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23 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2006 7:43    Onderwerp: 23 April Reageer met quote

April 23

1915 Poet-soldier Rupert Brooke dies in Greece

On this day in 1915, Rupert Brooke, a young scholar and poet serving as an officer in the British Royal Navy, dies of blood poisoning on a hospital ship anchored off the Greek island of Skyros, while awaiting deployment in the Allied invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula.

Brooke, born in 1887 in Rugby, Britain, attended King’s College in Cambridge, where he befriended such future luminaries as E.M. Forster, John Maynard Keynes and Virginia Stephens (later Woolf) as a member of the famed Bloomsbury set. Brooke’s travels in the United States in 1912 produced a series of acclaimed essays and articles; he also lived for a time in Tahiti, where he wrote some of his best-known poems. Returning to England just before the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Brooke gained a commission in the Royal Naval Division with the help of his close friend Edward Marsh, then secretary to First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill. In his poetry, Brooke welcomed the arrival of war, writing: Now, God be thanked Who has matched us with His hour/And caught our youth, and wakened us from sleeping.

Rupert Brooke saw his only action of World War I during the defense of Antwerp, Belgium, against German invasion in early October 1914. Although aided by a stiff resistance from Antwerp’s inhabitants, British troops suffered a decisive defeat in that conflict and were forced to retreat through a devastated Belgian countryside. Brooke subsequently returned to Britain to await redeployment, where he caught the flu during the training and preparation. While recovering, Brooke wrote what would become the most famous of his war sonnets, including “Peace,” “Safety,” “The Dead,” and “The Soldier.”

Brooke sailed for the Dardanelles near Turkey on February 18, 1915; problems with enemy mines led to a delay in his squadron’s deployment and a training stint in Egypt, where Brooke contracted dysentery. By this time, Brooke’s poems had begun to gain notice in Britain, and he was offered the chance to return to Britain and serve away from the battlefield after his recovery; he refused. On April 10, he sailed with his unit to Greece, where they anchored off Skyros. There, Brooke developed a fatal case of blood poisoning from an insect bite; he died on April 23, 1915, aboard a hospital ship, two days before the Allies launched their massive, ill-fated invasion of Gallipoli.

On April 26, The Times of London ran an obituary notice for Brooke written by Winston Churchill. “The thoughts to which he gave expression in the very few incomparable war sonnets which he has left behind,” Churchill wrote, “will be shared by many thousands of young men moving resolutely and blithely forward in this, the hardest, the cruelest, and the least-rewarded of all the wars that men have fought.” The opening lines of “The Soldier,” Brooke’s most famous poem, evoke the simple, heartfelt patriotism to which Churchill felt all England’s soldiers should aspire: If I should die, think only this of me/That there's some corner of a foreign field/That is for ever England.

www.historychannel.com
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Woonplaats: Jabbeke, Flanders - Home of the Marine Jagdgeschwader in WW I

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2006 17:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En wat met St-George for England ? Tijdens de vorige nacht in 1918 probeerden de Britten de havens van Zeebrugge en Oostende te blokkeren, een wild plan van Admiraal Keyes, die echter niet voldoende voorbereiding had gehad en zo tot mislukken gedoemd was.
Enkele honderden jonge mensen lieten het leven omdat ze niet voorbereid waren op de manier waarop ze moesten landen op de havendam, omdat er maar één dokter beschikbaar was, omdat er op cruciale momenten geen rookscherm was ter bescherming van de schepen, omdat men een boei niet gecontroleerd had op haar positie en dergelijke flaters meer.
Op 10 mei deed men een nieuwe poging om Oostende te blokkeren met de Vindictive als blokschip, ook dit werd een spijtige mislukking.

Hier wat informatie over de graven en herdenkingsstenen die men nu nog kan vinden in Blankenberge, Oostende en Zeebrugge

BLANKENBERGE

Communal cemetery (Landdijk, Blankernberge)


On the community cemetary is burried Lieutenant Commander George Nicholson Bradford VC of the troops on the HMS Iris, one of the ships who took part at the British raid on St Georges Day in the night of 22-23 april 1918 on the harbour of Zeebrugge and Ostend.
He died at the age of 31. “On 22/23 April 1918 at Zeebrugge, Belgium, Lieutenant-Commander Bradford commanding the naval storming parties embarked in HMS Iris II found there was great difficulty in placing the parapet anchors when the ship came alongside the Mole. Although securing the ship was not part of his duties, the lieutenant-commander climbed a derrick which was projecting out over the Mole and, under heavy fire, with the derrick crashing against the Mole because of the violent tossing of the ship, he picked his moment and jumped with the anchor. He had just placed it in position when he was killed.”
Rather special is the fact that his brother, Lt.col. Roland Boys Bradford also did get the Victoria Cross, and 24 years old when this action occurred : “On 1 October 1916 at Eaucourt L'Abbaye, France, when a leading battalion had suffered very severe casualties and the commander was wounded, its flank was dangerously exposed to the enemy. At the request of the wounded commander, Lieutenant Colonel Bradford took command of that battalion in addition to his own. By his fearless energy under fire of all descriptions, and skilful leadership of both battalions, he succeeded in rallying the attack and capturing and defending the objective.” He was killed in action, Cambrai, France, on 30 November 1917 as a Brig. General.
But not only Bradford can be found here. There are also three men from the HMS North Star buried here and one unknown seaman which also participated in the raid.


Oostende churchyard

In the far middle of the churchyard on the right are a large number of burials of WW I and II, most of them from Commonwealth origine, but with a few exceptions concerning WW II.

Among the graves are Able Seamen G. Hillier and R. P. Payne of the HMS North Star that died on the 23rd April 1918, day of the ST. George’s Day Raid o Zeebrugge and Oostende harbours.

Also an unknown stoker from HMS Vindictive of the 10th May 1918 raid at Oostende and Able Seaman E. Garbutt of the HMS John Moore, a monitor which participated in the raid. Also from HMS Vindictive Lieutenant AH MacLaughlan who died at 18 years old.

Most famous burial of the raid is without any doubt Commander AE Godsal, DSO, son of Philip T. and Ellen H. Godsal of Iscoyd Park near Whitchurch in Shropshire.
Also a number of other seamen are buried here.


Commonwealth/German Imperial Navy Cemetary (St. Donaasstraat, Zeebrugge)

Here lie burried together British military personnel who fell during the attack on Zeebrugge in the night of 22-23 april 1918 as other British personnel and a number of members of the German Imperial Navy (personnel of torpedoboats S15 and S20, naval aviators,...)

About this attack of the 22-23rd april 1918, and with direct concern to the cemetary there is one story that also has to be told.

In the severe fighting on the mole between German and British navy personnel Commander Harisson and simple shipsmate Hermann Künne stood right against another. Künne was the fastest of the two, and only armed with an entersabre he beated the pistol out of Harrisons hand and wounded deadly Harrison with the sabre at his neck. However, in a last attempt for selfpreservation Harrison also wounded deadly Künne by stabbing him with his knife. Both men died of their injuries, and most of all of bloodloss, only moments later side by side. No story of the Zeebrugge attack, shows better the attrocities of that night of man to man fighting, and no story shows better the stupidness of warfare for menkind.
Hermann Künne was born at the 12th december 1897 at Wierthe (Braunschweig). Just before his 18th birthday he joined the Imperial Navy. He first served on the destroyer S53 and so took part at the battle of Jutland. From the 23rd march 1917 the S53 became part of the Flandern Flottille. During the attack on the Zeebrugge-mole, the destroyers S53, V69 and S63 were lying at the inner side of it. From the crew of these three destroyers a stormtroop was formed to defend the mole. Part of these troops were near the ‘Friedrichsort Leitstand’ when they saw a group of British naval soldiers and Hermann Künne led the attack on them, the first person he had before him was Commander Harrison.
On the 22nd december 1937 the 19th destroyer of the Kriegsmarine was named Hermann Künne. In april of 1940 together with 9 other destroyers the ship saw victory at Narvik but was sunk. Coincedence ?
Künne and Harrison were originally burried on this cemetary, and still lay here today.
Now that is the official story, both by the British and the Germans. Sorry guys, you’re terribly wrong ! Künne did not fight with Harrison but with Lt.col. Brock ! Harrison died far away from the place were Künne and Brock died. Very bizarre thing is the fact that only one officer of the raid is missing. We have been pointing out to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission in the UK that these that are on the cemetery should be Brock and Harrison. And that we were 100 % certain.

