Tannenberg - Situation Evening of 30 August 1914

Kaart! http://www.patriotfiles.com/forum/showthread.php?t=110546
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August 30, 1914 in History

Event: 1st German plane bombs above Paris, 2 killed

http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1914/august_30_1914_76594.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Allied Defenses Gallopoli, 30 August 1915

http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/915BHAC.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

McMahon-Hussein Correspondence, 1915-1916

At the commencement of hostilities in World War I, both Britain and Germany attempted to gain the sympathies of the Arabs with promises of national independence, and to enlist the sympathies of the Zionists as well. The Germans were the first to make such proposals and proposed quite detailed plans for subverting British influence in Egypt and subverting Russian influence in Persia. These plans were subsequently frustrated because their Ottoman allies were reluctant to support Arab nationalism, fearing that the ideology would spread to their own empire as well. The quasi-independent Sherifian monarchy of the Hijaz in Saudi Arabia was a target initially of German favors, and later got the attention of the British led by Colonel T.E. Lawrence. The Germans wanted Husayn to subvert British and Russian interests in Persia and Iraq, while the British sought to persuade him to mobilize the Arabs for an attack against the Turks.

By 1915, the British had become increasingly interested in Arabia. Acting on behalf of the British Government, Sir Henry McMahon promised Sherif Husayn (Hussein) of Mecca, Arab control over the whole of areas to be liberated from Turkey


From McMahon to Husayn, August 30, 1915

To his Highness the Sherif Hussein.
(After compliments and salutations.)

WE have the honour to thank you for your frank expressions of the sincerity of your feeling towards England. We rejoice, moreover, that your Highness and your people are of one opinion-that Arab interests are English interests and English Arab. To this intent 'we confirm to you the terms of Lord Kitchener's message, which reached you by the hand of Ali Effendi, and in which was stated clearly our desire for the independence of Arabia and its inhabitants, together with our approval of the Arab Khalifate when it should be proclaimed. We declare once more that His Majesty's Government would welcome the resumption of the Khalifate by an Arab of true race. With regard to the questions of limits and boundaries, it would appear to be premature to consume our time in discussing such details in the heat of war, and while, in many portions of them, the Turk is up to now in effective occupation; especially as we have learned, with surprise and regret, that some of the Arabs in those very parts, far from assisting us, are neglecting this their supreme opportunity and are lending their arms to the German and the Turk, to the new despoiler and the old oppressor.

Nevertheless, we are ready to send your Highness for the Holy Cities and the noble Arabs the charitable offerings of Egypt so soon as your Highness shall inform us how and where they should be delivered. We are, moreover, arranging for this your messenger to be admitted and helped on any journey he may make to ourselves.

Friendly reassurances. Salutations!

(Signed) A. H. McMAHON.

http://www.mideastweb.org/mcmahon.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A vessel came in sight [Elephant Island, Shackleton expedition, 30 August, 1916]

Foto van Hurley... http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an24039585

The Rescue (August 30, 1916)

On South Georgia: After marching without rest for 36 hours straight, on May 20, 1916, Shackleton, Worsley, and Crean walked into South Georgia’s Stromness Station. Unrecognizable at first in their rags and dirty faces, Shackleton and his men were greeted with enthusiasm and concern by the station manager, Mr. Sorlle. The whaling station members quickly reunited Shackleton with his men on the other side of South Georgia. They immediately began planning a rescue for the crewmembers left on Elephant Island. The thick ice surrounding the island however, made immediate rescue impossible. Over the next three months Shackleton made numerous attempts to reach Elephant Island. He was growing more and more concerned for the health and welfare of the men left behind.

On Elephant Island: The crew had spent four and one half months on Elephant Island and slightly less than that since their leader had left in the James Caird to seek rescue. Hope and moral was as low as it would get.

August 29, 1916 was clear, with a strong wind. "Preparations are being pushed along for sending one of our two boats," wrote Lees. "Wild has it all nicely cut and dried, & has revealed his plans to the favored few. He and four others are to go in the Dudley Docker, and will make their way along along carefully under the lee of the land from island to island of the South Shetlands...until they reach Deception Island about 250 miles away to our SW." According to this plan, the Docker would set out about October 5, in order to catch the whalers who plied the waters around Deception Island.

