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8 April

 
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Mario



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2006 8:04    Onderwerp: 8 April Reageer met quote

1918 - Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York, New York's financial district.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2006 8:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1904 is niet echt Eerste Wereldoorlog, maar het verdrag dat op 8 april 1904 werd gesloten is van grote invloed geweest.

1904 Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale

On this day in 1904, with war in Europe a decade away, Britain and France sign an agreement, later known as the Entente Cordiale, resolving long-standing colonial disputes in North Africa and establishing a diplomatic understanding between the two countries.

Formally entitled a “Declaration between the United Kingdom and France Respecting Egypt and Morocco,” the Entente Cordiale of April 1904 amounted more than anything to a declaration of friendship between these two great European powers. By its terms, France promised not to challenge British control over Egypt; for its part, Britain recognized France’s right, as “a Power whose dominions are conterminous for a great distance with those of Morocco” to act in that country to preserve order and to provide assistance to bring about whatever reforms in the government, economy or military it deemed necessary.

Through the Entente Cordiale, Britain and France established the beginnings of an alliance, promising, in the concluding words of the agreement, “to afford to one another their diplomatic support, in order to obtain the execution of the clauses of the present Declaration regarding Egypt and Morocco.” The agreement stopped short, however, of requiring the two nations to provide military support to each other; this aspect of the alliance would come later.

A motivating factor behind the agreement was undoubtedly France’s desire to protect itself against possible aggression from its old rival, Germany, who had steadily been growing stronger in the years since its victory in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 and now possessed the most powerful land army in the world. Britain was also eager to keep Germany in check, especially in light of a revamped, ambitious German naval program, which—if successful—threatened to challenge Britain’s clear dominance at sea.

The German government, anxious over this agreement, decided to test its limits, sending Kaiser Wilhelm II to Morocco in March 1905 to declare his support for the sultan—a clear challenge to France’s influence in that country, which had been sanctioned by the Entente Cordiale. This bid to shake the Anglo-French alliance failed, as Britain sided with France; an international conference that convened at Algeciras, Spain, the following year also recognized France’s claims in the region.

The clash between Germany and the new allies became known as the First Moroccan Crisis—a second occurred in the summer of 1911, when both France and Germany sent forces to Morocco—and resulted in a tightening and solidifying of the Entente Cordiale, as Britain and France, aiming to confront German aggression, moved from mere friendship to an informal military alliance and, later, to talks and an agreement with France’s ally, Russia. By 1912, then, two powerful and hostile blocs had been formed in Europe, with France, Britain and Russia on one side, and an increasingly isolated Germany—with relatively lukewarm support from Austria-Hungary and Italy—on the other. Two years later, this volatile situation would erupt into the First World War.
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Mario



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2006 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 april 1917 - Oostenrijk-Hongarije verbreekt de diplomatieke relatie met de Verenigde Staten.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2006 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 8 April

Births
1 1892 Horace LaleEngland
2 1896 Antonio RivaItaly
3 1900 Frederick LordUSA

Deaths
1 1917 Wilhelm FranklGermany

Claims
1 1916 Karl JentschGermany #1
2 1917 Roderic DallasAustralia #9
3 1917 William BishopCanada #5 #6 #7
4 1917 Carleton ClementCanada #4
5 1917 Medley ParleeCanada #3
6 1917 Anthony ArnoldEngland #1
7 1917 John AspinallEngland #4
8 1917 Edwin ColeEngland #4
9 1917 A.G. RileyEngland #1
10 1917 Herbert TraversEngland #3
11 1917 Walter von Bülow-BothkampGermany #11
12 1917 Heinrich GontermannGermany #8
13 1917 Walter GöttschGermany #8
14 1917 Erich HahnGermany #2
15 1917 Hans KleinGermany #3
16 1917 Manfred von RichthofenGermany #38 #39
17 1917 Karl SchäferGermany #13
18 1917 Georg SchlenkerGermany #7
19 1917 Georg SchlenkerGermany #7
20 1917 Kurt WolffGermany #8
21 1917 Francis CaseyIreland #2
22 1917 David TidmarshIreland #4
23 1917 Alan ScottNew Zealand #2
24 1917 Pavel ArgeyevRussia u/c
25 1917 Christopher Quintin-BrandSouth Africa #4
26 1917 Llewelyn DaviesScotland #2
27 1917 Francis KittoWales #2
28 1918 Cyril RidleyEngland #7
29 1918 George RileyEngland #3
30 1918 Antonio RealiItaly u/c
31 1918 Douglas BellSouth Africa #15

Losses
1 1917 Wilhelm FranklGermanykilled in action; shot down

http://www.theaerodrome.com/
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2010 23:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Winston Churchill to Admiral Lord Fisher, April 8, 1915

During the first months of World War I, Churchill energetically prosecuted the war at sea, but he soon became frustrated with the emerging deadlock on the Western front. He sent an expedition to attack Germany's ally, Turkey, through the Dardanelles Strait. Frustrated by the Navy's indecisive performance, Churchill drafted this memorandum quoting Shakespeare and Napoleon in an unsuccessful attempt to strengthen the resolve of his most senior Admiral, Lord "Jacky" Fisher.

8 April 1915

Admiralty

Secret

The probability that Italy will join the Allies within a few days raises a question of great importance as regards the Dardanelles attack. If the attack is a failure before Italy had definitely declared war, the repulse of our attempt might have a most prejudicial effect upon her conduct. If she does come in, we probably get the whole of the Balkans in too, and the results need no discussion.

The question is--Is it worth while to risk the attack at this moment? Is it not better to wait a few days, or to divert the attack elsewhere?

If it is practically certain that Italy will come in within a few days, and that she has now decided upon her attitude, I should suggest that the attack be postponed. If, on the other hand, she is waiting for the result of the attack before deciding, there is another operation which we might undertake, which our sea command enables us to do--attack Turkey elsewhere. The place I should suggest is Haifa, to be followed by the capture of Damascus. She is still entirely unprepared for a blow in that part, though she is said to have been making ready at Haifa and Beirut. But as we have openly announced that we are going to take the Dardanelles with our Army, and as our preparations at Mudros and elsewhere can have left little doubt that we are going to do so, it is there that the Turks have now made their main defence, and nothing would be so utterly disconcerting to them as the attack, with our 80,000 odd men in a wholly different region. Hindenburg's strategic railway victories would not compare with it. The success of it would be beyond doubt. Italy's decision would then be placed beyond all shadow of doubt, and the Dardanelles could be dealt with after the Turkish Syrian army had been starved or destroyed. A rising Syria could be engineered to enable our troops to withdraw, which they would do ostensibly for Egypt but really for the Dardanelles, the resistance at which place would be proportionately weaker.