Memoryplate for the fallen members of the British Navy who have no known graves and who died during the attack on Zeebrugge on St. Georges Day 1918 (St. Donaasstraat, Zeebrugge)

This plate can be found on the military burrial ground.
The following text is marked on it :
TO THE GLORY OF GOD
AND IN MEMORY OF
THSES THREE OFFICERS
AND ONE MECHANIC OF THE ROYAL NAVY
WHO FELL AT THE MOLE OF ZEEBRUGGE
ON ST GEORGE S DAY 1918 AND HAVE
NO KNOWN GRAVE

WING COMMANDER BROCK F.A.O.B.E.
LIEUTENANT COMMANDER HARRISON A.L.V.C.
LIEUTENANT HAWKINGS C.E.V.
MECHANIC SECOND CLASS F/50269 ROUSE J

Memorial for the British military victims of St. Georges Day 1918 (St Donaasstraat, Zeebrugge)

Also located on the military burrial ground, with the following text :
LEST WE FORGET
To the memory of our countrymen who fell in this place on St George s Day April 25 3rd 1918. Erected by the members of the British Salvage Section St George s Day 1920
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2006 17:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?p=85057#85057
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 April 1914, Commons Sitting

UNITED STATES AND MEXICO.


HC Deb 23 April 1914 vol 61 cc1114-5 1114

Mr. DAVID MASON I beg to ask the Prime Minister a question of which I have given private notice, namely: Whether His Majesty's Government have any statement, to make with regard to the war which has broken out between the United States of America and Mexico; whether it is not possible for this country in the interests of humanity, and having regard to the large interests which Great Britain has in Mexico, to offer its good offices in accordance with The Hague Tribunal to bring about an early termination of hostilities?

The PRIME MINISTER I have had very short notice of this question, and in view of the importance of the matter raised, I must ask my hon. Friend to put it on the Paper for next week. Perhaps the Foreign Secretary will be back, if my hon. Friend will put the question down for Tuesday.

Mr. D. MASON Arising out of that answer, for which I thank the right hon. Gentleman, may I ask whether His 1115 Majesty's Government are keeping in mind the fact that, according to Article III. of the Convention, other Powers may, of their own initiative, offer their good offices after hostilities have commenced, and that such action would not be considered as an unfriendly act?

The PRIME MINISTER His Majesty's Government are most carefully watching the situation.

Mr. D. MASON Thank you

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/23/united-states-and-mexico
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: German attack east and west of St. Julien repulsed by Canadians; Germans take several hamlets.

Southern Front

Turkish coast bombarded by Allied fleet in the Gulf of Saros.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British Government declares a blockade of the Cameroons.

White Book on military operations in Togoland published.

Political, etc.

Sir Edward Grey presides over a conference of the French, Russian, Italian and Serbian ministers.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

Aerodrome at Mariakerke bombed by naval aeroplanes.

British bombard Belgian coast.

Battle of Verdun: German attacks at Mort Homme repulsed.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

S.S. "Julnar" fails to break blockade at Kut.

Turks raid Katiya (Sinai) and destroy two British posts: 5th Midland Brigade loses 3.5 sq. ns.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

British capture rest of Trescault and greater part of Havrincourt Wood - Second phase of Battle of Arras begins.

British attack north and south of the Scarpe (Arras), capturing two villages.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British occupy Samarra (60 miles north of Baghdad), 937 prisoners.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Between Blankenberghe and Zeebrugge three British seaplanes attack five German destroyers and sink one.

Political, etc.

Diplomatic relations broken off between U.S.A. and Turkey (no state of war followed).
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Violent artillery fire from Avre river to Albert, followed by heavy infantry attacks at Albert and in region between Somme and Avre.

Paris raided by one aeroplane, which is brought down.

Special despatch from Sir Douglas Haig mentions 14 divisions: 102 German divisions employed against British alone during great offensive.

Eastern Front

Finland: Finnish Western White Army reported to have reached Russian frontier.

Bolshevik Government against protests against union of Bessarabia and Romania.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Palestine: War Office reports progress in Hejaz.

Bayazid (Armenia) occupied by Turks.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Naval aircraft bomb docks at Zeebrugge and Ostend.

Durazzo (Albania) bombed by Naval aircraft:- only one warship seen in harbour.

Political, etc.

Newfoundland: Conscription Bill introduced.

Japan: Viscount Motono succeeded by Baron Goto as Foreign Minister.

Hungarian Premier on Emperor's letter.

Major-General Bridges, Military Adviser to Lord Reading in U.S.A.

Guatemala declares war on Germany.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919
Aftermath of War

No news reported.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"English trench Langemarck 23 April 1915"

Foto op http://www.flickr.com/photos/29007475@N08/3598524123/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het aantal slachtoffers van de eerste gasaanvallen in april 1915 bij Ieper
Door Eric R.J. Wils

(...) De Canadezen hadden geen slachtoffers te betreuren door de gasaanval van 22 april. In de nacht van 22 april deden wel twee bataljons van de 1e Canadese divisie al een poging de Duitsers tegen te houden, wat de nodige slachtoffers kostte.13) Ook op 23 april deden twee bataljons een tegenaanval, waarbij ze meer dan 50% verliezen moesten incasseren. In de vroege ochtend van 24 april lanceerden de Duitsers de gasaanval, gevolgd door een infanterieaanval.

De Canadezen hadden instructie gekregen niet weg te lopen, maar de gaswolk over zich heen te laten komen. Bovendien pasten ze de eerste vormen van adembescherming toe door met water of urine natgemaakte doeken voor hun neus en mond te houden. Veel bescherming zal dat niet geboden hebben, maar alles was beter dan niets. Het 15e bataljon stond in het centrum van de wolk en verloor die dag 220 doden. Dit aantal was niet alleen het gevolg van de gasaanval maar ook van de daarop volgende zware gevechten gedurende de rest van de dag.

Lees er alles over op http://www.ssew.nl/het-aantal-slachtoffers-eerste-gasaanvallen-april-1915-bij-ieper
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events in the Gallipoli Campaign

23 April 1915
A final pre-invasion report circulated by British General Headquarters on Lemnos read, in part:

It is the general opinion that the Turks will offer an energetic resistance to our landing, but when once we are firmly established on the Peninsula it is thought possible that this opposition may crumble away …

Young English poet and a member of the Royal Naval Division bound for Gallipoli, Rupert Brooke, died on the Greek island of Skyros. These are among the most famous lines of his poetry:

If I should die think only this of me;
That there’s a corner of some foreign field
That is forever England.


http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/april-may-1915.html

Gallipoli/The River Clyde Landing

Troops were staged at Lemnos. On 23-Apr-1915 at approximately 17.00 hours, the transport Caledonia left Lemnos with troops for Tenedos where final dispositions were made before the 'V' Beach landings. Steaming slowly all night with lights out, Tenedos about forty miles away was reached at 07.00 hours on 24-Apr-1915. At 15.15 hours orders were received to embark on the River Clyde. By 19.30 hours the embarkation was complete.

http://www.worldwar1.com/sfclyde.htm via http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=10722
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

23 april 1915 - In L’Independance Belge, een Belgisch tijdschrift in Londen, verscheen een artikel over de Baarlese enclaves. Op 4 mei eiste de burgemeester van Baarle-Hertog een recht van antwoord. Volgens de correspondent werd aan enkele huizen de vlag uitgehangen. Van Gilse beschuldigde de man van bijziendheid. Volgens hem was de bevlagging “absoluut algemeen”. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BUYER FINDS TRADE IN GERMANY STIFLED
New York Times, Friday 23 April 1915

E. P. Calderhead Say Factories There Are Crippled Because They Lack Materials

ALL PRICES HAVE ADVANCED

Berlin Streets, Cafes, and Hotels Deserted---Factory Workers in France Are Men Over 70


A report of commercial conditions in the countries at war, which from the standpoint of the merchant who handles imported goods is said by some who heard it to be far more illuminative than stacks of consular reports from those regions, was delivered yesterday in the shape of an informal talk by Edward P. Calderhead of Gimbel Brothers, who returned recently from a buying and investigating trip that embraced the markets of Germany, France, and England. Mr. Calderhead, who has been connected with Gimbel Brothers for eighteen years, gave the talk to the buyers and executive staff of his firm in Isaac Gimbel's office.

“At the frontier I was asked to give up what German gold I had, and paper money was returned me for it. There was no demand, but I learned later that every German soldier at the front gets a day's holiday from the trenches for every twenty marks in gold that his relatives or friends turn over to the Government.