August 30, 1916: The day dawned clear and cold. All hands worked at removing snow drift, but stopped at 11 a.m. to take advantage of the low tide and calm sea to catch limpets for the evening meal. At 12:45 most of the men turned in for "hoosh oh", a lunch of boiled seals backbone, while Marston and Hurley remained outside, shelling limpets.
Wild was just serving the meal when the sound of Marston's running steps were heard outside - undoubtedly he was late for lunch. Moments later he stuck his head into the hut, panting.
"Wild, there's a ship, shall we light a fire?" "Before there was time for a reply there was a rush of members tumbling over one another," Lees reported, "all mixed up with mugs of seal hoosh making a simultaneous dive for the door-hole which was immediately torn to shreds."

Finally, with the help of the Chilean tug Yelcho Shackleton was able to break through the pack ice. Shackleton viewing through binoculars shouted, "They are all there." Miraculously, after two years and against impossible odds, all of the members of the Endurance expedition were rescued.

http://www.antarcticconnection.com/antarctic/shackleton/rescue.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Barlow Bomb Patents

Lester P. Barlow applied for a patent on a Detonator on 30 August 1916 and was granted US patent #1,317,608 on 30 September 1919. "My invention relates to a bomb, torpedo or the like explosive body and is particularly concerned with the arrangement of the detonator therefor prior to the explosion of the detonator and bomb, and the manner of causing the explosion of the detonator within the magazine chamber of the bomb at the proper moment. My invention is in some respects an improvement upon that disclosed in my prior application Mo. 92,093, filed April 19, 1916, detonator for a bomb, torpedo war head or the like. It may also be considered as in some respects an improvement upon the invention disclosed in my application Serial No. 117,578, filed August 30, 1916, and entitled Improvements in Serial mortars. My application Serial No. 92,093 referred to describes a construction in which a detonator is removably supported exterior to the body, or the magazine chamber, of the bomb. By supporting the detonator outside the explosive chamber until after the bomb has been released, or until the proper time for explosion, the danger of a premature explosion of the bomb is largely avoided; the detonator being removed at a struck its mark.

Lester P. Barlow applied for a patent on an Aerial Mortar on 30 August 1916 and was granted US patent #1,235,637 on 07 August 1917. This "... invention relates to what I may term aerial mortars, that is to say a construction which comprises a barrel, breech and firing mechanism, and a bomb or projectile contained in or carried by the barrel, and adapted to be expelled therefrom, the whole construction being adapted to be dropped from an aeroplane or other flying machine (or with modifications, launched from a gun). The mortar as a whole is intended to fall vertically, or at a desired angle, and embed itself in the earth or other object struck. Arrangements are provided such that the mortar as an entirety is brought to rest after entering the earth or object struck a comparatively short distance, after which the bomb or torpedo (or projectile) is expelled upwardly from the outer shell, or barrel, the object being to provide for the explosion of the bomb above the objecft struck and not, as particularly in the case of striking the earth, within the object 30 struck, with the necessary result of a confined explosion.

Nog meer patenten... én wat leuke plaatjes, speciaal voor MMM... http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/barlow-bomb-patents.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 30 AUGUST 1917

DECORATIONS AWARDED

CAMPBELL, Victor Lindsay Arbuthnot, Commander, R.N., who received the DSO decoration in June 1915, has now been awarded a bar for subsequent acts of gallantry. He was a member o the Scott expedition. He has been reinstated on the active list as a commander in recognition of his distinguished services during the war.

CULLING, Thomas Grey, Flight Lieut, RANS, who has just had conferred upon him the Distinguished Service Cross, is the only son of Mr T S Culling of Remuera. On 23 April 1917, with two other machines, he engaged a formation of nine hostile scouts and two-seater machines. Two two-seater machines were shot down, one of them by Flight Lieut Culling unassisted, for which deed his work has been honoured.

JENNINGS, A G, Lieutenant, Northumberland Fusiliers, has been awarded the Military Cross. He is the only surviving son of Mr W T Jennings, MP, New Plymouth. At the opening of the battle of Arras, he was the only officer left in charge of the company. He assumed command of the remnants and managed to knock out a German machine gun crew and to capture the gun. This gun was holding up the attack and had stopped two parties who had previously tried to get it. Mr Jennings was a Main Body NZEF man and was invalided from Gallipoli with shell shock. He received his commission at the beginning of this year.