The effect of this surprise blow would be prodigious in Europe; and it is suggested that these two alternative courses deserve the immediate consideration of the War Council.

Admiralty

I.S.L.

'And thus the native hue of resolution
'Is sicklied o'er by the pale cast of thought,
'And enterprises of great pith & moment
'With this regard their currents turn awry
'And lose the name of action'

'We are defeated at sea because our Admirals have learned--where I know not--that war can be made without running risks'
[Napoleon]

WSC

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/interactive/_html/wc0063_1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2010 23:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The diary of Samuel Weingott, 8 April – 3 June 1915

Thursday 8th April - Mail arrives from Australia dated 1.3.1915. Still in mid-stream. Load more horses and mules. Company rows ashore and supplies night picket in Alexandria.

http://www.spirits-of-gallipoli.com/project/result/WEINGOTT-S-Diary-01.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2010 23:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

8 april 1915 - “De Gemeenteraad en al de inwoners van Baerle-Hertog, het bevoorrechte dorp, symbool van het steeds levendig bestaande Vaderland, vereenigen zich eenparig om aan Z.M. hunnen innig-beminden Koning, bij gelegenheid van Zijner Majesteits verjaardag, als bewijs hunner bewondering en onverbreekbare toegenegenheid hunnen diepsten eerbied en vurigsten heilwenschen aan te bieden. Zij roepen den Koninklijken held een lang en gelukkig leven toe.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; telegram aan koning Albert, briefwisseling 1915)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2010 23:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Trouble on the Clyde, 8 April 1916

The strike action which began on 17 March 1916 in support of the reinstatement of shop stewards privileges for David Kirkwood did not long survive the deportation of its leaders on 24 March.

On 29th March a total of thirty strikers were fined £5 each at a General Munitions Tribunal in Glasgow. On 31st March, at Glasgow Green, there was a large peaceful demonstration against the deportations and the refusal of the Committee on Productions to raise wages.

However the men were gradually drifting back to work and by 5th April only thirty-three men remained on strike. However even this level of support for a dwindling strike was deemed threatening and the Government ordered Thomas Clark, who had succeeded Kirkwood as CWC treasurer, to be deported at once and threatened the same to any striker who did not return to work the following day.

Lees het krantenartikel op http://sites.scran.ac.uk/redclyde/redclyde/rc201.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2010 23:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Irish Flag From Workers' Republic, 8 April 1916

The text of Connolly's “The Irish Flag”, written two weeks prior to the rising:

The Council of the Irish Citizen Army has resolved, after grave and earnest deliberation, to hoist the green flag of Ireland over Liberty Hall, as over a fortress held for Ireland by the arms of Irishmen.

This is a momentous decision in the most serious crisis Ireland has witnessed in our day and generation. It will, we are sure, send a thrill through the hearts of every true Irish man and woman, and send the red blood coursing fiercely along the veins of every lover of the race.

It means that in the midst of and despite the treasons and backslidings of leaders and guides, in the midst of and despite all the weaknesses, corruption and moral cowardice of a section of the people, in the midst of and despite all this there still remains in Ireland a spot where a body of true men and women are ready to hoist, gather round, and to defend the flag made sacred by all the sufferings of all the martyrs of the past.

Since this unholy war first started we have seen every symbol of Irish freedom desecrated to the purposes of the enemy, we have witnessed the prostitution of every holy Irish tradition. That the young men of Ireland might be seduced into the service of the nation that denies every national power to their country, we have seen appeals made to our love of freedom, to our religious instincts, to our sympathy for the oppressed, to our kinship with suffering.

The power that for seven hundred years has waged bitter and unrelenting war upon the freedom of Ireland, and that still declares that the rights of Ireland must forever remain subordinate to the interests of the British umpire, hypocritically appealed to our young men to enlist under her banner and shed their blood “in the interests of freedom”.

The power whose reign in Ireland has been one long carnival of corruption and debauchery of civic virtue, and which has rioted in the debasement and degradation of everything Irish men and women hold sacred, appealed to us in the name of religion to fight for her as the champion of christendom.

The power which holds in subjection more of the world's population than any other power on the globe, and holds them in subjection as slaves without any guarantee of freedom or power of self-government, this power that sets Catholic against Protestant, the Hindu against the Mohammedan, the yellow man against the brown, and keeps them quarrelling with—each other whilst she robs and murders them all—this power appeals to Ireland to send her sons to fight under England's banner for the cause of the oppressed. The power whose rule in Ireland has made of Ireland a desert, and made the history of our race read like the records of a shambles, as she plans for the annihilation of another race appeals to our manhood to fight for her because of our sympathy for the suffering, and of our hatred of oppression.

For generations the shamrock was banned as a national emblem of Ireland, but in her extremity England uses the shamrock as a means for exciting in foolish Irishmen loyalty to England. For centuries the green flag of Ireland was a thing accurst and hated by the English garrison in Ireland, as it is still in their inmost hearts. But in India, in Egypt, in Flanders, in Gallipoli, the green flag is used by our rulers to encourage Irish soldiers of England to give up their lives for the power that denies their country the right of nationhood. Green flags wave over recruiting offices in Ireland and England as a bait to lure on poor fools to dishonourable deaths in England's uniform.

The national press of Ireland, the true national press, uncorrupted and unterrified, has largely succeeded in turning back the tide of demoralization, and opening up the minds of the Irish public to a realization of the truth about the position of their country in the war. The national press of Ireland is a real flag of freedom flying for Ireland despite the enemy, but it is well that also there should fly in Dublin the green flag of this country as a rallying point of our forces and embodiment of all our hopes. Where better could that flag fly than over the unconquered citadel of the Irish working class, Liberty Hall, the fortress of the militant working class of Ireland.

We are out for Ireland for the Irish. But who are the Irish? Not the rack-renting, slum-owning landlord; not the sweating, profit-grinding capitalist; not the sleek and oily lawyer; not the prostitute pressman—the hired liars of the enemy. Not these are the Irish upon whom the future depends. Not these, but the Irish working class, the only secure foundation upon which a free nation can be reared.