"At Leipsic, my first objective point, I found the great fair only half Its usual size, and instead of there being between 200 and 300 American buyers, I was one of twelve. Many manufacturers, I learned, had given up exhibiting on account of the lack of labor and materials. The toy trade is in bad condition. Many manufacturers have gone to the front, and sent no representation. Some manufacturers of wooden ware were not taking foreign orders at all. There are few things in Germany that have not advanced in price. Usually six or seven of the big doll manufacturers compete for an order of 2,000 dolls of a special kind we give, amounting to about 56,000 marks. I had hard work inducing one of them to take the order. I had to place it conditionally, as the British Orders in Council had been announced just before I reached Rotterdam.

Women Do the Work

"The manufacturer wanted the money when the goods were finished, and we had to take up the matter later in Berlin. As a matter of fact, much of the work on these is done in the little houses by women and children, and only assembled in the factory, so that what he really did was to find out whether I he could get enough help to furnish the order.

"Berlin I found far different from the city I had known. The streets were deserted, Unter den Linden looked like a Sunday afternoon all the time. All the cafés, theatres, hotels, and restaurants were empty. The Germans told me they were not spending any money. In the big department stores there was business only in spots. Those departments that turned out things that could be used by soldiers at the front were busy; the others were doing nothing. The only small shops busy were the cigar stores. I got there the second week they were using the bread cards. The waiter tore off two coupons from the ticket that was given me when I registered at the hotel, and gave me a couple of slices of black bread. I noticed that, according to the ticket, I had the alternative of getting "white" bread, and asked for it. The waiter took away my black bread and brought rolls that were not white, but were more palatable.

"In a gymnastic and sporting goods store that employs sixteen clerks in peace time, I found one, and he had to deliver parcels after shutting the shop. In a rubber factory I could not buy rubber balls or rubber goods of any kind. But I did find a gelatine ball which had been developed since the war. A celluloid manufacturer wanted 40 per cent. advance in prices. He cannot get sheet celluloid.

Prices of Toys High

"At Nuremburg you cannot buy aluminum goods at all, nor bronze, brass or tin---except black tin. Woolen toys I could not get. All the wool, I was told, was being used for clothes for soldiers. Skin toys have advanced 80 per cent. At Sonneburg and elsewhere I found that glass and chinaware generally have not advanced. One firm has 9,200 cases of toys scattered about the country. They were made to sell to England, France, and Australia. Their owner would not sell them to me except at a 25 per cent. advance. He said he wanted them for his regular customers after the war.

"Black tin goods are up only 10 per cent. One big factory is working twenty-four hours a day turning out canteens, tin plates, and such things for the army. The few skilled laborers who hare not been called to the war, instead of getting 20, 30 and 40 marks a week, are receiving 80 to 150 marks, working for the Government, the entire district of Lichtenfeld, the centre of wicker work manufacture, being engaged in turning out baskets for holding shells. There is great fear that after the war it will be impossible to get skilled workmen to go back to the old wages, and things will be higher in consequence.

Getting into France led me into Switzerland. I changed cars eighteen times getting to the frontier, and five times more before I reached Lausanne. In Paris conditions I found similar to those in Berlin, except there was little dearth of raw materials. The factory making the highest grade of toys is opened only by request, to show samples. When an order is given all the work is done by men over 70. Yet the milliners have had their most successful Winter in years, and the dressmakers and shoemakers are all busy. The metal trades are suffering from lack of materials as well as labor. As for London it is absolutely normal in appearance, except that the town is full of soldiers. Prices are up. The manufacturers insist upon selling you lead toy soldiers by the pound, and not by the designs you wish. Woodenware is high. Labor conditions are bad, but the new law enables the Government to take over any factory and apply military supervision, and if the men won't work it's treason.

"As for general conditions, I do not believe it will be possible to get any German goods over here unless the war stops quickly---except goods purchased and paid for before March 1. In France it is possible to get almost anything wanted, and the same thing is true of England, except so far as leather and metal goods are concerned."

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/buyer-finds-trade-germany-stifled.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Action of Qatia, 23 April 1916

The action of Qatia was a minor Turkish victory against the British during the First World War. In the aftermath of the first Turkish attack on the Suez Canal, in February 1915, it had been decided to move the British defensive line east into the Sinai. The new position would be based around Qatia (or Katia), and would be connected to the Suez Canal by a new railway. This would allow the British to reduce the number of troops needed to defend the Egypt by allowing one force to block the three main routes across the Sinai.

In April 1916 the new position was still being constructed. The 5th Mounted Brigade, with eight squadrons of cavalry (from the Warwickshire Yeomanry, Gloucestershire Hussars and Worcestershire Yeomanry), was in the Qatia area, preparing to attack a Turkish force that had been reported to be to their south east, at Bir el Mageibra. The eight squadrons were split into several groups. One was at Qatia, two at Romani (to the west), two at Oghratina (to the east) and three were preparing for the attack.

The Turkish force at Bir el Mageibra was actually a detachment from a force 3,500 strong, led by the German Kress von Kressenstein. At 4.30 am on 23 April they attacked the two squadrons of the Worcesters at Oghratina, and overwhelmed them in a three hour battle. They then moved on to Qatia, where they attacked and defeated the squadron of the Gloucesters already there and a squadron of Worcesters who came to their aid. The remaining four British squadrons made an attempt to break through to Qatia, but were unable to break through in time. Once Qatia had fallen, the rest of the British force pulled back to the Suez Canal.

The Turks pressed on to Dueidar, twelve miles east of the canal, where they were repulsed by force of infantry. After that Kress took his men back out of the Sinai, to await the arrival of a number of German units and to prepare for his next offensive.

Rickard, J (1 September 2007), Action of Qatia, 23 April 1916 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/action_qatia.html
Zie ook http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=55086
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

23rd April [1916]:
Intermittent shelling. Some rifle grenades in afternoon.

Deduced casualties, determined from other sources:
11900 Cpl William McGregor, 19, C Company, a native of Liverpool born in Belfast, killed in action on 23 April 1916 in the Calonne trenches. He is buried in Loos British Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Battle of the Scarpe (23–24 April 1917)

On 23 April, the British launched an assault east from Wancourt towards Vis-en-Artois. Elements of the 30th and the 50th Divisions made initial gains, and were in fact able to secure the village of Guémappe, but could advance no further east and suffered heavy losses. Farther north, German forces counterattacked in an attempt to recapture Monchy-le-Preux, but troops from the Royal Newfoundland Regiment were able to hold the village until reinforcements from the 29th Division arrived. British commanders determined not to push forward in the face of stiff German resistance, and the attack was called off the following day on 24 April.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arras_(1917)#Second_Battle_of_the_Scarpe_.2823.E2.80.9324_April_1917.29
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTALION WAR DIARY FOR 22nd (SERVICE) BATTALION ROYAL FUSILIERS

23 April 1917 - The Battalion remained in billets at BRAY. A draft of 24 Other Ranks received, 2/Lt F CARTER temporarily attached to 99th Trench Mortar Battery.

http://ww1research.wetpaint.com/page/22nd+Bn+Royal+Fusiliers+April+1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 April 1917, Written Answers (Commons)

TROOPS IN FRANCE (UNDESIRABLE WOMEN).


HC Deb 23 April 1917 vol 92 c2058W 2058W

Sir C. JOHNSTON asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether any steps had been taken to prevent the influx of undesirable women into towns in France where large bodies of our troops are stationed or to secure their expulsion; and whether houses of assignation in these towns have been placed out of bounds for our troops?

Mr. MACPHERSON This is a matter which has been constantly engaging the attention of our military authorities in France in co-operation with the French civil and military authorities.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1917/apr/23/troops-in-france-undesirable-women
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gavrelle 1917

23rd April 1917
Having breached the German's front line positions during the preceding weeks, the British were now confronted in this sector by a trench system known as the Oppy line - named after the village north of Gavrelle.

Despite a preliminary bombardment the German wire north of Gavrelle was hardly touched and 1st Army decided that their part in the renewed offensive would, for the moment, be limited to the taking Gavrelle.

On the right of the 63rd Division the Drake Battalion (189th Brigade) had also noted sections of uncut wire and limited its attack to the northern half of its objective where there were sufficient holes.

Advancing through these gaps they made good progress and having attained the top end of their objective they then bombed their way down the rest, securing the position.

On the left of the divisional front the 4th Bn Bedfordshire regiment and 7th Bn Royal Fusiliers managed to get into their first objective but the Fusiliers who were working with an open left flank were now held up by a swathe of uncut wire in front of them.

Whilst the Fusiliers were checked, the other battalions pushed on into the centre of the village where the Bedfords in turn found their own left flank compromised. Instead of being able to advance as far as the railway line were forced to hang back.

