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25 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2006 15:35    Onderwerp: 25 juni Reageer met quote

June 25

1915 Germans release statement on use of poison gas at Ypres

On this day in 1915, the German press publishes an official statement from the country’s war command addressing the German use of poison gas at the start of the Second Battle of Ypres two months earlier.

The German firing of more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas against two French colonial divisions at Ypres in Belgium on April 22, 1915, had shocked and horrified their Allied opponents in World War I and provoked angry outbursts against what was seen as inexcusable barbarism, even in the context of warfare. As Sir John French, commander in chief of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), wrote heatedly of the German attacks at Ypres: “All the scientific resources of Germany have apparently been brought into play to produce a gas of so virulent and poisonous a nature that any human being brought into contact with it is first paralyzed and then meets with a lingering and agonizing death.”

The German statement of June 25, 1915, was a response to this outraged reaction by the Allies; they considered it hypocritical, claiming that their opponents—namely the French—had been manufacturing and employing gas in battle well before the Second Battle of Ypres. “For every one who has kept an unbiased judgment,” the statement began, “the official assertions of the strictly accurate and truthful German military administration will be sufficient to prove the prior use of asphyxiating gases by our opponents.” It went on to quote from a memorandum issued by the French War Ministry on February 21, 1915, containing instructions for using “these so-called shells with stupefying gases that are being manufactured by our central factories…[that] contain a fluid which streams forth after the explosion, in the form of vapors that irritate the eyes, nose, and throat.”

This memo, the Germans concluded, proved that “the French in their State workshops manufactured shells with asphyxiating gases fully half a year ago at least” and that they must have manufactured sufficient numbers for the War Ministry to issue directions on how to use the shells. “What hypocrisy when the same people grow ‘indignant’ because the Germans much later followed them on the path they had pointed out!”

Though the French were, in fact, the first to employ gas during World War I—in August 1914 they used tear-gas grenades containing xylyl bromide to confront the initial German advance in Belgium and northeastern France—Germany was undoubtedly the first belligerent nation during the war to put serious thought and work into the development of chemical weapons that were not merely irritants, like xylyl bromide, but could be used in large quantities to inflict a major defeat on the enemy. In addition to chlorine gas, first used to deadly effect by the Germans at Ypres, phosgene gas and mustard gas were also employed on the battlefields of World War I, mostly by Germany but also by Britain and France, who were forced to quickly catch up to the Germans in the realm of chemical-weapons technology. Though the psychological impact of poison gas was undoubtedly great, its actual impact on the war—like that of the tank—is debatable, due to the low rate of fatality associated with the gas attacks. In total, the war saw some 1.25 million gas casualties but only 91,000 deaths from gas poisoning, with over 50 percent of those fatalities suffered by the poorly equipped Russian army.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2006 15:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First Gas Attack at Ypres
Official German Press Report, 25 June 1915

For every one who has kept an unbiased judgment, the official assertions of the strictly accurate and truthful German military administration will be sufficient to prove the prior use of asphyxiating gases by our opponents.

On April 16th the French were making increased use of asphyxiating bombs. But let whoever still doubts, consider the following instructions for the systematic preparation of this means of warfare by the French, issued by the French War Ministry, dated February 21, 1915:

Ministry of War, February 21, 1915

Remarks concerning shells with stupefying gases:

The so-called shells with stupefying gases that are being manufactured by our central factories contain a fluid which streams forth after the explosion, in the form of vapours that irritate the eyes, nose, and throat.

There are two kinds: hand grenades and cartridges.

Hand Grenades. The grenades have the form of an egg; their diameter in the middle is six centimetres, their height twelve centimetres, their weight 400 grams. They are intended for short distances, and have an appliance for throwing by hand. They are equipped with an inscription giving directions for use. They are lighted with a small bit of material for friction pasted on the directions, after which they must be thrown away. The explosion follows seven seconds after lighting. A small cover of brass and a top screwed on protect the lighted matter. Their purpose is to make untenable the surroundings of the place where they burst. Their effect is often considerably impaired by a strong rising wind.

Cartridges. The cartridges have a cylindrical form. Their diameter is twenty-eight millimetres, their height ten centimetres, their weight 200 grams. They are intended for use at longer distances than can be negotiated with the hand grenades. With an angle of twenty-five degrees at departure, they will carry 230 metres. They have central lighting facilities and are fired with ignition bullet guns. The powder lights a little internal ignition mass by means of which the cartridges are caused to explode five seconds after leaving the rifle. The cartridges have the same purpose as the hand grenades but because of their very small amount of fluid they must be fired in great numbers at the same time.

Precautionary measures to be observed in attacks on trenches into which shells with asphyxiating gases have been thrown:- The vapours spread by means of the shells with asphyxiating gases are not deadly, at least when small quantities are used and their effect is only momentary. The duration of the effect depends upon the atmospheric conditions.

It is advisable therefore to attack the trenches into which such hand grenades have been thrown and which the enemy has nevertheless not evacuated before the vapours are completely dissipated. The attacking troops, moreover, must wear protective goggles and in addition be instructed that the unpleasant sensations in nose and throat are not dangerous and involve no lasting disturbance.

Here we have a conclusive proof that the French in their State workshops manufactured shells with asphyxiating gases fully half a year ago at least.

The number must have been so large that the French War Ministry at last found itself obliged to issue written instructions concerning the use of this means of warfare. What hypocrisy when the same people grow "indignant" because the Germans much later followed them on the path they had pointed out!

Very characteristic is the twist of the French official direction: "The vapours spread by the shells with asphyxiating gases are not deadly, at least not when used in small quantities." It is precisely this limitation that contains the unequivocal confession that the French asphyxiating gases work with deadly effect when used in large quantities.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/2ndypres_germanstatement.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2006 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Fortschreitende Angriffe der Armee Linsingen

Großes Hauptquartier, 25. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Der Feind entwickelte im Abschnitt südlich des Kanals von La Bassée und über die Somme hinaus auch nachts anhaltende rege Tätigkeit, belegte Lens und die Vororte mit schwerem Feuer und ließ in Gegend von Beaumont-Hamel (nördlich von Albert) ohne Erfolg Gas über unsere Linien streichen.
Links der Maas erreichte das feindliche Feuer gegen Abend besonders am "Toten Mann" große Stärke. Nichts fanden hier kleinere für uns erfolgreiche Infanterieunternehmungen statt An unseren östlich der Maas gewonnenen neuen Stellungen entspannen sich unter beiderseits dauernd starker Artillerieentfaltung mehrfach heftige Infanteriekämpfe. Alle Versuche der Franzosen, das verlorene Gelände durch Gegenangriffe wieder zu gewinnen, scheiterten unter schwersten blutigen Verlusten für sie; außerdem büßten sie dabei noch über 200 Gefangene ein.
Östlich von St. Dié wurden bei einem Patrouillenvorstoß 15 Franzosen gefangen eingebracht.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf dem nördlichen Teile der Front kam es an mehreren Stellen zu Gefechten von Erkundungsabteilungen, wobei Gefangene und Beute in unsere Hand fielen.
Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen:
Unserem fortschreitenden Angriff gegenüber blieben auch gestern starke russische Gegenstöße, besonders beiderseits von Zaturos, völlig ergebnislos. Südlich des Plascewka-Abschnitts (südöstlich von Beresteczko) wurden mit nennenswerten Kräften geführte feindliche Angriffe restlos abgeschlagen. Bei der Armee des Generals Grafen v. Bothmer keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage ist unverändert.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Thiaumont und Fleury

Die Sprache des deutschen Tagesberichts vom 24. Juni, der von einem neuen siegreichen Sturm deutscher Regimenter Kunde gibt, hat den alten Rhythmus. Vollkommene Zuversicht und Sicherheit: Es war ein großer Tag vor Verdun, wir sind bereit für den nächsten!
Fleury ist ein kleines Dorf, auf einer plateauartigen Höhe zentral gelegen, 344 Meter hoch. Es liegt zwischen den zwei inneren Fortsgürteln des Nordostsektors von Verdun, zwischen der Befestigungskette der Linie Cote de Froide Terre (Kalte Erde-Rücken) - Fort Douaumont - Fort Vaux und der inneren Linie der Forts Belleville - Souville - Tavannes. Fort Souville liegt etwa 1200 Meter südöstlich von Fleury und überragt das Plateau um rund 50 Meter. Im äußeren Gürtel, der bei Douaumont stark gewinkelt ist, ziehen sich auf dem westlichen Schenkel des Winkels die schweren Panzerwerke und Batterien auf dem kahlen Rücken von der Froide Terre bis Fort Douaumont hin, während der östliche Schenkel, die Strecke Douaumont - Fort Vaux, durch die Waldparzellen des Caillette- Chapitre- Fumin-, Chenois- und Lauffeewaldes besonders stark geschützt sind. Der deutsche Angriff hat sich im Zentrum dieser Linie durch die Erstürmung des Forts Douaumont Bahn gebrochen und die Lücke systematisch nach beiden Seiten erweitert, bis unsere Truppen in die allgemeine Linie: Wald von Haudromont - Thiaumont Ferme - Fort Vaux gelangt waren. Die obengenannten Waldparzellen des Abschnitts Douaumont - Damloup wurden bald zum Schauplatz erbitterter Kämpfe, während gleichzeitig auf den anderen Schenkel des Winkels, im Abschnitt des Thiaumont-Gehöftes, ein mit dem ersten konzentrischer Druck ausgeübt wurde. Nach schweren Kämpfen faßten wir in jenen französischen Hauptstellungen Fuß und verteidigten sie gegen äußerst erbitterte Gegenangriffe, wobei die Franzosen den Vorteil hatten, in permanenten oder diesen gleichwertigen Gräben zu kämpfen, während die Angreifer sich oft nur notdürftig eingraben und decken konnten. Die Bresche in der französischen Linie wurden immer breiter: ein Stück sprang nach dem anderen heraus, bis nun gestern nach stärkster Beschießung ein großer Sturmangriff, bei dem die Bayern an der Spitze kämpften, das südlich des Gehöfts von Thiaumont gelegene große und mit schwerem Geschütz bestückte Panzerwerk, die Ouvrages de Thiaumont, in unsere Hände brachte. Dies Werk liegt in der Mitte der "Kalte Erde - Douaumont - Linie und deckt die beiden Straßen, die vom Dorf Douaumont und aus dem Maastal nach Fleury und weiter nach Verdun führen. (Das Zentrum der Stadt Verdun ist von der Mitte des Dorfes Fleury etwa 5 Kilometer in südwestlicher Richtung entfernt.)
Der glückliche Vorstoß nach Fleury, der überdies durch neuen, im deutschen Bericht nach nicht näher bezeichneten Geländegewinn "südlich der Feste Vaux" in seinem Wert noch vermehrt worden sein dürfte, ist ein neuer großer Fortschritt unserer vor Verdun seit vier Monaten mit ausgezeichneter Tapferkeit kämpfenden Truppen. Ein Blick auf die Karte zeigt, daß es sich um einen neuen tiefen Einbruch in die feindliche Linie handelt. Das ist nach Westen und nach Osten hin taktisch von erheblicher Bedeutung, wenn auch nach Westen hin Fleury von der äußersten Kuppe der Côte de Froide Terre durch eine tiefeingeschnittene Mulde getrennt ist. Es sind neue Winkelungen in der Front entstanden. Mit dieser nach Fleury vorgeschobenen Spitze stehen unsere Truppen vor der nächsten und letzten Sperrlinie, dem Fortgürtel von Souville (südöstlich von Fleury), nur noch etwa 1200 Meter entfernt. Freilich ist anzunehmen, daß diese letzte Linie aufs äußerste befestigt ist, und überdies beherrschen die Fortanlagen von Souville, da sie 388 Meter hoch liegen, das ganze Plateau von Fleury. Es wird härtester Arbeit und sorgfältigster Vorbereitung bedürfen, um auch diese Mauer noch zu durchbrechen. Aber ist es nicht gerade das Unerhörteste an dieser Schlacht vor Verdun, daß unser Feind seit Monaten weiß: hier oder dort ist der Angriff zu erwarten, hier muß er erfolgen, und daß es trotzdem den Deutschen gelingt, Schritt für Schritt eine Sperre nach der andern mit furchtbaren Schlägen zu zerschmettern? 2)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Höhen nördlich der Lipa erstürmt