The cause of labour is the cause of Ireland, the cause of Ireland is the cause of labour. They cannot be dissevered. Ireland seeks freedom. Labour seeks that an Ireland free should be the sole mistress of her own destiny, supreme owner of all material things within and upon her soil. Labour seeks to make the free Irish nation the guardian of the interests of the people of Ireland, and to secure that end would vest in that free Irish nation all property rights as against the claims of the individual, with the end in view that the individual may be enriched by the nation, and not by the spoiling of his fellows.

Having in view such a high and holy function for the nation to perform, is it not well and fitting that we of the working class should fight for the freedom of the nation from foreign rule, as the first requisite for the free development of the national powers needed for our class? It is so fitting. Therefore on Sunday, 16 April 1916 the green flag of Ireland will be solemnly hoisted over Liberty Hall as the symbol of our faith in freedom, and as a token to all the world that the working class of Dublin stands for the cause of Ireland, and the cause of Ireland is the cause of a separate and distinct nationality.

In these days of doubt, despair, and resurgent hope we fling our banner to the breeze, the flag of our fathers, the symbol of our national redemption, the sunburst shining over an Ireland re-born.

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/61/271.html
Zie ook: http://books.google.nl/books?id=8zToAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2010 0:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chapter 32: The Somme April to October 1918

After leaving Flanders on 8 April, 1918, the 4th Australian Field Artillery Brigade returned once more to the Somme. Gargoo was transferred to the Reserve Brigade Australian Artillery (RBAA) on May 1, 1918. He arrived at the Heytesbury (near Warminster, Wiltshire) camp on 6 May 1918 and remained there until embarking for Australia on 2 February 1919.

However, the Second Division 4th Artillery Brigade remained very active, taking part in the major battles from May to October as the allies advanced on the Hindenburg Line. These battles are covered in following chapters - Le Hamel, Villers-Bretonneux, Mont St Quentin and Peronne.

8 April 1918 - 2am left Vieux Berquin, entrained at Strazeele Railway station, arrived St Roch Rway Stn (outside Amiens), disentrained then by road to Villiers Bocage, arrived same day.

9/10 April - Left Villers Bocage, arrived in Querrieu (?) (outside Frechencourt)

10 April – 14 July Quarry. Guns in action near Bresle (May 14)

http://percysmith.blogspot.com/2007/04/chapter-32-somme-april-to-october-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2010 0:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NARKOMINDEL STATEMENT ON THE ALLIES AND THE JAPANESE LANDING - 8 April 1918

The representatives of the Great Powers allied with Japan, who are in Moscow, as well as the Ambassadors of these Powers who are in Vologda, have today, 8 April, not yet received any news from their Governments regarding the landing in Vladivostok.

Four representatives of these Powers have informed the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the assurances received from their Ambassadors, based partly on their knowledge of the general trend of their Governments' policy, partly on their own considerations, partly on factual material concerning the general attitude of their Governments to the Russian Soviet Republic, designed to demonstrate the purely local, temporary, and accidental nature of the landing, the absence of any political intention to give Japan the opportunity of making any gains whatever in Siberia, and the certainty of a speedy and favourable end to this incident.

The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs has noted the assurances, irreproachably friendly in their outward form, of the representatives of Japan's allies; these assurances will of course be appreciated by the popular masses in Russia as being really friendly only when the foreign troops who have forcibly broken into the territory of Russia leave it. At the present time, when the seizure of a certain part of Russian territory is a real fact, the Russian Republic expects from friendly peoples real facts and deeds, and not until the only possible way out, i.e. the evacuation of Vladivostok by the invading troops, has been taken, are we prepared to see in this foreign invasion an incident of purely local significance.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/8.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2010 0:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Toplis @ 08 Apr 2010 0:48 schreef:
Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

8 april 1915 - “De Gemeenteraad en al de inwoners van Baerle-Hertog, het bevoorrechte dorp, symbool van het steeds levendig bestaande Vaderland, vereenigen zich eenparig om aan Z.M. hunnen innig-beminden Koning, bij gelegenheid van Zijner Majesteits verjaardag, als bewijs hunner bewondering en onverbreekbare toegenegenheid hunnen diepsten eerbied en vurigsten heilwenschen aan te bieden. Zij roepen den Koninklijken held een lang en gelukkig leven toe.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; telegram aan koning Albert, briefwisseling 1915)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118


En hij is zelfs geboren op deze dag, in 1875.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2010 0:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 April 1919, Written Answers

ART TREASURES, GERMANY.


HC Deb 08 April 1919 vol 114 c1865W 1865W

Mr. A. T. DAVIES asked the Prime Minister whether, in view of the fact that an enormous amount of art treasures are stored in the national museums in Berlin, Dresden, Leipsic, and Hamburg, representing many millions, the Government (or its art advisers in this country or in those of the Allies) has attempted to make any inventory of such realisable capital which may be liquidated to meet the claims of indemnity?

Mr. BONAR LAW I shall forward my hon. Friend's suggestion to the British Delegation in Paris

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/apr/08/art-treasures-germany
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Apr 2010 7:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 april 1915
Politiek, Turkije
Turkse troepen vernietigen alle steun voor de Russen in Armenië en meteen ook de Armeense onafhankelijkheidswil. Een systematische campagne met grove brutaliteiten begint: mannen worden vermoord, terwijl vrouwen en kinderen naar andere Turkse provincies gedeporteerd worden. Naar schatting zijn tegen september een miljoen Armeniërs vermoord of gestorven door verwaarlozing of uithongering. Nog eens 200.000 werden gedwongen zich te bekeren tot de islam. De overlevende Armeniërs komen in opstand...
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1915
Western Front

French attacks in the Woevre district repulsed.

Eastern Front

Indecisive fighting in the Carpathians.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Deportation and massacre of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire begins.

Naval and Overseas Operations

"Prinz Eitel Friedrich" interned at Newport News.

Political, etc.

Attempted assassination of Hussein Kamel, Sultan of Egypt.

Italian Note to Austria, demanding territorial concessions in return for neutrality.

1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: French evacuate Bethincourt: German gain at Haucourt reported.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Austrian transport sunk by French submarine in Adriatic

1917
Western Front

British progress north of Louveral (half-way between Bapaume and Cambrai).

Evacuation of Reims by civil population.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British capture Belad station on Baghdad-Samarra railway.

Political, etc.

Kaiser promises Prussia electoral reform.

Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with U.S.A.

Panama joins U.S.A. to defend Panama Canal.

1918
Western Front

Oise river French are forced back in Forest of Coucy, and Coucy le Chateau and Landricourt are lost.

German attempts in districts of Reims, Verdun and Vosges.

