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26 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2006 16:55    Onderwerp: 26 juni Reageer met quote

June 26

1917 First U.S. troops arrive in France

On this day in 1917, the first 14,000 United States infantry troops land in France at the port of Saint Nazaire to join the Allies—Britain and France—against Germany on the battlefields of World War I.

The landing site had been kept secret because of the menace of German submarines, but by the time the Americans had lined up to take their first salute on French soil, an enthusiastic crowd had gathered to welcome them. Despite the warm reception, the "Doughboys," as the British referred to the green American troops, were untrained, ill-equipped and far from ready for the difficulties of fighting along the Western Front.

One of U.S. General John J. Pershing's first duties as commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was to set up training camps in France and establish communication and supply networks. Four months later, on October 21, the first Americans entered combat when units from the U.S. Army's First Division were assigned to Allied trenches in the Luneville sector near Nancy, France. Each American unit was attached to a corresponding French unit. Two days later, Corporal Robert Bralet of the Sixth Artillery became the first U.S. soldier to fire a shot in the war when he discharged a French 75mm gun into a German trench a half mile away. On November 2, Corporal James Gresham and Privates Thomas Enright and Merle Hay of the 16th Infantry Division became the first American soldiers to die when Germans raided their trenches near Bathelemont, France.

After four years of a bloody stalemate along the Western Front, the entrance of America's well-supplied forces into the conflict eventually served as a major turning point in the war. When the war finally ended on November 11, 1918, more than 2 million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and more than 50,000 of these men had lost their lives.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2006 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Gerüchte über Ermordung des Exzaren Nikolaus II.

Stockholm, 26. Juni.
Nach einer Mitteilung aus Petersburg erhält sich dort hartnäckig das Gerücht, daß der Exzar in einem Zuge, der von dem durch die Tschecho-Slowaken eroberten Jekaterinenburg abging, ermordet worden sei. Sein Sohn Alexej soll nach langer Krankheit gestorben sein. Die Regierung erklärt, das Gerücht von der Ermordung des Zaren bedürfe erst noch der Bestätigung. Großfürst Michael Romanow soll in Omsk die Gegenrevolution leiten und dort einen Aufruf gegen den Bolschewismus veröffentlicht haben. Er soll sich weigern, den Thron anzunehmen und statt dessen die Einberufung einer allrussischen Volksversammlung befürworten.

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 7:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Saturday 26th June 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘Things have been extremely quiet. Reported sick this morning with a heavy cold and extremely sore throat which has been troubling me now for some days. The L.H.F. Ambulance are leaving for Lemnos and we took over the dressing station from them today. Every third morning we have to turn out at 7am for half an hours physical drill, it is by no means a popular innovation. The 5inch howitzers were hauled after sunset into positions prepared for them in Clarkes Gully, it was heavy and strenuous work hauling them up the slopes of these hills but many willing hands managed the job alright. These howitzers fire a 50 pound lidite shell.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/06/26/saturday-26th-june-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 7:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra

Stavka. 26 June, 1915.

MY PRECIOUS SUNNY,

My warmest thanks for your three dear letters. I could not write before, as I was busy with my beastly papers, which I get at the most inconvenient hours. This was caused by great numbers of military trains going from Vilna to Bielostok.

Yesterday I was glad to see the 5th Squadron of my hussars, which was passing through the station. The train was stopped for 15 minutes; all the men got out - and brought out the colours. I saw them settle down again and start off, gaily shouting "hurrah!" What a joyful, refreshing feeling!

The Dragoons also went through here, but your Uhlans went past by another line. I agree with you, my darling, that my chief work is the inspection of troops. I have often spoken of this to Voeikov from the practical point of view it is very difficult to organize from here.

From Beloveje it is, of course, easier. But not being here (so in the text: presumably he means "there."), I do not know what troops are where, and those which are behind the front line are constantly shifted backward and forward and are difficult to find. Travelling round in the train is now out of the question. It is like a blind alley, as the French say!

I am very grateful to you for forwarding me Victoria's letter - she always writes so clearly and positively.

During lunch to-day a thunderstorm passed over us; the downpour was heavy and lasted for an hour. It has freshened the air wonderfully, having lowered the temperature from 23 to 15 degrees.

This is my last letter to you, my dear little Birdy - I am truly happy to be returning home to my family.

I kiss you tenderly, tenderly, and the children too. I hope to arrive on Saturday at 5 o'clock in the evening. May God bless you, my beloved, darling Sunny! Always your old hubby

Nicky.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/june15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 7:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin - The Turning-Point

Published: First published in Pravda No. 80 June 26, 1917.

At the first stage of its development the Russian revolution transferred power to the imperialist bourgeoisie, and created, alongside of that power, the Soviets of Deputies, with the petty-bourgeois democrats in the majority. The second stage of the revolution (May 6) formally removed from power the cynically frank spokesmen of imperialism, Milyukov and Guchkov, and virtually transformed the majority parties in the Soviets into governing parties. Our Party remained, before and after May 6, a minority opposition. This was inevitable, for we are the party of the socialist proletariat, a party holding an internationalist position. A socialist proletariat whose outlook during an imperialist war is internationalist cannot but be in opposition to any power waging that war, regardless of whether that power is a monarchy or republic, or is held by defencist “socialists”. And the party of the socialist proletariat is bound to attract an increasingly large mass of people who are being ruined by the protracted war and are growing distrustful of “socialists” committed to the service of imperialism, in the same way as they previously grew distrustful of imperialists themselves.

The struggle against our Party, therefore, began in the very first days of the revolution. And however infamous and abominable the forms of struggle carried on by the Cadets and the Plekhanov people against the party of the proletariat, the meaning of the struggle is quite clear. It is the same struggle as the imperialists and the Scheidemann people waged against Liebknecht and Adler (both of whom were, in fact, declared “mad” by the central organ of the German “socialists”, to say nothing of the bourgeois press, which described these comrades simply as “traitors” working for Britain). This is a struggle of the whole of bourgeois society, including the petty-bourgeois democrats, however r-r-revolutionary they may be, against the socialist, internationalist proletariat.

In Russia, this struggle has reached a stage where the imperialists are trying, through the petty-bourgeois-democratic leaders, the Tseretelis, Chernovs, etc., to destroy the growing power of the workers’ party at a single hard and decisive blow. As a pretext for this decisive blow, Minister Tsereteli has struck upon a method repeatedly used by counter-revolutionaries: the charge of conspiracy. This charge is a mere pretext. The point is that the petty-bourgeois democrats, who take their cue from the Russian and the Allied imperialists, need to do away with the internationalist socialists once and for all. They think that the moment is ripe for the blow. They are agitated and frightened, and under the whip of their masters they have made up their minds: now or never.

The socialist proletariat and our Party must be as cool and collected as possible, must show the greatest staunchness and vigilance. Let the future Cavaignacs[1] begin first. Our Party conference has already given warning of their arrival. The workers of Petrograd will give them no opportunity to disclaim responsibility. They will bide their time, gathering their forces and preparing for resistance when those gentlemen decide to turn from words to action.

Notes
[1] Cavaignac, Louis Eugene—French general who after the February revolution of 1848 became War Minister of the Provisional Government. In June 1848 he led the suppression of the Paris workers’ uprising.


http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/jun/26.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 8:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I letters - June 26, 1917

Ft. Miley Calif.
June 26, 1917

Dear Folks,

I received your most welcome letter today, & maybe you think I wasn't glad to get it. But mother, I don't see why you don't get my letters sooner because I write from 2 to 3 to you every week. Don't you ever think that I'll ever neglect to write you because there is never a day passes but what I think of you.