O’RORKE, D C, Major, King’s Royal Rifle Corps, has been awarded the Military Cross for taking command of another company in addition to his own and handling a difficult position with the greatest skill. He set a fine example to his men. He has just been promoted Major, at the early age of 21 years. He has seen much service since the outbreak of war, for he was in France by the end of 1914. He was wounded in the early days and has twice been gassed. He is a son of Mr E D O’Rorke, of Auckland.

SPEIGHT, Harold, 2nd Lieut, NZFA, has received the Military Cross. The official record says that his battery was suddenly subjected to an intense bombardment. He at once went into the open and visited the battery positions and directed the removal of all his men to cover. His prompt action and great courage saved many casualties to the battery.

HUMPHRIES, Cecil F G, Captain, Christchurch, who has been awarded the Military Cross, commenced his military career as a private in August 1914, and won the DCM at an early stage of the war. He has been twice wounded, the last time as an officer of the Highland Light Infantry. Returned to France he was given command of a Labour Battalion and his services in this capacity have been recognised by the MC.

EVANS, E R G R, Captain, C.B., D.S.O., R.N., has had the Croix de Guerre conferred upon him by the President of France.

KEAT, McCAW The army commander expresses his appreciation of the gallant conduct of Pte W A McCAW and Pte G H KEAT, both of the NZMC, in the following circumstances: “On 16 June, Pte E LUCAS, North Staffordshire Regt, while bathing in 11ft of water, abounding with weeds, got into difficulty and sank. Pte McCAW plunged in to his assistance and, aided by Pte KEAT, after many attempts, succeeded in bringing the unconscious man to the bank and eventually resuscitating him by artificial respiration.

LOSS OF THE AVENGER

HMS Avenger has been torpedoed in the North Sea on the night of 13-14 June and subsequently sunk. This armed merchant cruiser was designed and built for the Union Steam Ship Co. for the NZ-Vancouver mail route and was to have been christened Ao-tea-Roa. So nearly ready was she that a number of her officers had arrived from NZ to take the vessel out and they too were commissioned by the Admiralty. At the time she was lost the Avenger had on board the following New Zealanders:

COOK, Robertson, Engineer-Lieutenant, RNR, Dunedin
DUNLOP, J, Engineer-Commander, RNR, Auckland
GATLAND, A Leslie, Engineer-Lieutenant, RNR, Onehunga
KIRKLAND, Hugh, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Mosgiel – injured by the explosion, but is progressing satisfactorily.
McLAREN, Thomas J, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Dunedin
McLEOD, George H, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Auckland
RICHARDSON, Walter H, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Dunedin
TYLEE, Errol T, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Napier
URQUHART, William J, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Dunedin
WELLS, J Stanley,, Engineer-Lieutenant, RNR, Christchurch
WILSON, Henry H, Engr-Sub-Lieut, RNR, Mosgiel

The report by cable stated that all on board the Avenger were saved, except one man, who was killed by the explosion.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn30aug1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Pursuit Group History - August and September, 1918
Comprised of 17th, 27th, 94th, 95th, 103rd, 147th, and 183rd Aero Squadrons


The following commendation was received from the Commanding Ofiicer, 211th Squadron, Royal Air Force:

30 August, 1918.

TO: Officer Commanding No. 65 Wing, Royal Air Force,

RE: 17th U.S. Aero Squadron

1. I would very much like to express in writing the gratitude felt both by myself and the flying personnel under my command for the exceptionally fine escort work done by the above squadron when escorting the bomb raids on Bruges Docks carried out by this Squadron.

2. "We are all agreed that No.17 Squadron was escorting our raids we had nothing to fear, from enemy aircraft. Although it was often imperative to fly out to sea and attack from East of the Target, thus making it a very long trip over the lines, nevertheless, the 17 U.S. Squadron always stuck to us. On one or two occasions a machine of ours would straggle owing to engine trouble, but these machines had no need to fear attacking enemy aircraft as some of the escorting machines would always look after the straggler.

3. On many occasions enemy aircraft attempted to attack our bombing machines over the target but they were never successful owing to the excellent escort.

4. Finally I can only say that I do not consider that any squadron in France would have supplied a better escort than No. 17 U.S. Aero Squadron.