Zwei italienische Kriegsfahrzeuge versenkt

Wien, 25. Juni.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
In der Bukowina bezogen unsere Truppen zwischen Kimpolung und Jakobeny neue
Stellungen. Die Höhen südlich von Benhometh und Wisznitz wurden von uns ohne feindliche Einwirkung geräumt. An der galizischen Front gewohnte Artillerietätigkeit, nordwestlich von Tarnopol auch Minenwerfer- und Handgranatenkämpfe.
Südöstlich von Beresteczko wiesen wir mehrere feindliche Angriffe ab. Bei Holatyn-Grn. wurden die Höhen nördlich der Lipa erstürmt. Der Feind hatte hier schwere Verluste an Toten. Westlich von Toczyn drangen unsere Truppen in die feindliche Stellung ein und wiesen heftige Gegenangriffe ab. Am Styr abwärts Sokul ist die Lage unverändert.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
An der küstenländischen Front standen unsere Stellungen zwischen dem Meere und dem Monte Sabotino zeitweise unter lebhaftem Artilleriefeuer. Östlich von Polazzo kam es zu Handgranatenkämpfen. Nachts versuchten drei Torpedoboote und ein Motorboot einen Handstreich gegen Pirano. Als unsere Strand-Batterien das Feuer eröffneten, ergriffen die feindlichen Schiffe die Flucht. An der Kärntnerfront beschränkte sich die Gefechtstätigkeit nach den von unseren Truppen abgeschlagenen Angriffen im Plöckenabschnitt auf Geschützfeuer. In den Dolomiten brach ein Angriff der Italiener bei der Rufreddo - Stellung im Sperrfeuer zusammen. Zwischen Brenta und Etsch war die Kampftätigkeit gering. Vereinzelte Vorstöße des Gegners wurden abgewiesen. Im Ortlergebiet scheiterte ein Angriff einer feindlichen Abteilung vor dem Kleinen Eiskögele.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Ruhe.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See:
Am 23. vormittags hat eines unserer Unterseeboote in der Otranto-Straße einen von einem Zerstörer, Typ "Fourche" begleiteten Hilsskreuzer, Typ "Principe Umberto" versenkt. Der Zerstörer verfolgte das U-Boot mit Bombenwürfen, kehrte zur Sinkstelle zurück und wurde dann dort vom U-Boot ebenfalls versenkt.

Flottenkommando. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 25. Juni. (W. B.)
Amtlicher Bericht:
An der Irakfront kein wichtiges Ereignis.
In Südpersien drängten unsere vorgeschobenen Abteilungen die Russen bis in eine Entfernung von einer Stunde östlich der Stadt Sermil zurück. Die Russen bemühen sich mit allen Mitteln, sich östlich von Sermil zu halten, und verstärken
sehr rege ihre im voraus vorbereiteten Befestigungslinien.
Kaukasus. Auf dem rechten Flügel herrscht Ruhe. Im Zentrum fanden nur örtliche Infanterie-Feuergefechte statt.
Am linken Flügel wurde die gegen die feindlichen Stellungen auf dem nördlichen Abschnitt des Tschorok begonnene Offensive und die Eroberung der von uns zum Ziel genommenen feindlichen Stellungen vervollständigt. Die von uns eroberten Stellungen befinden sich 25 bis 30 Kilometer südlich der am Meere gelegenen Ortschaften Ofi und Trapezunt, sowie auf der 2800 Meter hohen Gebirgskette, die sich von Osten nach Westen in der Gegend hinzieht, wo die Flüsse die zwischen den beiden Ortschaften ins Meer münden, entspringen. Bei dieser Offensive, die mit größter Heftigkeit seit zwei Tagen aus einer Frontbreite von 50 Kilometern andauert, schlagen sich unsere Truppen mit der größten Tapferkeit. Sie zeichnen sich besonders in den Nahkämpfen mit dem Bajonett aus, bei denen sie in jeder Hinsicht ihre Überlegenheit beweisen. Die Flucht des Feindes, der an gewissen Stellen seine Lager im Stiche ließ, ließ unsere Soldaten alle Strapazen des Kampfes vergessen. Ohne den Befehl zur Verfolgung abzuwarten, schickten sie sich fröhlich zum Angriffe gegen die Reste des Feindes an und dehnten hierdurch den von ihnen besetzten Abschnitt aus. Bei diesen Kämpfen machten wir eine reiche Beute, bestehend aus verschiedenen Arten von Ausrüstungen, Kriegsmaterial sowie 1½ Millionen Patronen und sieben Maschinengewehren, die wir gegenwärtig gegen den Feind benutzen. Wir machten 652 Mann, darunter 7 Offiziere, zu Gefangenen. Trotz des schwierigen Geländes, das dem Feind günstig ist, erlitt dieser Verluste, deren Zahl sich aus fast 2000 Tote beläuft. Unsere eigenen Verluste sind vergleichsweise äußerst gering.
Von den übrigen Fronten keine wichtige Nachricht. 2)

London, 25. Juni. (W. B.)
Reuter meldet:
Der Präsident des Unterrichtsamtes, Arthur Henderson von der Arbeiterpartei, hat gestern abend in North-Hamptonshire eine Rede gehalten, in der er die Zuhörer ermahnte, vor einem "unzeitigen Friedensgerede" auf der Hut zu sein. Er sagte, das Land wolle keinen übereilten Frieden, sondern einen Frieden, der sich auf Gerechtigkeit und Ehre aufbaue. "Wir müssen uns so energisch als möglich gegen einen erniedrigenden und ruhmlosen Vergleich wehren. Das Kriegsende ist noch nicht in Sicht. Der Feind blufft damit, daß England besiegt sei; aber dieses weiß besser, wie es ihm geht, und hat auf dem Wasser den Feind besser als je in seinem Griff." 2)


Die französische Sozialdemokratie

Paris, 25. Juni. (W. B.)
Havas meldet:
Die französische Kammer hat mit 512 gegen 3 Stimmen die Zwölftel des vorläufigen Haushaltes für Juli, August und September insgesamt angenommen. Präsident Deschanel erklärte in seiner Ansprache, weder Frankreich noch irgend ein Franzose könne einen sofortigen Waffenstillstand oder einen Frieden zulassen, die einen Rückzug vor der wiederholten Verletzung geltender Rechte darstellen würden. Die Sozialisten erklärten, die Kredite annehmen zu wollen, um den Sieg des Vaterlandes sicherzustellen. Brizon verlas in seinem Namen und im Namen von Raffin-Dugens und Blanc, die mit ihm an der Beratung in Zimmerwald teilgenommen hatten, eine Erklärung, in der die Gründe auseinandergesetzt werden, mit denen sie gegen die Kriegskredite und für einen Frieden ohne Gebietserweitung sowie für einen Waffenstillstand stimmen. 2)


Deutscher Besuch in Bulgarien

Sofia, 25. Juni. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die Morgenzeitungen "Balkanska Poschta" und "Utro" widmen den heute abend in der bulgarischen Hauptstadt eintretenden deutschen Reichstagsvertretern, denen das Festkomitee bereits bis Nisch entgegengefahren ist, herzlichste Begrüßungsartikel. "Balkanska Poschta" erinnert an den Besuch bulgarischer Volksvertreter in Deutschland und hebt die Bedeutung der Freundschaft beider Völker für eine segensreiche Zukunft hervor. "Utro" bringt einen Begrüßungsartikel des Vizepräsidenten der Kammer Dr. Momtschilow, worin ausgedrückt wird, Bugarien, das, von seinem mächtigen Verbündeten unterstützt, seine Ideale verwirklicht sehe und zufrieden mit den erreichten Ergebnissen sei, rufe den Gästen ein freudiges Willkommen entgegen. Es sei entschlossen, bis zum Ende zu kämpfen, um das mit Blut und schwerer Mühe Erreichte zu sichern. Die Stadt prangt in glänzendem Festgewand. Es herrscht ein buntbewegtes Leben. Man sieht mit freudiger Erregung dem Eintreffen der Gäste entgegen. 2)


Griechenland


Paris, 25. Juni. (Priv.-Tel., zf.)
Havas meldet aus Athen:
Zaimis hat durch eine schriftliche Note die den Vertretern der Schutzmächte mündlich gegebene Zusicherung bestätigt, daß sich die griechische Regierung verpflichtet, unverändert die Forderungen der Entente in ihrer Kollektivnote vom 21. Juni auszuführen. - Die Neuwahlen der Kammer sind auf den 7. August festgesetzt worden. 2)

TEXTQUELLEN:
1) Amtliche Kriegs-Depeschen
Nach Berichten des Wolff´schen Telegr.-Bureaus
4. Band
Nationaler Verlag, Berlin SW 68
(1916)

2) "Frankfurter Zeitung" (1916)

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25th June 1917 - Worcestershire WW1

WORCESTERSHIRE AND THE WAR – LIEUT A. ROLLINGS HONOURED – We learn that Lieut A Rollings, only son of Mr and Mrs E Rollings of Troneswood, Comberton Road, Kidderminster, has just been awarded the Military Cross for distinguished services rendered in the field. At the outbreak of war he was a member of the Birmingham University O.T.C., and during his active connection with that corps he won the Recruits’ Cup for shooting and gained several proficiency certificates. He was gazetted to the County Regiment on New Year’s Day 1915.