Heavy German bombardment on whole British front, up to Armentieres.

Eastern Front

Germany answering Russian protests demands disarmament of Russian Fleet.

Bessarabian Council of Land vote for autonomous union with Romania.

Political, etc.

Rome: Conference of Nationalities oppressed by Austria opens.

Paris: M. Clemenceau discloses contents of Emperor of Austria's letter.

Canada: Sir Sam Hughes speaks on conditions in Quebec.

1919
Aftermath of War

Odessa evacuated by Allies (announced).

Bolsheviks enter the Crimea.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2011 17:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naatje van de Dam


De Eendracht op de Dam

Naatje van de Dam of Naatje op de Dam, officieel De Eendracht is het Nationaal Monument dat tussen 1856 en 1914 op de Dam in Amsterdam tegenover het Paleis op de Dam heeft gestaan. (...)

Op 25 juli 1913 bespraken B&W in hun vergadering een voorstel om het beeld te laten verwijderen. De Dam werd verbouwd, de tramsporen werden verlegd en op 8 april 1914 werd Naatje verwijderd. De restanten verdwenen naar het Stedelijk Museum. Alleen het hoofd zou nog aanwezig zijn, begraven in de tuin van het museum.

Nog tot ver in de twintigste eeuw werd een (revue)liedje gezongen met de tekst: "En Naatje van de Dam, die moest verdwijnen, die moest verdwijnen, en Naatje van de Dam, die moest verdwijnen voor de elec-te-ri-sche tram."


Op 8 april 1914 wordt Naatje weggetakeld

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naatje_van_de_Dam
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Editorial in The Times (8th April, 1914)

The division of the Great Powers into two well-balanced groups with intimate relations between the members of each, which do not forbid any such member from being on the friendliest terms with one or more members of the other, is a twofold check upon inordinate ambitions or sudden outbursts of race hatred. All sovereigns and statesmen - aye, and all nations - know that a war of group against group would be a measureless calamity.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWtimes.htm
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PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, VOL. 146, APRIL 8, 1914.



First Clubman. "Well, how are you?"

Second Clubman. "Er—so-so, perhaps. Last week I thought I was in for rheumatic fever, but just managed to stave it off, and to-day a twinge in my left shoulder suggests—well, it may be neuritis or——"

First Clubman. "My dear chap, I didn't mean it literally."

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/23032/23032-h/23032-h.htm
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ss. 'Tjisondari'

8 april 1915 - Tijdens de proefvaart van ss. 'Tjisondari' van de Java-China-Japan Lijn, gebouwd op de werf van de Koninklijke Maatschappij 'De Schelde', komt het schip op de Nieuwe Maas in aanvaring met de sleepboot 'Engineering' van Wilton. Hierbij kapseist de sleepboot. Vijf opvarenden komen om het leven. Op 13 april vertrekt de 'Tjisondari' voor zijn eerste reis naar New York.

Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De Ned. koopvaardij in de eerste oorlogsmaanden van 1914' in: 'DBW' jrg. 54 nr. 11 (1999).

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/04/8-april-1915.html
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Louis Pergaud



Louis Pergaud (22 January 1882 – 8 April 1915) was a French writer and soldier, whose principal works were known as "Animal Stories" due to their rooting in the flora and fauna of the Franche-Comté. His most famous work was the novel La Guerre des boutons (English: "War of the Buttons"), written in 1912. A schoolteacher by profession, Pergaud came into conflict with Roman Catholic authorities over the implementation of the Third French Republic's separation of Church and State enacted in 1905. In 1907 Pergaud chose to move to Paris to pursue his literary career. Pergaud's prose works are often considered to reflect the influences of Realist, Decadent and Symbolist movements. He was killed in action aged 33, in April 1915, whilst serving with the French Army near Marchéville-en-Woëvre during the First World War.

(...) Despite his pacifism, Louis Pergaud was conscripted into the French Army at the outbreak of the First World War, having been placed in the active reserve following his national service twelve years before. In this capacity he served in the Battle of Lorraine during the German invasion of France and subsequently on the Western Front. On 7 April 1915, Pergaud's regiment launched an attack on German lines near Fresnes-en-Woëvre, in which Pergaud was shot and wounded, falling into barbed wire and becoming trapped. Some hours later, German soldiers rescued him and took him and his comrades to a temporary field hospital behind their lines. It was there, on the morning of the 8 April, that Pergaud was killed in a French artillery barrage that destroyed the hospital.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Pergaud
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Josef Hormann



Infanterist by the 4th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. missing since 8 April 1915 and certainly in Bois d'Ailly (France); died the Hero's Death for the Fatherland.

http://www.listityourselfauctions.com/detail.asp?id=9170&bigpic=0#img
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Officers of No 7 Sqn RFC et al at Folkestone (probably 8 April 1915)



Back row: Capt. Small, Lt. Bewes, Lt.s Spratt, Wynne, Broder, Anne, Capt. Smith
Front row: Lt. Rutledge, Capt. Mills, Lt. Adams, Capt. Moore, Capt. Mansfield, Lt. Hunt

http://www.apw.airwar1.org.uk/no2sqn.htm
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General Sir Douglas Haig's diary - 8 April 1915

Ironically, on 8th April, General Sir Douglas Haig, Commander of the British First Army, made an entry in his diary about the relevance of wind conditions and the use of gas to aid an attack:

“Lord Dundonald arrived from England. He is studying the conditions of War in hopes of being able to apply to modern conditions an invention of his great-grandfather for driving a garrison out of a fort by using sulphur fumes. I asked him how he arranged to have a favourable wind!”

Exactly two weeks later the conditions of a favourable wind would bring with it a disastrous surprise for the Allies in the Ypres Salient.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/haig-diary-8-4-15.htm
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Croix de Guerre



Country: France
Established: 8 April 1915

Criteria: During World War I, the Croix de Guerre was awarded for bravery to military personnel mentioned in dispatches. Recipients of the Légion d'Honneur and Médaille Militaire were automatically entitled to the Croix de Guerre. For subsequent acts of bravery, the recipient was awarded a bronze palm leaf for Army citations, a gold star for Corps citations, a silver star for Division citations or a bronze star for Brigade and Regimental citations.

http://www.theaerodrome.com/medals/france/cdg.php
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/croixdeguerre.htm
Zie ook http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/croix_de_guerre_france.aspx
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 07 Apr 2011 18:47, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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James Connolly: "Love of Freedom" (1915)
From Workers’ Republic, 8 April 1915.