We are drilling hard as ever, but things are getting easy because we understand things. We even drill better than the old soldiers of this Co. and at that we are the best drill company at this Fort. Everything has to be up to standard.

Well how is everybody at home? I am well and like this part of the country fine, but I had an awful surprise yesterday. I was sitting in my tent & I heard some talking outside & I look out & there was Mr. & Mrs. Willey. Maybe you think we weren't glad to see them. They sure are nice people. Do you visit with Mrs. Willey much?

I haven't read any books yet but intend to get some down some day. Is there any special book you would like?

Herb didn't come down Sunday, but said he would come down some of these days.

I was down Sunday to the Golden Gate Park to see a sham battle. The Militia men gave it. The Regular Soldiers don't think much of a militia man, so you see we don't think they were very well drill. They don't have the pep we have. Our Drill Sgt. gets awful cranky but of course it isn't all his fault.

Tell Pearl that I heard from her friend Sally Troupe.

Oh but I sure get lots of letters from lots of nice girls. And I try to ans them all promptly.

Dad, your advice on putting my letters in that cake box was alright, but I have it full and lots of others, too. What I need now is a private Secretary.

I went across the bay the other night. Sure had a nice ride. Saw two large battleships. They sure are built strong.

Oh yes that story your are sending me sure is great. I can hardly wait until it comes.

Say it does seem an awful long while since I left there but time passes fast now & it won't be long till I'll be coming back. Anyway it won't seem long and will make the best of it.

I am well satisfied. A lot of the old guys get awfully mad because they can't buy booze but I think it's a good thing because the saloon keepers sure like to sell to the kids, I mean young soldiers & besides they dope it.

I am sending you Uncle Chas letter so you can read them. But I have some letters I couldn't hardly part with just yet.

I just got my Coleridge Blade yesterday. I saw by it that they had the Farmer's Cash Store was opened again. How is the Farmer's Union coming anyways?

I suppose Joe is still a right hander.

Well, Mama I can't think of anything more. Will close & mail this so it will leave today. Write soon.

Your own boy, as ever
Kinley

http://www.small-town-big-war.com/19170626.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 8:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The United States entered the war in 1917

The Americans built camps, harbours and railway stations in France to bring over more than two million soldiers, tons of equipment, munitions, arms and supplies of every kind in less than 18 months. General Pershing chose Saint-Nazaire, in Loire-Atlantique, as the landing base. That is where the first ships of a convoy that had left New York with 14,750 men arrived on 26 June 1917. On 9 August a second American base opened in Bassens, in Gironde, and in September construction crews began building a veritable city in Pontanézen, near Brest, that eventually housed 70,000 American troops on their way to the front. For each man who landed, a ton of equipment also reached France. In Bassens, the Americans built an artificial harbour capable of accommodating and unloading 20 ships at a time. Soon they connected each of their harbours and camps with a rail network that reached as far as Is-sur-Tille (Côte d'Or) via Bourges and Tours. In Gièvres (Loir-et-Cher), they built a huge regulating station that included two marshalling yards, 145 hectares of storage facilities, an oil depot, a refrigeration plant, a munitions arsenal and a workshop for 200 locomotives. In November 1918 the American railway presence stood at over 30,400 employees, 14,000 cars and 1,380 locomotives.

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=9546

Remembering the doughboys
By Christopher Capozzola

(...) on 26 June 1917, over 14,000 American soldiers disembarked at the port of St. Nazaire on the western coast of France. They were the initial members of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), the United States’ contribution to the First World War. As America approaches the centennial of World War I, will it remember the doughboys? For their sake—and for ours—we should.

That there would be soldiers in Europe so soon—or soldiers at all—surprised both American military planners and their European counterparts. Battle had been underway for two and a half years when the United States declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. The US Regular Army then included just 128,000 men, and the Germans gambled that American troops would not reach the front in time to make a difference. The French, by contrast, desperately hoped that they would, particularly after a failed military offensive that spring provoked mass mutinies in the French army. President Woodrow Wilson agreed with French military officers that the immediate arrival of even a token force would have “an enormously stimulating effect in France.”

Meeting the AEF at the docks that day was their commanding officer, John J. Pershing, plucked from a military campaign along the Mexican border and dispatched to Europe after just a single meeting at the White House with Woodrow Wilson. There, on May 24, 1917, Wilson and his Secretary of War Newton Baker gave Pershing little guidance on how to conduct the war other than to insist that the AEF’s separate identity “must be preserved.” The Americans would fight as an “associated” power rather than an ally, lest the doughboys become cannon fodder for French or British generals.

Who were the first doughboys? While many were hardened career soldiers from the Army or Marines, Pershing kept some of the best at home to train the raw recruits that the recently-adopted Selective Service Act was about to send to military camps. At least half the men assembled into the Army’s new 1st Division had joined up after the declaration of war, arriving in France with just six or eight weeks’ training. They made a poor first impression. One soldier thought his companions were “less impressive than any other outfit I have ever seen.” The young captain George Marshall found the men embarrassingly ill-trained, badly dressed, and poorly behaved. Pershing, aware of the soldiers’ weaknesses, charitably called them “sturdy rookies.” Pershing was right.

Five hundred of the men who disembarked in France that day were African American stevedores, contractors hired to unload the American ships. Their work was the sign of things to come, as many of the 380,000 black soldiers who later served in France found themselves relegated to secondary service roles and labor battalions. But at St. Nazaire they also mingled with French colonial soldiers from West Africa and the Caribbean; postwar global movements for racial equality were forged on those Atlantic docks.

Many of the soldiers who arrived at St. Nazaire that June remembered the town as eerily silent. “Every woman seemed to be in mourning,” George Marshall recalled. “The one thing we noticed most of all there was no enthusiasm at all over our arrival.” French children and war widows watched quietly, hesitatingly wondering what the AEF’s arrival might portend. Pershing had noticed the same trepidation at the highest levels of the French Army: at a dinner with his counterpart Philippe Pétain, the French general fell into a silent funk, looked up and muttered, “I hope it is not too late.”

It wasn’t. In just 19 months, more than two million American men and women would serve in France, where they played a crucial role in the war’s final stages. Not least of all by shoring up their allies’ morale, a change noticeable just days after the landing at St. Nazaire, as a contingent of the 16th Infantry marched through Paris in a hastily arranged July Fourth parade. Greeted as heroes, they made a pilgrimage to Lafayette’s tomb, where Pershing—never much of a public speaker—asked a French-speaking fellow officer to say a few words in honor of the French soldier who had come to America’s aid during its Revolution more than a century before. Charles Stanton provided one of the war’s most memorable lines: “Lafayette, we are here!”

The soldiers of the AEF have faded from view, America’s first world war overshadowed by its second. On 16 January this year, the U.S. government grudgingly established a World War I centennial commission, insisting that it receive no taxpayer dollars. But as Americans continue to grapple with their role in the world today, it would be worth pausing to remember the history made at St. Nazaire by the first doughboys. We owe those “sturdy rookies” nothing less.