G. R. M. REID,
Major, Royal Air Force.
Commanding No. 211 Squadron.


30 Aug 1918 Major Reid’s letter gave the Squadron unusual pleasure because the pilots of No. 211 Squadron had been escorted during their career by Bristols and various other kinds of scouts, and were famous for the criticism and "Grousing" they had always levelled at the Squadrons sent over to cover their bombing operations It is an interesting fact that during the period in which they were escorted by the 17th Squadron not a machine of theirs was lost as a result of an attack by enemy aircraft.

http://www.acepilots.com/wwi/us_1st_3.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Valley Cemetery - The Mystery of August 30th 1918 - Edward Slattery?

This is a picture of Valley Cemetery in France. It is one of the smallest cemeteries of the Great War but one of the most poignant and mysterious. The picture comes from a great site on WW1 Cemeteries WW1 Cemeteries.com.

I was clearing out the basement yesterday and I found some pictures that I took while there a few years ago and the power of the mystery came back to me. I spent most of the day searching through the web to get a starting point and I hope that you may be able to help solve the mystery for me and for the memory of the men of the 3rd battalion who are buried there.

The core of the cemetery are the graves of 31 men, all from the same unit, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Battalion who all died on the same day, August 30, 1918 taking Orix trench. Why should this be a mystery - after all millions died. Death was not unusual.

Here is the mystery for me. It begins with who the leaders of these men were. Captain Norman Cliff, MC aged 26 who had been in France since 1915. Lieut. Edward Slattery 23, DCM and the MM with TWO BARS! The DCM is just under the VC and the MM is not far behind. These medals were only given to NCO's so Slattery must have been promoted to an officer from the ranks. Sgt. Samuel Newell MM and Bar aged 25, CSM G Rodger 26 MM and Bar. Lieut. George Rowland Collin aged 36 - to be a Lieutenant aged 36 means that you had to have taken extreme action to get your self into the frontline. Lieut. Burnett Grosvenor 26.

What picture emerges for you when you see the ranks and the decorations of these men? For me it is that these were the "old men" - the hardened veterans that had fought in France for the previous 3 years. They were survivors who must have really know how to get around. They were the entire leadership team of a company. With 31 killed in one day something out of the ordinary had to have happened. A unit this well led would not have been bunched and an easy target for a shell. How did they all get killed?

I could not hold back my tears as I ran my hands along the faces of the stones. What a depth of commitment and shared experience they must have had for each other by this time. What must they have survived together before August 30?

And then they all die in one day with 3 months left. The only personal information I have yet found is about Frank Heming, Private whose family have an interesting site. The most interesting individual for me is Slattery. What kind of man was he? He came from Newfoundland. (Son of Patrick and Elizabeth Barker Slattery, of 437, Magdalen St., Point St. Charles, Montreal. Native of Newfoundland.)

The only statement that I could find about the action that they were in was that they captured Orix Trench. I have not been able to go further than this simple statement.

If you decide to visit the WW1 battlefields, please visit Valley. The large cemeteries are so large and so frequently found that I found that I became numb. here in the middle of a farmers field with just a few men - many Brothers in Arms - the full sense of the sacrifice hits home. They did more than Stand on Guard!

http://smartpei.typepad.com/robert_patersons_weblog/2005/07/valley_cemetery.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fanni Kaplan

Fanni Yefimovna Kaplan (February 10, 1890 – September 3, 1918), also known as Fanny Kaplan and as Dora Kaplan), was a Russian political revolutionary and an attempted assassin of Vladimir Lenin.(...)

Kaplan became disillusioned with Lenin as a result of the conflict between the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Bolshevik party. The Bolsheviks had strong support in the soviets; however, in elections to a competing body, the Constituent Assembly, the Bolsheviks failed to win a majority in the November 1917 elections and a Socialist Revolutionary was elected President in January 1918. The Bolsheviks, favoring soviets, ordered the Constituent Assembly to be dissolved. By August 1918 conflicts between the Bolsheviks and their political opponents had led to the banning of most other influential parties - most recently, of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who had been the Bolsheviks' principal coalition partner for some time, but had organized a revolt in July because of their opposition to the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty. Kaplan decided to assassinate Lenin.

According to official accounts, on August 30, Lenin was speaking at a Moscow factory called "Hammer and Sickle". As Lenin left the building and before he entered his car, Kaplan called out to him. When Lenin turned towards her, she fired three shots. One passed through Lenin's coat, the other two hit him in the left shoulder and jaw.