Coming up behind the Drake and Nelson battalions the Hood Battalion was supposed to have waited to give the former a chance to clear their first objective. However, in the face of a German counter barrage, they decided that the best response was to push forward creating a mish mash of troops in the centre of the village.

Once the units had been reorganised they continued their way up the street fighting a dogged battle from house to house. Having taken the village they tried to continue on, but getting in was one thing, trying to emerge out the other side was another altogether.

As soon as the sailors and soldiers tried to leave the cover of the buildings they were swept with machine gun fire. They only had a further 300 metres to achieve but the commanders on the spot realised that success was far from certain, that the losses would be high and settled for what they had.

Lees het hele artikel op http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_arras_XIII.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oprichting Gem. HBS Hengelo (1917)

Een ouderlijk rekest aan de Gemeenteraad
Medio februari 1917 richt een groep ouders zich tot de Gemeenteraad. De groep verzoekt de Raad ervoor te zorgen dat de nieuwe school reeds op 1 september 1917 van start gaat. Het verzoek lijkt gehoor te vinden, want in de gemeenteraadsvergadering van 23 april 1917 wordt een dienovereenkomstig voorstel van enkele raadsleden in stemming gebracht, en met slechts een stem tegen aanvaard.

Leuk artikel op http://jhj.oelering.nl/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

UB-39

Duikboot UB-II klasse van 274 brutoton, gebouwd in 1916 op de werf Blohm & Voss, Hamburg, Duitsland. Afmetingen: 36,6 mx4,3 m. Bewapening: 2x50 cm TT (4 torp.) + 1 - 3.4 inch kanon. Cdt. Kustner verliet Zeebrugge op 23 april 1917 voor operaties in het Kanaal. In de nacht van 14 op 15 mei werd door ter hoogte van ''Tonne 3'' in Dover Strait een onderwaterexplosie waargenomen door de UB-12. De UB-12 en UB-39 waren op dat ogenblik de enigen die aldaar operaties uitvoerden.

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?1189
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Buster Keaton

23 april 1917 - (VS) - Butcher Boy, de eerste film van komiek Buster Keaton, gaat draaien.

Zie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRHoOtYfhyI
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Weerextremen in België

April met laagste gemiddelde minimum temperatuur: 1,5 °C (normaal 5 °C). April telt ook 12 vorstdagen.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/1917
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The Raid on Zeebrugge, 1918

Planned to neutralise the key Belgian ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend, both used by the German Navy as a base for submarines and light shipping, the Raid on Zeebrugge was launched early on the morning of 23 April 1918.

The raid was originally proposed by British First Sea Lord, Sir John Jellicoe, shortly before his abrupt dismissal at the close of 1917 (as a consequence of his ongoing reluctance to back First Lord of the Admiralty Sir Eric Geddes' convoy policy).

Jellicoe gained acceptance of an attack in principle - actually formulated by Dover port commander Sir Roger Keyes - by stating to the cabinet his view that Britain's continuing ability to wage war depended upon blocking the exits from both ports, and thus denying German submarines convenient bases.

Thus the Zeebrugge raid was planned in much secrecy and conducted (in part by a volunteer force) by 75 ships following its formal approval by the British Admiralty in February 1918.

The main force of the attack was to be at Zeebrugge, with a smaller offensive launched against Ostend. In preparation for both however the elderly British cruiser Vindictive was used to land 200 troops at the entrance to the Bruges Canal (at the mile-long Zeebrugge mole), in order that they could destroy its formidable shore batteries.

The operation began badly however. The prepared smokescreen to cover the Vindictive as it landed its troop contents proved ineffective in the face of unexpected winds.

Under crippling fire the old cruiser moored in the wrong location, its guns effectively out of action. However an old submarine did destroy the mole connecting the bridge to the shore after it exploded containing explosives.

The loss of the Vindictive's guns was significant: without their crucial support the shore batteries remained untaken. In turn their sustained fire also disabled a further three ancient British cruisers - Thetis, Iphigenia and Intrepid - packed with concrete and which had moved into the inner harbour, preventing them from halting and scuttling themselves in their correct pre-assigned locations at the narrow entrance to the canal.

If the raid upon Zeebrugge produced initially unclear results, the smaller attack upon Ostend was an unequivocal failure however. Two old cruisers, intended as blockships, failed to reach the harbour entrance. A subsequent attempt made to cripple Ostend similarly failed on 9 May.

Represented at the time as a tremendous British victory by Allied propaganda (with the consequence that its devisor Sir Roger Keyes was ennobled), and by the Germans as a demonstration of their success in holding each port, the Zeebrugge raid did not in reality hinder German operations from either port for more than a few days.

Some 500 British casualties were incurred during the operation (of which approximately 200 were fatalities). A total of eight Victoria Crosses were awarded for the night's action.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/zeebrugge.htm

British Admiralty Statement on the Zeebrugge and Ostend Raids, 22-23 April 1918

The objectives were the canal of Zeebrugge and the entrance to the harbour of Ostend.

Three cruisers, Intrepid, Iphigenia and Thetis, each duly packed with concrete and with mines attached to her bottom for the purpose of sinking her, Merrimac-fashion, in the neck of the canal, were aimed at Zeebrugge; two others, similarly prepared, were directed at Ostend.

The old cruiser Vindictive, with two ferry-boats, Iris and Daffodil, was to attack the great half-moon Mole which guards the Zeebrugge Canal, land blue-jackets and marines upon it, destroy what stores, guns, and Germans she could find, and generally create a diversion while the block-ships ran in and sank themselves in their appointed place. Vice-Admiral Keyes, in the destroyer Warwick, commanded the operation.

There had been two previous attempts at the attack, capable of being pushed home if weather and other conditions had served. The night of the 22nd offered nearly all the required conditions, and at some fifteen miles off Zeebrugge the ships took up their formation for the attack.

Vindictive, which had been towing Iris and Daffodil, cast them off to follow under their own steam; Intrepid, Iphigenia, and Thetis slowed down to give the first three time to get alongside the Mole; Sirius and Brilliant shifted their course for Ostend; and the great swarm of destroyers and motor craft sowed themselves abroad upon their multifarious particular duties.

The night was overcast and there was a drift of haze; down the coast a great searchlight swung its beams to and fro; there was a small wind and a short sea.

From Vindictive's bridge, as she headed in towards the Mole with her faithful ferry-boats at her heels, there was scarcely a glimmer of light to be seen shorewards. Ahead of her, as she drove through the water, rolled the smoke-screen, her cloak of invisibility, wrapped about her by the small craft.

The northeast wind moved the volume of it shoreward ahead of the slips; beyond it, the distant town and its defenders were unsuspicious; and it was not till Vindictive, with her blue-jackets and marines standing ready for the landing, was close upon the Mole that the wind lulled and came away again from the southwest, sweeping back the smoke-screen and laying her bare to the eyes that looked seaward.

There was a moment immediately afterwards when it seemed to those in the ships as if the dim coast and the hidden harbour exploded into light. A star shell soared aloft, then a score of star shells; the wavering beams of the search-lights swung round and settled to a glare; the wildfire of gun flashes leaped against the sky; strings of luminous green beads shot aloft, hung and sank; and the darkness of the night was supplanted by the nightmare daylight of battle fires.

Guns and machine guns along the Mole and batteries ashore woke to life, and it was in a gale of shelling that Vindictive laid her nose against the thirty-foot high concrete side of the Mole, let go an anchor, and signed to Daffodil to shove her stern in. Iris went ahead and endeavoured to get alongside likewise.

The fire, from the account of everybody concerned, was intense. While ships plunged and rolled beside the Mole in an unexpected send of sea, Vindictive with her greater draught jarring against the foundation of the Mole with every plunge, they were swept diagonally by machine-gun fire from both ends of the Mole and by heavy batteries ashore.

Commander A. F. B. Carpenter (afterward Captain) conned Vindictive from her open bridge till her stern was laid in, when he took up his position in the flame-thrower hut on the port side. It is marvellous that any occupant of the hut should have survived a minute, so riddled and shattered is it.

Officers of Iris, which was in trouble ahead of Vindictive, describe Captain Carpenter as "handling her like a picket-boat."

Vindictive was fitted along the port side with a high false deck, whence ran the eighteen brows, or gangways, by which the storming and demolition parties were to land. The men were gathered in readiness on the main and lower decks. The gangways were lowered, and scraped and rebounded upon the high parapet of the Mole as Vindictive rolled; and the word for the assault had not yet been given when both leaders of the assault were killed by the machine-gun fire which swept the decks.