Christopher Capozzola is Associate Professor of History at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the author of Uncle Sam Wants You: World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen.

https://blog.oup.com/2013/06/america-first-world-war-26-june-1917/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Jun 2018 8:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 8:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belleau Wood, 1 June to 26 June 1918

During the month of June in 1918, the American Expeditionary Force engaged elements of the German Army at Belleau Wood, northwest of Chateau-Thierry on the River Marne in France. For an excellent account with a time line of events, I encourage you to visit Doughboy Center, the Story of the American Expeditionary Forces.

I wanted to share some of the incredible acts of audacity and bravery associated with the Marines who fought in the battle.

Upon being advised to withdraw his 2nd Battalion 4th Marines north of Lucy-le-Bocage, Captain Lloyd Williams (1887-1918) is reported to have said, "Retreat? Hell, we just got here!" Capt Williams was killed on 12 June 1918. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions during the battle, and was posthumously promoted to the rank of major.

Gunnery Sergeant Ernest A. Janson (1878-1930), also known as Charles F. Hoffman, stopped a German counterattack by rushing a heavily armed enemy squad that was attempting to breach his position and consolidate the high ground from which they could have devastated G/Sgt Janson's Marines. For this action, he was awarded both the army and navy Medals of Honor, one of only five Marines so honored during the war. He was the first Marine to receive The Medal for gallantry in World War I. He was also awarded the French Medaille Militaire, the Croix de Guerre with Palm, the Montenegrin Silver Medal, the Portuguese Cruz de Guerra, and the Italian Croce di Guerra.

Gunnery Sergeant Daniel Joseph Daly (1873-1937) is one of only 7 Marines to be awarded the Medal of Honor twice. During the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, he defended a position alone against numerous enemy, inflicting heavy casualties. He received his 2nd Medal in Haiti after leading his 35 Marines in a successful defense against 400 insurgents. During the battle for Belleau Wood in World War I, G/Sgt Daly led his men across a wheat field through heavy machine gun fire, exhorting them with the cry, "Come on ya sons-of-bitches, ya want to live forever?" G/Sgt Daly was a highly regarded Marine. Major General Smedley Butler called him "The fightenist Marine I ever knew". The Gunny's awards for gallantry include the 2 Medals of Honor, Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Cross, Croix de Guerre, and Medaille Militaire.

During an assault on Bouresche, US Navy Lt JG Weedon Osborne (1892-1918), a US Navy dental surgeon, was attached to the 6th Marine Regiment. Marines are fiercely grateful for and loyal to Navy corpsmen. LtJG Osborne was awarded the Medal of Honor for his conspicuous bravery, aiding the wounded and trying to carry them to safety during fierce fighting. His citation reads, "For extraordinary heroism while attached to the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy and under fire during the advance on Bouresche, France, on 6 June 1918. In the hottest of the fighting when the marines made their famous advance on Bouresche at the southern edge of Belleau Wood, Lt (j.g.). Osborne threw himself zealously into the work of rescuing the wounded. Extremely courageous in the performance of this perilous task, he was killed while carrying a wounded officer to a place of safety."

US Navy Lt Orlando Petty (1874-1932), a US Navy physician, was attached to the 5th Marine Regiment. While tending wounded at his aid station during the fighting near Lucy-le-Bocage, German artillery shelled the position. Some of the guns fired poison gas. Lt Petty lost his gas mask at some point, but continued to treat the wounded and get them evacuated. He was awarded the Medal of Honor. His citation reads, "While under heavy fire of high explosive and gas shells in the town of Lucy, where his dressing station was located, Lt. Petty attended to and evacuated the wounded under most trying conditions. Having been knocked to the ground by an exploding gas shell which tore his mask, Lt. Petty discarded the mask and courageously continued his work. His dressing station being hit and demolished, he personally helped carry Capt. Williams, wounded, through the shellfire to a place of safety."

Gunnery Sergeant Fred W. Stockham (1918) was recommended for the Medal of Honor for his courageous sacrifice, which was finally awarded in 1939. His citation reads, "Fred W. Stockham, Gunnery Sergeant, 96th Company, 2nd Battalion,6th Regiment, United States Marine Corps, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy in Bois-de-Belleau, France, on the night of June 13-14, 1918. During an intense enemy bombardment with high explosive and gas shells which wounded or killed many members of the company, Sergeant Stockham, upon noticing that the gas mask of a wounded comrade was shot away, without hesitation, removed his own mask and insisted upon giving it to the wounded man, well knowing that the effects of the gas would be fatal to himself. Despite the fact that he was without protection of a gas mask, he continued with undaunted courage and valor to direct and assist in the evacuation of the wounded in an area saturated with gas and swept by heavy artillery fire, until he himself collapsed from the effects of the gas, dying as a result thereof a few days later. His courageous conduct undoubtedly saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades and his conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self- sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to all who served with him."

The 4th Marine Brigade, comprised of the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments and attached to the US Army 2nd Division, was awarded the Croix de guerre as a unit by the French government. The Germans allegedly dubbed the Marines Teufelshunde, or Devil Dogs, after the battle. Researchers have found stories in American newspapers that report the nickname a couple of months prior to Belleau Wood. It's clear that Marines were dubbed Devil Dogs by the Germans, but the name didn't really stick until after the battle. Whether the name came from the way Marines looked in gas masks...seeming to foam at the mouth from the constricting way the masks fit...or simply from the way they scratched and clawed and snarled their way to victory doesn't really matter so much. The name stuck, and Marines are still called Devil Dogs.

Casualties for the American Expeditionary Force included 1811 killed and 7966 wounded. It was the first time during WWI that the AEF faced such serious losses. By all accounts, either foreign or domestic, the Marines managed the missions assigned to them with valor and intrepidity in the face of the enemy.

General John J Pershing is quoted as saying, "The deadliest weapon in the world is a Marine and his rifle."

http://travsthoughts.blogspot.com/2010/06/belleau-wood-1-june-to-26-june-1918.html
Zie ook hier: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/presentation/675d/fb644d890488e937dd6c126ce35cc44e0af7.pdf

26 June 1918: BGen James G. Harbord, the Commanding General of the 4th Marine Brigade, notified American Expeditionary Force Headquarters that Belleau Wood was "now U.S. Marine Corps entirely." After 20 days of combat, and at a cost of over 4,000 casualties, the 4th Brigade of Marines had proven its fighting heart. The grateful Commander of the French Sixth Army would soon decree that in all official correspondence, Belleau Wood would henceforth bear the name, "Bois de la Brigade de Marine."

https://www.facebook.com/bufordmarines/posts/1587720134860358
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Jun 2018 8:06, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 8:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 June 1918 - Wimmera sunk by German mine

The Australian steamer Wimmera was sunk by a mine laid the year before by the German raider Wolf north of Cape Maria van Diemen. Twenty-six of its 151 passengers and crew were killed.

The Huddart Parker Company's Wimmera (3021 tons) had left Auckland for Sydney on the morning of 25 June, carrying 76 passengers and 75 crew. At 5.15 a.m. on the 26th the ship struck a moored mine, which exploded near its stern. Fortunately the sea was smooth and several lifeboats were launched before the vessel sank. Assistance was provided by nearby trawlers and on 27 June 125 survivors were landed at Tom Bowling Bay, near North Cape, and near Mangonui.