TRANSPORT FOR FRUIT – Blow to Teme Valley Growers – Some of the home grown fruit, now fast ripening to harvest may never reach the public, because of the restricted train services. Only on Thursday, for instance, the growers at Cheddar were suddenly informed that the usual fruit train to Birmingham would not run. This mean a hold up of many tons of ripe fruit, which were wasted, a shortage in Birmingham’s supply and rises in price from 1d to 2d a pound. Now comes the announcement that the facilities to one important cherry growing district are again to be curtailed. In future there will be no cherry train from Tenbury Wells after 4pm. Formerly there were trains at 5 and 10pm. This means the growers will have considerable difficulty in getting their fruit picked and packed in time for the train.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1917/06/transport-for-fruit/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 25 Jun 2018 8:10, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1 at Sea - Royal Navy Despatches, Gallantry Awards and Honours from the London Gazette - August 1914 to December 1920

29206 - 25 JUNE 1915

Admiralty, 24th June, 1915.

The KING (is) pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to Lieutenant-Commander Martin Eric Nasmith, Royal Navy, for the conspicuous bravery specified below:

For most conspicuous bravery in command of one of His Majesty's Submarines while operating in the Sea of Marmora. In the face of great danger he succeeded in destroying one large Turkish gunboat, two transports, one ammunition ship and three storeships, in addition to driving one storeship ashore. When he had safely passed the most difficult part of his homeward journey he returned again to torpedo a Turkish transport.
The KING has further been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Distinguished Service Cross to the undermentioned Officers of the same Submarine:

Lieutenant Guy D'Oyly-Hughes, Royal Navy.
Acting Lieutenant Robert Brown, Royal Naval Reserve.

Approval has also been given for the award of the Distinguished Service Medal to each member of the crew.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyBritishLondonGazette1504.htm#29211

VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles

19 May- 7 June 1915, Sea of Marmara
Gazetted 25 June 1915
Lt. Commander M.E.Nasnith RN

Nasmith commanded the submarine E 11 which followed Boyle’s E 14 into the Sea of Marmara. His final briefing, from Commodore Roger Keyes, was to the point: ‘Go and run amok in the Marmara!’ Quite literally he did just that. In three weeks he sank eleven ships and penetrated into Constantinople Harbour. He also sank a ship off the port of Rodosto and another as it lay alongside the dock there, finally being driven offshore by a troop of cavalry with their carbines. On a subsequent cruise in the Marmara he sank the old battleship Heiruddin Barbarossa before re-entering Constantinople where he sank another ship in full view of the alarmed population. He retired as Admiral Sir Martin Dunbar-Nasmith after world War 2 and died in 1965.

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Jun 2010 18:51, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOLDIER AND DRAMATIST, BEING THE LETTERS OF HAROLD CHAPIN, AMERICAN CITIZEN WHO DIED FOR ENGLAND AT LOOS ON SEPTEMBER 26TH, 1915.

To his Mother.

June 25th, 1915.

DEAREST MATER

No, please don't send me any money. Things are quite cheap here. In fact I have lunched out every day for the last fortnight, and had the usual evening coffee and biscuits also on very little more than my pay of one and fivepence a day, and I have a reserve of funds in my pay book. By the way I haven't tasted meat for nearly a fortnight. (I lunch on an omelette de trois oeufs and chip potatoes daily) and only twice in the last four weeks. This is not a fad. I simply don't like the look of it. If ever it appeals to me again I shall return to it---or if I go up to the adv. I shall have to I suppose.

The rumour, I beg your pardon, official thingummy you report is, I hope, quite unfounded. Don't listen to peace talk yet,---discourage it if you can. Nothing makes us madder out here. Remember we are on the wrong side of the top to talk of peace. It's a worse idea than the war! A patch-up with those bloody gentry over there. Do you realise that I can see one of them now? a little speck in the heart of a "Taube" with a row of little puffs of soft cloud miraculously appearing with pin-prick like twinkles rather than flashes about him; the shrapnel fired by our anti-aircraft guns; busy "keeping him off." I can hear them in the distance too, (or it may be some distant part of our line at work) and at any moment a couple of rough crosses may be carried past the gate I am sitting on, carried by children and followed by a temporary hearse, a burying party of long bayonets and loose trousers and the usual following of children. No peace until we are on top please.

Love.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/chapin/Chapin06.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 23:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 1916 - Call to Duty

Saturday June 24 was “Governor’s Day”, with Governor Samuel McCall as commander-in chief reviewing the State troops at Parade and then exhorting each Regiment to live up to the traditions of their past military records. On Sunday, June 25 following Church services, the State troops were formally mustered into Federal service with the following oath:

“I do hereby acknowledge to have voluntarily enlisted this 25th day of June, 1916, as a soldier in the National Guard of the United States and of the State of Massachusetts, for the period of three years in the service and three years in the reserve, under the conditions prescribed by law unless sooner discharged by proper authority. And I do solemnly swear that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the United States of America and to the State of Massachusetts, and that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against all enemies whomsoever and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the Governor of Massachusetts, and of the officers appointed over me according to law and the rules and articles of war. This oath is subscribed to with the understanding that credit will be given in the execution of this contract for the period that I have already served under my current enlistment in the Organized Militia of the State of Massachusetts. So Help Me God.”

Throughout the assembled Regiments, some 600 of the men who had previously enlisted for State service did not wish to be consigned to Federal service and therefore refused to take the oath. These men were derisively called “slackers” and were publicly segregated from the rest of the men who had been duly sworn. The continued status of these “slackers” (including those among the men of the Eighth) would later become a complex Federal and State legal issue when the rest of the Massachusetts troops were deployed to the Border region as a Federal force.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/the-adventure-unfolds/south-on-the-border-1916/june-1916/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 23:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Serbia Day, June 25, 1916. Anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo

Description - This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman force. The first Battle of Kosovo led to Serbia’s loss of independence and became an important symbol of Serb nationalism in the 19th century. This poster shows the aged King Peter, who went with the Serbian army on its retreat in 1915, being transported across the Drina River as the refugees headed into the mountains. Thousands of Serbs died of cold and lack of food during the winter of 1915–16, and Serbia Day was organized in Paris for the benefit of the Serbian Relief Fund. Serbia Day was celebrated in June, to coincide with the approximate date of the first Battle of Kosovo. During World War I, Serbia was an ally of Britain, France, and Russia. Serbia was a bitter enemy of Austria-Hungary, which blamed Serb conspirators for the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and was determined to punish the Serbs for the assassination.

Bekijk de poster op https://www.wdl.org/en/item/4596/
Zie ook hier: https://www.wdl.org/en/item/4595/
Zie ook hier: https://www.europeana.eu/portal/nl/record/2020601/contributions_19691.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 25 Jun 2018 9:39, in toaal 3 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 23:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Everything is so quiet – The ‘Nursery’

In early 1916 the front line for the Australian Imperial Force lay east of Bois Grenier and smaller localities to the south-east such as la Boutillerie. La Boutillerie is simply a collection of houses beyond Bois Grenier reached on the D22 by making a sharp left after Y Farm Military Cemetery. The road thereafter, still the D22, runs straight for about two kilometres to the La Boutillerie crossroads. Somewhere hereabouts Australia gained its first Victoria Cross on the Western Front on the night of 25–26 June 1916.

On that night volunteers from four Australian battalions raided a German trench. As the raiders were withdrawing several of them were seriously injured by enemy fire in no-man’s-land. After safely reaching his own lines and handing over a prisoner, Private William Jackson, 17th Battalion (New South Wales), of Merriwa, went back into heavy fire and brought one injured man in. He went out again, although the fire was even heavier, and, as he was coming back with another wounded man, shell fragments virtually severed Jackson’s right arm above the elbow. He struggled back with the wounded man he was helping and then, despite his wound, went out to search for others still lying in front of the trenches. ‘Private Jackson’s condition,’ his commanding officer wrote, ‘was serious; but throughout he showed wonderful fortitude’. At just 18 years of age William Jackson was, and remains, the youngest Australian ever to receive the Victoria Cross.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/fromelles/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 23:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private John William Alexander Jackson - Australia's Youngest V.C.

"You never know what virtues may come out of the most unsuspected places, nor what heroes may spring up out of the smallest village, Gunbar, a little place of about four houses.
Not even a blacksmith's shop or a pub. My nephew had never even seen a train until he enlisted."

Mr. George Gale, "Ealing", Kemiss Street, Randwick. at the Anzac Buffet, Sydney. (S.M.H. 6.7.1917.)

Introduction

Ever since Dr Charles E W Bean, in volume III of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, The AIF in France referred to William Jackson VC as being a farmer from Merriwa, N.S.W., other historians including Lionel Wigmore in They Dared Mightily (1963) included this and other misleading information. One recently claimed Jackson had attended school at Merriwa and lived and worked with his parents on their Merriwa property.

These inaccuracies along with others regarding Jackson's service during both the First and Second World War continue to be perpetuated in various print media. Research has revealed that while Jackson did live in the town of Merriwa for seven years it was not until after his return from the First World War.

Controversy regarding the medals Jackson was entitled to wear and those he wore raged from almost fifty years. In January 1942 Jackson, when writing to the Officer in Charge of the Base Records, wrote that "if he was not entitled to the medals he wore somebody had slipped and slipped badly in issuing them to him".

Even five years after his death the Director of the Australian War Memorial in Canberra was still unsure of Jackson's entitlement to wear medals that various sources claimed he had been awarded. The 1981 Register of the Victoria Cross shows Jackson as holding the VC and DCM.

Despite claims by some Historians that Jackson was awarded the Military Medal, Jackson was never recommended for, awarded, or wore the Military Medal.

The story of the Seventeenth Battalion AIF by Lieutenant-Colonel K. W. Mackenzie MC records Jackson's one and only official award as the Victoria Cross.

Despite this on 11 November 2001 a plaque in honour of Jackson was unveiled on the Balmain War Memorial Sydney, reading L/Cpl John William Alexander Jackson VC., DMC., MM.

Citation

For most conspicuous bravery. On the return from a successful raid, several members of the raiding party were seriously wounded in No Man's Land by shell fire.

Private Jackson got back safely and, after handing over a prisoner whom he had brought in, immediately went out again under a very heavy shell fire and assisted in bringing in a wounded man. He then went out again, and with a sergeant was bringing in another wounded man, when his arm was blown off by a shell and the sergeant was rendered unconscious.

He then returned to our trenches, obtained assistance, and went out again to look for his two wounded comrades. He set a splendid example of pluck and determination. His work has always been marked by the greatest coolness and bravery.