"The men were magnificent." Every officer bears the same testimony. The mere landing on the Mole was a perilous business; it involved a passage across the crashing, splintering gangways, a drop over the parapet into the field of fire of the German machine guns which swept its length, and a further drop of some sixteen feet to the surface of the Mole itself.

Many were killed and more were wounded as they crowded up to the gangways; but nothing hindered the orderly and speedy landing by every gangway.

The lower deck was a shambles as the Commander made the rounds of his ship; yet those wounded and dying raised themselves to cheer as he made his tour. The crew of the howitzer which was mounted forward had all been killed; a second crew was destroyed likewise; and even then a third crew was taking over the gun.

In the stern cabin a firework expert, who had never been to sea before, was steadily firing great illuminating rockets out of a scuttle to show up the lighthouse on the end of the Mole to the block ships and their escort.

The Daffodil, after aiding to berth Vindictive, should have proceeded to land her own men, but now Commander Carpenter ordered her to remain as she was, with her bows against Vindictive's quarter, pressing the latter ship into the Mole.

Iris had troubles of her own. Her first attempts to make fast to the Mole ahead of Vindictive failed, as her grapnels were not large enough to span the parapet. Two officers climbed ashore and sat astride the parapet trying to make the grapnels fast till each was killed and fell down between the ship and the wall.

Iris was obliged at last to change her position and fall in astern of Vindictive, and suffered very heavily from the fire. A single big shell plunged through the upper deck and burst below at a point where fifty-six marines were waiting the order to go to the gangways. Forty-nine were killed and the remaining seven wounded.

Another shell in the ward-room, which was serving as sick bay, killed four officers and twenty-six men. Her total casualties were eight officers and sixty-nine men killed and three officers and a hundred and two men wounded.

The storming and demolition parties upon the Mole met with no resistance from the Germans, other than the in-tense and unremitting fire. The geography of the great Mole, with its railway line and its many buildings, hangars, and store-sheds, was already well known, and the demolition parties moved to their appointed work in perfect order.

One after another the buildings burst into flame or split and crumpled as the dynamite went off.

A bombing party, working up towards the Mole extension in search of the enemy, destroyed several machine-gun emplacements, but not a single prisoner rewarded them. It appears that upon the approach of the ships, and with the opening of the fire, the enemy simply retired and contented themselves with bringing machine guns to the shore end of the Mole.

And while they worked and destroyed, the covering party below the parapet could see in the harbour, by the light of the German star-shells, the shapes of the block ships stealing in and out of their own smoke and making for the mouth of the canal.

Thetis came first, steaming into a tornado of shell from the great batteries ashore. All her crew, save a remnant who remained to steam her in and sink her, had already been taken off her by the ubiquitous motor launches, but the remnant spared hands enough to keep her four guns going. It was hers to show the road to Intrepid and Iphigenia, who followed.

She cleared the string of armed barges which defends the channel from the tip of the Mole, but had the ill-fortune to foul one of her propellers upon the net defence which flanks it on the shore side. The propeller gathered in the net and rendered her practically unmanageable; the shore batteries found her and pounded her unremittingly; she bumped into a bank, edged off, and found herself in the channel again, still some hundreds of yards from the mouth of the canal, in a practically sinking condition.

As she lay she signalled invaluable directions to the others, and here her commander blew the charges and sank her. A motor launch raced alongside and took off her crew. Her losses were five killed and five wounded.

Intrepid, smoking like a volcano and with all her guns blazing, followed; her motor launch had failed to get along-side outside the harbour, and she had men enough for anything. Straight into the canal she steered, her smoke blowing back from her into Iphigenia's eyes, so that the latter, blinded and going a little wild, rammed a dredger with a barge moored beside it, which lay at the western arm of the canal.

She got clear though, and entered the canal pushing the barge before her. It was then that a shell hit the steam connections of her whistle, and the escape of steam which followed drove off some of the smoke and let her see what she was doing.

The commander of the Intrepid placed the nose of his ship neatly on the mud of the western bank, ordered his crew away, and blew up his ship by the switches in the chart-room.

Four dull bumps was all that could be heard; and immediately afterwards there arrived on deck the engineer, who had been in the engine-room during the explosion and reported that all was as it should be.

The commander of Iphigenia beached her according to arrangement on the eastern side, blew her up, saw her drop nicely across the canal, and left her with her engines still going to hold her in position till she should have bedded well down on the bottom.

According to latest reports from air observation, the two old ships with their holds full of concrete are lying across the canal in a V position; and the work they set out to do has been accomplished. The canal is effectively blocked.

The whole harbour was alive with small craft. As the motor launches cleared the canal, and came forth to the incessant geysers thrown tip by the shells, rescuers and rescued had a view of yet another phase of the attack.

The shore end of the Mole consists of a jetty, and here an old submarine, loaded with explosives, was run into the piles and touched off, her crew getting away in a boat to where the usual launch awaited them.

Officers describe the explosion as the greatest they ever witnessed - a huge roaring spout of flame that tore the jetty in half and left a gap of over 100 feet. The claim of another launch to have sunk a torpedo-boat alongside the jetty is supported by many observers, including officers of the Vindictive, who had seen her mast and funnel across the Mole and noticed them disappear.

Where every moment had its deed and every deed its hero, a recital of acts of valour becomes a mere catalogue.

"The men were magnificent," say the officers; the men's opinion of their leaders expresses itself in the manner in which they followed them, in their cheers, in their demeanour to-day while they tidy up their battered ships, setting aside the inevitable souvenirs, from the bullet-torn engines to great chunks of Zeebrugge Mole dragged down and still hanging in the fenders of the Vindictive.

The motor launch from the canal cleared the end of the Mole and there beheld, trim and ready, the shape of the Warwick, with the great silk flag presented to the Admiral by the officers of his old ship, the Centurion. They stood up on the crowded decks of the little craft and cheered it again and again.

While the Warwick took them on board, they saw Vindictive, towed loose from the Mole by Daffodil, turn and make for home - a great black shape, with funnels gapped and leaning out of the true, flying a vast streamer of flame as her stokers worked her up - her, the almost wreck - to a final display of seventeen knots.

Her forward funnel was a sieve; her decks were a dazzle of sparks; but she brought back intact the horseshoe nailed to it, which had been presented to her commander.

Meantime the destroyers North Star, Phoebe, and Warwick, which guarded the Vindictive from action by enemy destroyers while she lay beside the Mole, had their share in the battle.

North Star, losing her way in the smoke, emerged to the light of the star-shells, and was sunk. The German communiqué, which states that only a few members of the crew could be saved by them, is in this detail of an unusual accuracy, for the Phoebe came up under a heavy fire in time to rescue nearly all.

Throughout the operations monitors and the siege guns in Flanders, manned by the Royal Marine Artillery, heavily bombarded the enemy's batteries.

The wind that blew back the smoke-screen at Zeebrugge served us even worse off Ostend, where that and nothing else prevented the success of an operation ably directed by Commodore Hubert Lynes, C.M.G.

The coastal motor boats had lit the approaches and the ends of the piers with calcium flares and made a smoke-cloud which effectually hid the fact from the enemy

Sirius and Brilliant were already past the Stroom Bank buoy when the wind changed, revealing the arrangements to the enemy, who extinguished the flares with gunfire.

The Sirius was already in a sinking condition when at length the two ships, having failed to find the entrance, grounded, and were forced therefore to sink themselves at a point about four hundred yards east of the piers, and their crews were taken off by motor launches.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/zeebrugge_admiralty1.htm

ALBERT McKENZIE VC

This website tells the story of Able Seaman Albert Edward McKenzie of HMS Vindictive, who was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the British and Commonwealth armed forces, following the Royal Navy's famous Raid on Zeebrugge in 1918.

He was chosen by his shipmates to be awarded the VC and it was presented to him by King George V at Buckingham Palace during the Summer of 1918.

He had almost fully recovered from his wounds when he caught 'flu in the epidemic which swept across Europe at the end of the Great War. He died at Chatham Naval Hospital in October 1918 aged nineteen.

Mooie site! http://www.mckenzie.uk.com/

Australians at Zeebrugge, 23rd April 1918

Paul Kendall is a friend of Yves Fohlen, and has written this article for DIGGER in the hope that members can contribute further information on the Australians in the Zeebrugge raid. Paul is in the process of writing a book on the raid and has developed considerable interest in the Australians that participated in this audacious naval action. Paul’s contact details are at the end of the article.