The naval authorities knew that the Wolf had sown mines north of New Zealand in mid-1917. The British steamer Port Kembla had fallen victim in September that year and a total of 11 mines had been discovered prior to the Wimmera's sinking. The Court of Inquiry found that Captain Kell had ignored confidential Admiralty instructions to steer further to the north around Cape Maria Van Diemen. The Captain, in accordance with maritime tradition, had remained on board till the last and gone down with his ship.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline/26/06

SS Wimmera Sinking

On 26 June 1918 the steamer 'Wimmera' struck a German mine north of Cape Maria van Diemen (the westernmost point of the North Island of New Zealand). Clear weather and calm seas meant most of the 151 passengers survived, but 26 passengers and crew - including the Captain - were killed. The mines had been laid in mid-1917 by the German raider 'Wolf', and authorities had been aware of their location before the 'Wimmera' had embarked for Sydney.

As a later Court of Enquiry found, Captain Kell of the Wimmera had ignored confidential admiralty instructions to steer further to the north of Cape Maria van Diemen. These had been issued on 17 June, and had been signed by Kell to acknowledge them. These Navy Department records held at Archives New Zealand include the original signed receipt (the brown document marked 'A' with Kell's signature). Also included is the original cable sent on June 26 notifying the authorities of the sinking, and further cables to ascertain whether Kell had indeed received the secret orders (and their exact wording).

Mét afbeeldingen! https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/9138808822
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Jun 2018 8:08, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2010 8:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Joynt Letter

from Tours, France and printed in the "Emmetsburg Democrat", Emmetsburg, Palo Alto Co., Iowa, 26 June 1918

Tours, France
June 26, 1918

Dear Sister:
How are all the folks at home? I am fine and dandy. I suppose you were surprised when you found that I had started across. Did you receive the card I mailed notifying you of the safe arrival of our ship? We had good weather and a mild sea. I was not a bit sea sick.

This country is much different from the United States. It keeps one busy looking around. The country is beautiful. We do not see large farms like those in the United States. The land is divided into patches of perhaps an acre and every inch of the patch is put to use. The weather here is very fine. I hope it will continue so.

Do you know where Will Reinders was sent? We are still all together but I think we shall soon be sent to different places.

I have not seen a frame building since I came to France. The houses and other buildings here are of stone and cement stucco. The wagons and buggies have only two wheels. They are drawn by one horse.

I wrote you a letter while on the boat. I hope you received it. Please tell my friends to write to me. A word from the U.S.A. goes good over here. I shall close now.

Hoping to hear from you soon.

I remain,

Your loving brother,
Charles A Joynt
Second D.N. Co. F.
S.C. via New York
Care Chief Signal Officer.
A.E.F.

http://iagenweb.org/greatwar/stories/CharlesJoynt_Letter.htm
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General John Pershing on the Battle of Belleau Wood, June 1918

Comprising two related actions, firstly at Chateau-Thierry from 3-4 June and then at Belleau Wood itself from 6-26 June, the Battle of Belleau Wood saw the recapture by U.S. forces of the wood on the Metz-Paris road taken at the end of May by German Seventh Army forces arriving at the Marne River around Chateau-Thierry and held by four divisions as part of the German Aisne offensive.

Chateau-Thierry formed the tip of the German advance towards Paris, some 50 miles south-west. Defended by U.S. Second and Third Divisions dispatched at the behest of the French by AEF Commander-in-Chief John J. Pershing, the Americans launched a counter-attack on 3-4 June with the assistance of the French Tenth Colonial Division; together they succeeded in pushing the Germans back across the Marne.

Buoyed by success at Cantigny and now at Chateau-Thierry, General Bundy's Second Division forces followed up success at Chateau-Thierry two days later with the difficult exercise of capturing Belleau Wood. Casualties proved very heavy.

Stubbornly defended by the Germans, the wood was first taken by the Marines (and Third Infantry Brigade), then ceded back to the Germans - and again taken by the U.S. forces a total of six times before the Germans were finally expelled.

Reproduced below is Pershing's brief account of fighting at Belleau Wood.

John Pershing on the Battle of Belleau Wood, June 1918

The third German offensive on May 27th, against the French on the Aisne, soon developed a desperate situation for the Allies.

Our Second Division, then in reserve northwest of Paris and preparing to relieve the First Division, was hastily diverted to the vicinity of Meaux on May 31st, and, early on the morning of June 1st, was deployed across the Chateau-Thierry-Paris road near Montreuil-aux-Lions in a gap in the French line, where it stopped the German advance on Paris.

At the same time the partially trained Third Division was placed at French disposal to hold the crossings of the Marne, and its motorized machine-gun battalion succeeded in reaching Chateau-Thierry in time to assist in successfully defending that river crossing.

The enemy having been halted, the Second Division commenced a series of vigorous attacks on June 4th, which resulted in the capture of Belleau Wood after very severe fighting. The village of Bouresches was taken soon after, and on July 1st Vaux was captured. In these operations the Second Division net with most desperate resistance by Germany's best troops.

To meet the March offensive, the French had extended their front from the Oise to Amiens, about 60 kilometres, and during the German drive along the Lys had also sent reinforcements to assist the British. The French lines had been further lengthened about 45 kilometres as a result of the Marne pocket made by the Aisne offensive.

This increased frontage and the heavy fighting had reduced French reserves to an extremely low point.

Our Second Corps, under Maj. Gen. George W. Read, had been organized for the command of the 10 divisions with the British, which were held back in training areas or assigned to second-line defences.

After consultation with Field Marshal Haig on June 3rd, 5 American divisions were relieved from the British area to support the French. The Seventy-seventh and Eighty-second Divisions were moved south to release the Forty-second and Twenty-sixth for employment on a more active portion of the front; the Thirty-fifth Division entered the line in the Vosges, and the Fourth and Twenty-eighth Divisions were moved to the region of Meaux and Chateau-Thierry as reserves.

On June 9th the Germans attacked the Montdidier-Noyon front in an effort to widen the Marne pocket and bring their lines nearer to Paris, but were stubbornly held by the French with comparatively little loss of ground.

In view of the unexpected results of the three preceding attacks by the enemy, this successful defence proved beneficial to the Allied morale, particularly as it was believed that the German losses were unusually heavy.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/belleau_pershing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2011 23:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Shot at Dawn: Privates J. Jennings and G. Lewis of the 2nd Bn. South Lancashire Regiment, both executed for desertion on 26/06/1916, and buried in plot 1. D. 85/86. respectively.

NORFOLK CEMETERY

Becordel-Becourt

Somme

France
General Directions: Becordel-Becourt is a village 2.5 kilometres east of Albert on the D938 (Albert-Peronne) road. Follow the C1 north to Becourt, pass under a bridge and Norfolk Cemetery will be found 700 metres along on the east side of the road.
The cemetery was begun by the 1st Norfolks in August 1915 and used by other units (including the 8th Norfolks) until August 1916. After the Armistice it was nearly doubled in size when graves were brought in from the battlefields nearby.

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww1frenchcemeteries/norfolk.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2011 23:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wet day – “Houchin” officers and NCOs returned to duty. Fairly quiet day, but our artillery bombarded German lines in evening. A few German shells were dropped in Maroc during the night without doing much damage.


WW1 War Dairy 6 (Pioneer) Battalion Welsh Regiment - 1916 June - 1916 Aug.

http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=WW1_War_Dairy_6_(Pioneer)_Battalion_Welsh_Regiment_-_1916_June_-_1916_Aug.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 8:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 26 June 1918 → Commons Sitting → WAR

M. TROELSTRA.

Mr. LEES-SMITH asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether M. Troelstra, the Dutch Socialist leader, has been refused permission to visit this country in response to the invitation issued to him to attend the Labour Party Conference; if so, what is the reason for this refusal; and whether it is sanctioned by the Government?