(London Gazette: 9th September 1916.)

His Early Life

William 'Billy' Jackson VC, was born John William Alexander Jackson on 13 September 1897 at "Glengower" station at Gunbar, a small settlement 80km (50m) north of Hay, New South Wales. He was the fourth child and eldest son of a twenty nine year old Paddington (Sydney) born farm labourer John Gale Jackson and his wife Adelaide Ann (McFarlane).

Adelaide, the eldest daughter of John and Elizabeth McFarlane (Marks), married John Jackson the son of William and Mary Jackson (Gale) in 1890 at the home of her parents, "Seaton Farm" at Gunbar.

Billy Jackson was only eight years of age when his mother died on 15 November 1905. Two of his elder sisters predeceased their mother, Eliza born 1891, died on 20 January, 1894 and Alice born 1893 died on 29 June 1903, the result of an accidental shooting.

Billy and his three sisters Elizabeth, Catherine and May and two brothers Albert and Leslie were then cared for by their grand-parents the McFarlane's, while their father John continued to work on Gunbar Station.

John and Elizabeth McFarlane already had fourteen children of their own plus four children from John's first marriage and now following Adelaide's death took six more children into their home.

John McFarlane, who was born in 1836 in Aberdeen, Scotland had established a carrying business in the Yass area before moving to Gunbar where he carted wool to Sydney with a team of up to eighteen Clydesdale's. sometimes as many as eighteen. Following the death of his first wife he married Elizabeth who was the midwife for the women in the small settlement in 1872.

Billy Jackson, "Jacko" to his mates, who was well known for his strength and reckless daring during his teenage years. He surprised nobody when he left his employer, Mr William Gibson, of "Carlowrie" on 15 February 1915 aged just 17 years and five months to be amongst the first volunteers from Gunbar to enlist in the AIF.

The First World War

At Liverpool on 20 February 1915 Jackson swore his allegiance to the King and agreed to serve in the AIF for the duration plus four months. Records show he was 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighed 12 stone, had fair hair and complexion, grey eyes, and was of the Presbyterian religion.

Appointed to B Company of the 17th Battalion, 5th Infantry Brigade, AIF, his regimental number was 588. He embarked for training at Heliopolis, Egypt in May 1915. On 12 August 1915 he was detailed for special duty in Alexandria and landed on Gallipoli on 20 August where he took part in the attack on Kaiajik Aghyl (Hill 60) the following day.

At Gallipoli on 3 October 1915 he was admitted to a casualty clearing station suffering from diarrhoea and a problem with his teeth which prevented him from eating the hard rations that were being provided at that time on Gallipoli.

He was placed onboard the Hospital Ship 'Assaye' for the 850 mile voyage to Malta and admitted to the St Elmo Hospital at Valetta. His campaign almost came to an end on the 7 January 1916 when he was put on board the 'Esquibo' to be returned to Australia. Three days out he was off-loaded and admitted to the 1st Auxiliary Hospital Cairo suffering from dysentery.

Declaring himself fit, he returned to duty on 15 February 1916 rejoining his battalion on 8 March nine days before they embarked from Alexandria for the six day voyage to Marselles, France as part of the 2nd Division. There they relieved the Northumberland Fusiliers.

On 10 April his division took over a forward position in the eastern Armentieres sector. Relieving the 3rd Brigade here as a prelude to the Battle of the Somme, orders were issued that as many raids as possible were to be carried out on the enemy positions between 20/30 June 1916.

Jackson volunteered for these operations and at midnight on the night of 25/26 of June he acted as a scout for a party that consisted of 40 Officers and men. This party was led by Captain Keith Heritage and they carried out a raid that had been planned by General W. Holmes on the forward trenches of the 231st Prussian reserve infantry regiment.

(Capt Heritage of the 19th Battalion was killed in action one month later, Major General Holmes C.M.G., D.S.O., the 5th brigade commander was killed by shellfire on 2 July 1917 in France.)

The preceding artillery barrage had forced many of the Germans to abandon their positions; however despite this, the Australians still encountered heavy machine-gun fire as they approached their objective.

The Engineers with the party were quick to blow up two bomb stores, while the remainder of the party attacked the enemy trenches and as ordered captured four prisoners for interrogation.

Jackson revealed the coolness and bravery, later mentioned in his citation, both during and after the raid. He captured one of the enemy and returned safely with him through the 400 yard No-Man's land to his own lines despite the intense barrage of enemy shell and machine gun fire.

On learning that some of the party had been hit, Jackson said "He didn't like the idea of leaving any wounded men out in No-Man's land", and immediately returned into the enemy barrage and rescued one of his wounded comrades.

On his second rescue mission, while still ignoring the intensifying bombardment he was assisting Sergeant Hugh Alison Camden of the 19th Battalion to bring in seriously wounded Private Alfred Edward Robinson. When the blast from a exploding shell rendered Camden unconscious, it also blew off Jackson's right arm above the elbow, and inflicted further wounds to Robinson.

Jackson, who said he "didn't feel much just a numbing sensation", returned to his lines where an officer applied a tourniquet to his arm using a piece of string and a stick. Then, believing that Camden and others were still out in No-Man's land, Jackson continued to search for another half an hour until he satisfied himself that all the wounded had been brought in he was sent to hospital.

Casualties sustained by the Germans during the raid were thirty killed and four captured, while the Australian casualties were fourteen wounded. (Pte. Robinson died of his wounds on 3 July 1916.)

The Hospital Ship 'St Patrick' took Jackson from Boulogne to England and on 30 June at the 3rd London General Hospital the remainder of his right arm was amputated.

On 20 July he was transferred to the 1st Australian Auxiliary Hospital, which was established in the grounds of an estate known as Harefield Park, Middlesex (now part of Greater London.) On 26 October he was transferred to the Auxiliary Hospital, Southall, before being admitted to Queen Mary's General Hospital

To date Jackson remains the youngest Australian to be awarded a Victoria Cross. His Victoria Cross was the first won by an Australian on the Western Front.

The recommendation that Jackson be awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions came from the General Officer Commanding the 5th Australian Infantry Brigade. The GOC also praised Jackson for his ability as a scout, both with the raiding party and his own battalion.

The approval of the Victoria Cross for Jackson, by King George V, was gazetted on 8 September 1916, just five days before his nineteenth birthday. The King's approval of a Distinguished Conduct Medal for Jackson was gazetted two weeks later on 22 September 1916.

Private William Jackson was invested with his Victoria Cross by King George V at Buckingham Palace 18 November 1916.

Both awards were promulgated in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazetter, No. 184, on 14 December 1916. The Department of Defence notified John Jackson of both of his son's decorations the VC., and the DCM., on 4 January 1917.

Sergeant Camden, who was with Jackson when he was wounded, managed to find his own way back to his lines and was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for the part he played in the rescue of the wounded that night.

Jackson remained in England until 4 May 1917, until he was invalided back to Australia along with 992 returning servicemen aboard A 32. H.M.A.T. "Themistocles", arriving in Sydney on 5 July 1917.

Between the Wars

Jackson, the first soldier from New South Wales to return from World War 1 with a VC, was hoisted shoulder high at the reception held at the Anzac Buffet in the Domain for the returning wounded soldiers.

On Thursday 26 July 1917 Private Jackson VC visited Hay accompanied by Sergeant Camden DCM. They were met at the railway station by a large crowd before being conveyed to the Post Office square where he was officially welcomed.

The Deputy Mayor of Hay, Mr Butterworth, said in welcoming Jackson "I have the greatest of pleasure in extending the welcome of the people of Hay…". He then added that, "…They did not want to deprive Gunbar of one iota of the glory but they were enjoying a degree of reflected glory from the fact that Jackson was always referred to as being from Gunbar near Hay".

Butterworth speaking of Jackson's deeds said "It was one of the incidents of this war, which so far as this district is concerned, will never be forgotten".

Sergeant Camden told the crowd "Bill [Jackson] had gone out looking for him without his arm. Not looking for a VC but for a cobber".

When he later visited Gunbar, the people of the district wished to show their appreciation and offered to buy Jackson a farming property. He declined their offer believing that the loss of his right arm would render him unable to work on the land.

On Tuesday 14 August 1917 a strike disrupted a railway recruiting tour of New South Wales by Private Jackson VC., Sergeant Camden D.C.M., Private George Reginald Salisbury M.M., and Private Stewart M.M. These men along with the volunteers they had recruited were brought from Quirindi to Scone by a convoy of cars to attend a Civic reception given by the Scone Mayor before they visited the local schools. A month later, 15 September, William Jackson VC was discharged from the AIF.

Although Jackson's DCM was subsequently cancelled due to the higher award of the Victoria Cross being conferred in the London Gazette on 21 October 1916, it was not until 14 April 1919 that the AIF base records office notified the pension authorities and John Jackson of the cancellation of the DCM that had been awarded to William Jackson VC.

John Jackson, still living and working on 'Gunbar Station' was then asked to return the official notification he had received concerning the awarding of the DCM to his son more than two years earlier. He replied that he had passed on the notification to Bill who was living at an address unknown to him in Sydney.

Lack of communications between sections of the Army is evident here as the Army was at that time sending William Jackson VC., his pension to "Yuletide", Duke Street, Kensington. He lived here in close proximity to members of his father's family.

It was shortly after this that Jackson VC., moved to Merriwa and in 1920 he and Leslie (later Sir Leslie) Morshead. D.S.O., became members of the newly formed Returned Servicemen's League, Sub Branch.

Living firstly in Bettington Street and later at the Fitzroy Hotel, Jackson became a dealer, buying and selling horses and skins. Despite his disability he was building himself a home in Flags Road. He left Merriwa in 1927 to become the licensee of the Figtree Hotel at Figtree, a suburb of Wollongong, where he stayed for eighteen months.

On 14 November 1930, while residing at the Peoples Palace, King Street, Melbourne, he notified the Army that his discharge certificate had been lost in a fire that destroyed his home at Merriwa in 1926. It was then that Jackson was belatedly sent his Victory Medal.

During the Depression, Bill had several jobs including managing a greengrocery business and a position as clerk with the Metropolitan Water, Sewerage & Drainage Board in Sydney. He married Ivy Muriel Alma Morris, a dressmaker, at St Paul's Anglican Church, Kogarah on 12 January 1932. Later that year their only child a daughter Dorathea was born.

In August 1935 while living at 91 St George Pde, Hurstville Bill applied as a relative for the Returned Soldiers Badges of L/Cpl. Edmund Yule, No. 567 of the 1st L.H.Regiment and Pte. Thomas Holman, No. 1710 of the 17th Battalion, AIF, as a keepsake.