Lees verder op http://www.navynews.co.uk/letters/2006/0602/060228_01.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Apr 2010 21:42, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NARKOMINDEL STATEMENT ON THE SOVIET REPLY TO THE GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER ON BOLSHEVIK PROPAGANDA AMONG GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR

23 April 1918

The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs on 21 April sent the following wireless-telegram to the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs:

In reply to the wireless of the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs of 19 April [1], the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs considers it advisable to bring to your knowledge the text of the orders issued on 2o April by the People's Commissariats for Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs, and Military Affairs.

There follow the orders of all three Commissariats giving instructions for dealing with the question of the attitude towards prisoners of war. Trotsky's order has already been published in Izvestia. The text of the wireless-telegram from the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs dispatched on 2o April to all Soviets of Workers' Peasants', and Soldiers' Deputies reads as follows:

The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs draws the attention of all Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies to the urgent necessity of the complete protection of prisoners of war from any acts of violence, also on the part of their own comrades; it also points out the Russian Government's obligation, on the basis of treaties, to observe all the privileges to which officer-prisoners are entitled in their own country. The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs reminds you that the official institutions of the Russian Republic must, in virtue of the Brest Treaty, refrain from agitation against the political regime in Germany and its allies.

The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs has simultaneously sent the following telegram to all Soviets:

In view of evidence received concerning acts of violence among prisoners of war of different political views, the Commissariat for Internal Affairs instructs all Soviets of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers' Deputies immediately to take all steps in their power to give protection from such acts of violence and strictly to adhere to the following:

All foreign citizens who are anxious to enter the Russian Soviet army must in future accept Soviet citizenship. All instructions of the Commissariats for Military and Foreign Affairs, relating to the maintenance of prisoners of war, must, in view of international obligations the violation of which can do us great harm, also be carried out immediately.

Having repeated the contents of the above-mentioned order in its wireless-telegram to the German Government, the People's Commissanat for Foreign Affairs concludes its reply as follows:

As to the communication of the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs concerning individual camps, this matter is being investigated and any necessary measures will be taken.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/23.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 April 1918, Commons Sitting

ARMY OFFICERS (HOSPITAL TREATMENT).


HC Deb 23 April 1918 vol 105 c837

Colonel ASHLEY asked the Under-secretary of State for War whether he is aware that Mr. E. H. Vant, formerly an officer in the Lincoln Regiment, was taken seriously ill with rheumatic fever on the 8th of May, 1917, some months after he was gazetted out of the Service; that the War Office authorised his admission to the Royal Herbert Hospital; that, by reason of neglect or carelessness on the part of an official of the Department concerned, this authorisation never reached him: and that in consequence he had to pay for his treatment, costing Ł 73, out of his own pocket; and whether, in view of the circumstances, he will take steps to refund this sum to Mr. Vant?

Mr. FORSTER I have no knowledge of this matter, but will have inquiry made. Perhaps my hon. and gallant Friend will give me any information at his disposal which is not on official record?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/23/army-officers-hospital-treatment
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Woensdag 23 April 1919.

Provinciaal Nieuws. Wat is er in Valkenswaard aan ’t handje?
Omtrent de malversaties, door den secretaris van ’t Steuncomité, J. H., gepleegd, vernemen wij nader, dat er geen valschheid in geschriften door hem zouden hebben plaats gehad en dat het bedrag der door hem wederrechtelijk toegeëigende gelden ongeveer f 3000 is.
Hij is heden naar ’s Bosch overgebracht, om daar weder verhoord te worden. J. H. beweert het slachtoffer te zijn van de slechte administratie van zijn chefs in Valkenswaard. Of dit laatste juist is, valt moeilijk te beoordeelen. Slechte administratie van superieuren en oneerlijkheid van een ondergeschikte zijn twee dingen, welke elkander, niet volkomen dekken.
Intusschen schijnt de gemeentelijke administratie in Valkenswaard niet in orde te zijn. Men heeft dit kunnen lezen in het verslag gister in onze editie van de jongste raadsvergadering uit Valkenswaard opgenomen. En naar wij heden vernemen, is door den hoofdcommies der 3e afdeeling, der Provinciale Griffie, den heer Verdijk, de geheele administratie van den gemeentesecretaris en van den gemeenteontvanger in beslag genomen. Men zal nu het resultaat van diens onderzoek hebben af te wachten.
Bovenstaande mededeelingen ontvingen wij van een zijde, die geacht kan worden op de hoogte te zijn. Van andere, even goed ingelichte zijde, vernemen wij echter, dat gister een door de griffie uit ’s Bosch gezonden accountant de gemeente-administratie heeft nagezien en dat deze accountant morgen weer in Valkenswaard terugkomt, om deze administratie verder te onderzoeken.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ataturk's life

On the 15th of May 1919 the Greek Army landed in Izmir with the agreement of the Entente. Under difficult conditions, Mustafa Kemal decided to go to Anatolia. On 16th of May 1919, he left Istanbul in a small boat called the "Bandirma". Mustafa Kemal was warned that his enemies had planned to sink his ship on the way out, but he was not afraid and on Monday19th May 1919, he arrived in Samsun and set foot on Anatolian soil. That date marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. It is also the date that Mustafa Kemal later chose as his own birthday. A wave of national resistance arose in Anatolia. A movement had already begun in Erzurum in the east and Mustafa Kemal quickly placed himself at the head of the whole organization. The congresses in Erzurum and Sivas in the Summer of 1919 declared the national aims by a national pact.

When the foreign armies occupied Istanbul, on 23rd of April 1920 Mustafa Kemal opened the Turkish Grand National Assembly and hence established a provisional new government, the centre of which was to be Ankara. On the same day Mustafa Kemal was elected President of the Grand National Assembly. The Greeks, profiting by the rebellion of Cerkez Ethem and acting in collaboration with him, started to advance towards Bursa and Eskisehir. On the 10th of January 1921, the enemy forces were heavily defeated by the Commander of the Western Front, colonel Ismet and his troops. On the 10th of July 1921, the Greeks launched a frontal attack with five divisions on Sakarya. After the great battle of Sakarya, which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September, the Greek Army was defeated and had to retreat. After the battle, the Grand National Assembly gave Mustafa Kemal the titles of Ghazi and Marshal. Mustafa Kemal decided to drive the enemies out of his country and he gave the order that the attack should be launched on the morning of the 26th of August 1922. The bulk of the enemy forces were surrounded and killed or captured on the 30th of August at Dumlupinar.

http://www.allaboutturkey.com/ata_life.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 V: The Soldier

Rupert Brooke

If I should die, think only this of me:
That there's some corner of a foreign field
That is for ever England. There shall be
In that rich earth a richer dust concealed;
A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware,
Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam,
A body of England's, breathing English air,
Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home.

And think, this heart, all evil shed away,
A pulse in the eternal mind, no less
Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given;
Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day;
And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness,
In hearts at peace, under an English heaven.


Tsja... http://www.sanjeev.net/poetry/brooke-rupert/1914-v-the-soldier-180862.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Thomas Fredrick Littler

April 23rd 1916 - We left Sars-le-bois and marched back to Grand-Rullecourt a distance of 6.5 kilos, and it was Easter Sunday, and very hot, and today was the first time I had seen a British observation balloon, which was at a great height, observing over the German lines.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/littlerdiary3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2010 8:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AVIATION GROUND

ON JULY 23, 1917, 50 men, with
beds and bedding, arrived in
Cambridge on the campus of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
from the First Naval District
headquarters in Boston. They were
met by Ltjg. Edward H. McKitterick.
These 50 men were the first
increment of over 4,000 who would
receive their introduction to the
naval service at that school and go
from there to carry out their duties
in assignments at home and abroad.
Many would go to flight training
and become Naval Aviators, some
would perform ground duties, but
not one would forget his days at
Tech and the men who set him on
a proper course.
So far as the record is concerned,
the idea of using the facilities of
established civilian educational institutes
for the initial stages of military
training seems to have sprung
full grown out of nowhere. Actually,
the experience of the British,
who had already been at war three
years, established the precedent and
appears to have planted the seed.
An example of their program on
this continent was the Royal Flying
Corps School at Toronto.
The problem of training was discussed
at a meeting of the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(NACA) in Washington on
April 23, 1917. This discussion led
directly, less than three weeks later,
to the establishment of Army
courses at six scientific schools
across the country.