Lord R. CECIL The answer to the first and third parts of the question is in the affirmative. It was thought that, in all the circumstances of the case it was not desirable in the public interest that M. Troelstra should come here at the present time.

Mr. LEES-SMITH Can the right hon. Gentleman say what the circumstances of the case are, and whether he does not consider that it is now wiser that the peoples of the different countries should be allowed to get into touch with each other?

Lord R. CECIL It would serve no useful purpose to add anything to my answer.

https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1918/jun/26/m-troelstra
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26 June 1917 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: Wartime Pigeon Officer submits his report

Since 1915, Deputy John Cory has been Jersey’s appointed Homing Pigeon Officer. The role came about following the introduction of wartime restrictions on the release and transport of pigeons. These resulted from concerns over the possible use of pigeons to transmit messages to the enemy.

Deputy Cory’s responsibilities have been issuing the permits that every pigeon owner has needed for the last two years. Working from an office in the Town Hall, he has also inspected pigeon lofts across the island, diligently investigating any incident of birds being released.

In his report to the Lieutenant Governor for the period June 1916 to June 1917, the Deputy stated there are presently 464 registered pigeon owners in the island. This may not be an accurate figure, however, given that some may have given up waiting to fly their birds again and sadly disposed of their collection.

Concluding, the Deputy announced he had incurred out-of-pocket expenses totalling one pound and one shilling during the period, for which he enclosed an account.

In response, the Lieutenant Governor thanked the Deputy for his efforts. General Wilson would ensure that the expenses claim was passed on to the appropriate authorities.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/26-june-1917
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Sassoon Journals: Journal, 26 June 1916-12 Aug. 1916
(MS Add.9852/1/7)

The volume is a ruled notebook and mostly comprises diary entries. It shows some signs of damp damage to the fore edge of the text block and there is mud [mud(i)] in the grooves around the inside cover where the end papers overlap the covering on the boards. There are some ink bleeds at the edges of the pages. This damage and mud may be from the trenches. Contents include:

Diary entries:
[9r]. news of his award of the Military Cross
[10r-13v]. 1st July, on the beginning of the Battle of the Somme
[18r-24r]. accounts of Sassoon's battalion fighting against the Germans at Mametz Wood
[34r]. on hearing (erroneously) that Robert [Graves] had died of wounds
[35r]. on falling ill (with trench fever) and being invalided home

Many entries concern action in the Somme Valley (chiefly near Morlancourt, Fricourt and Mametz Wood).

Drafts of poetry:
[37v]. 'Thickened'
[38r]. 'Elegy for M.G. (Marcus Goodall)'
[47r]. 'For England'
[51v-52r]. 'The Stunt'
[53v]. 'Via Crucis'

Sketches and doodles:
[1r]. abstract frontispiece in red watercolour reading 'Sassoon, R[oyal] W[elsh] F[usiliers], 1'
[3r]. semi-abstract image of a soldier entitled 'The Soul of an Officer' including text
[10r]. startled face, drawn under diary entry for July 1st 1916
[26r]. a cart and vegetation
[30v]. ?soldiers fighting in a trench
[31r]. horizon with trees
[35v]. head and shoulders of a cleric in a hat with a crucifix in the background
[36r]. hospital ward with the head of the ?German Kaiser looking on
[43r]. 'Water Eaton', a country house from a gateway
[45r]. head and shoulders of a farmer in front of rolling hills
[45v]. one head and two faces, male
[49r]. a pastoral scene
[50r]. mountains
[50v]. a cottage
[106v]. abstract lines
[15r]. landscape including a road, village, shacks, trees, and a German trench
[43v]. a galvanised iron shed

Diagrams and maps:
[2r]. plan of trench lines and cemetery
[22r]. cross section of a valley and trenches with a small copse showing Sassoon's solo raid

Quotations:
[7v]. Thomas Hardy, 'The Dynasts'
[44r]. 'from a monument in Barford Church'

Other:
[38v-42r]. prose passage entitled 'Notes for a Satire'
[2v]. locations and dates of time spent at or near the Western Front
[15v]. lists of members of his section and their fates
[109v-113v]. notes from a military briefing meeting re consolidation of position, objectives and 'Scheme of Battle'
[115r]. acquaintances' contact details
[115r]. list of monies spent

N.B. Sassoon wrote from both ends of this notebook; after folio [106v] entries resume from the opposite end. Folios [54r-106r] are blank. Enclosure is to be found in a separate envelope. The foliation is the archivist's.

Alles doorklikbaar. Mooie site van de University of Cambridge Digital Library: https://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-ADD-09852-00001-00007/71
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 9:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Today in Irish History: 26 June 1916

Roger Casement goes on trial at the Royal Courts of Justice on a charge of treason. He was stripped of his knighthood.

In the early hours of 21 April 1916, three days before the rising began, Roger Casement was taken by a German submarine and was put ashore at Banna Strand in Tralee Bay, Co Kerry. Suffering from a recurrence of the malaria that had plagued him since his days in the Congo, and too weak to travel, he was discovered at McKenna's Fort (an ancient ring fort now called Casement's Fort) in Rahoneen ("Ráth Eoghainín"), Ardfert, and arrested on charges of treason, sabotage and espionage against the Crown. "He was taken to Brixton Prison to be placed under special observation for fear of an attempt of suicide. There was no staff at the Tower of London to guard suicidal cases." He sent word to Dublin about the inadequate German assistance. The Kerry Brigade of the Irish Volunteers might have tried to rescue him over the next three days, but had been ordered by its leadership in Dublin to "do nothing" — not a shot was to be fired in Ireland before the Easter Rising was in train.

At Casement's highly publicised trial for treason, the prosecution had trouble arguing its case. Casement's crimes had been carried out in Germany and the Treason Act 1351 seemed to apply only to activities carried out on English (or, arguably, British) soil. A close reading of the Act allowed for a broader interpretation: the court decided that a comma should be read in the unpunctuated original Norman-French text, crucially altering the sense so that "in the realm or elsewhere" referred to where acts were done and not just to where the "King's enemies" may be. Afterwards, Casement himself wrote that he was to be "hanged on a comma" leading to the well used epigram.

Many influential people petitioned for a reprieve for Casement. Copies of diaries alleged to be Casement's, recording homosexual practices, were circulated, it is said, by the British government to defuse the campaign for a reprieve. The diaries had an inevitable effect on public opinion. Casement was hanged in Pentonville Prison, London on 3 August 1916. His remains were later returned to Ireland and re-interred in Glasnevin Cemetery on 1 March 1965 after a state funeral. The "Black Diaries" were widely believed, particularly in Ireland, to be forgeries but a forensic study conducted in 2002, with the support of Irish Prime Minister Bertie Ahern, found them to be genuine.

https://www.facebook.com/StairnahEireann/posts/986977918083336:0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 9:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British artillery bombardment before the infantry attack on the Somme

(...) W Day, 26 June 1916
Heavy showers return, with sunny intervals. Low cloud prevents good aerial observation.