I love you, I love you, though toil may obscure
And make dimmer the light of my eye,
Though slow runs my blood, and my heart, if as pure
Beats calmer when women are nigh.
Yet out from my heart comes a passionate wail
With a note of sincerity true,
The protest of my heart, though its vigour may fail,
Yet beats stronger its love, dear, for you.

I love you, I love you, no swain to his dear,
Nor mother to first fruit of her womb,
Nor thinker to thought he has garnered in tear,
Prom the deserts where Truth hid in gloom,
Hath love more devoted, more unfailing than he
Now laying this poor wreath at thy shrine
In hope that accepted this offering will be
And remembered when victory is thine.

Yes, Freedom, I love you, my soul thou has fired
With the flame that redeems from the clay,
Thou hast given to me, as to Moses inspired,
A glimpse of that land, bright as day,
Which Labour must journey, though each foot of road
Sweated blood from the graves of our best,
Where built upon Justice and Truth the abode
Thou preparest awaits the oppress
.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1915/04/lovefree.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2011 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Trench 8"


Trench 8, Wulverghem-Messines Road, April 1915


Men of "C" Company, 1/6th South Staffords in Trench 8, April 1915

http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/wulver.htm
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April 8, 1916: California road race kills five

On this day in 1916, at the Boulevard Race in Corona, California, an early racing car careens into a crowd of spectators, killing the driver and two others. At the time, racing events were still a relative rarity and the fatal accident helped encourage organizers to begin holding races on specially built tracks instead of regular streets. The first organized race of "horseless carriages," as they were then called, was held in France in 1894. The winning speed was less than 10 miles per hour and the winner was disqualified because his steam-driven tractor was deemed not to be a practical vehicle. The first Grand Prix was held 12 years later.

As time went on and speeds increased, the races became more dangerous. The 1916 Corona Boulevard Race was run on Grand Boulevard in Corona, east of Los Angeles. "Wild Bob" Burman, who had previously set a world speed record for hitting 129 miles per hour, was driving a blue Peugeot. Leading the race, Burman lost control when a wheel broke and his car crashed through a barrier. Burman perished in the accident, along with his ride-along mechanic and a spectator. Five others in the crowd were seriously injured.

Subsequent racing events have been even more deadly. When a car crashed into a spectator area at the 1955 Le Mans, 80 people were killed. Two years later in Italy, 10 spectators were killed at Mille Miglia, the last time that race was run. In July 1996, three separate races on the same day claimed victims among the spectators.

Perhaps the most dangerous of all races has been the off-road Dakar Rally. The best guess is that 47 competitors have been killed in the race s 27-year history and many more spectators have also lost their lives. The original Dakar Rally ran from Paris to Dakar, Senegal, but fatal accidents in France forced a change in course. The routes have varied since 1999. Modifications have been made over the years to reduce the risk to the public, but drivers remain vulnerable to things such as the many land mines in North Africa.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/california-road-race-kills-five



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Burman
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Saharan Forts

There are numerous military forts built across the Sahara (mainly by the French but also by the Italians) during the last century and a bit. The following has been written with the assistance of Colonel Michel Vallet.

Fort Gardel (north west of Djanet) replaced the block house in Tigougelt, which stood slightly to the south. It was built on the site of Zaouatanlaz (called Zaouatallaz on some maps), on the track between Djanet and Dider. It was given the name of Gardel, the victor at Essayen, who died on 8 April 1916 on the European Front. Lt. Gabriel Gardel, led the Ajjer group of the Compagnie Saharienne du Tidikelt under Capt. Charlet. At Esseyen, near Ghat, on 8 April 1913 he won a notable action against a raiding party of vastly superior numbers from the Fezzan. He was deeply interested in the Tuareg, and his copious notes on the Kel Ajjer were finally edited and published posthumously in 1961. He died in that action in 1916, leaving a young son. His grandson Louis Gardel is now a well-known author, one of whose recent novel "Fort Saganne" is based on his grandfather's life. At the time of Algerian independence, Fort Gardel was renamed Fort Haoues (sometimes spelt Fort Haouasse). Since the administrative reorganisation of December 1986 this has been combined with the town of Djanet to form the Daiza of Djanet (Wilaya d'Illizy).

http://www.the153club.org/forts.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2011 18:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The trouble on the Clyde - Men back at work - 8 April 1916



http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/redclyde/redcly201.htm
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Wilhelm Frankl

Leutnant Wilhelm Frankl, (20 December 1893–8 April 1917), Pour le Mérite, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross, was a World War I fighter ace credited with 20 aerial victories

(...) Frankl began his career of aerial victories early in the war, before the concept of the synchronized machine gun firing safely through the plane's propeller became a practical reality. While flying as an observer in FFA 40, he used a five-shot carbine to shoot down a French Voisin, on 10 May 1915. He was awarded an Iron Cross First Class for this feat.

It took exactly eight months for his second triumph; on 10 January 1916, while flying a Fokker Eindekker with KEK Vaux, he downed another Voisin; this one was armed with a 37mm Hotchkiss cannon. By 1 February, his victory total stood at four. Three months later, on 4 May, he finally became an ace. He scored once more in May, on the 21st. He was awarded the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern during May. By this time, Frankl was one of only eight aces in the German flying service.

His guns then rested until 2 August, when he tallied a Morane-Saulnier L. A double victory followed on 10 August. On 12 August, his award of the Pour le Merite came through. He then transferred to Prussian Jagdstaffel 4 as it was formed from KEK Vaux, to fly Halberstadt D.Vs.

Four wins in September and two in October made him a triple ace. In late December 1916, Frankl succeeded to command of Jasta 4. Then, after a six month hiatus, he scored a quadruple victory on 6 April 1917, and his twentieth win on the following day.

His end came the day after that. While battling Bristol fighters of No. 48 Squadron on Easter Sunday, 8 April 1917, Frankl's Albatros D.III lost its lower wing under the stress of combat maneuvers, and he fell 800 meters to his death near Vitry-Sailly, France.

Despite his conversion to Christianity, the Nazis considered Frankl Jewish. As in the case of Fritz Beckhardt, Frankl's heroic service to his country was suppressed from the 1930s through the end of World War II. His name and exploits were expunged from Pour le Merite Flieger, a 1938 account of World War I fliers who won the Blue Max. After the end of World War II, Frankl's name was restored to the roll of German aces. In 1973, the Luftwaffe named a barracks and a squadron after Frankl as a memorial.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Frankl
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Australian Military History

8 April 1917: Captain J.E. Newland, VC Captain J.E. Newland, 12th Battalion, AIF, originally from Geelong, Victoria, wins the Victoria Cross for actions on 8 April and 15 April 1917 at Lagnicourt.