Lees verder... http://www.history.navy.mil/download/ww1-03.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BERNSTEIN Leib, ?- 23 April 1914



http://www.flickr.com/photos/cam37/1449038642/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rocky Mountain News, 23 April, 1914: The 1914 Ludlow Colorado Massacre

Among the dead were the family of Charles Costa, union organizer at Aguilar, and the family of Mrs Chavez, a Mexican woman, comprising herself, two girls of 4 and 6 years old, a baby 6 months old, and a nephew, 9. The family of Costa comprised himself, his wife and two children, Lucy, 4, and Orafrio, 6. Under the mass of charred bedding at the bottom of the safety pit, from which all of the bodies were recovered, were also those of two children of Mrs Marcellino Pedrigon - Clardillo, 4, and Rogerio 6, and the three Petrucci children, Lucy, 3; Joe, 4, and Frank, 6 months. The children were clasped in each other's arms, and over them lay the bodies of the two women, both badly charred. Both of the women were to be mothers soon.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A74782993
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Afrikaans becomes the official language of the Union of South Africa

When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, it consisted of the Transvaal, the Orange Free State, Natal and the Cape Province. Dutch and English were the two official languages. However, there were attempts to gradually replace Dutch with Afrikaans. On 23 April 1914 C.J. Langenhoven, member of the Cape Provincial Council proposed that Afrikaans should replace Dutch as the medium of instruction in all primary schools up to standard IV. His proposal was unanimously adopted by three provinces but rejected by Natal.

In 1919 the Dutch Bible was translated into Afrikaans. On 8 May 1925, the Official Languages of the Union Act No 8 of 1925 was passed at a joint sitting of the House of Assembly and the Senate. By this Act Dutch was replaced by Afrikaans. Both Afrikaans and English enjoyed equal status and rights.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/thisday/1925-05-08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

English trench Langemarck 23 April 1915





http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/3599322726/ & http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/3598524123/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1915 - Our listing of known sets of brothers who died on the same date in 1915.

23 April 1915 - Arthur, 34, and Reginald Lawrence, 32, were born in Cheltenham and later emigrated with their parents to Canada. They died whilst serving with the 10th Battalion Canadian Infantry (Alberta Regiment), Canadian Expeditionary Force, at Kitcheners Wood, east of St Julien. The 10th Battalion and the 16th Battalion launched a counter-attack in an attempt to halt the German advance in the area after the infamous gas attack. Sons of Edwin and Fannie Lawrence, of 26, Victoria Mansions, Lethbridge, Alberta, they have no known graves and are commemorated on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing. Both are also commemorated on the Cheltenham War Memorial.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Irish Rising: 23 April 1916

The military plans for the rising remain vague but it was beset by misfortune from the start. A gunboat carrying the German-supplied weapons necessary for success was scuttled after its interception by the British navy. John (Eoin) MacNeill, the leader of the Irish Volunteers whom the military council relied on to provide the soldiers for the rising, countermanded Pearse's orders for mobilization on Easter Sunday, 23 April. The military council pressed ahead, nonetheless, and around 1,600 rebels turned out to fight for the ‘provisional government’ of the ‘Irish Republic’ on Easter Monday. The rebels occupied a number of prominent buildings forming a ring around central Dublin and awaited the British army's assault. Little attempt had been made to mobilize separatists outside Dublin or take the offensive, suggesting that the rebellion was a bloody protest aimed at reviving sympathy for separatist objectives rather than a genuine attempt to overthrow British rule.

Chief among the Volunteers who opposed the rising was its chief of staff, Eoin MacNeil. In the end, Pearse and the others in the Irish Republican Brotherhood, along with James Connolly and his Citizen Army, planned a rising for April 23, Easter Sunday, using the Volunteers' scheduled maneuvers in Dublin as a cover. These plans were made without MacNeil's knowledge. MacNeil found out on Thursday and at first, after being told of the shipment of German arms that Roger Casement was bringing to the southwest, he agreed to support it. However, when MacNeil found out that Casement had been captured and the weapons lost, he canceled the maneuvers and got word to the countryside that the rising was off. In military terms, there was nothing for Pearse and his cohorts to do but call off the rising, but Pearse was not a military man, he was a visionary. He saw a destiny for himself and his country. Six years earlier he had written in a poem: "I have turned my face to the road before me, to the deed that I see and the death I shall die." With that deed, that near-certain death, now staring him in the face, he didn't waver.

http://theirishrising.blogspot.com/2010/04/23-april-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 Proclamation



Iconic is a much overused word, but it surely applies to the 1916 Proclamation, one of the most famous items of Irish printed Ephemera.

2,500 copies were hastily printed in the basement of Liberty Hall, Dublin on Easter Sunday, 23 April 1916 by Joe Stanley, printer to the Irish Republican Brotherhood, aided by two compositors.

The necessity for speed, and a lack of type mean that it is far from perfect as a printed work. Zoom in at the largest size and many flaws are obvious. Stanley and the compositors had to alter a capital O to make the C for IRISH REPUBLIC. They also had to add lead with sealing wax to a capital F to produce a capital E in THE of the subheading TO THE PEOPLE OF IRELAND. There was a shortage of suitable lower case e (the most frequently used letter in the English language), so black letter font e had to be used - see the paragraph ending "we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State, and we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and of its exaltation among the nations."

The Proclamation was printed in two halves (again for lack of type), and the lighter type starting "The Irish Republic is entitled to..." clearly highlights the split. Perhaps the upside down "e" in the first line of the last paragraph most highlights the tension and sense of urgency that must have been palpable in the basement of Liberty Hall, as the compositors typeset this now extremely rare document...

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nlireland/4510216993/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Philip Hirsch



David Philip Hirsch VC (28 December 1896 – 23 April 1917) was a British Army officer during World War I and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. (...)

He was 20 years old, and an Acting Captain in the 4th Battalion, The Yorkshire Regiment (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own), British Army during the First World War. On 23 April 1917 near Wancourt, France, he performed a deed for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. He died in action that day.

Citation: 2nd Lt. (A/Capt.) David Philip Hirsch, late York R.
For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in attack.

Having arrived at the first objective, Capt. Hirsch, although already twice wounded, returned over fire-swept slopes to satisfy himself that the defensive flank was being established.

Machine gun fire was so intense that it was necessary for him to be continuously up and down the line encouraging his men to dig and hold the position.

He continued to encourage his men by standing on the parapet and steadying them in the face of machine gun fire and counterattack until he was killed.

His conduct throughout was a magnificent example of the greatest devotion to duty.


—London Gazette

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Green Howards Regimental Museum, Richmond, North Yorkshire, England.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Philip_Hirsch
Zie ook http://homepage.ntlworld.com/bandl.danby/040Bn1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

An Australian machine–gunner at Noreuil cools his gun after heavy firing on enemy aircraft, 23 April 1917.



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/noreuil/2-april-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lloyd Samuel Breadner



In 1915, after paying for flight lessons at the Wright Flying School in Dayton, Ohio, Lloyd Samuel Breadner enlisted in the Royal Naval Air Service. In 1917, he was assigned to 3 Naval Squadron which was attached to the Royal Flying Corps. Flying the Sopwith Pup, he scored his fourth victory by shooting down a Gotha G.III on 23 April 1917. It was the first Gotha bomber shot down by a British fighter over the Western Front.

http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/canada/breadner.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nurse Taffy Evans' World War I diary, written 23 Apr 1917-14 June 1919



The diary of Nurse Taffy Evans began on 23 April 1917 when she left London for France. There she worked in many troop hospitals. In her journal, she records her expenses as well as her feelings about her fellow nurses. One is 'a pet' while another is 'real black and horrid'. At the 52nd Stationary Hospital, France there is a 'Great squabble between Colonials and Germans.' She goes to museums on her days off and is visited by soldier friend 'Dai'.

Nurse J. (Taffy) Evans worked at several hospitals in England, France and Belgium during World War I. Her documents mention King George Hospital in London; Number 2 London General Hospital, Chelsea; Number 30 General Hospital, Calais, France; 52nd General Hospital; and 52nd Stationary Hospital, Havre, France (Ward C). Nurse Evans left London for service in France on 23 April 1917, and probably remained in Europe until the end of the War.