4th and 29th Divisions release gas at Beaumont Hamel, several others use smoke. The destructive shoot opens, adding to the wire cutting. 80 minutes intensive fire opens at 9am. RFC photographs appear to show good destruction of wire, but it was decided to increase shellfire on the wire. Some Divisions firing at rate of 4-500 shells per gun per day on cutting the wire. Ten infantry raids again bring mixed results, but interrogation of the few prisoners gives cause for optimism. Cowed by the shellfire, they are expecting only local attacks. (...)

Lees verder op http://www.longlongtrail.co.uk/battles/battles-of-the-western-front-in-france-and-flanders/the-battles-of-the-somme-1916/british-artillery-bombardment-before-the-infantry-attack-on-the-somme/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 9:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant Harold Rayner, a company commander in the 9th Battalion of the Devonshire Regiment

On 26 June 1916 a young officer in the fields above the Somme village of Mametz wrote
home to his widowed mother about a church parade he had attended the previous evening:
‘It was rather picturesque in the evening sunlight by the woods,’ he wrote. ‘We in khaki
made three sides of a square and the Padre was the fourth. Afterwards there was
communion to which some ten officers and twenty men stayed. It was a striking moment
when the officers were kneeling to receive the Sacrament and the men behind were singing
that hymn which begins, ‘And then for those our dearest and our best, Oh fold them closer
to thy mercy’s breast’. It may have proved the last communion for some of us there.’
The young officer was Lieutenant Harold Rayner, Tonbridge Head of School in 1908,
Classics scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford and now a company commander in the
9th Battalion of the Devonshire Regiment. He was described by one who taught him here at
Tonbridge as ‘a scholar, athlete and leader of rare excellence, and a nature unselfish and
unspoiled by success’. Kneeling beside him at the communion service was Harold Rayner’s
best friend in the battalion, the poet, William Noel Hodgson, son of the Bishop of Durham.
Together, preparing for battle, they listened to those prescient words of the sacrament
about offering ‘through Jesus Christ our souls and bodies to be a living sacrifice’. Like so
many in those late June days, Rayner and Hodgson were not destined for a soldier’s life and,
as the scholars they were, shared precious moments of relaxation in those fields above
Mametz reading the Times Literary Supplement and the Iliad in the original Greek. Rayner’s
letters home are remarkable in betraying no anxiety, but Hodgson’s much anthologised
poem ‘Before Action’ speaks candidly about their shared contemplation of the ordeal to
come;
‘I, that on my familiar hill / Saw with uncomprehending eyes
A hundred of thy sunsets spill / Their fresh and sanguine sacrifice.
Ere the sun swings his noonday sword / Must say goodbye to all of this;
By all delights that I shall miss / Help me to die, O Lord.’
At Tonbridge in that last week of June 1916 Skinners’ Day and the end of the summer term
was still three weeks away. For the past week the faraway thunder of the artillery barrage in
France had been heard, but July 1st was a school day familiar to all here, a Saturday of bright
sunshine as boys chattered their way from their houses to Chapel, and then strolled from
their lessons past the Head where the 1st XI was playing.
In France there was also bright sunshine that Saturday morning but the sounds and sights
were very different. Nine Tonbridgians lay dead or dying in no man’s land, many others
wounded or traumatised. Harold Rayner, who had foretold his last communion, was killed
by machine gun fire just in front of the German wire at Mametz and now lies with his friend
William Noel Hodgson in their former front line trench, the small hauntingly beautiful
Devonshire cemetery.
We are gathered here a hundred years on from that terrible morning in a spirit of
remembrance and thanksgiving to commemorate more than 2000 boys and staff from this
school who served their country in the Great War, and in particular to honour those 415
who died. Nearly half were aged between 18 and 24, their lives barely begun. And we
should not forget the impact of the war on all those who served. Many carried physical and
mental scars for the rest of their lives. Of one survivor it was said that ‘he could never let
go of the war. The images just used to haunt him with memories he could not obliterate’. In
this context we should remember the humane pioneering work of Tonbridgian Dr William
Rivers in addressing the mental traumas of shell-shocked men.
We should remember also the parents and teachers of that Great War generation for
whom each individual Tonbridge boy was as important then as they are now. We should
reflect on their daily agony of waiting and hoping. Here at Tonbridge the grief of
Headmaster Charles Lowry was on display each Sunday in Chapel as he read out the names
of those killed that week, boys well known to him, their housemasters and other staff. It is
in that cutting-off of youthful promise, that tantalising glimpse of what might have been for
so many young men, that the true tragedy of the war lies.
We should also remember today the character and virtues instilled in these young men by
their Tonbridge education, and their friendships with each other. The inscription on
Tonbridge’s war memorial, dedicated in 1925 as ‘The Gate of Remembrance’, said that ‘they
gave us peace by their warfare and by their death life’. This paradox helps us to understand
what motivated them and how they endured the experience through which they went, an
experience of which the vast majority remained immensely proud, hoping that their sacrifice
would deter war in future and make for a better world.
For us here today the past is not another country inhabited by unknown people. The
Tonbridge Great War generation may be separated from us by a hundred years of history,
but we share so much with them. We have walked the same Tonbridge corridors, learned
in the same classrooms, made friendships in the same houses, played on the same pitches.
Your hopes and ambitions for university, career and a long lifetime of fulfilment were their
hopes also. All that Great War generation has now gone from us but they were ours in the
days of their boyhood and their names are part of our heritage. Their example of courage,
endurance and comradeship should still inspire us.
It is a sobering thought for us who have known 70 years of peace that virtually every boy
who entered Tonbridge between 1890 and 1939 was involved in some form of military
service in the two world wars. There is a debt of honour to be paid by the school in
recognising this service. The Gate of Remembrance has become the Garden of
Remembrance, which we dedicate today and where the Tonbridgian of the present can
contemplate what their Great War forebears endured and achieved. We give thanks for
their service and for their sacrifice and we honour their memory.

GARDEN OF REMEMBRANCE ADDRESS 1 JULY 2016, http://www.development.tonbridge-school.co.uk/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf_ots/David_Walsh_Garden_of_Remembrance_Address.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter - 26 June 1916 - Gertrude Bell to her stepmother, Dame Florence Bell

[26 June 1916] G.L.Q.[sic] Basrah [Basrah, Al (Basra)] June 26 Dearest Mother. I thought there was to be no mail this week but last night came your letter of May 17 written from London. The posts get slower and slower. I see the difficulty about Marie, yet I should be very sorry to part with her when she has been with us for such a long time. Is there nothing she could be set to do, a war job of some kind? Of course she ought not to sit idle and I may be away for months still. She can't go home because her home is in the hands of the Germans. But I think she would do anything she was told rather than leave us. It would be absurd to turn her into a gardener or a farmer; she ought to do sewing of some kind, or cutting out - something connected with the things she knows. Don't you agree? I hope your London time was satisfactory though it doesn't sound as if it had been very restful. Ever your very affectionate daughter Gertrude
Ridsdale! is he coming? I wonder how he'll like it.

http://gertrudebell.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?letter_id=182
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 June 1915: General Vladimir Sukhomlinov...

... the Russian Minister for War, is removed from office by Tsar Nicholas II amid controversy following Russian military defeats and material shortages on the Eastern Front. He is succeeded by General Alexei Polivanov.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/26-june-1915/
Zie ook: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Vladimir-Aleksandrovich-Sukhomlinov
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Siesta in meadow, Adinkerke, 26 June 1915

Foto... http://veertienachttien.be/en/objects/siesta-in-meadow-adinkerke-26-june-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"My Service with the A.I.F." - Recorded by No. 35, Cpl. O. Rhodes, 20th Bn. 5th Brigade, A.I.F.