The Second World War

While living at 54 Vine Street, Hurstville, Bill Jackson VC., enlisted at Paddington and served as Corporal/Acting Sergeant J.W.Jackson VC in Eastern Command Provost Company, No N107906, from 31 March 1941, till 30 March, 1942.

In December of 1941, he had been interrogated regarding his wearing of a D.C.M. ribbon. He produced the notification his father had received in January 1917 confirming his being awarded the DCM and denied any knowledge of the cancellation of this award. He further stated that as well as having in his possession the medal and the official gazette of the medal, the award had also been entered in his pay book and was on his discharge.

When it was suggested that he return his D.C.M.. Bill replied that he would continue to wear his six medals, (V.C., D.C.M., 1914/15 Star, the British War and Victory Medals and the 1937 King George VI Coronation Medal), and he would apply for a discharge and let the matter be decided in Court rather than surrender any of these.

Sergeant Jackson VC. was then discharged at his request. It would appear as if the Army relented, most likely on the advice of the War Office in London, who while agreeing that the D.C.M., had been cancelled, advised that it had no knowledge of any steps ever having been officially taken to recover the medal. It also thought it undesirable to order Jackson to return the decoration.

Less than three weeks after his discharge, Jackson again enlisted in the A.M.F. and served as Corporal J.W. Jackson VC, No. N391402 in the 2nd Australian Labour Company.

In June following the entry of four Japanese Submarine's into Sydney Harbour and the shelling of Sydney's eastern suburbs, Bill sent his wife and daughter to live in Merriwa where Dorothea attended the local school for three months before on 14 September 1942 Bill was once again discharged at his request. During this 152 day period Corporal Jackson VC., had continued to sign all correspondence W Jackson VC., DCM.

His service in World War II entitled him to wear a further two medals, the 1939/45 War Medal and the 1939/45 Australia Service Medal. In 1953 as the holder of the Victoria Cross he was a recipient of the 1953 Elizabeth II Coronation Medal.

After the War

Following his Discharge Jackson returned to working as a skin buyer. At 8.30pm on 5 October 1946 while returning from a buying trip to Woolongong, he was driving a motor lorry through fog and light rain at Waterfall, south of Sydney, when he was involved in a four vehicle accident

While Jackson himself only suffered minor injuries, two other people were killed in the accident. Jackson was charged with man-slaughter, driving in a dangerous manner and negligent driving.

He appeared before the Wollongong Court of Quarter Sessions charged with two counts of manslaughter on 13 May, 1947. Evidence was given that Jackson had been driving this truck for five months and that the truck was fitted in accordance with the restricted licence that he held.

It was revealed that this was the first accident Jackson had been involved in during the thirty years he had been driving and due to the poor weather conditions all four drivers had been driving at 25mph, (40kph).

Judge Neild, who had served in the same battalion as Jackson during the First World War and knew him by reputation, told the jury this had caused him some embarrassment during the trial. Judge Neild directed the jury to return their verdict, not on anything that he had said but on the facts of the case. The jury found Jackson not guilty.

Separated from his wife Bill moved to Melbourne in 1953 to take up a position as a Commissionaire and Inquiry attendant at the Melbourne Town Hall. In August a civic reception for the Governor-General Sir William Slim was disrupted when Slim noticed that his lift driver was wearing the ribbon of a VC.; the accompanying civic dignitaries were left waiting while Slim spoke at length to Jackson.

During the 1954 Royal Tour Jackson was chosen to unfurl the Royal Standard as the Queen stepped from her car on arrival at the Melbourne Town Hall. He was a guest at the State Dinner given to the Royal Couple in Sydney and again met them when they visited the Anzac Memorial in Hyde Park, Sydney.

Bill Jackson VC., was divorced in 1955, and in 1956 he sailed on the SS Orcades for London with 34 other Australian VC recipients for the Victoria Cross Centenary Celebrations. While on the voyage Jackson autographed a menu, W Jackson VC. He became very ill on the voyage and spent six weeks in Hospital in England but despite this he managed to attend a garden party at Marlborough House before being flown home.

On recovery Jackson resumed working at the Melbourne Town Hall. He died on 5 August 1959 in the Austin hospital, Heidleburg, Victoria, of an Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease. At the time he was a member of the Carlton Sub-branch of the RSL.

William Jackson VC was given full Military Honours by Southern Command when cremated at Springvale Cemetery and his ashes were placed in the Boronia Gardens.

The Members Bar in the refurbished Merriwa RSL Club is named in his honour. On Saturday 4 October 2003, a Rest Area/Park situated on the Golden Highway at Gungal 23 km south of Merriwa, was officially opened by the Mayor of Merriwa Ean Cottle and named 'Private Jackson Park.'

http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/jacksonvc.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 23:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 156, June 25, 1919

Smoking and bad language seem to go together, says Professor GILBERT
MURRAY. In the case of some cheap cigars we have often seen them going
together.

Out of nine applicants for the post of Language Master at a well-known
Public school, eight were proficient in at least five languages.
However, as the ninth man proved to be an ex-Sergeant-Major, the eight
immediately retired in his favour.

We now hear that the question regarding the possession of
Kladizatiffagtaliofatoffka, in Poland, which has caused so much of the
delay at the Peace Conference, has been satisfactorily settled. The four
Big Powers are to have a couple of syllables each and the remaining
three will be raffled for.

http://www.fullbooks.com/Punch-or-the-London-Charivari-Vol-156-Junex1178.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2010 23:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Balkan Front, 1917

The most important developments in the Balkans in 1917 were political rather than military. The Allies had been pressuring King Constantine of Greece to give up his throne. He abdicated on June 12 in favor of his son Alexander. On June 25, the new king made Venizelos premier, uniting the country. On June 27, the new government declared war on the Central Powers.

http://history.howstuffworks.com/world-war-i/world-war-i-in-1917.htm/printable
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 0:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CHATEAU-THIERRY - THE BATTLE FOR BELLEAU WOOD

25 June 1918 - Major 14-hour bombardment starting at 0300 makes clearance of the remaining woods possible. The following attack swamps the remaining machine gun outposts of the enemy. Marines and Army machine-gunners participate in the assault.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/ct_bw.htm
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 0:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 June 1918, Commons Sitting

GERMAN POPULATION.


HC Deb 25 June 1918 vol 107 c861 861

Major NEWMAN asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether his attention has been called to a statement in an Allied Legislature that the German population has been deliberately and systematically under-estimated, in order to deceive rival nations for a number of years past, and that the true population was about 90,000,000 in 1914, and not the accepted figure of 68,000,000; and has he any official information to this effect?

The MINISTER of BLOCKADE (Lord R. Cecil) I have seen a report in the Press that such a statement has been made, but I have no official information on the subject.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jun/25/german-population
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 0:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS African Transport

During the pre-dawn hours of 25 June UB-88 encountered and sank a British steamer, the 4,482-ton SS African Transport. The 25th was UB-88's lucky day for, that evening, she ran onto a 20-ship convoy heading south. The U-boat sank SS Moorlands and then survived a 16-charge depth bombing by the convoy escorts.

Built for Empire Transport Co. Ltd. (Houlder Bros), West Hartlepool; Yard No 206; Launch Date 21/04/1913; Fitted with 1 x 4.7 Q.F. stern gun; Vessel torpedeoed by UB-88 at 9.05 p.m. (Der Kreig Zur See). The torpedo struck the vessel on the starboard side in the engine room and stokehold, vessel sank head first after a towing attempt, approximately 2 hours at 10.52 p.m; 3 lives lost; Wreck now owned by E. Pendleton & J. P. Stevenson (1976).

There is a WWI gun mounted on Whitby's West Cliff, donated by J. P. Stevenson, which is said to be from the wreck of the AFRICAN TRANSPORT, but is in fact must be from somewhere else (more likely the s.s. SKANE), as the original gun from this vessel is still on the seabed to this day, and is of a very differant type.

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?5050
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 0:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Winnipeg General Strike

The Winnipeg General Strike, 15 May-25 June 1919, was Canada's best-known general strike. Massive unemployment and inflation, the success of the Russian Revolution (1917), a wave of strikes across Canada and rising REVOLUTIONARY INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM all contributed to postwar labour unrest. In Mar 1919 in Calgary western labour leaders met to discuss the creation of ONE BIG UNION. In Winnipeg on May 15, when negotiations broke down between management and labour in the building and metal trades, the Winnipeg Trades and Labor Council called a general strike.

At stake were the principle of collective bargaining, better wages and the improvement of often dreadful working conditions. Within hours almost 30 000 workers had left their jobs. The almost unanimous response by working men and women closed the city's factories, crippled its retail trade and stopped the trains. Public-sector employees such as policemen, firemen, postal workers, telephone operators and employees of waterworks and other utilities joined the workers of private industry in an impressive display of working-class solidarity. The strike was co-ordinated by the Central Strike Committee, composed of delegates elected from each of the unions affiliated with the WTLC. The committee bargained with employers on behalf of the workers and co-ordinated the provision of essential services.
Opposition to the strike was organized by the Citizens' Committee of 1000, created shortly after the strike began by Winnipeg's most influential manufacturers, bankers and politicians. Rather than giving the strikers' demands any serious consideration, the Citizens' Committee, with the support of Winnipeg's leading newspapers, declared the strike a revolutionary conspiracy led by a small group of "alien scum." The available evidence failed to support its charges that the strike was initiated by European workers and Bolsheviks, but the Citizens' Committee used these unsubstantiated charges to block any conciliation efforts by the workers.

Afraid that the strike would spark confrontations in other cities, the federal government decided to intervene; soon after the strike began, Senator Gideon Robertson, minister of labour, and Arthur MEIGHEN, minister of the interior and acting minister of justice, went to Winnipeg to meet with the Citizens' Committee. They refused requests from the Central Strike Committee for a similar hearing. On their advice, the federal government swiftly supported the employers, and federal employees were ordered to return to work immediately or face dismissal. The Immigration Act was amended so that British-born immigrants could be deported, and the Criminal Code's definition of sedition was broadened.

On June 17 the government arrested 10 leaders of the Central Strike Committee and 2 propagandists from the newly formed One Big Union. Four days later, a charge by Royal North-West Mounted Police into a crowd of strikers resulted in 30 casualties, including one death. "Bloody Saturday" ended with federal troops occupying the city's streets. Six of the labour leaders were released, but Fred Dixon and J.S. WOODSWORTH were arrested. Faced with the combined forces of the government and the employers, the strikers decided to return to work on June 25.

The General Strike left a legacy of bitterness and controversy. In a wave of increased unionism and militancy across Canada, sympathetic strikes erupted in centres from Amherst, NS, to Victoria, BC. Seven of the arrested leaders were unfairly convicted of a conspiracy to overthrow the government and sentenced to jail terms from 6 months to 2 years; the charges against J.S. Woodsworth were dropped. Almost 3 decades passed before Canadian workers secured union recognition and collective bargaining.