2,139 Australian nurses served in World War I in the Australian Army Nursing Service; a further 130 worked within the British nursing service. The reputation of nurses improved during the War as they became an integral part of emergency care, taking on increasingly complex work and running entire hospital operations. By 1917, some were even working in casualty clearing stations.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/397494/diary-nurse-taffy-evans-world-war-i-1917-1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Evan Jones to his brother





Note that a reference to an action: '...we have been in the thick of the scrap [...]' has been blanked out, presumably by the Censor.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9438?REC=3
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS L-8 - Afloat immediately after launching, at the Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, 23 April 1917.



http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-l/ss48.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE CAPTURE OF HILL 70, 1917 - The Second Battle of the Scarpe and the Attack on the Arleux Loop, 23-28 April 1917

Leesvoer op http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/Nicholson/Transcription/Chapter9.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fragmenten van de havendam waartegen het schip "Vindictive" botste tijdens de raid op Zeebrugge in 1918

Twee op elkaar geplaatste stenen. Aan de bovenste is een bronzen palm bevestigd die de Stad Brugge schonk aan admiraal Keyes met het opschrift "STAD BRUGGE. HERDENKING AAN 23 APRIL 1918. J.D.V.A.". Aan de onderste steen hangt een plaatje met tekst "THE BRONZE FORAL SPRAY NOW MOUNTED ON A SECTION OF THE ORIGINAL ZEEBRUGGE MOLE WAS PRESENTED TO VICE-ADMIRAL ROGER KEYES BY THE CITY OF BRUGES AND RETURNED BY HIS SON LORD KEYES OF ZEEBRUGGE AND OF DOVER WHO UNVEILIED THIS MEMORIAL ON SAINT GEORGE'S DAY. APRIL 23RD 1998, THE 80TH ANNIVERSARY OF THIS FAMOUS ZEEBRUGGE RAID".

Foto op https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/erfgoedobjecten/79854
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Apr 2018 11:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Honoring Pvt Manuel Martin, KIA 4/23/1918

http://www.richardhowe.com/2011/01/14/honoring-pvt-manuel-martin-kia-4231918/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Apr 2018 11:37, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Apr 2011 22:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rittmeister Freiherr v. Richthofen gefallen

Berlin, 23. April. - Am 21. April ist Rittmeister Manfred Freiherr v. Richthofen von einem Jagdflug an der Somme nicht zurückgekehrt. Nach den übereinstimmenden Wahrnehmungen seiner Begleiter und verschiedener Erdbeobachter stieß Richthofen einem feindlichen Jagdflugzeug in der Verfolgung bis in geringe Höhe nach, als ihn anscheinend eine Motorstörung zur Landung hinter den feindlichen Linien zwang. Da die Landung glatt verlief, bestand die Hoffnung, daß Richthofen unversehrt gefangen sei. Eine Reuter-Meldung vom 23. April aber läßt keinen Zweifel mehr, daß Rittmeister Freiherr v. Richthofen den Tod gefunden hat. Da Richthofen als Verfolger von seinem Gegner nicht gut getroffen sein kann, so scheint er einem Zufallstreffer von der Erde zum Opfer gefallen zu sein. Nach der englischen Meldung ist Richthofen auf einem Kirchhofe in der Nähe seines Landungsplatzes am 22. April unter militärischen Ehren bestattet worden.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/18_04_23.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Apr 2018 11:37, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2018 11:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ARNHEM, 23 April 1918

Velperweg 96.

Dierbare Broer,

Gelukkig heb ik nu weer een brief van u ontvangen,

want het was reeds zoolang geleden, dat ik nog iets

gekregen had. Ik begon me al ongerust te maken, maar

God zij gedankt, nu ben ik weer gerust. Er is weer een

Pater uit België gekomen, een Hollander wel te verstaan,

want anders krijgt men geen pas. Ook is hij nu weer

naar België terug. Thuis stellen ze het allemaal goed.

Erg dik zullen ze wel niet meer zijn, maar dat is

tegenwoordig geen mode meer; in alle geval al onze

dierbaren zijn nog goed gezond, en dat is het voor-

naamste. Ik ga toch eens vragen, of ze hun portret

willen laten maken. Met het feest van Pater Van Dinter

was Jan naar Antwerpen gekomen. Toen hij terug

naar Assche wilde, werd hij door de Duitschers aan

gehouden en voor eenige uren vast gezet. 's Avonds

mocht hij los, maar moest zich den volgenden morgend

weer aangeven. Toen werd hij vrijgelaten, en mocht weer

naar Assche. Ge ziet wel, die Moffen pakken u ook al

beet al zijt ge zoo onschuldig als een pasgeboren kind.

Gelukkig dat ze thuis de historie pas later vernamen, want

anders waren ze zeker in duizend angsten geweest, ter-

wijl Jan werd vast gehouden. - Eene brave familie van

den Haag had adressen gevraagd van Belgische soldaten,

om hun van tijd tot tijd wat te zenden. Natuurlijk heb

ik uw adres gegeven. Indien ge dus wat mocht ontvangen,

wil me het dan laten weten. Ook rond Paschen, zooals

ik u geschreven heb, heb ik u weer tabak laten sturen. De

tabak is hier in den laatsten tijd geweldig in prijs ge-

stegen. Een sigaar van 3 centen vroeger, betaalt men

nu gewillig een cent of tien. Toch zal ik mijn uiterste

best blijven doen om u wat te zenden. Holland, dat tot

nog toe niet veel onder den oorlog heeft geleden, begint

stillekensaan ook ongemakken te ondervinden. Er zijn er

velen, die hun buik niet meer kunnen vol eten, en zelfs

als men het nog kan, dan is het niet meer als vroeger,

daar de hoedanigheid van het eten veel verminderd is.

En 't wordt er met den dag niet beter op. Maar ze

mogen hier van den oorlog toch ook iets hebben, en

in alle geval in België zouden ze blij zijn, als ze

daar hadden wat ze hier hebben. Ge zult wel in de

gazetten gelezen hebben van plunderingen in bijna alle

Hollandsche steden. Eens ben ik hier in Arnhem zoo'n troep

tegen gekomen, die de bakkerskarren leeg haalde enz.

Maar ge moet niet denken, dat die menschen er uit zagen

als verhongerden. Er waren er bij, die nog best wat

kilos konden missen, eer ze op normale dikte waren.

Ze mogen hier nog altijd onzen Lieven Heer danken, dat

ze niet in oorlog zijn. Hetzelfde voor de soldaten. Die

vinden het verschrikkelijk zoolang onder dienst te moeten

blijven. Maar als ik ze zoo hoor spreken, denk ik: ge

moest eens een jaar of drie aan den Yzer liggen, dan

zoudt ge nog wels anders klappen. Maar daarmee uit,

hier moeten ze niet klagen. - Het is toch aardig in

België. Zoo vernam ik, dat er in vele vleeschwinkels

te Brussel nog altijd veel vleesch hing. Maar van

wat soort, dat laat ik in het midden. Oordeel over het

volgende geval. In een dorp had een paard een ongeval

gehad, en werd geslacht. Koopers uit Brussel hadden

het vleesch, dat zeer goed was, gekocht, maar kwamen

een dag of drie daarna terug om de darmen enz te

halen. Ja, maar die zeten reeds in den grond. 't Geeft

niets, dan moesten ze maar opgegraven worden, want

ze moesten absoluut mee. Waar die rotte rommel heen

verhuisd is, weet ik niet, als er maar geen kipkap

van gemaakt is. - Hier in Arnhem hebben we tegen-

woordig een Belgische school met over de honderd leerlingen

Wat zegt ge daarvan? En wat komen ze gaarne naar de school:

't is te verwonderen van kinderen maar 't is toch zoo. 't Zal

wel zijn omdat ze zich daar zoo thuis voelen, na zoolang op

de Hollandsche school te zijn geweest. Ge moest ze eens

zien spelen, al leven wat eraan is. Minstens elke recreatie

zijn er eenige bebloede knieën van 't vallen, maar na

eenige traantjes gelaten te hebben, loopt een springt ons jong

volkje weer verder. Met zulke jeugd kan België gerust

de toekomst in! Dierbare Broer, 't verheugt mij dat ge

uw verlof zoo goed doorgebracht hebt bij onkel Eduard.

't Zal u zeker wel goed gedaan hebben, na zoo langen

tijd weder iemand van familie te zien. Geve God, dat

wij spoedig mogen bijeen zijn in de Amsterdamstraat. Wat

zal dat een vreugde zijn. Vandaag heb ik wederom

eene H. Mis voor u opgedragen. De H. Michael, de

Strijder Gods bij uitnemendheid, blijve u beschermen naar

ziel en lichaam. En nu tot later. Schrijf altijd regel-

matig, ge weet wel dat ge altijd op mijne brieven mogt

rekenen. Jef en Liza stellen het ook nog goed, zij laten

u vele groeten doen. Ik zal ook eens aan onkel Eduard

schrijven. Dag Jos. Hart en hand.

Dank voor het Sinjorenblad. Uw u liefhebbende broer

Henri.

https://transcribathon.com/en/documents/id-5538/item-245457/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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