Lenin was taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin. He feared there might be other plotters planning to kill him and refused to leave the security of the Kremlin to seek medical attention. Doctors were brought in to treat him but were unable to remove the bullets outside of a hospital. Despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived. However, Lenin's health never fully recovered from the attack and it is believed the shooting contributed to the strokes that incapacitated and later killed him.

Kaplan was taken into custody and interrogated by the Cheka. She made the following statement: My name is Fanya Kaplan. Today I shot at Lenin. I did it on my own. I will not say from whom I obtained my revolver. I will give no details. I had resolved to kill Lenin long ago. I consider him a traitor to the Revolution. I was exiled to Akatui for participating in an assassination attempt against a Tsarist official in Kiev. I spent 11 years at hard labour. After the Revolution, I was freed. I favoured the Constituent Assembly and am still for it.

When it became clear that Kaplan would not implicate any accomplices, she was shot on September 3, 1918.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fanni_Kaplan
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New Zealand Medical Service in the Great War 1914-1918
Operations at Bapaume, 21st to the 31st August, 1918


The Rifle Brigade was in movement at 5 a.m. on the 30th. Closely following the barrage they cleared Fremicourt village by 6.30 taking many prisoners. The 2nd Auckland Battalion assembled in front of Bancourt bat did not move with the barrage as the Division on our right could not advance at the hour appointed. During the period of assembly the Battalion headquarters were posted in a sunken track east of the Péronne road in rear of an intervening ridge which separated the Battalion from Bancourt. The enemy counter barrage fell heavily about this point and one large shell knocked out most of the headquarters party including the R.M.O., Captain Simeox, who was very seriously wounded. The Chaplain, the Rev. Dobson, assuming the duties of R.M.O., bound up the wounded and got them away safely to Grevillers. 2nd Auckland ultimately carried Bancourt although the village of Riencourt resisted the 42nd Division until nightfall. Our casualties were considerable. Lieut.-Col. Hardie Neil made a personal reconnaissance at 8 a.m. in the direction of Bancourt and at 1 o'clock the A.D.S. was advanced to Grevillers. Car routes through Bapaume, where the road surface was good, were used to clear the northern sector and bearers relays pushed out beyond Grevillers to the vicinity of the Peronne road. Great difficulty was experienced in removing the wounded from Bancourt owing to enfilade machine-gun fire from Riencourt until the latter village was taken by the 42nd Division. Shortly after midday, Lieut.-Col. Craig was ready to receive wounded at his M.D.S. in Irles; a long tunnel in the chalk afforded good cover for stretcher cases and, although his station became somewhat congested during the afternoon, it was finally cleared by M.A.C. at 7 p.m. The old site of the 29th British C.C.S. on the road from Grevillers to Bapaume, one of the many C.C.S. stations we were obliged to abandon in March, was inspected, found to be in serviceable condition, and was earmarked for medical purposes. 11 officers, 234 O.R. wounded, of the New Zealand Division passed through the medical posts during the day; the total evacuations were over 300.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Medi-t1-g1-t1-body-d18-d2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

KNOXVILLE RIOT OF 1919

The Knoxville riot took place on August 30-31, 1919. Although many historians question whether it was a "race riot" in the classic sense, it bore many characteristics of that phenomenon.

The arrest of Maurice Mayes, a mulatto and sometimes deputy sheriff, touched off the riot. Mayes, a well-known political figure, was rumored to be the illegitimate son of Knoxville Mayor John E. McMillan. In the early morning hours of August 30 police charged Mayes with the murder of Mrs. Bertie Lindsay, a white woman; Mayes had been identified as the assailant by the victim's cousin, Ora Smith, who was with Lindsay at the time of the assault.

That afternoon, fearing trouble, Sheriff W. T. Cate arranged for Mayes to be removed to Chattanooga. In spite of these precautions, a crowd gathered around the Knox County jail, broke down the door, and searched the building for Mayes. In the ensuing melee, no black prisoners were disturbed, but a dozen white inmates were freed, the liquor storage room was pillaged, and the jail demolished.

As rumors of violence circulated, the crowd broke into downtown hardware stores, armed themselves, and headed for the black section of town. A detachment of the National Guard, hurriedly called to the scene, proved to be little use in controlling the crowd, as guardsmen joined the white mob and fired into black-occupied buildings while blacks returned the fire. One National Guard officer was killed accidentally by his own men, and one African American was also shot and killed. On the morning of Sunday, August 31, several hundred additional guardsmen restored order.