8 April 1917: Sergeant J.W. Whittle, VC Sergeant J.W. Whittle, 2nd Battalion, originally from Huon Island, Tasmania, wins the Victoria Cross for actions at Boursies and Lagnicourt on 8 April and 15 April 1917.

8 April 1918: Repatriation Department established Once soldiers were demobilised all tasks aimed at their rehabilitation and return to civilian life became the responsibility of the Repatriation Department.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/apr.asp
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James Ernest Newland VC

James Ernest Newland VC (22 August 1881 – 19 March 1949) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces. Newland was awarded the Victoria Cross following three separate actions in April 1917, during attacks against German forces retreating to the Hindenburg Line. While in command of a company, Newland successfully led his men in several assaults on German positions and repulsed subsequent counter-attacks.



By early April 1917, there remained three German-held outpost villages—Boursies, Demicourt and Hermies—between the area to the south of the I Anzac Corps position and the Hindenburg Line. An attack by the 1st Australian Division to capture them was planned for 9 April, the same day the British offensive opened at Arras. For his actions on three separate occasions during the assault, Newland was awarded the Victoria Cross.

On the night of 7/8 April, the 12th Battalion was tasked with the capture of Boursies, on the Bapaume–Cambrai road. The attack was a feint to mislead the German forces on the direction from which Hermies was to be assaulted. Leading A Company as well as an attached platoon from B Company, Newland began his advance on the village at 03:00. The company was soon subject to heavy rifle and machine gun fire from a derelict mill approximately 400 metres (440 yd) short of the village, and began to suffer heavy casualties. Rallying his men, Newland charged the position and bombed the Germans with grenades. The attack dislodged the Germans, and the company secured the area and continued its advance.

Throughout 8 April, the Australians were subjected to heavy shellfire from German forces. At approximately 22:00, the Germans launched a fierce counter-attack under the cover of a barrage of bombs and trench mortars against A Company's position at the mill. They had some initial success and entered the forward posts of the mill, which were occupied by a platoon of Newland's men under the command of Sergeant John Whittle. Newland, bringing up a platoon from the battalion's reserve company, charged the attackers and re-established the lost ground with Whittle's assistance. The 12th Battalion was relieved by the 11th Battalion on 10 April, having succeeded in capturing Boursies at the cost of 240 casualties, of which 70 were killed or missing.

After a four-day reprieve from the frontline, the 12th Battalion relieved the 9th Battalion at Lagnicourt on 14 April. Around dawn the next day, the Germans launched a severe counter-attack against the 1st Australian Division's line.[15] Breaking through, they forced back the 12th Battalion's D Company, which was to the right of Newland's A Company. Soon surrounded and under attack on three sides, Newland withdrew the company to a sunken road which had been held by Captain Percy Cherry during the capture of the village three weeks earlier, and lined the depleted company out in a defensive position on each bank.

The German forces attacked Newland's company several times during the battle, but were repulsed each time. During one of the assaults, Newland observed that the German attack was weakening and gathered a party of twenty men. Leading the group, he charged the Germans and seized forty as prisoners. As reinforcements from the 9th Battalion began to arrive, a combined counter-attack was launched and the line recaptured by approximately 11:00. During the engagement, the 12th Battalion suffered 125 casualties, including 66 killed or missing. Newland and Whittle were both awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions at Boursies and Lagnicourt; they were the only two permanent members of the Australian military to receive the decoration during the war. At 35 years and 7 months old, Newland was also the oldest Australian Victoria Cross recipient of the First World War.

The full citation for Newland's Victoria Cross appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 8 June 1917:

War Office, 8th June, 1917.
His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Officers, Non-commissioned Officers and Men: —

Capt. James Ernest Newlands, [sic] Inf. Bn., Aus. Imp. Force.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, in the face of heavy odds, on three separate occasions.

On the first occasion he organised the attack by his company on a most important objective, and led personally, under heavy fire, a bombing attack. He then rallied his company, which had suffered heavy casualties, and he was one of the first to reach the objective.

On the following night his company, holding the captured position, was heavily counter-attacked. By personal exertion, utter disregard of fire, and judicious use of reserves, he succeeded in dispersing the enemy and regaining the position.

On a subsequent occasion, when the company on his left was overpowered and his own company attacked from the rear, he drove off a combined attack which had developed from these directions.

These attacks were renewed three or four times, and it was Capt. Newland's tenacity and disregard for his own safety that encouraged the men to hold out.

The stand made by this officer was of the greatest importance, and produced far-reaching results
.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Newland
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2011 19:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Woods Whittle VC



John Woods Whittle VC, DCM (3 August 1882 – 2 March 1946) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and British Commonwealth armed forces. Whittle was serving as a sergeant in the First World War when he was decorated with the Victoria Cross following two separate actions against German forces during their retreat to the Hindenburg Line in 1917. In the latter action, he attacked a machine gun crew, killing the group and seizing the gun.


Sergeant J. W. Whittle in France, 1916

(...) By early April 1917, three German-held outpost villages remained between the area to the south of the I Anzac Corps position and the Hindenburg Line. An attack to capture the villages of Boursies, Demicourt and Hermies by the 1st Australian Division was formulated to commence on 9 April, the day the British offensive opened at Arras. For his gallantry in two separate actions during this engagement, Whittle was awarded the Victoria Cross.

On 8 April, the 12th Battalion was tasked with the capture of the village of Boursies. The attack was to act as a feint in order to mislead the German forces on the direction from which Hermies was to be assaulted. Whittle had been placed in command of the left platoon in Newland's A Company for the attack, which commenced at 03:00. Advancing, the company was subjected to heavy machine gun fire from a derelict mill approximately 400 metres (440 yd) short of the village and began to suffer heavy casualties. Gathering a party of men, Newland led a bombing attack which was able to dislodge the Germans from the position and secure the area. Continuing their advance, the company was able to reach its objectives, where Whittle was placed in command of a post just beyond the mill.

Throughout the day, the Australians came under heavy shellfire from the Germans. At 22:00, the German forces launched a severe counter-attack against the mill under the cover of an intense barrage of artillery and bombs. Advancing down the main road, they managed to enter the trench Whittle was holding. Gathering all available men, Whittle charged the Germans and was able to restabilise the position. Newland arrived soon after, and the two men worked together until the position was re-established. The 12th Battalion was relieved on 10 April by the 11th Battalion, having succeeded in capturing Boursies at the cost of 240 casualties, of which 70 were killed or missing.