The World War

Rough Diary of my Service in A.I.E.F.

Enlisted 26/4/15 at Victoria Barracks. Entered camp at Liverpool 21/4/15. Transferred from Inf. to Signalling Depot 27/4/15?. Subsequently attached as Signaller, 20th Battalion, 5th B'de.

26th June 1915 - Battalion left Liverpool Camp at 8.30 a.m. & entrained for Woolloomooloo Bay where we boarded troopship "Berrima" for port "unknown" (rumours said Egypt). Wife, Father, Mother & Sister met procession from Central Railway Stn. at Goulburn & Elizabeth Streets & accompanied me to steamer, except Dad who having Mab in his arms had to break off at Oxford St. Had a great send off. A crowd of small motor boats loaded with friends of troops, accompanying Berrima to Heads. A rough night out, many sick myself O.K.


https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/page/item-01-oscar-rhodes-diary-26-june-1915-4-april-1916-page-3... maar begin gewoon hier: https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/page/item-01-oscar-rhodes-diary-26-june-1915-4-april-1916-page-1
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Falkirk Herald 1914-1918 - 26th June 1915

When a troop train passes through a station the men often throw postcards out of the window, which are then posted by station staff.

http://www.falkirkcommunitytrust.org/heritage/world-war-one/falkirk-herald/june-1915.aspx

Hier het krantenberichtje: http://www.falkirkcommunitytrust.org/heritage/world-war-one/falkirk-herald/images/june-15/260615_Larbert_It_was_quite_a_common_occurrence.jpg
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli - June 1915

This daily episode will tell the story of the Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaign by those who were there, the men themselves. Using a rich selection of diaries, letters and books, some published before, some not, we sought to use these snippets to help describe what happened that day in 1915/16.

26 June 1915 - ANZAC - General Sir Ian Hamilton

This is more or less a cheery anecdote illustrating the character of both Hamilton and the cheery Anzacs watching him disembark.

"Worked till past 11 o'clock, then started for Anzac with Braithwaite per destroyer Pincher (Lieutenant-Commander Wyld). After going a short way was shifted to the Mosquito (Lieutenant-Commander Clarke). We had biscuits in our pockets, but the hospitable Navy stood us lunch. When the Turks saw a destroyer come bustling up at an unusual hour they said to themselves, "Fee, faw, fum!" and began to raise pillars of water here and there over the surface of the cove. As we got within a few yards of the pier a shell hit it, knocking off some splinters. I jumped on to it - had to - then jumped off it nippier still and, turning to the right, began to walk towards Birdie's dugout. As I did so a big fellow pitched plunk into the soft shingle between land and water about 5 or 6 yards behind me and 5 or 6 yards in front of Freddie. The slush fairly smothered or blanketed the shell but I was wetted through and was stung up properly with small gravel. The hardened devils of Anzacs, who had taken cover betwixt the shell-proofs built of piles of stores, roared with laughter. Very funny - to look at!"

SOURCE: I. Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary, (London, Edward Arnold Ltd, 1920), pp.335-336
http://www.gallipoli-association.org/on-this-day/june/26/ via http://www.gallipoli-association.org/on-this-day/june/?p=6
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. 26 June 1915.

This scene shows how a gun is located by the enemy. The white patch near the beach is dust thrown up by the blast of a 5 inch howitzer on being fired.

Foto... https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/G01342/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 12:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 June 1915; Saturday | The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot

At work as usual. Finished about 2 o’clock. Saw funeral of soldier from infirmary. Went down to Jenny Mason’s with Joe at night and took refrigerator* to Wanless’s. Met Charlie and Willie Whittaker afterwards. Rather wet and unsettled.

* Refrigerator looks a straightforward interpretation of the shorthand outline, though it is not the form given in New Era Pitman’s dictionaries; but it would have been a new word in 1915 -­ ALL himself had two shots at the outline in this entry. If correct, it would refer to some kind of commercial equipment, not a domestic fridge as we know them.

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2015/06/26/26-june-1915-saturday/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 13:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Titanic : On this Day... 26 June

New York Times, Saturday 26th June 1915: "SURVIVOR SAYS ISMAY RULED IN TITANIC'S BOATS"

Managing Director Had Charge Of Their Launching, Testifies Karl H. Behr.

MRS. FUTRELLE ON STAND

Writer's Widow Describes Seperation from Husband just Be- fore the ship went down

More direct testimony of witnesses re: the sinking of the Titanic in April, 1912, was heard yesterday before the Judge Julious M. Mayer in the United States District Court to the suit brought by the White Star Line to Have its liability limited.

Karl H. Behr, the tennis player, said he was awake at the time the boat struck, and, feeling a slight jar, went on deck A, where he found passengers putting on life belts. The list to starboard, was noticeable. He went below and aroused Miss Beckwith, who has since become his wife, and her mother and father.

He said it was thirty-five or forty minutes after the ship struck before the passengers received any warning of Danger. The witness said Miss Beckwith asked J. Bruce Ismay, who was Managing Director of the line and who was in his shirt sleeves giving orders, if their party could go in one boat. Mr. Ismay, he said, was in entire charge of the boats, and when their boat was lowered Mr. ismay gave the order to lower away. The boat, he said, contained about forty-five or fifty passengers and could have accommodated fifteen or twenty more.

Mrs. Jacques Futrelle, whose husband, the well-known writer, perished, was the next witness. At the time of the collision, she said, she was reading, and that her husband went on deck to investigate. When he returned, Mrs. Futrelle said, her husband told her thst an officer had told him that there was absolutely no danger. Some minutes later, she said, the stewards came around and ordered them on deck. Reaching thr deck, she said the men were sent elsewhere, and this was the first intimation that there was danger, and that she was to be seperated from her husband. While some women were getting into the lifeboats, Mrs. Futrelle said, she went to deck A, where she found her husband with a number of men who were smoking, walking about and chatting as if unconscious of their danger. When the ship began to sink her husband told her to go above and get into a boat, as it would give him a better chance to save himself.

Eugene Daly of Newark, N.J., was awakened when the Titanic struck, but was assured that there was no danger. The stewards, he said, ordered all hands on deck, and when he reached there he found some of the stewards laughing and smoking cigarettes. He said he returned below and aroused some of his friends. He saw three lifeboats lowered and when he attempted tp get into one an officer threatened him, although the boats were far from full. He said he heard two shots at the time, and later saw two men lying on the deck, and was told they had been shot. When the ship listed he jumped into the water and clung to an upturned boat until morning. Eventually he was picked up by the boat in which he was first refused permission to get in. He said several women refused to get into the lifeboats because the officers told them there was no danger.

Adrian I. Keegan of the United States Hydrographic Bureau submitted verification of the plot charts for March and April 1907 to 1912, and they were admitted in evidence.

Captain Robert Niss of the steamship Bohemia testified as to the ice conditions. Even on a clear, starlit night, he said, he could not guarantee to see ice far enough ahead to avoid striking it. Even on a bright moonlit night, unless the moon was behind the ice, outlining it, ice might easily be overlooked. If he had entered an ice zone described to be similar to that under which the Titanic met her fate, he said he would have slowed down to a speed which made it certain that he could stop in an emergency.