Thirty-six whites were arrested, but an all-white jury refused to convict any of them. Mayes was convicted of murder and sentenced to death. In 1920 the Tennessee Supreme Court ordered a new trial, but it also ended in Mayes's conviction. Mayes was electrocuted, despite an increasing belief that he was innocent.

Because no black prisoners were harmed in the mob's assault on the jail, many historians believe that Mayes was the only target of the crowd. The subsequent march to the African American section of town and the ensuing firefight has convinced other historians that while the Knoxville riot of 1919 may not have begun as a race riot, it ultimately became one. Mayor McMillan's earlier attacks on the Ku Klux Klan and the city's comparatively placid racial atmosphere demonstrate a progressive attitude among many whites that stands in sharp contrast to the mob action of August 30-31, 1919.

http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=K025
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MILITARY WRITINGS OF LEON TROTSKY

Order No.239 - By the Chairman of the Revolutionary War Council of the Republic to the 13th Army and the 2nd Mounted Army, August 30, 1920, No.239, Aleksandrovsk

To be read to all companies, squadrons, batteries and task-forces
Comrade Red Army men, commanders, commissars!
Having arrived on your front from Caucasia, I bring you fraternal greetings from the Red fighters on the Caucasian front, who have just dealt a mortal blow to the substantial forces which Baron Wrangel had landed on the coast of the Kuban. Wrangel’s attempt to raise the Kuban and the Don against workers’ and peasants’ Russia ended in collapse. It now depends on you to strike a mortal blow on the Crimean front as well, at the German baron in the service of French capital. Your two armies, the 13th Army and the 2nd Mounted Army, are operating with ever increasing success. The workers’ and peasants’ country watches you with an attentive eye. It is supplying you with plentiful reinforcements and necessary resources. It confidently expects that this time the matter will be carried to a finish, and the Soviet Crimea will be joined forever to the Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Russia.

Fraternal greetings to the brave fighters of the 13th Army and the 2nd Mounted Army!

http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1920/military/ch64.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"End of All Kingdoms in 1914!" 8-30-1914 World Magazine PDF!

Over the past 50 odd years, an article that was published in a New York City newspaper in 1914 has been quoted several times in Watchtower publications. This article was published in the August 30, 1914 World about Pastor C.T. Russell's predictions for 1914. Modern Watchtower publications omit the facts from that article that show that Russell's predictions for 1914 do not match the Watchtower Society's current understanding of 1914 as a "marked year." For example, the April 1, 1984 Watchtower, page 5:

1914 a Marked Year—Why?

WHERE were you in the year 1914? Would you answer: ‘I was not born’? But a few million people today can still remember the year 1914.

In 1914 Mary was completing her last year in high school, learning German and anticipating a rewarding career as a schoolteacher. That summer, before going off to college, she was out in the fields of her father’s farm on the northeastern coast of the United States picking worms off the shiny skins of ripening tomatoes when halfway around the world, in Sarajevo, an assassin’s bullet cut short the life of an Austrian archduke. It sparked the explosion of World War I. When news of the war reached Mary, she thought: ‘It has come true! Just what the Bible Students were saying has come true; 1914 is going to be a marked year!’

Mary was not the only one who felt that way about world events. On August 30, 1914, the arresting headline “End of All Kingdoms in 1914” blazed across page 4 of the Sunday magazine section of The World, a leading New York newspaper. “The terrific war outbreak in Europe has fulfilled an extraordinary prophecy,” stated this feature article. “For a quarter of a century past, through preachers and through press, the ‘International Bible Students [Jehovah’s Witnesses],’ best known as ‘Millennial Dawners,’ have been proclaiming to the world that the Day of Wrath prophesied in the Bible would dawn in 1914. ‘Look out for 1914!’ has been the cry of the hundreds of traveling evangelists who, representing this strange creed, have gone up and down the country enunciating the doctrine that ‘the Kingdom of God is at hand.’”


Actually, the World newspaper article did note that the year 1914 had been predicted by Russell and the Bible Students. But, not as merely a "marked year." Instead, the newspaper article noted what was predicted in 1914 was "the date of the downfall of the Kingdoms of earth."