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008649
Zie ook http://1919winnipeggeneralstrike.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 8:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oliemolen ’t Pink

Oliemolen ’t Pink, gebouwd in 1620, is de oudste van de overgebleven Zaanse molens. Oorspronkelijk was de molen kleiner, met een bovenbouw van het type wipmolen, en had hij slechts één oliepers, een zg. enkelwerks oliemolen. In 1751 kreeg de molen zijn huidige vorm en werd het een dubbele oliemolen. Vanaf 1779 tot 1935 was de molen eigendom van de familie Honig, die circa 20 oliemolens in bedrijf had. In November 1792 raakte de kap van de molen in brand door stormweer, maar hij kon worden behouden. 15 Maart 1876 brak de bovenas tijdens malen met storm af. Dit veroorzaakte veel schade. In 1903 brak de molen beide roeden. 25 Juni 1915 sloeg de bliksem in waardoor een kleine brand ontstond. (...)

Op 25 juni 1915 werd de molen door de bliksem getroffen maar een begin van brand kon tijdig worden geblust. 19 November 1922 ontstond wederom brand, dit maal in de molenschuur, deze kon echter snel geblust worden.

http://pink.molens.org/geschiedenis.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 8:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender

Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

25 juni 1915 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Ceres' (1908) van de KNSM, op weg van Amsterdam naar Hudiksvall, loopt bij de ingang van de Bothnische Golf op een zeemijn, waarbij het schip verloren gaat. De bemanning weet zich daarbij te redden in de reeds uitgedraaide sloepen. Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De Ned. koopvaardij in de eerste oorlogsmaanden van 1915' in: 'DBW' jrg. 55 nr. 2 (2002)

http://www.scheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=6&d=25
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 8:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friday 25th June 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

An aeroplane passed over here at about 11am but it was hard to distinguish who it belonged to. The distinguishing mark on our planes is a red, white and blue circle on each wing. The enemy is the same as the Germans, a black cross. At about 3pm the Lord Nelson accompanied by a balloon ship, and escorted by T.B.D’s took up position about midway between Imbros and Kaba Tepe point and from there fired broadside after broadside at the enemy away inland towards Maidos, the balloon from the balloon ship directed her fire. The enemy field guns began firing at the battleship but she took no notice of them, they could be seen flashing on the high ridge in front of our right flank. At about 4.30pm when the Lord Nelson and other boats steamed off, great columns of dense smoke could be seen rising away to the south-east towards Maidos. An enemy aeroplane flew over our lines at about 5pm and set a bundle of papers loose but the wind carried them all into enemy territory.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/06/25/friday-25th-june-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2010 8:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Flamethrower

A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to project a long controllable stream of fire. (...)

20th century - The English word 'flamethrower' is a loan-translation of the German word Flammenwerfer, since the modern flamethrower was first invented in Germany. The first flamethrower, in the modern sense, usually is credited to Richard Fiedler. He submitted evaluation models of his Flammenwerfer to the German army in 1901. The most significant model submitted was a man-portable device, consisting of a vertical single cylinder 4 feet (1.2 m) long, horizontally divided in two, with pressurized gas in the lower section and flammable oil in the upper section. On depressing a lever the propellant gas forced the flammable oil into and through a rubber tube and over a simple igniting wick device in a steel nozzle. The weapon projected a jet of fire and enormous clouds of smoke some 20 yards (18 m). It was a single-shot weapon - for burst firing, a new igniter section was attached each time.

WWI - It was not until 1911 that the German army accepted the device, creating a specialist regiment of twelve companies equipped with Flammenwerferapparaten. Despite this, the weapon went unused in World War I until June 25, 1915, when it was briefly used against the French. On July 30, 1915, it was used against British trenches at Hooge, with limited, but impressive, success.
The weapon had drawbacks: it was cumbersome and difficult to operate and could only be safely fired from a trench, so limiting its safe use to areas where the opposing army trenches were less than 20 yards apart, which was not a common situation. Nevertheless, the German army continued deploying flamethrowers during the war in more than 300 battles, usually in teams of 6 flamethrowers.

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Flamethrower/1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2011 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

[b]25 June 1916

Western Front[/b]

Battle of Verdun: Heavy fighting at Fleury and west of Thiaumont.

Preliminary British bombardment along Somme front and northwards.

Eastern Front

Russian advance from Bukovina; fighting on Dniester.

Southern Front

Great Italian advance from the Brenta to the Adige. Asiago retaken.

Political, etc.

Roger Casement trial begins.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_06_25.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2011 19:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Introduction

This page contains extracts from the diary of Captain A.J. Shakeshaft of the 2nd Battalion, Norfolk Regiment. They cover the period 15 May to 25 June 1915. Following the departure of the first batch of POWs had left Baghdad, after their march from Kut, General Melliss and a few other British Officers who had been sick left Baghdad for Asia Minor. Captain Shakeshaft was one of the officers in this party. He survived the war and returned to the UK.

The extracts from the diary recount the appalling conditions in which British and Indian soldiers were kept after the fall of the Kut Garrison on 30 April 1916. Following Kut's surrender, many of the Arab inhabitants of the town were hanged for aiding the British garrison.


The extracts themselves are taken from Appendix XXIX of the official history "The Campaign in Mesopotamia 1914-1918" (Volume 2), which was originally published in 1924.

he Extracts

16th May

(Baghdad). Colonel Chitty and I went to see the Turkish Major Amin Bey. We found him most charming and really eager to help us ...

17th May

... More parties of officers came up from Shurnran ... The troops soon began to arrive, a dreadful spectacle ... to see British troops in rags, many barefooted, starved and sick wending their way under brutal Arab guards through an Eastern bazaar ... From men in hospital I heard many stories of the horrors of the march from Shuraran ... General Melliss kept me quite busy writing letters on the subject to those in authority; they were of course never answered

(Date ?)

The Turkish Minister of War, Enver Pasha, came to Baghdad during our stay. I did not see him. He inspected some of the men near the station and ordered that they should be given a ration of tea. They received it for two or three days, then ' finish,' as our guards say ...

(Date ?)

The General (Melliss) was now quite well again and was asking to take the road and reach his final destination. He informed Major Amin Bey and arrangements were accordingly made ...

8th June

On this day, so far as 1 can remember, we left Baghdad

10th June

... At about 11 a.m. reached the Arab town of Tikrit, a miserable place, standing on high undulating ground. We met a number of unfortunate British and Indian soldiers who were standing at the door of a miserable yard, where they were herded together. They looked ghastly. They were sick left behind by one of the columns ... After unloading our kits we went round to see the men. They were in a miserable plight, many suffering from dysentery. Others were fairly fit, but had no boots for marching. There were about 80 British and Indian. They received only a ration of wheat. The Arabs used to bring milk and eggs to sell and asked exorbitant prices; consequently they would soon have no money and would die of starvation and neglect. There were no guards over them and they were completely abandoned. Sometimes, when a sick man would crawl out of the hovel they lived in, Arabs would throw stones and chase him back into the yard. I will spare the reader any description of the dark, filthy hovel where they slept ... General Melliss was very much upset at what he had seen and sent for the commandant, an Arab captain. He was hopeless and nothing could be got out of him. I wrote a long letter for the General to Halil Pasha exposing the case, but I doubt if it was ever sent. We spent the evening with the men. Baines (a medical officer) did his best for the sick and we gave them some clothes and the General left some gold with them ...

13th June

... While we were looking at the excavations (at Sharqat), an assistant surgeon came and asked us to go to the serai at once. We found a large number of men lying in some outhouses in a most pitiful condition. Most of them were slowly dying of dysentery and neglect ... General Melliss left some gold and all the cigarettes he had. As I was leaving a room, behind the General, a man called me and said: "May God bless your General, sir, for he has brightened the last hours of a dying man." It was the same story everywhere; Turkish neglect and absolute indifference to the sufferings of our helpless men ...

16th June

... arrived Mosul ...

17th June.

I went round the barracks and hospital with the General. There were only a few convalescents in the barracks, except British and Indian officers. The food for the men appeared good ... but they did not get enough of it. Most of them looked half starved and very ill. The place was in a filthy condition and Words Would fail to express the sanitary arrangements ... Went to the hospital. There were about 80 men there under Captain Spackman. All the men were very well looked after, every man had a bed and were all in clean rooms. The Turkish P.M.O seemed to do his best to assist and promised the General to let Spacknian have some more beds, as a number of men in barracks were looking very ill. In the evening a number of British and Indian troops left, on route for Ras al Ain. Before they went the General insisted that Baines should inspect them and he sent a number back to hospital.

20th June.

(Left Mosul on route for Ras al Ain) ... We started off about 4.30 a.m. Early in the morning We passed a German machine gun section, admirably turned out: all the section was mounted ... At about 9 a.m. We arrived on the banks of a stream, Where the water was fairly good. We halted at the stream and a British soldier came and told us that there Were about half a dozen of his comrades in a room at the post, two of whom were dangerously ill. We went in and found six British soldiers in a fearfully emaciated condition lying in a filthy stable. Of course, the Turks had done nothing for them. One of the men said: "We are like rats in a trap and they are just slowly killing us." They said that the German machine gun section had been most kind to them. The officers had given them money; the men had given them part of their rations. The General gave some gold to the senior of the party and Baines did what he could for the worst cases, two men who were very near death. We saw the senior Turkish official in charge of the post, a warrant officer. He was quite useless and could do nothing ...

21st June

... As soon as we arrived at Ras al Ain ... The General asked to see the commandant ... The commandant was a colonel. When we entered, he was reclining on a divan smoking a hookah. He at once got up, addressed us in good French and offered cigarettes and coffee. The General told me to tell him all we had seen on the way from Baghdad and to ask him to wire to Ralil Pasha to have carts sent for our unfortunate men dying by the wayside. He refused, as he was not in Halil's command. The General then told him to wire to Aleppo. Another evasive reply ...

22nd June.

We reached Aleppo (by train from Ras al Ain) about 9 a.m. After lunch we drove up to the barracks to interview the Turkish commander ... Presently Shefket Pasha entered ... The General then exposed the lamentable state of our men on the road and offered to pay for a telegram to Baghdad to ask them to send carts and pick up all the isolated parties. Shefket Pasha would not hear of this and wrote out a telegram himself and promised to send it. He also said he would do his utmost to better the condition of our men ...

23rd June.