Following a four-day reprieve away from the frontline, the 12th Battalion relieved the 9th Battalion at Lagnicourt on 14 April. Around dawn the following day, the Germans launched a fierce counter-attack against the 1st Australian Division's line. Breaking through the Australian line, the Germans forced back the 12th Battalion's D Company, which was to the left of Newland's A Company. Soon surrounded and under attack on three sides, Newland withdrew the company to a sunken road which had been held by Captain Percy Cherry during the capture of the village three weeks earlier, and lined the depleted company out in a defensive position on both banks. Establishing his platoon in position, Whittle noticed a group of Germans moving a machine gun into position to enfilade the road. As the gunners began to set up the weapon, Whittle, under heavy rifle fire, jumped from the road and single-handedly rushed the crew. Using his bombs, he succeeded in killing the entire group before collecting the gun and taking it back to A Company's position.

As reinforcements from the 9th Battalion began to arrive, Newland was able to repulse a third attack by the Germans. Reorganising the 9th and 12th Battalions, a combined counter-attack was able to be launched and the line recaptured by approximately 11:00. The 12th Battalion had suffered 125 casualties during the engagement, with 66 killed or missing. Whittle and Newland were both subsequently awarded a Victoria Cross for their actions that day; the pair were the only two permanent members of the Australian military to receive the decoration during the war.

The full citation for Whittle's Victoria Cross appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 8 June 1917, reading:

War Office, 8th June, 1917.
His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Officers, Non-commissioned Officers and Men: —

No. 2902 Sjt. John Woods Whittle, Inf. Bn., Aus. Imp. Force.

For conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on two occasions.

When in command of a platoon the enemy, under cover of an intense artillery barrage, attacked the small trench he was holding. Owing to weight of numbers the enemy succeeded in entering the trench, and it was owing to Sjt. Whittle personally collecting all available men and charging the enemy that the position was regained.

On a second occasion when the enemy broke through the left of our line Sjt. Whittle's own splendid example was the means of keeping the men well in hand. His platoon were suffering heavy casualties and the enemy endeavoured to bring up a machine gun to enfilade the position. Grasping the situation he rushed alone across the fire-swept ground and attacked the hostile gun crew with bombs before the gun could be got into action.

He succeeded in killing the whole crew and in bringing back the machine gun to our position
.


The group of ten Australian Victoria Cross recipients repatriated to Australia to assist in recruitment pictured on HMAT Medic with three naval officers. Whittle is in the centre of the back row.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Whittle
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2011 19:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thomas Waddell - Second Lieutenant - 5th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders

Died Sunday 8th April 1917. Age 27

Roclincourt Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais, France. II. A.

Thomas Bryson Waddell, of 16 Woodwynd, attended the Higher Grade School and Irvine Royal Academy. He graduated BSc (Hons) from Glasgow University in 1912 and became a Science and Maths teacher at Dornoch Academy. He served with 14th Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders until gaining a commission in the Seaforths in December 1916. He was killed attacking a German trench at the beginning of the Arras battle.

‘A young man whose gifts and graces of head and heart were of a distinctive and exceptional character. He had a modest and simple nature. . . he was loved most by those who knew him best,’ his obituary noted.

https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/na/KilwinningWarMemorial/ww1917/
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 07 Apr 2011 19:25, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Apr 2011 19:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Das beim deutschen Rückzug an der Aisne geräumte Chauny - Aufnahme vom 8. April 1917



http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_04_08.htm
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Harold Williams, Daily Chronicle (8th April, 1917)

Lenin, leader of the extreme faction of the Social Democrats, arrived here on Monday night by way of Germany. His action in accepting from the German government a passage from Switzerland through Germany arouses intense indignation here. He has come back breathing fire, and demanding the immediate and unconditional conclusions of peace, civil war against the army and government, and vengeance on Kerensky and Chkheidze, whom he describes as traitors to the cause of International Socialism. At the meeting of Social Democrats yesterday his wild rant was received in dead silence, and he was vigorously attacked, not only by the more moderate Social Democrats, but by members of his own faction.

Lenin was left absolutely without supporters. The sharp repulse given to this firebrand was a healthy sign of the growth of practical sense of the Socialist wing, and the generally moderate and sensible tone of the conference of provincial workers' and soldiers' deputies was another hopeful indication of the passing of the revolutionary fever.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSwilliamsH.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2011 9:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On this day in Celtic’s history

MONDAY 8th APRIL 1918 - Although the Great War is now at its decisive point (and the eventual Allied victory is by no means guaranteed) Celtic supporters are more upset about the news of the death of their great favourite of the 1890s, Dan Doyle. Manager Willie Maley is summoned to the Glasgow Cancer Hospital to see Doyle roll back the bedclothes and show him the legs which had “done their bit for the Celtic”. Hours later, Doyle died, aged 53.

http://www.affiliationregisteredcelticsupporters.org/articles/2011/04/on-this-day-in-celtics-history-april-8th/
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ON ACTIVE SERVICE with the AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, April 8th 1918

Dear Father:-

Your letter of March 5th recieved Yesterday. I wrote you a letter a few days ago but will write again to make sure you get one. We are now in service at the front. But haven't had much to do so far. We have to stay out eight days and then get eight days off at our camp a little farther back from the lines. I am now out on my second time together with Joe[cousin] and several other men. We live in a dugout which is timbered up in side and has about 10 or 12 feet of dirt rock and steel rails on top to make it safe from shell fire and bombs. We have to take turns staying up at night to watch out for gas in case the Germans shoot it to us in the night. We have our gas masks allways at the alert and have learned to put them on quickly if the alarm is given. When out side we wear steel helmets for protection against shrapnel. Some times large shells burst near our dugout but one can hear them comeing if they are anyways near and have time to duck if a dugout or trench is handy which is generally the case. A few days ago I helped to bury three dead Germans, which is part of our owrk. It rains a good part of the time. On clear days we see a few air battles

[letter ends here--pages missing]

http://www.robertschallesmemorial.com/LettersSub/b04081918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2011 10:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rifleman Harry Edward Burnham, 1/16 Battalion, London Regiment (Queen's Westminster Rifles)



Rfmn Burnham was killed in action aged 35 on Easter Sunday, 8 April 1918 at Achicourt. Prior to the war, he worked in the newspaper industry in Fleet Street. He left a wife and two children. Rfmn Burnham is buried at Agny Military Cemetery.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/imperialwarmuseum/4192883266/
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National War Labor Board, World War I

National War Labor Board, World War I (NWLB) was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson on 8 April 1918 to adjudicate labor disputes. Its members had already served in Washington, D.C., on the War Labor Conference Board, convened on 28 January 1918 by the secretary of labor to devise a national labor program. They included five labor representatives from the American Federation of Labor, five employer representatives from the National Industrial Conference Board, and two public representatives, the labor lawyer Frank P. Walsh and former Republican president William Howard Taft, who acted as cochairs.