I have been able to obtain a scan of the first full-page article from the August 30, 1914 World magazine. It's from a microfilm and the quality isn't the best, but it's readable. Hopefully, the material from page 17 can be obtained later to be added to the file. But, as it is, the material in this PDF shows the misuse of the World article by the Watchtower Society.

For those interested, the file (under 2 MB) can be downloaded from this filesharing site:

http://wtarchiv.bplaced.net/en/other/1914_End_of_all_Kingdoms.pdf

Bron: http://www.jehovahs-witness.net/watchtower/bible/181454/1/End-of-All-Kingdoms-in-1914-8-30-1914-World-Magazine-PDF
Zie ook http://www.topix.com/forum/religion/jehovahs-witness/TOO1UFBDASTH5MQGI
Zie ook http://bringonthegoodnews.blogspot.com/2010/04/1914-quaking-in-lords-day.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2018 14:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

30 augustus 1918 – Moordaanslag op Lenin/Begin Rode Terreur

Stel, je bent een revolutionaire partij (je noemt jezelf Socialistische Revolutionaire Partij) in Rusland met een eigen terroristische vleugel. Leden van die vleugel hebben in het Tsaristische tijdperk onder andere een grootvorst en een minister vermoord. De revolutie is uitgebroken en verschillende partijen strijden om de macht, jouw partij wint de verkiezingen, maar de bolsjewieken grijpen de macht en je wordt op een zijspoor gezet. De leider van de bolsjewieken is Vladimir Iljitsj Oeljanov (maar hij noemt zichzelf Vladimir Lenin) en die wil je uit de weg ruimen. Wie kies je? Een doorgewinterde scherpschutter of een vrouw die bijna blind is geworden nadat ze faalde bij een eerdere bomaanslag (de bom ging al af in haar kamer) en die daarna 11 jaar naar Siberië was verbannen om dwangarbeid te verrichten. Oh ja, ze is ook heel goed bevriend met Dmitri Iljitsj Oeljanov, het kleine broertje van Lenin. Volgens de bolsjewieken kozen ze voor de laatste optie en het was de aanleiding om orde op zaken te stellen in het land, met alle gevolgen van dien.

Hoe het ook gebeurd is, Fanny Kaplan (geboren als Feiga Chaimovna Roytblat) verkeerde zeker in revolutionaire kringen. Ze werd geboren in 1890 in Wolynië (huidig Oekraïne). Ze kreeg thuis les van haar vader die onderwijzer was. Toen ze 15 jaar oud was sloot ze zich aan bij een anarchistische groepering en stopte met school. De anarchisten gaven haar de schuilnaam Fanny Kaplan. Een jaar later kreeg ze de opdracht om de gouverneur van Kiev te doden. Ze was bezig een bom te maken, maar die ontplofte in haar kamer waardoor ze bijna blind werd. Ze werd gearresteerd en omdat ze nog zo jong was werd ze niet ter dood veroordeeld, maar tot levenslange dwangarbeid in Siberië. Daar kreeg ze geen medische behandeling waardoor ze vrijwel blind werd en gedurende 11 jaar kreeg ze met grote regelmaat stokslagen. Na de Februarirevolutie in 1917 werd ze vrijgelaten en naar de Krim gestuurd om te herstellen (daar leerde ze de broer van Lenin kennen). In november kreeg ze een oogoperatie in Charkov waardoor haar zicht een beetje herstelde, maar ze bleef extreem slechtziend.

In het voorjaar van 1918 reisde Kaplan naar Moskou en sloot zich aan bij de groep van Semenov. De leden van die groep waren tegen de bolsjewieken en probeerden onder andere Lenin en Trotski te doden. Semenov heeft gezegd dat Kaplan de aanslag heeft gepleegd, Kaplan heeft gezegd dat ze de aanslag heeft gepleegd. Maar omdat ze weigerde verdere informatie of namen te geven is ze op 3 september geëxecuteerd. Ooggetuigen hebben inderdaad verklaard dat een vrouw heeft geschoten. Maar er is geen bewijs dat Kaplan ooit schietles heeft gehad (in tegenstelling tot andere leden), geen van de getuigen gaf aan dat de vrouw die schoot een bril droeg en op het moment van de schietpartij (rond 0 uur ‘s avonds) werd het al donker en als je bijna blind bent wordt het dan wel heel moeilijk om te mikken. En toch werd Lenin in zijn schouder en kaak geraakt.