Arrived at Islahiya ... a German warrant officer came and told me that there were a number of British troops suffering from dysentery in some Arab tents near by. The German had been to see them several times, but the Turks had warned him off and said that the men had cholera - a lie. He said that they were being starved to death. The General sent Baines to investigate this case and Halim (Turkish interpreter with General Melliss's party) and self went to interview the commandant. The assistant surgeon came up from the prisoners and bore out what the German had told me. I then went with the General to the commandant to expose the case and ask him to have a telegram sent to Aleppo. He agreed to everything and said he would send a wire, but I doubt it ... The General sent me off to thank the German warrant officer; I found him in the rest house for German and Austro-Hungarian troops. He promised to do what he could for our men ...

24th June

We came to a spring and lying around it were three British soldiers ... All were horribly emaciated and in a dreadful state. They told us that they had been left behind by a column that had passed about two days ago, as they could not march. They had nothing to eat from the Turks, but a German wireless section, that we had met, had given them some food. We took these men on our carts to bring along with us.

On arriving at Hassan Begli I saw a German warrant officer talking to 24 British soldiers. He told me that they had been left here the night before by the party going out, as they were too ill to travel. He had seen the commandant several times and begged him to put them under shelter (they were lying by the road side) and to give them shelter and food; but each time the commandant gave an evasive reply and nothing was done. The General sent for the commandant and told him exactly what he thought of his behaviour. We now had 27 men on our hands. The commandant at once sent them into a large shed and sent down some rice and meat already cooked. The General sent me into the village to buy bread and eggs, which, thanks to the German, I got at very low prices. We brought these to the men and issued them out. The General told me to invite the German to breakfast. He was glad to come, as he had not met Europeans for so long. We had another interview with the commandant. The General told him that he must send on these 27 men by carts. He said he had no carts. The German said this was a lie. Finally, the commandant said our carts would go at 5 p.m. and at 6 p.m. the men should go with a convoy. But that did not suit the General, who said he would not stir till the men had been moved. The commandant then agreed to send them by carts and at about 5 p.m. we saw the men safely off ...

26th June

We arrived at ... There we found the men we had sent on in carts the night before sitting down enjoying hot coffee, the gift of some Austrian soldiers. One of our men told me that this was the first hot drink he had had since he had been a prisoner.

I went with the General to interview the German commandant (Major Schon). He was very amiable, sent for coffee for us and listened with great sympathy to my story of our suffering men. He told me that there were a large number of British and Indians here; at present they were under the Turks, but he hoped to take them over soon for railway work; then their conditions would improve ...

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/capt_diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2011 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

IN MEMORY OF THE ROYAL MARINES

WHO LOST THEIR LIVES IN THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN


Those heroes that shed their blood, and lost their lives ...

You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country

Therefore, rest in peace.

There is no difference between the Johnnies

And the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side,

Here in this country of ours.

You, the mothers, who sent their sons from far away countries ...

Wipe away your tears.

Your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace.

After having lost their lives on this land, they have

Become our sons as well”.

the Turkish Commander Mustafa Kemal Attaturk



Friday, 25 June 1915

RND, 2nd Field Company, RM Divisional Engineers

WARTH, EDWIN FREDERICK Sapper Royal Marines R.M. Division Engineers, R.N. Division Age: 26 Born 12 August 1888 Date of Enlistment: 08 January 1915 Died of wounds Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: Deal/864(S) Additional information: Son of Dr. Hugo and Mrs. Warth, of 109, Sandford Road, Moseley, Birmingham. Born at Mussourie, United Provinces, India. B.Sc. Birmingham University. A.M.I.C.E. Grave Reference: L. 61. Cemetery: ALEXANDRIA (CHATBY) MILITARY AND WAR MEMORIAL CEMETERY



RND, Deal Battalion

BAILEY JOHN HENRY Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Plymouth Battalion. R.N. Division Age: 18 Born 28 August 1896 Date of Enlistment: 13 August 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PLY/16868 Additional information: Son of Mrs. Susannah Bailey, of 41, Hawthorn St., Meadows, Nottingham. Grave Reference: Sp. Mem. A. 92. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1548535

BEVINS, GEORGE FREDERICK Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Age: 19 Born 11 June 1896 Date of Enlistment: 29 August 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PO/17621 Additional information: Son of Emily Bevins, of "Jessedene," Stratford Rd., Hall Green, Birmingham. Grave Reference: XII. D. 5. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1548558

DAVIS HENRY CHARLES Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Born 24 June 1896 Date of Enlistment: 25 July 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: CH/18567 Grave Reference: XII. D. 12. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES

ELLIS, WILLIAM DOUGLAS CONEY Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Born 02 August 1896 Date of Enlistment: 01 September 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: CH/18901 Memorial Reference: Panel 2 to 7. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

JACKSON, GEORGE Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Age: 40 Born 09 September 1873 Date of Enlistment: 09 February 1891 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PLY/6137 Additional information: Son of Charles Abraham and Elizabeth Jackson. Grave Reference: Sp. Mem. A. 170. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1548803

JAMES, ALBERT EDWARD Private Royal Marine Light Infantry E Coy. Portsmouth Battalion. R.N. Division Born 25 January 1896 Date of Enlistment: 17 August 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PO17481 Additional information: Son of Mr and Mrs W James of Ipswich. Gravel Reference: Special Memorial B. 65. Cemetery: SKEW BRIDGE CEMETERY Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1551931

SALOMON ROBERT Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Born 19 July 1895 Date of Enlistment: 18 August 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PLY/16908 Grave Reference: Sp. Mem. B. 139. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1549007

SWINYARD EDWARD HENRY Serjeant Royal Marine Light Infantry (RMR/CH/1331) Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Born 25 July 1877 Date of Enlistment: 07 August 1895 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: CH/8599 Grave Reference: Sp. Mem. B. 152. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1549054

THOMPSON JOHN Corporal Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Born 16 January 1886 Date of Enlistment: 09 January 1904 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: CH/14226 Grave Reference: XII. D. 2. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1549062

TOWERSEY WILLIAM RONALD Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Born 30 April 1895 Date of Enlistment: 16 November 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: CH/524(S) Grave Reference: Sp. Mem. B. 71. Cemetery: REDOUBT CEMETERY, HELLES Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1549069

TURVEY, HENRY ROBERT (Also spelt TURNEY) Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Deal Battalion. R.N. Division Age: 18 Born 18 June 1897 Date of Enlistment: 24 August 1914 Killed in action Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: CH/18794 Additional information: Son of Charles R. and Rose I. Turvey, of Kent Lodge, Liverpool Gardens, Worthing, Sussex. Memorial Reference: Panel 2 to 7. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL



RND, Portsmouth Battalion

DERRICK CLIFFORD Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Portsmouth Battalion. R.N. Division Born 30 September 1886 Date of Enlistment: 23 January 1902 Died of wounds Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PO/13375 Grave Reference: C. 81. Cemetery: LANCASHIRE LANDING CEMETERY Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1486179

MERRITT, WILLIAM JOHN Private Royal Marine Light Infantry Portsmouth Battalion. R.N. Division Age: 21 Born 02 July 1893 Date of Enlistment: 28 February 1913 Died of wounds Date of Death: 25/06/1915 Service No: PO/16811 Additional information: Son of Tom and Edith Merritt, of 33, Nancy Rd., Fratton, Portsmouth. Grave Reference: C. 76. Cemetery: LANCASHIRE LANDING CEMETERY Picture of his grave http://www.twgpp.org/information.php?id=1486565


http://www.royalmarinesonline.com/Gallipoli-June-1915.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2011 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 25, 1917 - The first American troops land in France.
http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2011 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


At signal training camp 25 June 1917. Back Row: Pvts Fraser, Haskell, Hampton. Middle Row: Pvts Wells, Oliver, Allwood, Badham, Milligan. Front Row: Pvt Lee, Corps Lynex and Cruller, Pvts Taylor and W. A. Toon. Source
http://keteselwyn.peoplesnetworknz.info/soldiers_of_selwyn/images/show/965-christchurch-men-of-the-22nd-reinforcements-at-sling-camp-25-june-1917?view_size=large
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 8:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Today In Irish History: The Opening Of The Irish Convention, 25 June 1917

Today marks the anniversary of an event that is largely forgotten in Irish history. It’s forgotten, mostly because it was a failure or, if not a failure, certainly not a success.

Failure of course is not always a barrier to being remembered in Irish history, after all the stories of revolt and rebellion that Irish republicanism and nationalism offer as the basis of our national story are stories of failure and defeat.

The Irish Convention though, which had its first session today in 1917, was failure of a different colour. For one thing, had it been successful it might have resulted in a totally different Ireland to the one that has emerged. For another, it was at the instigation of the British. Finally, radical factions on all sides made even a successful outcome mostly irrelevant.

Lees verder op http://www.theirishstory.com/2011/07/25/today-in-irish-history-25-june-1917-the-opening-of-the-irish-convention/#.WzCUTqczbIU
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 8:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kollock, Cornelius, to Mary from Chattanooga, TN, 25 June 1917

Brief... https://digital.scetv.org/teachingAmerhistory/pdfs/1917June25KollcoktoMary.pdf

En nu we het toch over Chattanooga hebben...

Zie hier: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chattanooga_Choo_Choo
... en hier... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJUKOdehuiI
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 9:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In 1916 the Decree of Nicholas II on “Requisition of foreigners” to the rear works was released

June 25, 1916 — Russia’s Czar Nicholas II adopted a decree on the mobilization of the male «alien» population of Turkestan and Steppe region aged 19 to 43 years on the frontline work. Amateurish, dramatic content and insulting form decision was kind of a «trigger» for a large-scale uprising of the indigenous population in most areas of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. After the bloody events in 1863–1864 in Poland, perhaps, the largest uprising in the national borderlands of the Russian Empire, and even what happened in terms of the First World War. It marked a crisis in the system of imperial control Central Asian possessions of Russia, and the entire Russian colonial policy. Moreover, the uprising in 1916 can be considered one of the signs of the inevitability of the coming collapse of the Russian Empire. It was an event, the consequences of which have influenced the development of historical processes in Central Asia not only, say, during the Civil War, but in a much more distant time periods. Actually, its consequences affect so far, at least, because the debate about the causes and nature of the uprising substantially continues. And while we cannot say that it is limited to discussions purely historical plan. For quite a long time, but especially after the collapse of the USSR, the theme of the 1916 uprising, in adequate lighting has become part of the process of formation of national consciousness in the former Soviet Central Asian republics, the historic «positioning» and legitimize their national statehood. Consequently, those old events, as, indeed, any significant historical events, albeit indirectly, but continue to influence the situation in the Central Asian countries, primarily on international relations, and, accordingly, on the relations of these countries with Russia.

http://e-history.kz/en/calendar/event/06/25
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 9:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SEAFORD, SUSSEX, ENGLAND. 25 JUNE 1916. GROUP PORTRAIT OF MEN FROM THE LONDON COMMAND CONVALESCENT DEPOT NO. 4 HUT, NO. 3 BAY.