Until its demise on 31 May 1919, the board ruled on 1,245 cases. Almost 90 percent of them sprang from worker complaints, and five skilled trades accounted for 45 percent. Of the cases, 591 were dismissed, 315 were referred to other federal labor agencies, and 520 resulted in formal awards or findings. In reaching their decisions the board was aided by an office and investigative staff of 250 people. Approximately 700,000 workers in 1,000 establishments were directly affected.

http://www.answers.com/topic/national-war-labor-board-world-war-i
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2011 10:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

unpretentious proclamation by tristan tzara, 8th april 1919



http://www.391.org/manifestos/19190408tristantzara_up.htm
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8 April 1919 → Commons Sitting

PROCLAMATION BY GENERAL ALLEN


BY.HC Deb 08 April 1919 vol 114 cc1824-5 1824

Mr. ALBION RICHARDSON (by Private Notice) asked the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he is now in a position to make a further statement with reference to the situation in Egypt?

Mr. HARMSWORTH General Allen by, the Special High Commissioner, has, in the exercise of the discretionary powers granted to him, issued a Proclamation to the following effect: ‘Now that order has been in great measure restored, I declare, in agreement with His Highness The Sultan, that there are no restrictions on travel, and that Egyptians who wish to leave the country will be free to do so.’ It is understood that a Ministry is in course of formation, and that a deputation of Ministers will shortly visit this country in response to the invitation already twice extended to them by His Majesty's Government.

Colonel WEDGWOOD Will Indians who are able to leave India also be allowed to land in this country?

Mr. HARMSWORTH I think that question should be addressed to the Secretary of State for India.

Colonel WEDGWOOD Are the people who were originally barred from coming to this country now to be allowed to come here?

Mr. HARMSWORTH I understand that the terms of General Allenby's Proclamation, will include that.

Major Earl WINTERTON Can the hon. Gentleman tell the House anything about the riots reported to-day, in which several prominent Englishmen were killed in Abdin Square three days ago?

Mr. HARMSWORTH I shall be glad if the Noble Lord will put that question down to me to-morrow; I have no official information of it.

Mr. THOMAS Would it be possible for the Foreign Office to give the House information with regard to this very disturbing matter, rather than leave it to be forced out by questions and rumours outside?

Mr. HARMSWORTH If the right hon. Gentleman can suggest means by which that can be done, we shall be most willing to do it.

Mr. THOMAS Are not the means at the disposal of the Government itself if in their judgment there are matters of public importance of this kind? Would it not be better to report them to the House rather than wait for questions?

Sir TUDOR WALTERS Cannot you get one of your tame private secretaries to put a prepared question?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/apr/08/proclamation-by-general-allenby
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Apr 2011 10:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 April 1919: Postcard photograph of "The Empress Marie & Grand Duke Nicholas ... on board HMS Marlborough"



http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/postcard-photograph-8-april-1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Apr 2018 10:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Movie Stars Hit Streets To Sell War Bonds

On April 8, 1918, Charlie Chaplin and Douglas Fairbanks held a war bond drive on Wall Street to bolster support for the war effort.

A year and two days earlier, America had entered World War I and began selling war bonds (also known as Liberty Bonds). While patriotism was high, few Americans had ever bought bonds before, so their sales suffered.

Soon, the government turned to celebrities to help encourage sales. Since Hollywood was not yet the film center it is today, most film stars could be found in New York. Many were enlisted to take to the streets to encourage war bond sales.

There were several memorable occasions when this happened. One day, Martha Mansfield sold doughnuts to raise money for the Salvation Army. There were even doughnut auctions, where a single doughnut sold for $25,000. Several of these events were held at the Sub Treasury Building (present-day Federal Hall), the largest bond repository in New York.

So, on the afternoon of April 8, 1918, Charlie Chaplin and Douglas Fairbanks decided to do their part in the fundraising and made their way to the Sub Treasury Building. Between 20,000 and 30,000 people turned out to see their antics, the largest crowd ever assembled on Wall Street up to that time. Standing in front of the statue of George Washington, Chaplin announced through a megaphone, “I never made a speech before in my life. But I believe I can now.”

Chaplin went on, “You people out there – I want you to forget all about percentages in this Third Liberty Loan. Human life is at stake and no one ought to worry about what rate of interest the bonds are going to bring or what he can make by purchasing them. Money is needed – money to support the great army and navy of Uncle Sam. This very minute the Germans occupy a position of advantage, and we have got to get the dollars. It ought to go over so that we can drive that old devil, the Kaiser, out of France. How many of you men – how many of you boys, out there, have bought or are willing to buy Liberty Bonds?”

Next was Fairbanks’ turn. He took his spot in front of the statue and began, “I used to work down here about 10 years ago. Are you folks good Americans? Have you bought Liberty Bonds? Folks, I’m so hoarse from urging people to buy Liberty bonds that I can hardly speak. But that doesn’t bother me a bit, and I’m going to keep on telling you to buy until there’s not a bond left.”

No matter what Chaplin or Fairbanks said, heard or not, it was met with enthusiastic cheers from the audience. What seemed to delight onlookers most, though, was when Fairbanks lifted Chaplin up on his shoulders, making the crowd erupt with applause and cheers.

Others also took the stage that day, including Captain Robert E. Watson of the 66th Machine Gun Corps. and Lieutenant Joseph C. Stehlin. At the end of the display, Harvey Hindemeyer and Fairbanks sang “Over There.”

Police from three stations were present for the event. And after several women fainted at the excitement of seeing the stars in person, ambulances were brought in.

This drive, in addition to several others led by Chaplin, Fairbanks, and other stars, raised $180,239,000 in New York City alone.

https://www.mysticstamp.com/info/this-day-in-history-april-8-1918/

http://www.boweryboyshistory.com/2014/04/charlie-chaplin-on-wall-street-tale.html
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