Toch werd ze gearresteerd door de geheime dienst van de bolsjewieken, de Tsjeka. En ze bekende, ze verklaarde: “Mijn naam is Fanny Kaplan. Vandaag schoot ik op Lenin. Ik deed het alleen. Ik zeg niet van wie ik mijn revolver kreeg. Ik geef geen details. Ik had al lang besloten om Lenin te doden. Ik beschouw hem als verrader van de revolutie. Ik was verbannen naar Akatoi voor deelname aan een moordaanslag op een tsaristische ambtenaar in Kiev. Ik heb elf jaar dwangarbeid verricht. Na de revolutie werd ik bevrijd. Ik was voor de Russische Grondwetgevende Vergadering en ben er nog altijd voor.” Waarom ze dat heeft verklaard zullen we nooit zeker weten. Sommige historici denken dat ze de bekentenis nooit heeft gedaan, andere denken dat ze de dader kende en wilde beschermen.

Lenin was ernstig gewond en herstelde nooit helemaal, veel historici gaan ervan uit dat de verwondingen bij hebben gedragen aan zijn dood in 1924. Maar dat hij de aanslag overleefde werd flink uitgebuit om de ‘mythe’ Lenin te creëren. En de dood van andere bolsjewistische kopstukken (Moisei Uritsky en V. Volodarsky) werd ook gebruikt. Stalin schreef dat dit kwaad alleen door geweld onschadelijk gemaakt kan worden. Trotski was het daar mee eens (hij had ook al een aanslag overleefd), maar het was Lenin die met volle overtuiging het besluit nam. Een paar uur na de aanslag werd de ‘Rode Terreur’ aangekondigd en in september begon Tsjeka met de uitvoering. Binnen een paar maanden werden 800 ‘vijanden’ gearresteerd en zonder proces geëxecuteerd. Maar al snel werden het waarschijnlijk duizenden executies per maand.

Tsjeka kon zo snel beginnen omdat ze deze actie al veel langer voorbereidde. Tsjeka betekent spion, maar is ook de uitspraak van de letters ЧК, een afkorting voor чрезвычайная комиссия по борьбе с контрреволюцией, спекуляцией и саботажем (buitengewone commissie ter bestrijding van contrarevolutie, speculatie en sabotage). De organisatie werd per decreet door Lenin opgericht op 20 december 1917 en vanaf juni werden de eerste planningen gemaakt voor de campagne. Niet alleen de oude elite was verdacht, ook socialisten, mensjewieken en contrarevolutionairen waren doelwit. Er verdacht uitzien, aangegeven worden door iemand die gewoon een hekel aan je had, op het verkeerde moment op de verkeerde plaats zijn: het was reden genoeg om gearresteerd, gemarteld en/of geëxecuteerd te worden. Als je jezelf burger noemde was het in principe al bewijs genoeg dat je vijand was van het bolsjewisme. Schattingen van het aantal doden variëren van 50.000 tot 500.000 in de periode 1918-1922, maar daarnaast werden ook talloze mensen verbannen of naar strafkampen gestuurd.

Op 8 februari 1922 werd Tsjeka opgeheven en op bevel van Lenin werden alle archieven vernietigd. Om een idee te geven van de schaal: er werkten op dat moment bijna 300.000 mensen voor de organisatie en in alle delen van de Sovjet-Unie waren er afdelingen. Doordat de archieven zijn vernietigd is het onmogelijk om de waarheid ooit echt boven tafel te krijgen. Onderzoekers zoeken voornamelijk naar onregelmatigheden in staatspublicaties. Want hoewel de daadwerkelijke cijfers geheim werden gehouden, was de Rode Terreur an sich absoluut geen geheim. Lenin wilde dat zijn vijanden wisten dat er een zwaard boven hun hoofd hing, daarom kan het ook zijn dat het totale aantal executies niet onder het tapijt werd geschoven, maar juist werd aangedikt. Wat dat betreft zijn er wel parallellen te trekken tussen de Rode Terreur van Lenin en de huidige terreur van IS: zij hebben van hun terreur een marketinginstrument gemaakt om hun eigen macht te vestigen en de tegenstanders te ontmoedigen. Geen fijn vooruitzicht.

http://publieketribune.net/2015/08/30/30-augustus-1918-moordaanslag-op-leninbegin-rode-terreur/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
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