LEFT TO RIGHT: BACK ROW: R.C. SWANN, MCDONALD, DOE, READ, NOON, GIBBONS. CENTRE ROW: ROBINSON, CONANA(?), ELDRIDGE, COOK, MARSHALL, SERGEANT FISK. FRONT ROW: TRUISON(?), HAND, CORPORAL HARPER, BROWN. MOST OF THESE MEN WERE WOUNDED IN BATTLES AT FESTUBERT AND LOOS, FRANCE.

Foto... https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C51884
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 9:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 1916 - Remembering Macclesfield's Great War - Duffield, William

William Duffield, Private 2267, 2nd Battalion, Royal Munster Fusiliers
Killed in action 25th June 1916 in France, aged 27

EARLY LIFE - William Duffield was born on 9th January and baptised on 23rd February 1890 at Macclesfield Trinity Wesleyan Methodist Church, the son of Annie and Thomas Duffield, a silk piecer of Macclesfield. In 1891, one year old William was living at 2 Parker’s Court, Silk Street, Macclesfield, with his parents and older brother Fred, aged 3. Ten years later in 1901, the family was living with William’s grandfather, John Duffield, at 2 Gunco Lane, Macclesfield.

By 1911, the family had moved to 263 Black Road, Macclesfield, and 22 year old William was living there with his parents and younger siblings James (18), May (17), Edith (13), Annie (10), Samuel (8) and Harry (3); at that time he was employed as a cotton spinner.

William was educated at St Peter’s School and was connected with St Peter’s Church and Sunday School. Prior to enlisting, he was employed as a labourer at Messrs. Hammond’s brickworks, Bollington.

WW1 SERVICE - William enlisted soon after the start of the war into the King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry with service number 13848. A few weeks later he transferred to the Royal Munster Fusiliers and went to the Curragh and Cork for training.

William was drafted to France on 2nd May 1915, and participated in the Battle of Loos (September – October 1915), where he received a back injury, but returned to his Battalion after treatment.

His death was reported in the Macclesfield Times of 14th July 1916:

THREE FIGHTING SONS – FATHER’S DOUBLE BEREAVEMENT

Mr. Thomas Duffield, 12 Higginbotham Green, Sutton, Macclesfield, who contributed three sons to the fighting strength of the British Expeditionary Force in France, has received news that one of them has been killed in action. An official intimation reached him from Cork on Sunday that Private William Duffield, 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers, met his death on June 25th, and confirmation of the sad event was contained in a letter from a comrade, Private N Trindall, who wrote to the bereaved father… as follows: “It is with deep regret that I write to tell you that your son William … was killed about 11.30 last Sunday night, June 25th. I was not close to him as the time it happened, but am told he was in a sap and a piece of a ‘swish bang’ caught him. One consolation is that he did not suffer… He was a good lad and a splendid soldier, liked by all who knew him. William was with me for over seven months with the Brigade Pioneers, and I shall miss him very much. I know this will be a great blow to you, coming so close on your other great loss…”

Private Duffield was born in Macclesfield and was 26 years of age. He was educated at St Peter’s School and was connected with St Peter’s Church and Sunday School. In civil life he was employed as a labourer at Messrs. Hammond’s brickworks, Bollington. Deceased enlisted shortly after the war broke out in the King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, and after a few weeks transferred to the 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers. He received his training at the Curragh and in Cork, and had been out in France over twelve months. In the battle of Loos he was wounded in the back, but the injury was only slight, and he reported himself for duty … after a few days’ treatment in hospital. In all he had participated in five engagements. Private Duffield’s mother died suddenly in April, and he spent a short furlough in Macclesfield at the end of May. His father is employed at Backhouse & Coppock’s, Sutton Mills.

Mr Duffield’s other soldier sons are: Sapper Fred Duffield, Royal Engineers; Private James Duffield, 18th Lancashire Fusiliers. Both have been serving in France for some months.


COMMEMORATION - Private William Duffield is buried in Grave Ref. XVIII. C. 22. at Loos British Cemetery in Pas-de-Calais, France. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission holds casualty details for William Duffield.
In Macclesfield, William Duffield is commemorated on the Park Green, Town Hall, St Michael’s Church and St Peter’s Church war memorials.

http://macclesfieldreflects.org.uk/1916/06/25/duffield-william/ via http://macclesfieldreflects.org.uk/yr1916/june-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 10:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter - 25 June 1916 - Gertrude Bell to her father, Sir Hugh Bell

G.H.Q. Basrah [Basrah, Al (Basra)].
June 25.

Dearest Father.
The mail hasn't come in this week but a stray post brought me a Bellated letter from you (May 10) and also I have had your telegram. I'm delighted to hear that M. [Maurice] doesn't go back to France yet, but how will he like a Welsh regiment, I wonder? I telegraphed a reply that the British Architects might use anything they liked. Your encouragement to me to remain here came just at the right moment and I have decided to let them appoint me official Correspondent to Cairo. A routine order is now to be issued making me part of I.E.F. "D", the Indian Expeditionary Force "D", and I Bellieve I'm to have pay, but fortunately I need not wear uniform! I ought to have white tabs, for I am under the Political Department. It's rather comic isn't it. It has its disadvantages, but I think it's the right thing to do. The news this week has been of Mecca [Makkah], deeply interesting, and one up to Egypt and my Belloved chiefs there, from whom I am now entirely detached for the moment. I expect the immediate results will not be very great - we must beat the Turkish army before anything very striking can happen - but the revolt of the Holy Places is an immense moral and political asset. I've had a busy week and I expect I shall be busier when I take up my new work. I shall like very much coming into closer contact with Sir Percy Cox. He is going to give me a room in his office where I shall go two or three mornings a week - as often as is necessary. The other days I shall go on working at G.H.Q. which is next door to where I live. Sir Percy's office is a quarter of an hour away - you can't realize what that means until you've stepped out into the sun here anywhere near the middle of the day. Even if you wear a hat like the Quangle Wangle's, the heat from the ground burns you like the breath of a furnace. We've had a very hot and heavy fortnight, and the north wind, long overdue, doesn't come, curse it! The result is that there's an astonishing amount of sickness, all the clerks and typists going down first so that you can't get your work done. I am absolutely well; I never have the smallest touch of fever or even feel tired - a little slack at the end of the hot day, which isn't surprising seeing that one gets up soon after 5. I sleep like a top though the nights have been very hot and damp. My bed is on the roof; I've discarded all mattresses and sleep on a bit of fine matting with a sheet over it. After midnight it gets cooler and one wakes for a moment and pulls a second sheet over oneself. Most mornings I tumble straight out of bed onto a horse and come in at 7 to a bath and breakfast. Sometimes towards sunset General McMunn takes me out on the river in his launch, and often I step into a boat and go down the canal to the Van Esses and we all sit on the roof talking. Mr Dobbs has come back - he has been away up river for a month or more. He's a great addition to my small world. I like him so much and he is so interesting and so clever. He is going on leave in August - I shall miss him very much. George is still here but I fear he has nearly finished his job. He will be a great loss. It's the queerest life, you know - quite unlike anything one has ever done before. I love the work, and the people are all very kind. On the whole I like it all.
But I feel rather detached from you - I wish I could sit somewhere midway and have a talk with you once or twice a week.
Goodbye dearest - I hope Mother is better. Ever your very affectionate daughter Gertrude

http://gertrudebell.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?letter_id=181
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 10:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Spectator, 25 June 1916: Why we still speak of England. Against partisans for the use of 'British'

From ‘English or British?’, The Spectator, 25 June 1916: We wish that this question of ‘England’ or ‘Britain’ could be settled satisfactorily, for the outbursts of the touchy champions of ‘Britain’ rather overwhelm us at times. Besides, it is always disagreeable to find that one has offended friends when no offence was intended. Peace and security might be attained, people tell us, by making an absolute rule never to say ‘England’ and ‘English’ (except, of course, when we are talking of England as a geographical area distinct from Scotland, Wales, and Ireland) when we mean ‘Britain’ and ‘British’… But an absolute rule is not practicable. ‘British’ is not always interchangeable with ‘English’. Does any one seriously propose, for instance, that we should talk of the ‘British language’ or of ‘British literature’?

https://www.spectator.co.uk/2016/06/the-spectator-1916-why-we-still-speak-of-england/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Jun 2018 10:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Isobel in L'Anse au Loup June 25 - June 28, 1915

Friday, June 25, 1915 - Here I am in my little room at Mrs. Linstead’s. I won’t try to describe either her or my room, but I am going to have pictures of them. Mrs. Wakefield is asleep on the feather-bed. I am writing at the foot of it. She is pretty well tired out. The window of our room at the Lighthouse would not open and we nearly perished. We drove from the Lighthouse to Schooner Cove. The excitement of the other road was nothing to this one. The last part of the way was sheer precipice. Mrs. Wakefield got out and walked but I stayed in for pure “divilment.” I really didn’t expect to reach the bottom without upsetting. It was fun watching the horse. He was doubled up every which way in his efforts not to roll head over heels down the hill. It was sport and Mrs. Wakefield was sorry she had missed it when we got to the bottom.

Geoff and Mr. Hardy, another of the Marconi operators, borrowed a boat at Schooner’s Cover and rowed us across to Loup. There were several ice-bergs – huge ones – near the horizon, and one in the bay itself. The water was clear as crystal. I could see seaweed and mussel shells on the bottom, and the water was twenty feet deep, anyway, they said. The boat rolled on the deep swell and made our positions balancing on the edge of the trap-boat quite precarious. I saw Battery head and must get a picture of it. The mountains are great round her. They are covered with tuckamore, moss, lichen, and patches of snow.

We have just seen an eight-foot shark that one of the fishermen caught trawling. Geoff came up to take us to see it as he thought we would be interested. It was a wicked looking brute, still alive, quivering, though it was sawn in half.

Lunch was funny. We had caplin, that we were expected to eat with our fingers, bread and stale soda biscuits. We used some of my Oxo instead of the tea, boiled and sweetened with molasses that was offered to us. We had towels instead of napkins. I am glad too that I brought soap, for what Mrs. Linstead had to offer was a bar of laundry soap. Poor people – they have certainly touched rock bottom and they are the best people in the village. How I hope the fishing is good this season.

And do you know what they do with the toys they get – hang them up on the wall as curios. The children go without. I have no less than four dolls hanging round my mirror, besides x-mas cards and a framed collection of cracker mottoes. I have to laugh, everything is so funny, but how in the world I am going to do any good I don’t see.

Ga voor de 26ste en verder naar https://www.janredford.com/blog/isobel-in-l-anse-au-loup-june-25-june-28-1915
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