Captain Henry Meyerdieks of the steamship President Grant, of the Hamburg-American Line, said if he had received warnings similar to those received by the Titanic he would have gone at least fifty mmiles south of the danger zone as indicated. It is expected that the case for the survivors will be closed today.

https://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/says-ismay-ruled-in-titanics-boats.html via https://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/titanic-dates/md-0626.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 13:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Lynching Survivor Returns | Equal Justice Initiative

When a black man named John Hartfield was lynched in Ellisville, Mississippi, on June 26, 1919 – hanged from a gum tree alongside nearby railroad tracks, riddled with bullets, and then burned – press coverage in newspapers throughout the country reported that ten thousand white men, women, and children had traveled from throughout the state to watch his gruesome murder.

Photo postcards of the brutal spectacle were sold afterward and a gleeful spectator even boasted of cutting a finger from the corpse to keep as a souvenir.

No reports, however, gave voice to the whispered horror, sadness, and fear of those who knew and loved John Hartfield, those who experienced his lynching as an act of terrorism aimed at intimidating the entire black community, and those who fled in fear for their own lives.

It has taken nearly 100 years for that side of the story to be told. Mrs. Mamie Lang Kirkland has been waiting.

Mamie Lang was born in the southeastern Mississippi town of Ellisville on September 3, 1908 to Edward Lang and his wife Rochelle. Earlier this month she celebrated her 107th birthday in Buffalo, New York, with family and friends, then marked another milestone on Wednesday, September 9th when she traveled to visit her birthplace for the first time in 100 years. The memory of John Hartfield’s lynching had kept her away and it was now what brought her back.

This past February, Tarabu Kirkland – Mrs. Kirkland’s youngest child and only living son – read an online article about the Equal Justice Initiative’s new report documenting racial terror lynchings. Clicking a link to browse the online summary report, he was struck by a full-page image of a newspaper headline: “John Hartfield Will Be Lynched By Ellisville Mob At 5 o’Clock This Afternoon.” He immediately showed the page to his mother, who was visiting him and his wife in Los Angeles.

“She had talked about John Hartfield for many years,” he recalled, “but his name had changed. She told me his name was John Harvey for a long time, so I could never get a beat on him. But when I saw the article, and I showed it to her, I asked her if this was the person she remembered. Before I could finish, she said that’s him, that’s the man.”

“My dad came home at 12:30 in the morning,” Mrs. Kirkland recalled in an Ellisville hotel lobby last week. “And he said, Rochelle, I got to leave. Get the children together, then you leave early in the morning.”

A mother of five children, including one nursing baby, Rochelle Lang gathered seven-year-old Mamie and her siblings and traveled by train to East St. Louis, Illinois, where they reunited with their father. There he explained that his friend, John Hartfield, had been seeing a white woman, and white men were after them both for the deadly transgression. This was in 1915, Mrs. Kirkland recalls, and for the moment they were safe.

The family remained in East St. Louis for about two years until May 1917 when, in the face of growing black migration into the area and increasing competition for jobs, three thousand white men waged a violent racial attack against the city’s black residents, homes, and businesses. By the time the violence was quelled, as many as 200 black people were dead and thousands were left homeless.

Two years later in June 1919, the front pages of newspapers in Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans announced the time and location of a premeditated murder not yet committed: the target was a black man named John Hartfield, and the method of death would be lynching.

Perhaps the violence in East St. Louis and the seemingly inescapable threat of racism left John Hartfield tired of running and longing for home. “[My father] told him, don’t go back. But he did go back,” Mrs. Kirkland explained. “And some time after he went back, that’s when they said he had a white girlfriend. So that’s when they murdered him."

Hartfield was accused of assaulting a white woman in an era when any contact between black men and white women attracted suspicion and violence. A posse of white men wounded and captured him after a ten-day manhunt, then kept him alive in downtown Ellisville while arranging for his public and torturous death.

“[Hartfield] has been taken to Ellisville and is guarded by officers in the Office of Dr. Carter in that city,” the Jackson Daily News reported on June 26, 1919. “He is wounded in the shoulder but not seriously. The officers have agreed to turn him over to the people of the city at 4 o’clock this afternoon when it is expected he will be burned.”

Despite the ample warning, and the organized efforts of a “committee of Ellisville citizens appointed to make the necessary arrangements for the event,” no effort was made to prevent Mr. Hartfield’s extrajudicial death or ensure him a legal trial. Governor Theodore G. Bilbo, an avowed white supremacist, declared himself powerless to prevent the inevitable lynching and predicted any attempt to do so would only lead to hundreds of deaths.

Instead they settled for just one.

“First, they kept him alive,” Mrs. Kirkland recalls hearing her parents discuss in hushed tones after they heard news of the lynching. “Then the next day they say they had a rope around his neck and was dragging him down the street with a horse, dead.”

After seeing the documented evidence of John Hartfield’s lynching in the EJI report and confirming it with his mother, Tarabu Kirkland resolved to visit Ellisville. His mother, who had long said she would never return to her birthplace, announced: “If you’re going, I’m going.”

Last Thursday, Mrs. Kirkland visited the area of Mr. Hartfield’s lynching and, along with her son Tarabu, daughter Beatrice, and daughter-in-law Nobuko, joined hands for a solemn moment of silence and prayer. Sitting in a wheelchair, dressed in all white, Mrs. Kirkland looked small and lost in her thoughts, as if for the first time absorbing the full weight of this place and memory. She chose not to offer any words at the site, but upon returning to the hotel turned to Tarabu and expressed what most horrified her.

“They were after my father too. That could have happened to him.”

Returning to Ellisville after one hundred years, Mrs. Kirkland holds joyful memories of playing underneath the family home with her siblings – and also some she’d rather not recall. Memories that shaped her life and the lives of countless others who lived through an era of racial terror and lynching that targeted black Americans for violence and intimidation for decades following emancipation. Many times during our conversation in Ellisville, while recounting the East St. Louis violence, the Alliance, Ohio, cross burnings, and the lynching of John Hartfield, she turns to her son and quietly says, “I didn’t think I’d have to tell this. I don’t like to talk about this.”

“I know,” Tarabu Kirkland says to his mother kindly. “But it’s important for the young people to know this history.”

“Oh yes,” Mrs. Kirkland says, straightening in her seat. “Oh yes it is.”

https://eji.org/news/lynching-survivor-mamie-lang-kirkland-returns-to-mississippi
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Jun 2018 13:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jean Arpheuil

Lieutenant Jean Henry Maurice Arpheuil (6 October 1892 – 26 June 1920) was a French World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories.

(...) On 13 September 1918 Arpheuil was appointed commander of a new unit, Escadrille SPA.170, stationed in Flanders as part of Groupe de Chasse 23. He joined the unit on 28 September, gaining his fifth aerial victory on 14 October, and earning his fifth citation. However, on 27 October 1918 he was hospitalised at Dunkirk, possibly suffering from the Spanish flu. After convalescent leave, he suffered a relapse in January 1919, and was relieved of command of his escadrille on 28 February. At a military hospital in Nice he was diagnosed with chronic post-influenza laryngitis and pleurisy. After spending the year convalescing, or in various hospitals, on 4 December 1919 he was discharged from the Army on medical grounds. He died on 26 June 1920 at a sanatorium at Cambo-les-Bains.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Arpheuil
Zie ook hier: http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/france/arpheuil.php
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